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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(4): 254-260, Apr. 2020. graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1135617

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the frequency and distribution of infectious diseases diagnosed through necropsy examination and histopathological analysis in growing/finishing pigs along 12 years (2005-2016) in Southern Brazil. We evaluated 1906 anatomopathological exams of pigs at growing/finishing phases, of which the infectious diseases corresponded to 75.6% of the cases (1,441/1,906). Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections were the most frequent, accounting for 51.3% of the cases (739/1,441) with a higher frequency from 2005 to 2007, characterizing an epidemic distribution, with a gradual decline after 2008. Infectious diseases affecting the respiratory system were the second major cause with 30.1% of the cases. Among these, necrotizing bronchiolitis caused by swine Influenza (15.1%, 218/1,441) and bacterial pneumonia (15%, 216/1,441) were the main conditions. Influenza was mostly diagnosed from 2010 to 2013, accounting for 43.1% (167/387) of the cases. After this period, both respiratory infectious diseases were endemic. Digestive system infectious diseases accounted for 10.5% of the diagnoses (151/1,441), with the following main conditions: Salmonella spp. enterocolitis (43.7%, 66/151), Lawsonia spp. proliferative enteropathy (41.7%, 63/151), and Brachyspira spp. colitis (14.6%, 22/151). The latter had a higher incidence from 2012 to 2014 with all cases detected in this period. Polyserositis and bacterial meningitis represented, respectively, 5.8% (84/1,441) and 2.3% (33/1,441) of the cases diagnosed, with a constant endemic character.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo consistiu em determinar a frequência e a distribuição das doenças infecciosas diagnosticadas através de exame de necropsia e análise histopatológica em suínos nas fases de crescimento/terminação ao longo de 12 anos (2005-2016) no sul do Brasil. Foram avaliados 1906 laudos anatomopatológicos de suínos nas fases de crescimento/terminação, dos quais as doenças infecciosas corresponderam a 75,6% (1441/1906) do total. As infecções por circovírus suíno tipo 2 (PCV2) foram as mais frequentes, contabilizando 51,3% (739/1441) dos casos, com uma alta frequência de 2005 a 2007 caracterizando uma distribuição epidêmica neste período, e um declínio gradual após o ano de 2008. A segunda principal causa incluiu as doenças infecciosas que afetam o sistema respiratório (30,1% dos casos). Dentre essas, destacaram-se a influenza suína (15,1%; 218/1441) e pneumonias bacterianas (15%; 216/1441). O diagnóstico de influenza apresentou uma frequência elevada de 2010 a 2013, totalizando 43,1% (167/387) dos casos. Após este período, ambas doenças infecciosas respiratórias exibiram caráter endêmico. As doenças infecciosas do sistema digestório totalizaram 10,5% (151/1441) dos diagnósticos, com as seguintes principais condições: enterocolite por Salmonella spp. (43,7%; 66/151), enteropatia proliferativa por Lawsonia spp. (41,7%; 63/151) e colite por Brachyspira spp. (14,6%; 22/151). A colite por Brachyspira spp. apresentou uma alta incidência de 2012 a 2014 com todos os casos detectados no período. As polisserosites e meningites bacterianas representaram 5,8% (84/1441) e 2,3% (33/1441) dos casos diagnosticados, respectivamente, com um caráter endêmico constante.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/pathology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Circovirus , Circoviridae Infections/pathology , Circoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Influenzavirus A , Sus scrofa , Enterocolitis/epidemiology , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 336-346, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889223

ABSTRACT

Abstract Equine influenza is one of the major respiratory infectious diseases in horses. An equine influenza virus outbreak was identified in vaccinated and unvaccinated horses in a veterinary school hospital in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, in September 2015. The twelve equine influenza viruses isolated belonged to Florida Clade 1. The hemagglutinin and neuraminidase amino acid sequences were compared with the recent isolates from North and South America and the World Organisation for Animal Health recommended Florida Clade 1 vaccine strain. The hemagglutinin amino acid sequences had nine substitutions, compared with the vaccine strain. Two of them were in antigenic site A (A138S and G142R), one in antigenic site E (R62K) and another not in antigenic site (K304E). The four substitutions changed the hydrophobicity of hemagglutinin. Three distinct genetic variants were identified during the outbreak. Eleven variants were found in four quasispecies, which suggests the equine influenza virus evolved during the outbreak. The use of an out of date vaccine strain or updated vaccines without the production of protective antibody titers might be the major contributing factors on virus dissemination during this outbreak.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation , Disease Outbreaks , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Evolution, Molecular , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/isolation & purification , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Horse Diseases/virology , Orthomyxoviridae , Viral Proteins/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/classification , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/genetics , Genotype , Horses , Hospitals, Animal , Neuraminidase/genetics
3.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2016; 22 (7): 499-508
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-181507

ABSTRACT

The epidemiology, seasonality and risk factors for influenza virus infection remains poorly defined in countries such as Egypt. Between 1 January and 31 December 2013, we used surveillance data on patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory infection in three Egyptian government hospitals in Damanhour district to estimate the incidence rate of laboratory-confirmed seasonal influenza. Samples were taken from 1727 of 1856 patients; of these, 19% were influenza virus positive. The overall incidence of influenza virus-associated SARI during the study period was estimated to be 44 cases per 100 000 person-years [95% CI: 39-48]. The highest incidence of 166 cases per 100 000 person year [95% CI: 125-220] was observed in children aged 2 to 4 years. The incidence of influenza-virus associated SARI cases in pregnant women was estimated to be 17.3 cases per 100 000 person-years [95% CI: 6-54]. Majority of influenza virus-associated SARI occurred in autumn and early winter, and influenza A[H3N2] virus predominated. This was the first ever description of the epidemiology of seasonal influenza in Egypt. However, additional works are needed for greater understanding of influenza burden in Egypt


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Pregnant Women , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity
4.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(6): 487-492, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-725807

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1%) with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5%) and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (61.7%) were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region.


A prevalência de anticorpos para o vírus da Influenza Equina (VIE) no município de Poconé, MT. foi determinada em 529 equídeos pela técnica de Inibição da hemaglutinação utilizando como antígeno a variante H3N8 (SP/1/85). A distribuição da positividade e possíveis associações entre os animais e as propriedades foram avaliadas pelo teste do Qui-quadrado e pelos modelos espacial autoregressivo misto e de regressão linear múltipla. A prevalência de anticorpos para o VIE no município de Poconé foi estimada em 45,2% (IC 95% 30,2 - 61,1%) com títulos variando entre 20 e 1280UIH. Das fazendas analisadas 23 (92,0%) apresentaram animais soropositivos. Animais de fazendas não alagadas (66,5%) e negativos para Anemia Infecciosa Equina (AIE) (61,7%) foram associados a soropositividade. Não houve correlação espacial entre as fazendas estudadas, entretanto aquelas localizadas nas áreas não alagadas foram associadas à infecção. Observou-se correlação negativa entre a prevalência de anticorpos para o VIE e a presença de animais positivos para AIE nas propriedades. A elevada prevalência de anticorpos para o VIE detectada neste estudo sugere circulação viral ativa entre os animais, e as análises estatísticas indicam que o trânsito e aglomeração animal são fatores associados à transmissão do vírus na região.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , /immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Horses , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/veterinary , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Prevalence
5.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(3): 191-195, May-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710407

ABSTRACT

Equines are susceptible to respiratory viruses such as influenza and parainfluenza. Respiratory diseases have adversely impacted economies all over the world. This study was intended to determine the presence of influenza and parainfluenza viruses in unvaccinated horses from some regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Blood serum collected from 72 equines of different towns in this state was tested by hemagglutination inhibition test to detect antibodies for both viruses using the corresponding antigens. About 98.6% (71) and 97.2% (70) of the equines responded with antibody protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL) H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses, respectively. All horses (72) also responded with protective titers (≥ 80) HIU/25µL against the parainfluenza virus. The difference between mean antibody titers to H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The mean titers for influenza and parainfluenza viruses, on the other hand, showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). These results indicate a better antibody response from equines to parainfluenza 3 virus than to the equine influenza viruses. No statistically significant differences in the responses against H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A and parainfluenza 3 viruses were observed according to the gender (female, male) or the age (≤ 2 to 20 years-old) groups. This study provides evidence of the concomitant presence of two subtypes of the equine influenza A (H7N7 and H3N8) viruses and the parainfluenza 3 virus in equines in Brazil. Thus, it is advisable to vaccinate equines against these respiratory viruses.


Os equinos são susceptíveis aos vírus respiratórios, como o vírus influenza, e também tem sido citado o vírus parainfluenza. Doenças respiratórias têm impactado a economia em todo mundo. Este estudo intencionou determinar a presença dos vírus influenza e parainfluenza em equinos não vacinados de certas regiões do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os soros coletados de 72 equinos, de diferentes cidades deste Estado, foram submetidos ao teste de Inibição da Hemaglutinação (IH) com objetivo de detectar anticorpos contra os referidos vírus, usando antígenos correspondentes. Cerca de 98,8% (72) e 97,2% (70) desses equinos responderam com títulos protetores (≥ 80 UIH/25µL) para os subtipos H7N7 e H3N8 de vírus influenza, respectivamente. Todos equinos (72) responderam com títulos protetores (≥ 80 UIH/25µL) contra o vírus parainfluenza 3. A diferença entre as médias de anticorpos contra o vírus influenza A não foi estatisticamente significante (p > 0,05). As médias de títulos dos vírus influenza e parainfluenza, por outro lado, demonstraram diferença estatisticamente significante (p < 0,001). Esses resultados indicam melhor resposta de anticorpos pelos equinos ao vírus parainfluenza 3 do que ao vírus da influenza equina. Nenhuma diferença estatística foi observada nas respostas contra os vírus da influenza equina A (H7N7 e H3N8) e parainfluenza 3, com relação ao gênero (fêmeas e machos) e grupo etário (≤ 2 até 20 anos) nos equinos avaliados. Este estudo fornece evidência da presença concomitante dos dois subtipos vírus influenza A (H7N7 e H3N8) e do parainfluenza 3 em cavalos no Brasil. Portanto, é aconselhável a vacinação dos cavalos contra esses vírus respiratórios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Horse Diseases/virology , /immunology , /immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests , Horses , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(5): 548-553, ago. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680774

ABSTRACT

Asymptomatic influenza virus infections in pigs are frequent and the lack of measures for controlling viral spread facilitates the circulation of different virus strains between pigs. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the circulation of influenza A virus strains among asymptomatic piglets in an abattoir in Brazil and discuss the potential public health impacts. Tracheal samples (n = 330) were collected from asymptomatic animals by a veterinarian that also performed visual lung tissue examinations. No slaughtered animals presented with any noticeable macroscopic signs of influenza infection following examination of lung tissues. Samples were then analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that resulted in the identification of 30 (9%) influenza A positive samples. The presence of asymptomatic pig infections suggested that these animals could facilitate virus dissemination and act as a source of infection for the herd, thereby enabling the emergence of influenza outbreaks associated with significant economic losses. Furthermore, the continuous exposure of the farm and abattoir workers to the virus increases the risk for interspecies transmission. Monitoring measures of swine influenza virus infections and vaccination and monitoring of employees for influenza infection should also be considered. In addition regulatory agencies should consider the public health ramifications regarding the potential zoonotic viral transmission between humans and pigs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Occupational Exposure , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Swine Diseases/virology , Abattoirs , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Influenza A virus/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/transmission , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Sus scrofa , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/transmission
7.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135560

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: With the emergence of a new reassortant influenza A H1N1 virus that caused the 2009 pandemic it was felt necessary that pigs should be closely monitored for early detection of any influenza virus infection. Therefore, we investigated disease outbreaks with clinical history suggestive for swine influenza reported to our laboratory by owners of affected pig farms in Uttar Pradesh. Methods: Detection of swine influenza A virus (SIV) was attempted by isolation in embryonated chicken eggs. Presence of virus was detected by haemagglutination (HA) test and RT-PCR for amplification of different gene segments, cloning and sequencing. BLAST analysis of sequence data, phylogenetic analysis and mutation analysis based on HA, NA and matrix genes was done. Results: SIV could be isolated from one farm and all eight gene segments amplified by RT-PCR. BLAST analysis of partial nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analysis using nucleotide sequence of HA (601 nt), NA (671 nt) and M (1031 nt) genes indicated close genetic relationship of the Indian swine isolate (A/Sw/UP-India-IVRI01/2009) with human pandemic 2009 (H1N1). The HA gene showed close relationship with the viruses of “North American Swine” lineage, whereas the NA and M genes clustered with the viruses of “Eurasian Swine” lineage, indicating a novel HA-NA reassortant. The remaining of 5 genes (NP, PA, PB1, PB2 and NS) belonged to “North American Swine” lineage. Interpretation & conclusions: This is perhaps the first report describing swine influenza among Indian pigs caused by an influenza A H1N1 virus sharing close homology with the human pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Further reassortment with circulating influenza viruses must be closely monitored.


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Sequence , Computational Biology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Evolution, Molecular , Genes, Viral/genetics , India/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Likelihood Functions , Models, Genetic , Molecular Sequence Data , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Phylogeny , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
8.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 42(2): 98-101, abr.-jun. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-634651

ABSTRACT

Se evaluó la prevalencia serológica del virus de influenza mediante las pruebas de inhibición de la hemaglutinación (IHA) y ELISA para los subtipos H1N1 y H3N2 en 13 granjas porcinas de Argentina. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos mediante ambas pruebas en términos individuales y de establecimientos. La prevalencia individual por la técnica de IHA fue de 38,46% a 100% para H1 y de 7,69% a 100% para H3. Por la técnica de ELISA, la prevalencia individual fue de 2,33% a 6,9% para H1 y de 9,65% a 48% para H3. No se observaron diferencias significativas entre ambas técnicas a escala de granja (H1: p=0,20; H3: p=0,11). La concordancia entre las pruebas fue nula al tomar como unidad de referencia el animal (H1: 0,005; H3: 0,070), mientras que en términos de establecimiento fue escasa (H1: 0,350; H3: 0,235). Considerando la alta prevalencia individual obtenida por la prueba de IHA y la alta sensibilidad de esta técnica, se podría sugerir que en las poblaciones porcinas de la Argentina circularon cepas virales humanas o cepas porcinas con gran proximidad filogenética a las utilizadas en este estudio desde el año 2002.


The seroprevalence of the Influenza virus against H1N1 and H3N2 was determined by the hemagglutination-inhibition test (HI) and a commercial swine influenza ELISA kit, in 13 Argentinean swine herds. The results of within-herd and between-herd prevalence obtained by both tests were statistically correlated. The within-herd prevalence observed by the HI test varied from 38.46 to 100% against H1 and 7.69 to 100% for H3. When the within-herd prevalence was measured with the ELISA test, it varied from 2.33 to 6.9% for H1 and 9.65 to 48% for H3. No statistical differences were observed at herd level between HI and ELISA (H1: p = 0. 20; H3: p=0.11). No agreement between HI and ELISA detected prevalence was observed when the within-herd prevalence was compared (H1: 0.005; H3: 0.070), while the agreement at herd level was considered poor (H1: 0,350; H3: 0,235). The high within-herd prevalence values observed with the HI test and the high sensibility of this test might show that human strains or swine strains phylogenetically closely related to the humans strains used in the HI test in this study have been affecting the swine population since 2002.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/veterinary , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Sus scrofa/virology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza A virus/classification , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Seasons , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/virology , Swine/virology
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-34356

ABSTRACT

We studied the occurrence of swine influenza virus (SIV) infection in piglets with respiratory symptoms resembling porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). A total of 106 samples including nasal swab and lung suspension from sick piglets were collected from 30 farms of medium size in the central and eastern parts of Thailand from August 2006 to February 2007. Samples were inoculated onto Mardin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells and SIV infection was confirmed by immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) specific for M gene. Of 106 samples, 3 pigs from 3 different farms were found to be SIV positive on all assays. The positive samples were further identified by RT-PCR as H3N2 subtype using specific primers for hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes. SIV infection was found in 2.8% of swine suffering from respiratory distress suggesting SIV may not be the major pathogen for PRDC in the central and eastern Thailand. SIV was present in 3 of 30 farms (10%) indicating the prevalence of SIV in these regions is considerable. Since pigs are vulnerable to infection from both human and avian influenza viruses and interspecies transmission between humans and swine occurs sporadically, it is essential to continue surveillance and monitoring of SIV infection in the swine population.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , DNA Primers , Dogs , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A virus/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Prevalence , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 133(9): 999-1001, sept. 2005.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-429235

ABSTRACT

In the last years our country has been affected by several outbreaks of infectious diseases such as Cholera and Hanta virus and recently, by pathogens associated to red tide. Chile was able to manage those emergencies using the local health system. The new threat that may emerge and could eventually overcome that capacity, is the possible H5N1 influenza virus outbreak. Influenza is responsible for the most destructive pandemic, the Spanish influenza, that killed over 40 million individuals in 1918. The new influenza strain (H5N1) is at present endemic in poultry in Asia and has been associated to human fatal cases in Hong Kong and Vietnam. Even though this strain is not able yet to be transmitted among humans, evidence has accumulated that such ability could be reached by the new strain, since it was already detected in pigs. That particular evidence may indicate that the virus could adapt to infect humans, since a similar situation was observed in several of the influenza pandemics. The World Health Organization set a "task force" to develop a strategy that may help to control the virus spread. Several countries are already stocking anti-flu drugs and others are developing new vaccine that are currently been assayed in human volunteers. It is possible that we may have a vaccine before the outbreak; this development is even faster than for SARS. The mayor question to be addressed for developing countries is: What will be done if we do not have the vaccine on time?.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Disease Outbreaks , /immunology , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 22(1): 47-50, mar. 2005. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-417242

ABSTRACT

La presentación de la influenza equina en Chile ha estado relacionada con verdaderas pandemias continentales. El primer brote ocurrió el año 1963, posteriormente se han reportado tres grandes brotes en 1977 (H7N7), 1985 (H3N5) y 1992 (H3N5). La sintomatología descrita corresponde en términos generales a la de influenza equina. El brote más grave fue el de 1977. Desde 1992 no se ha descrito la influenza equina en Chile. Un posible caso de transmisión de influenza equina desde caballos al hombre fue descrito en 1973. Evidencian serológicas hacen pensar en un caso de influenza equina en humanos; desafortunadamente el virus aislado desde caballos no fue tipificado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Horse Diseases/virology , /isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Chile/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Horses , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , /genetics , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/transmission , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology
14.
Cad. saúde pública ; 13(1): 119-25, jan.-mar. 1997. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-195724

ABSTRACT

Um estudo soroepidemiológico foi realizado para determinar a prevalência de anticorpos IH para os sorotipos de influenza circulantes entre pacientes atendidos no Laboratório de Virologia do IEC, em Belém, Pa, Brasil, em 1992 e 1993. Um total de 179 (11 por cento) amostras de sangue foi coletado durante período pós-epidêmico e processado pelo teste da Inibiçäo da Hemaglutinaçäo para os vírus da influenza A/Taiwan/1/86 (HINI), A/Beijing/353/89 (H3N2) e B/Yamagatal/16/88. Os resultados indicaram a circulaçäo de vírus antigenicamente relacionados aos três sorotipos pesquisados. Em 1992, altas taxas de soropositividade foram observadas para as cepas HINI (84 por cento) e H3N2 (56 por cento), bem como anticorpos IH foram detectados em todas as faixas de idade, sugerindo intensa circulaçäo desses vírus. No mesmo ano, a atividade da influenza B revelou-se em níveis moderados. A prevalência de anticorpos IH para os vírus H1N1, em 1993, foi similar à observada em 1992, indicando a circulaçäo desses vírus em ambos os anos. Um aumento na prevalência dos vírus H3N2, em 1993, sugere que a cepa A/Beijing/353/89 (ou uma antigenicamente relacionada) também circulou intensamente naquele ano. Do mesmo modo, a atividade dos vírus da influenza B aumentou em 1993, como apontam as infecçöes em todas as idades, particularmente entre os adultos jovens.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Influenza B virus
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