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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190338, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091240

ABSTRACT

Oropouche virus (OROV) is an arthropod-borne virus of the Peribunyaviridae family, transmitted to humans primarily by Culicoides paraensis. It is one of the main arboviruses infecting humans in Brazil, primarily in the Amazon Region. Here, we report the detection of OROV in the saliva and urine of a patient whose samples were collected five days after the onset of symptoms. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis further confirmed the results. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the detection of OROV in the saliva and urine of an infected patient. In addition, the results of our study expand the current knowledge pertaining to the natural history of Oropouche fever.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Saliva/virology , Urine/virology , Orthobunyavirus/isolation & purification , Orthobunyavirus/genetics , Bunyaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics , Base Sequence , Amino Acid Sequence , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Middle Aged
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 764-768, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058004

ABSTRACT

Abstract Due to anthropic environmental changes, vector-borne diseases are emerging worldwide. Ticks are known vectors of several pathogens of concern among humans and animals. In recent decades, several examples of tick-borne emerging viral diseases have been reported (Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Powassan virus, encephalitis virus, heartland virus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus). Unfortunately, few studies addressing the presence of viruses in wild ticks have been carried out in South America. With the aim of detecting flaviviruses and orthobunyaviruses in ticks, we carried out molecular detection in wild ticks collected in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. No Flavivirus-positive ticks were detected; however, we detected activity of Orthobunyavirus in 8 Amblyomma tick specimens. One of those individuals was positive for Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus, which represents the first report of this virus among ticks in South America. Further studies related to the ecology of zoonotic diseases are needed to increase knowledge of this topic, including attempts at viral isolation, full genome sequencing and biological characterization. In this way, we will obtain a better picture of the real risk of ticks as a vector for viral diseases for humans and animals on our continent, where no tick-borne viral disease is known to occur.


Resumo Alterações ambientais causadas pelo homem têm levado à emergência de doenças transmitidas por vetores no mundo. Carrapatos são vetores conhecidos de vários patógenos de importância médica e veterinária, tendo sido reportado nas últimas décadas um grande número de enfermidades virais emergentes transmitidas por eles (vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo, vírus Powassan, vírus da Encefalite, vírus Heartland e vírus da Síndrome da Febre Trombocitopênica Severa). Infelizmente, poucos estudos envolvendo a pesquisa de vírus em carrapatos foram conduzidos na América do Sul até o momento, e nas últimas décadas um elevado número de enfermidades virais emergentes transmitidas por estes artrópodes foi relatado. Com o objetivo de investigar a presença de flavivírus e orthobunyavírus em carrapatos, foi conduzida uma análise molecular em espécimes coletados no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Em nenhum carrapato foi detectada a presença de Flavivirus, no entanto, em 8 espécimes do gênero Amblyomma, foi detectada a presença de Orthobunyavirus, dos quais um espécime foi positivo para Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus. Novos estudos relacionados à ecologia de doenças zoonóticas, incluindo tentativas de isolamento viral, sequenciamento completo do genoma e caracterização biológica, são necessários. Desta forma, será possível ter uma base sobre os riscos da transmissão de vírus patogênicos por carrapatos em nosso continente, uma vez que até agora isso é desconhecido.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Ticks/virology , Orthobunyavirus/genetics , Flavivirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Surveys and Questionnaires , Orthobunyavirus/isolation & purification , Orthobunyavirus/classification , Flavivirus/isolation & purification , Flavivirus/classification
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758963

ABSTRACT

The Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an orthobunyavirus that causes abortions, stillbirths, and congenital defects in pregnant sheep and cattle. Inactivated or live attenuated vaccines have been developed in endemic countries, but there is still interest in the development of SBV vaccines that would allow Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA). Therefore, an attempt was made to develop novel DIVA-compatible SBV vaccines using SBV glycoproteins expressed in baculovirus. All vaccines and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) controls were prepared with adjuvant and administered subcutaneously to cattle at 6 month of age. The first trial included 2 groups of animals vaccinated with either carboxyl-terminus glycoprotein (Gc) or PBS and boosted after 2 weeks. In the second trial, 3 groups of cattle were administered either Gc, Gc and amino-terminus glycoprotein (Gn), or PBS with a booster vaccination after 3 weeks. The animals were challenged with SBV 9 days after the booster vaccination in the first study, and 3 weeks after the booster vaccination in the second study. Using a SBV Gc-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, antibodies were first detected in serum samples 14 days after the first vaccination in both trials, and peaked on days 7 and 9 after the booster in the first and second trials, respectively. Low titers of neutralizing antibodies were detected in serum from only 3/6 and 2/4 animals in the first and second trial, respectively, at 14 days after the first vaccination. The titers increased 2 to 3-fold after the booster vaccination. SBV-specific RNA was detected in the serum and selective tissues in all animals after SBV challenge independent of vaccination status. The SBV candidate vaccines neither prevented viremia nor conferred protection against SBV infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Baculoviridae , Cattle , Congenital Abnormalities , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Glycoproteins , Orthobunyavirus , RNA , Sheep , Stillbirth , Vaccination , Vaccines , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, Subunit , Viremia
4.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 56(3): e154854, out. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1046878

ABSTRACT

Akabane virus, a member of the Orthobunyavirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae, causes congenital abnormalities and arthrogryposis with hydrocephalus or hydroencephaly in ruminants. This study intends to describe the clinical signs, gross and histopathological features seen in 25 affected lambs in an outbreak of congenital arthrogryposis with hydrocephalus or hydranencephaly in Al-Muthanna governorate, Iraq after a large number of stillbirths and musculoskeletal deformities from October 2017 to May 2018. Skeletal muscle hypoplasia was seen in the limbs of the affected lambs accompanied with severe arthrogryposis and gross visible brain malformations. In addition, fetal mummifications, stillbirths, and dead lambs were also seen. The most histopathological features in muscle fibers were degenerative lesions and absences of cross-striation accompanied with mild infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells in severely affected lambs. The meninges of affected lambs revealed fused membranes with focal areas of fibrous thickenings and necrotic debris. In conclusion, according to clinical signs, gross and histopathological investigations, Akabane virus, a member of the Orthobunyavirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae, causes congenital abnormalities and arthrogryposis with hydrocephalus or hydroencephaly in ruminants and could be the cause of this outbreak, although future studies must be performed to confirm the etiology of this outbreak. Moreover, other causes of hydrocephalus or cerebellar malformation, such as Schmallenberg virus, bluetongue virus and border disease virus and teratogenic plants that lead to arthrogryposis, have to be investigated. Also, the authorities should take prevention and control measurements to stop the replication of arthropod vectors.(AU)


O presente trabalho descreve os sinais clínicos, as lesões macroscópicas e os aspectos histológicos observados em 25 cordeiros acometidos em um surto de artrogripose congênita com hidrocéfalo ou hidrocefalia registrado no Iraque, governadoria Al-Muthama após a ocorrência de nascimentos prematuros e deformidades músculo-esqueléticas no período compreendido entre outubro de 2017 e maio de 2018. A hipoplasia músculo-esquelética foi observada nos membros dos cordeiros afetados, acompanhada de severa artrogripose e malformações cerebrais, grosseiras visíveis, além de mumificações fetais, nascimentos prematuros e morte de cordeiros. Os principais aspectos histopatológicos nas fibras musculares foram lesões degenerativas e ausências da estriação cruzada acompanhada de leve infiltração de neutrófilos e células mononucleares dos cordeiros severamente afetados. As meninges dos cordeiros afetados apresentaram fusão de membranas com áreas focais de espessamento fibroso e debris necróticos. O vírus Akabane, um membro do gênero Orthobunyavirus, da família Bunyaviridae, causa anormalidades congênitas e artrogripose com hidrocéfalo e hidrocefalia em ruminantes e poderá vir a ser a causa do presente surto. Os autores recomendam a realização de novos estudos com investigações epidemiológicas e isolamento do agente causal. Contudo, outras causas de hidrocéfalo ou malformações cerebrais como as determinadas pelo vírus Schmallenberg, vírus da língua azul e vírus da doença de border, bem como de plantas teratogênicas que determinam a artrogripose, também deverão ser investigadas. As autoridades sanitárias deverão tomar medidas de prevenção e controle para bloquear a replicação do vírus em artrópodes vetores.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthrogryposis/veterinary , Sheep/abnormalities , Orthobunyavirus/pathogenicity
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(7): 510-513, July 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841812

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We describe a sensitive method for simultaneous detection of Oropouche and Oropouche-like viruses carrying the Oropouche S segment, as well as the Mayaro virus, using a multiplexed one-step reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). A chimeric plasmid containing both Mayaro and Oropouche targets was designed and evaluated for the in vitro production of transcribed RNA, which could be easily used as a non-infectious external control. To track false-negative results due to PCR inhibition or equipment malfunction, the MS2 bacteriophage was also included in the multiplex assay as an internal positive control. The specificity of the multiplex assay was evaluated by Primer-Blast analysis against the entire GenBank database, and further against a panel of 17 RNA arboviruses. The results indicated an accurate and highly sensitive assay with amplification efficiency greater than 98% for both targets, and a limit of detection between two and 20 copies per reaction. We believe that the assay described here will provide a tool for Mayaro and Oropouche virus detection, especially in areas where differential diagnosis of Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya viruses should be performed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orthobunyavirus/classification , Orthobunyavirus/genetics , Bunyaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Bunyaviridae Infections/virology , Alphavirus Infections/diagnosis , Alphavirus Infections/virology , Alphavirus/classification , Alphavirus/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81399

ABSTRACT

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne disease. The primary symptoms associated with SFTS are fever, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, nausea, and vomiting. Disease progression shows high mortality rate accompanied with multiple organ failure, bleeding tendency, and altered mentality. However, only supportive care has been the basis for the treatment of SFTS. We are reporting two patients who showed central nervous system manifestation, but cured them with ribavirin together with plasma exchange in an early state. The first case is a 60-year-old male, who was admitted to the hospital with a 7-day history of fever, chills, and thrombocytopenia. He was treated with empirical antibiotics; however, he experienced persistent high fever and an altered mentality has occurred. On hospital day 6, the SFTS virus (SFTSV) result from a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was confirmed positive. Therefore, ribavirin (30 mg/kg as initial loading dose, 15 mg/kg qid for 4 days and then 7.5 mg/kg qid as maintenance dose) was administered orally for 11 days and plasma exchange was performed for 5 days. The clinical outcome has improved. The second case is a 48-year-old male, who was admitted to the hospital with a 10-day history of fever, chills, myalgia, diarrhea, and thrombocytopenia. He was treated with empirical antibiotics. On hospital day 3, ribavirin (30 mg/kg as initial loading dose, 15 mg/kg qid as maintenance dose) was administered orally for 4 days and plasma exchange was performed for 4 days due to his high fever and altered mentality after a positive SFTSV result from a real-time RT-PCR. The patient had a successful recovery.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Central Nervous System , Chills , Diarrhea , Disease Progression , Fever , Hemorrhage , Humans , Leukopenia , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Multiple Organ Failure , Myalgia , Nausea , Orthobunyavirus , Plasma Exchange , Plasma , Ribavirin , Thrombocytopenia , Tick-Borne Diseases , Vomiting
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), a novel bunyavirus. As yet, there is no effective antiviral therapy for SFTS. Ribavirin is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent, which has been tried for treatment of SFTS. In this study, antiviral activity of ribavirin against SFTSV has been investigated. METHODS: Vero cell-grown SFTSV strain Gangwon/Korea/2012 was treated with ribavirin at various concentrations. Antiviral activity of ribavirin was evaluated by inhibition of the SFTSV cytopathic effect in Vero cells and quantification of viral RNA load in culture supernatant using one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Cytotoxicity of ribavirin was determined by a tetrazolium-based colorimetric method. RESULTS: Ribavirin reduced SFTSV titers in a dose-dependent manner, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration ranged from 3.69 to 8.72 μg/mL. Cytopathic effects were reduced as ribavirin concentration increased. No significant cytotoxicity was detected at ribavirin concentrations of ≤ 31.3 μg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Ribavirin exhibited inhibitory activity against SFTSV replication in vitro, which suggests that ribavirin can be used as a potential antiviral agent for SFTS.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Bunyaviridae Infections , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Fever , In Vitro Techniques , Methods , Orthobunyavirus , Phlebovirus , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , Ribavirin , RNA, Viral , Thrombocytopenia , Vero Cells
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203605

ABSTRACT

We report the first case of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and a spontaneous acute subdural hematoma (SDH) in Korea. A 79-year-old male presented with fever and thrombocytopenia. On the third day of hospitalization, his mental changed from drowsy to semi-coma. Brain computed tomography indicated an acute subdural hemorrhage on the right convexity. He was given early decompressive craniectomy, but did not survive. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of a blood sample indicated the presence of SFTS virus (SFTSV). This is the first reported case with intracranial hemorrhage and SFTS. This case report describes our treatment of a patient with acute SDH and an infection from a tick-borne species of Bunyaviridae.


Subject(s)
Aged , Brain , Bunyaviridae , Decompressive Craniectomy , Fever , Hematoma, Subdural , Hematoma, Subdural, Acute , Hospitalization , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Korea , Male , Orthobunyavirus , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , Thrombocytopenia , Ticks
10.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 161-169, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296202

ABSTRACT

We wished to sequence the full-length genomes of the DHL10M110 strain of the Akabane virus (AKV) isolated from mosquitoes in Yunnan Province, China, in 2010. We also wished to analyze the characteristics of these complete nucleotide sequences. The complete genomic sequence of the DHL10M110 strain from Yunnan Province was obtained by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. We found that the length of the L, M and S gene nucleotide sequences of the DHL10M110 strain were 6 869-bp, 4 309-bp and 856-bp, respectively, including the open reading frame (ORF) nucleotide sequences of 6 756-bp (L), 4 206-bp (M) and 702-bp (S), encoding 2252, 1402 and 234 amino-acid polyproteins, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on L-fragment ORF showed that the DHL10M110 strain had a close relationship with the OBE-1 strain of the AKV from Japan and AKVS-7/SKR/2010 strain of the AKV from South Korea. Phylogenetic analyses based on M- and S-fragment ORF showed that the DHL10M110 strain had a close relationship with the epidemic strains of the AKV from Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, but that the DHL10M110 strain had a lone evolutionary branch. In terms of nucleotide (amino acid) homology, the similarity of L-, M- and S-fragment ORFs of the DHL10M110 strain to the OBE-1 strain from Japan was 92.6% (98%), 88.5% (94%) and 96.4% (99.1%), respectively. When comparing the DHL10M110 strain with the OBE-1 strain, we noted 45, 84, and 2 different sites in the amino acids of L, M and S fragments, respectively. Homology and phylogenetic analyses also suggested that the DHL10M110 strain had a distant relationship with the epidemic strains of the AKV from Kenya and Australia. Also, we confirmed by complete genomic sequence analyses that the DHL10M110 strain was clade-Asia of the AKV. However, differences between the DHL10M110 strain compared with strains from Japan and South Korea were also noted. These results suggest that the DHL10M110 strain harbored relatively stable genetic characteristics and distinct regional features. This is the first time that full-length genomic sequences of the DHL10M110 strain of the AKV in mainland China have been obtained.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Base Sequence , Bunyaviridae Infections , Virology , China , Culicidae , Virology , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Insect Vectors , Virology , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Open Reading Frames , Orthobunyavirus , Classification , Genetics , Phylogeny , Sequence Alignment , Viral Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153896

ABSTRACT

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is firstly reported in China in 2011. Thereafter it is reported an infectious disease in Japan and Korea. It is caused by bunyavirus, called SFTS virus (SFTSV). The main vector of SFTS is Haemaphysalis longicornis tick. We investigated the distribution and detection of SFTSV in ticks collected from the environment using the dragging method and dry ice fogging method from May to November 2014 in Jeollanam-do, Korea. Sampling was taken from the province Suncheon, Gokseong, Boseong, Goheung where patients have occurred in 2013 and Gurye as control. Among the total 3,048 ticks collected, 3,030 ticks were H. longicornis (99.4%) and 18 were Amblyomma testudinarium. H. longicornis was collected 1,330 ticks in Gokseong, 1,188 ticks in Boseong, 240 ticks in Suncheon, 150 ticks in Goheung and 140 ticks in Gurye. Developmental stages by month of H. longicornis were revealed that nymph (92%) was collected from May to June, adult (30%) and nymph (70%) in July, and 93% of larvae from September to October. These results showed the different dominant stage of ticks according to seasons. However, no SFTSV-specific gene was detected in 3,030 ticks of H. longicornis.


Subject(s)
Adult , China , Communicable Diseases , Dry Ice , Fever , Humans , Japan , Korea , Larva , Methods , Nymph , Orthobunyavirus , Seasons , Thrombocytopenia , Ticks , Weather
12.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 338-341, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26682

ABSTRACT

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by the newly discovered SFTS Bunyavirus, and there have been no case reports of SFTS patients presenting with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in the English literature. We report a case of SFTS presenting with HLH in a 73-year-old immunocompetent male farmer. Although the patient had poor prognostic factors for SFTS, such as old age and central nervous system symptoms, he recovered fully with supportive care.


Subject(s)
Aged , Central Nervous System , Farmers , Fever , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Male , Orthobunyavirus , Phlebovirus , Thrombocytopenia , Tick-Borne Diseases
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(6): 745-754, Sept. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763101

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the circulation of Orthobunyavirus species in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) Brazil. During a dengue outbreak in 2011/2012, 529 serum samples were collected from patients with acute febrile illness with symptoms for up to five days and 387 pools of female Culex quinquefasciatuscaptured in 2013 were subjected to nested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for segment S of the Simbu serogroup followed by nucleotide sequencing and virus isolation in Vero cells. Patients (5/529; 0.9%) from Cuiabá (n = 3), Várzea Grande (n = 1) and Nova Mutum (n = 1) municipalities were positive for the S segment of Oropouche virus (OROV). Additionally, eight/387 Cx. quinquefasciatuspools were positive for the segment, with a minimum infection rate of 2.3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the samples belong to the subgenotype Ia, presenting high homology with OROV strains obtained from humans and animals in the Brazilian Amazon. The present paper reports the first detection of an Orthobunyavirus, possibly OROV, in patients and in Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in MT. This finding reinforces the notion that arboviruses frequently reported in the Amazon Region circulate sporadically in MT during dengue outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bunyaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Culex/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Simbu virus/classification , Animal Distribution , Base Sequence , Brazil/epidemiology , Bunyaviridae Infections/blood , Chlorocebus aethiops , Culex/classification , Disease Outbreaks , Dengue/epidemiology , Fever/physiopathology , Fever/virology , Genotype , Orthobunyavirus/classification , Orthobunyavirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Serogroup , Simbu virus/genetics , Vero Cells
14.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 51-57, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-280295

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the prevalence of mosquito-borne viruses in Manshi and Ruili (Yunnan Province, China), we collected 2 149 mosquitoes (17 species) in August 2010. Virus isolation was undertaken by the cul- ture of baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21 cells). Two virus-like isolates were obtained: DHL10M117 was isolated from collected in Mangshi; DHL10M110 was obtained from Anopheles vagus collected in Rui- li. Both isolates caused cytopathic effects,illness and death in suckling mice inoculated with these isolates via the intracerebral route. Two positive amplicons, 702-bp from the S segment and 456-bp from the M segment,were obtained using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the Akabane virus (AKV). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that these two virus stains had a distant relation- ship with AKVs from Kenya and Australia,but were genetically close to those from Japan,South Korea, and Taiwan. However,they were separate from other Asian strains and grouped into a small branch. The highest nucleotide and amino-acid sequence identity of the S segment was found with the CY-77 strain from Taiwan (96.6% and 99.6% for DHL10M117 and 96.7% and 100% for DHL10M110,respectively). Com- parison of the M segment showed they shared the highest amino acid identity with CY-77 (99.6% and 100%, respectively), whereas the highest nucleotide identity was found with the Iriki strain from Japan (99.6% and 100%, respectively). Compared with the MP496 strain from Kenya,they displayed lower lev- els of sequence homology, at 69.7% and 70.0% for nucleotide sequences of the two loci,and 91. 0% for a- mino acids. Our results identified that DHL10M117 and DHL10M110 were strains of AKV,and provided molecular biological evidence for the existence of AKV in Yunnan Province. These AKV strains that are circulating in Yunnan Province share a close genetic relationship with strains from the rest of Asia. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles vagus may serve as transmission vectors.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Anopheles , Virology , Base Sequence , Bunyaviridae Infections , Virology , China , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Insect Vectors , Virology , Male , Mice , Orthobunyavirus , Classification , Genetics , Physiology , Phylogeny , Sequence Homology , Viral Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics
15.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(5): 462-468, May 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-714718

ABSTRACT

Este estudo descreve a primeira investigação de anticorpos para arbovírus em primatas não humanos do Novo Mundo no nordeste brasileiro. No período de março de 2008 a setembro de 2010 foram colhidos soros sanguíneos de 31 macacos-prego-galegos (Cebus flavius) de vida livre na Paraíba e de 100 macacos-prego (Cebus libidinosus) em cativeiro nos estados de Alagoas, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí e Rio Grande do Norte. Para a pesquisa de anticorpos utilizou-se o teste de inibição da hemaglutinação (IH), usando antígenos de 19 diferentes tipos de arbovírus, pertencentes aos gêneros Flavivirus,Alphavirus e Bunyavirus. As amostras de soro foram testadas nas diluições de 1:20 a 1:1280. Dentre as amostras examinadas, todas as de C. flavius foram negativas e 46 por cento das de C. libidinosus em cativeiro apresentaram anticorpos para arbovírus. Foram detectados anticorpos para nove (9/19) arbovírus. Foram observadas 17 reações heterotípicas, para dois ou mais vírus, do gênero Flavivirus, e 15 para o gênero Alphavirus, com títulos variando de 1:20 a 1:1280. Quinze amostras apresentaram reação monotípica para ILHV (n=4), MAYV (n=6), SLEV (n=1), ROCV (n=2), OROV (n=1) e MUCV (n=1). Estes resultados sugerem que houve intensa circulação de arbovírus na população estudada de macacos-prego em cativeiro.


This paper describes the first investigation of arbovirus antibodies on New World non-human primates from Northeast Brazil. From March 2008 to September 2010 blood serum samples were collected from 31 wild blond capuchin monkeys (Cebus flavius) from Paraíba and 100 captive capuchin monkeys from Alagoas, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí and Rio Grande do Norte. The haemagglutination-inhibition test (HI) was employed for 19 arbovirus of the Flavivirus,Alphavirus and Bunyavirus genus. Serum samples were tested from 1:20 to 1:1280 dilutions. Among the primates tested all C. flavius were negative and 46 percent C. libidinosus presented antibodies to arbovirus. Antibodies were detected for nine arbovirus (9/19). Seventeen heterotypic reactions were observed for at least two Or Flavirus and 15 for Alphavirus, at titers varying between 1:20 to 1:1280. Fifteen samples presented monotypic reaction for ILHV (n=4), MAYV (n=6), SLEV (n=1), ROCV (n=2), OROV (n=1) and MUCV (n=1). These results suggest that there was an intense arbovirus circulation in the studied population of captive capuchin monkeys.


Subject(s)
Animals , Alphavirus/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Cebus/immunology , Cebus/virology , Flavivirus/isolation & purification , Orthobunyavirus/isolation & purification , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/veterinary
16.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 939-942, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261594

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To monitor and discover medically important mosquito-borne viruses circulating in Xinjiang, China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Mosquitoes were collected from Abbey Lake wetland in Bortala, in Northern Xinjiang. Viral isolates were obtained through inoculating and serial passaging into susceptible mammalian host cells (BHK-21), identified by cytopathogenic effect (CPE) observation and plague forming assay. Genetic identification of viral isolates was conducted by RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A virus strain which causing CPE on BHK-21 cells, was isolated from the predominant Culex modestus (36.6%) and tentatively designated as Abbey Lake virus. Information on molecular identification revealed that Abbey Lake virus belonged to Orthobunyavirus genus within Bunyaviridae. Partial sequences (651 bp and 980 bp) of viral genomic S and M segment showed that Abbey Lake virus was phylogenetically related to Germiston virus that uniquely found in South Africa with 90.6% nucleotides and 95.0% amino acids similarities in S segment. However, viral M segment displayed much variability with 78.6% nucleotides and 86.1% amino acid similarities, suggesting a new member of Orthobunyavirus genus was discovered in the area.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>In this study, Abbey Lake virus was isolated and characterized indicating its potential circulation nature of this newly-emerged mosquito-borne virus.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , China , Culicidae , Virology , Orthobunyavirus , Classification , Genetics , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Viral Proteins , Genetics
17.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 694-703, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-280307

ABSTRACT

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel orthobunyavirus, was first isolated in 2011. SBV preferentially infects the central nervous system of cattle and sheep and causes fever, diarrhea, a drop in milk yields, congenital malformations and stillbirths. Until June 2014, more than 200 scientific publications regarding SBV have been published. Although more than 20 articles on SVB were published in China, most of these articles provided only a brief introduction of the disease without fully discussing the associated disease characteristics. As a new disease, it has been made a focus of the National Research Center for Exotic Animal Diseases at the China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center. In this review, in order to provide a reference for research into SBV in China, we have reviewed the state of current research progress on the etiology, diagnosis and epidemiology of SBV, and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bunyaviridae Infections , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Virology , Cattle , China , Epidemiology , Goats , Host Specificity , Orthobunyavirus , Classification , Genetics , Physiology , Sheep
18.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 271-276, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13943

ABSTRACT

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is firstly reported in China in 2011. It is an emerging infectious disease in China, Japan and South Korea. It is caused by novel bunyavirus, called SFTS virus. The vector of SFTS is Haemaphysalis longicornis tick and domesticated animals may serve as intermediate hosts. The clinical manifestations of SFTS are fever, vomiting, diarrhea, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. In severe cases, multiple organ failure, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, and central nervous systems manifestation are present. The case-fatality rate is 6-30%. There is no effective antiviral therapy and supportive care is the main treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic , Central Nervous System , China , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Diarrhea , Fever , Japan , Leukopenia , Multiple Organ Failure , Orthobunyavirus , Phlebovirus , Republic of Korea , Thrombocytopenia , Ticks , Viruses , Vomiting
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(10): 1161-1173, Oct. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697155

ABSTRACT

The list of animal viruses has been frequently added of new members raising permanent concerns to virologists and veterinarians. The pathogenic potential and association with disease have been clearly demonstrated for some, but not for all of these emerging viruses. This review describes recent discoveries of animal viruses and their potential relevance for veterinary practice. Dogs were considered refractory to influenza viruses until 2004, when an influenza A virus subtype H3N8 was transmitted from horses and produced severe respiratory disease in racing greyhounds in Florida/USA. The novel virus, named canine influenza virus (CIV), is considered now a separate virus lineage and has spread among urban canine population in the USA. A new pestivirus (Flaviviridae), tentatively called HoBi-like pestivirus, was identified in 2004 in commercial fetal bovine serum from Brazil. Hobi-like viruses are genetically and antigenically related to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and induce similar clinical manifestations. These novel viruses seem to be widespread in Brazilian herds and have also been detected in Southeast Asia and Europe. In 2011, a novel mosquito-borne orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), was associated with fever, drop in milk production, abortion and newborn malformation in cattle and sheep in Germany. Subsequently, the virus disseminated over several European countries and currently represents a real treat for animal health. [...] Finally, the long time and intensive search for animal relatives of human hepatitis C virus (HCV) has led to the identification of novel hepaciviruses in dogs (canine hepacivirus [CHV]), horses (non-primate hepaciviruses [NPHV] or Theiler's disease associated virus [TDAV]) and rodents. For these, a clear and definitive association with disease is still lacking and only time and investigation will tell whether they are real disease agents or simple spectators.


O número de vírus animais cresce continuamente, causando preocupação permanente a virologistas e veterinários. O potencial patogênico e associação com doença tem sido claramente demonstrado para alguns - mas não para todos - vírus emergentes. Esse artigo apresenta uma breve revisão das recentes descobertas de vírus animais e a sua potencial relevância para saúde animal. Cães eram considerados refratários aos vírus da influenza até 2004, quando um vírus influenza A subtipo H3N8 foi transmitido de equinos e causou doença respiratória severa em cães galgos na Flórida/EUA. O novo vírus, denominado vírus da influenza canina (CIV), agora considerado uma linhagem distinta do vírus da influenza equina, disseminou-se na população canina urbana dos EUA. Um novo Pestivirus (Flaviviridae) - provisoriamente denominado pestivírus Hobi-like - foi identificado em 2004 em soro fetal bovino importado do Brasil. Os vírus Hobi-like são genética e antigenicamente relacionados com o vírus da diarreia viral bovina (BVDV) e induzem manifestações clínicas semelhantes. A sua origem e distribuição são desconhecidas, mas estão aparentemente disseminados no rebanho brasileiro e já foram identificados no sudeste asiático e na Europa. Em 2011, um novo buniavírus transmitido por mosquitos, denominado vírus Schmallemberg (SBV), foi associado com febre, redução da produção de leite, abortos e malformações fetais em bovinos e ovinos da Alemanha. [...] Finalmente, a longa e intensiva busca por vírus animais relacionados ao vírus da hepatite C humana (HCV) tem levado a identificação de "novos" pestivírus em cães (canine hepacivirus [CHV]), equinos (hepacivirus de não-primatas [NPHV] ou vírus associado à doença de Theiler [TDAV]) e em roedores. Para estes, uma associação clara e definitiva com doença ainda não foi demonstrada e apenas tempo e investigação irão dizer se são patógenos reais ou apenas espectadores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , Selection, Genetic/genetics , Gyrovirus/genetics , Hepacivirus/genetics , Influenzavirus A/genetics , Orthobunyavirus/genetics , Pestivirus/genetics , Hepatitis E virus/genetics
20.
Weekly Epidemiological Monitor. 2012; 05 (25-26): 1
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-175911

ABSTRACT

In recent time, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever [CCHF] has been reported from three countries in the region. These include Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran [Islamic Republic of]. While nosocomial transmissions have been reported in healthcare workers both in Pakistan and Iran, no such transmission has yet been reported in Afghanistan. However, such healthcare associated transmissions of CCHF was reported in healthcare workers in Afghanistan in the past


Subject(s)
Humans , Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo , Orthobunyavirus , Cross Infection , Health Personnel
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