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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880487

ABSTRACT

The recent discovery of circular RNAs (circRNAs) and characterization of their functional roles have opened a new avenue for understanding the biology of genomes. circRNAs have been implicated to play important roles in a variety of biological processes, but their precise functions remain largely elusive. Currently, a few approaches are available for novel circRNA prediction, but almost all these methods are intended for animal genomes. Considering that the major differences between the organization of plant and mammal genomes cannot be neglected, a plant-specific method is needed to enhance the validity of plant circRNA identification. In this study, we present CircPlant, an integrated tool for the exploration of plant circRNAs, potentially acting as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), and their potential functions. With the incorporation of several unique plant-specific criteria, CircPlant can accurately detect plant circRNAs from high-throughput RNA-seq data. Based on comparison tests on simulated and real RNA-seq datasets from Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, we show that CircPlant outperforms all evaluated competing tools in both accuracy and efficiency. CircPlant is freely available at http://bis.zju.edu.cn/circplant.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism , RNA, Circular/metabolism , RNA, Plant/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880485

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitination, an essential post-transcriptional modification (PTM), plays a vital role in nearly every biological process, including development and growth. Despite its functions in plant reproductive development, its targets in rice panicles remain unclear. In this study, we used proteome-wide profiling of lysine ubiquitination in rice (O. sativa ssp. indica) young panicles. We created the largest ubiquitinome dataset in rice to date, identifying 1638 lysine ubiquitination sites on 916 unique proteins. We detected three conserved ubiquitination motifs, noting that acidic glutamic acid (E) and aspartic acid (D) were most frequently present around ubiquitinated lysine. Enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of these ubiquitinated proteins revealed that ubiquitination plays an important role in fundamental cellular processes in rice young panicles. Interestingly, enrichment analysis of protein domains indicated that ubiquitination was enriched on a variety of receptor-like kinases and cytoplasmic tyrosine and serine-threonine kinases. Furthermore, we analyzed the crosstalk between ubiquitination, acetylation, and succinylation, and constructed a potential protein interaction network within our rice ubiquitinome. Moreover, we identified ubiquitinated proteins related to pollen and grain development, indicating that ubiquitination may play a critical role in the physiological functions in young panicles. Taken together, we reported the most comprehensive lysine ubiquitinome in rice so far, and used it to reveal the functional role of lysine ubiquitination in rice young panicles.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Lysine/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Protein Interaction Maps , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteome/metabolism , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitination
3.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 19(1/2): 39-55, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146517

ABSTRACT

The ultra-high dilutions (UHDs) have been widely used in the field of human, animal and plant treatment. In the present research, the effects of the potentized ultra-high dilutions (UHDs) on physiological and biochemical variations in Oryza sativaL. (rice) were investigated. Methods: To study the effect of UHDs (Calendula officinalisCalen. and Arnica montanaArn.) on the physiological and biochemical variations of the Oryza sativaL. (rice), 28 experiments were designed and statistically analyzed using the Design Expert 7.0.1 software over the general factorial design methodology. Three qualitative factors were studied including the UHDs/placebo usage, sterile/non-sterile experimental condition and the type and timing of the UHDs usage. The validated analysis was subjected to more extended studies on the variations in physiological growth, carbohydrate, protein content, pigment production, and amino acid patterns. To evaluate the effects of UHDs on rice, a desirable response percentage was formed from a number of healthy seedling productions, and the height percentage of the aerial parts and main roots were studied. Results: The statistical analysis resulted in a prediction model which was more than 97% correlates with experimental results. The results showed that the UHDs increased the pH variations, carbohydrate, protein and pigment levels each by ~2.5, ~1.5, ~1.4, and ~1.4 folds, respectively. Also compared to placebo, the amount and proportionof amino acids has significantly varied, showing a statistical effect on the germination and seedling growth of the rice, as well as the stress conditions caused by the sterilization process, seedlings entrance into the light and their transition into hydroponic culture medium.Conclusion: The use of UHDs leads to an increase in the production of chlorophyll, as well as carbohydrate and protein content. Moreover, it causes significant variations in the amino acid profile and the production of amino acids along with the photosynthesis, germination, and metabolism processes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Oryza/physiology , High Potencies , Arnica , Calendula , Homeopathy/methods , Oryza/growth & development , Oryza/metabolism , Sterilization , Analysis of Variance , Germination/drug effects , Seedlings/drug effects , Amino Acids/analysis
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 67-78, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889191

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The use of dark septate fungi (DSE) to promote plant growth can be beneficial to agriculture, and these organisms are important allies in the search for sustainable agriculture practices. This study investigates the contribution of dark septate fungi to the absorption of nutrients by rice plants and their ensuing growth. Four dark septate fungi isolates that were identified by Internal transcribed spacer phylogeny were inoculated in rice seeds (Cv. Piauí). The resulting root colonization was estimated and the kinetic parameters Vmax and Km were calculated from the nitrate contents of the nutrient solution. The macronutrient levels in the shoots, and the NO3--N, NH4+-N, free amino-N and soluble sugars in the roots, sheathes and leaves were measured. The rice roots were significantly colonized by all of the fungi, but in particular, isolate A103 increased the fresh and dry biomass of the shoots and the number of tillers per plant, amino-N, and soluble sugars as well as the N, P, K, Mg and S contents in comparison with the control treatment. When inoculated with isolates A103 and A101, the plants presented lower Km values, indicating affinity increases for NO3--N absorption. Therefore, the A103 Pleosporales fungus presented the highest potential for the promotion of rice plant growth, increasing the tillering and nutrients uptake, especially N (due to an enhanced affinity for N uptake) and P.


Subject(s)
Fungi/physiology , Oryza/growth & development , Oryza/microbiology , Ascomycota/classification , Ascomycota/genetics , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Ascomycota/physiology , Biomass , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Nitrogen/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism , Phosphates/metabolism , Phylogeny , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Potassium/metabolism
5.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 163-174, Jan,-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886642

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) nutrition on arsenic (As) uptake and translocation within the seedlings of rice cultivars. The experiment occurred in three stages: I 5 days of acclimatization (nutritive solution); II 10 days under P (0.0 and 0.09 mM) and As (0.0 and 100 mM) treatments; III 5 days under recovery. The As exposure had significant effect reducing dry weights of shoots or roots, resulted in elevated concentrations of As in shoot tissues. BR-IRGA 409 showed the highest susceptibility to As in biomass production and root system parameters regardless the P level. This cultivar showed contrasting responses of As translocation to shoot tissue dependent on P levels, with the highest As concentration under low P and lowest under normal P levels. P nutrition was most striking on plants recovery for all cultivars under As exposure. Clearer separation of cultivars for phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) occurred at lower shoot P contents, that was, at higher levels of P deficiency stress. IRGA 424 showed higher PUE as compared to the others cultivars. Our results go some way to understanding the role of P nutrition in controlling the effects of As in rice shoots.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus/pharmacology , Arsenic/pharmacokinetics , Oryza/drug effects , Oryza/metabolism , Phosphorus/analysis , Arsenic/analysis , Reference Values , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/metabolism , Time Factors , Biological Transport , Reproducibility of Results , Plant Roots/drug effects , Plant Roots/metabolism , Hydroponics/methods , Biomass , Fertilizers
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1183-1191, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769666

ABSTRACT

Abstract Adhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/metabolism , Food Microbiology , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/isolation & purification , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , India , Oryza/metabolism , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(6): 1684-1692, nov.-dez. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-768165

ABSTRACT

O presente experimento, conduzido no Laboratório de Ovinocultura da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de diferentes dietas de alto grão sobre o consumo de nutrientes e o desempenho de cordeiros terminados em confinamento, bem como realizar uma análise econômica da alimentação utilizada para terminação dos animais. Foram utilizados 32 cordeiros machos, castrados, da raça Texel, nascidos de parto simples e desmamados com aproximadamente 50 dias de idade. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por diferentes tipos de grãos, não processados, sendo: grão de milho, grão de aveia branca, grão de aveia preta ou grão de arroz com casca. Os animais foram abatidos quando atingiram o peso vivo de abate pré-estabelecido de 32kg, que corresponde a 60% do peso adulto de suas mães. Cordeiros alimentados com dietas de alto grão de milho apresentam maiores consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, carboidratos totais e de nutrientes digestíveis totais, menor consumo de fibra em detergente neutro, melhor escore de condição corporal, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar, o que leva à redução do número de dias no confinamento necessários para atingir o peso de abate. Além disso, cordeiros terminados com o uso de dieta de alto grão à base de grão de milho proporcionam melhor resultado econômico quando comparados com cordeiros terminados com as demais dietas de alto grão utilizadas neste experimento. O uso de dietas de alto grão de milho, aveia branca, aveia preta ou arroz com casca para terminação de cordeiros em sistema de confinamento é uma alternativa viável do ponto de vista produtivo. Porém, o uso de grão de milho proporciona melhores resultados produtivos e econômicos.


This experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Sheep, Federal University of Santa Maria, and aimed to evaluate the effect of using different high-grain diets on nutrient intake and performance of lambs in a feedlot, as well as conduct an economic analysis of feeding used for termination of the animals. A total of 32 Texel breed castrated male lambs, born from a simple birth and weaned at approximately 50 days of age were used. The treatments consisted of different types of grains, unprocessed, as follows: corn grain, white oat grain, black oat grain or grain of rice in the husk. The animals were slaughtered when they reached a pre-established body weight of 32kg for slaughter, which corresponds to 60% of the mature weight of their mothers. Lambs fed diets with high corn grain have higher intakes of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, total digestible nutrients and total carbohydrate, lower consumption of neutral detergent fiber and better body condition score, weight gain and feed conversion, which leads to reduction in the number of days in confinement needed to reach slaughter weight. In addition, lambs using high-grain diet based grain corn provide better economic results when compared with lambs with other high-grain diets used in this experiment. The use of diets high in grain corn, white oat grain, black oat grain or grain of rice in the husk for finishing lambs in feedlot is a viable alternative from a productive point of view. However, the use of corn grain provides better performance and economic results.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet/veterinary , Sheep/metabolism , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Feed , Weight Gain , Zea mays/metabolism , Avena/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1179-1186, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741267

ABSTRACT

Two mesophilic streptomycetes (S. violaceoruber and S. spiroverticillatus) were selected to study their Poly R-478 decolorization ability and lignocellulose solubilizing activity. Both strains were able to degrade Poly R-478 dye and ferulic acid during growth on a minimal salts medium. The Poly R-478 decolorizing activities of both strains were induced by adding different carbon sources to the culture media. S. violaceoruber could decolorize 63% of Poly R-478 after 24 h. Both strains could solubilize straw and produce acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL) with different efficiency. From the major extracellular enzymes recovery of both strains on rice and wheat straw, we can predicate that the biodegradation process was partial indicating a possible utilization in biological delignification.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Polymers/metabolism , Streptomyces/metabolism , Biotransformation , Coumaric Acids/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Oryza/metabolism , Plant Stems/metabolism , Streptomyces/growth & development , Triticum/metabolism
9.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jun; 52(6): 650-657
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153744

ABSTRACT

Manganese deficiency in wheat has become an important nutritional disorder particularly in alkaline calcareous soils where rice-wheat rotation is followed. This experiment was aimed to study the mechanism of Mn efficiency during various developmental stages in six wheat cultivars grown at two Mn levels viz. 0 and 50 mg Mn kg-1soil (Mnapplied as MnSO4.H20) in pots. The Mn vegetative efficiency calculated on the basis of shoot dry weight at anthesis indicated HD 2967 and PBW 550 (bread wheat) as Mn efficient and durums as Mn inefficient. The efficient cultivars recorded highest values for influx, uptake, shoot dry weight, leaf area/plant, SPAD index, Fv/Fmratio and root length that explained their higher efficiencies whereas inefficiency of durum cultivars was attributed to their smaller roots and lower influx. Under Mn deficiency, PDW 314 and PDW 291 retained 68% and 64%, respectively, of total Mn uptake in vegetative parts (stem and leaves) and lowest in grains 7% and 5%, respectively, whereas PBW 550, BW 9178 and HD 2967 retained 29, 37 and 34% in vegetative parts, and 21, 17 and 15 % in grains, respectively at maturity. Higher utilization efficiency of efficient genotypes also indicated that increased Mn uptake with Mn supply produced more efficiently grains in efficient genotypes but vegetative parts in inefficient genotypes. Hence Mn efficiency of a cultivar could be explained by longer roots, higher uptake, influx and efficiency index during vegetative phase and higher grain yield and utilization efficiency during generative phase.


Subject(s)
Genotype , Manganese/analysis , Manganese/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism , Plant Leaves/genetics , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Roots/genetics , Plant Roots/metabolism , Soil/chemistry , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/metabolism
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 457-465, Apr.-June 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723100

ABSTRACT

The main objective of this study was production of ethanol from three lignocellulosic biomasses like sugarcane bagasse, rice straw and wheat straw by Sacchromyces cervisae. All the three substrates were ground to powder form (2 mm) and pretreated with 3%H2O2 + 2% NaOH followed by steaming at 130 °C for 60 min. These substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme. The whole fermentation process was carried out in 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask under anaerobic conditions in submerged fermentation at 30 °C for three days of incubation period. FTIR analysis of the substrates indicated significant changes in the alteration of the structure occurred after pretreatment which leads to efficient saccharification. After pretreatment the substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme and maximum hydrolysis was observed in sugarcane bagasse (64%) followed by rice straw (40%) and wheat straw (34%). Among all these tested substrates, sugarcane bagasse (77 g/L) produced more ethanol as compared to rice straw (62 g/L) and wheat straw (44 g/L) using medium composition of (%) 0.25 (NH4)2SO4, 0.1 KH2PO4, 0.05 MgSO4, 0.25 Yeast extract by S. cervisae.


Subject(s)
Ethanol/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/growth & development , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Anaerobiosis , Agriculture/methods , Cellulose , Fermentation , Oryza/metabolism , Plant Stems/metabolism , Saccharum/metabolism , Temperature , Triticum/metabolism , Waste Products
11.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Feb; 51(1): 75-80
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154239

ABSTRACT

Drought-tolerant cultivars and their phytochemical composition, which has a role in providing drought tolerance are gaining importance. In this study, rice bran oil and semi-purified oryzanol (SPO) obtained from five rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, namely P1401 and PB1 (drought-susceptible) and N22, PNR381 and APO (drought-tolerant) were analyzed for the γ-oryzanol content, an antioxidant present in considerable amount in the rice bran. The higher level of γ-oryzanol and its antioxidant activity was observed in drought-tolerant cultivars (N22, PNR381 and APO) as compared to drought-susceptible (PB1 and P1401), suggesting the role of γ-oryzanol in drought tolerance, as antioxidants are known to play an important role by scavenging free radicals. The total antioxidant activity of γ-oryzanol might be attributed to 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate, a major component of γ-oryzanol. By enhancing the level of active oryzanol components identified in this study by genetic and molecular means could impart increased drought tolerance.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/metabolism , Droughts , Oryza/cytology , Oryza/metabolism , Oryza/physiology , Phenylpropionates/isolation & purification , Phenylpropionates/metabolism , Plant Oils/metabolism
12.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; dez. 2013. 153 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-836955

ABSTRACT

O arroz (Oryza sativa L.) é consumido predominantemente na forma polida, porém há uma tendência na procura por grãos integrais não pigmentados e pigmentados, como o preto e o vermelho, e também pelo arroz selvagem, que pertence ao gênero Zizania. Além da composição nutricional e propriedades sensoriais distintas, os tipos pigmentados possuem compostos bioativos, que atribuem cor aos grãos e que têm sido relacionados a efeitos benéficos à saúde. Contudo, uma comparação em termos nutricionais e de bioativos entre esses grãos ainda inexiste. Este projeto visou comparar a composição química, incluindo os compostos fenólicos totais (CFT), os polifenóis majoritários e a capacidade antioxidante de três amostras de arroz-preto produzido no Estado de São Paulo, duas de arroz-preto produzido no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e 11 de arroz-preto produzido no Estado de Santa Catarina, 9 de arroz-vermelho, produzido nos estados mencionados e, 6 amostras de arroz selvagem, importadas do Canadá e comercializadas em São Paulo; todas as amostras foram produzidas e/ou comercializadas no período de 2009 a 2011. A comparação das variáveis foi feita pelo uso de análise estatística uni- e multivariada. Fez parte do escopo do projeto avaliar o efeito do cozimento sobre a estabilidade dos CFT e a atividade antioxidante. Também foi conduzida uma comparação preliminar dos teores de fitoquímicos lipossolúveis, γ-orizanol, tocoferóis e tocotrienóis, entre 7 amostras de arroz-preto e 4 de arroz-vermelho, todas da safra de 2013. Com base nas análises químicas e na análise estatística multivariada, foi possível agrupar os vários tipos de arroz em quatro grupos, significativamente diferentes entre si: arroz selvagem, arroz-preto de grãos longos, arroz-preto de grãos médios e arroz-vermelho. O grupo que mais se diferenciou dos demais foi o arroz selvagem, por apresentar os maiores teores proteicos (12,9 g/100g) e de ácido α-linolênico (0,12 g/100g) e os menores teores de lipídeos (0,9 g/100g), de compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante, entre os grupos estudados. Outro grupo com características distintas foi o arroz-preto de grãos longos que se destacou principalmente pelo elevado teor de compostos fenólicos, representados pelas antocianinas, e elevada atividade antioxidante. A cianidina-3-O-glicosídeo foi identificada por CLAE-DAD-MS/MS, como sendo a antocianina majoritária. Os teores de proteínas e de lipídeos, da ordem de 9,8 e 3,6 g/100g, respectivamente, foram maiores do que dos outros dois grupos estudados. O arroz-preto de grãos médios e o vermelho foram similares em termos de composição de nutrientes e CFT. Os teores proteicos em ambos os grupos foi, em média, de 8,8 g/100g. Porém, enquanto no arroz-preto predominam antocianinas, a coloração do arroz-vermelho é conferida por proantocianidinas, com diferenças na sua atividade antioxidante. O arroz-preto de grãos médios apresentou atividade antioxidante mais do que o dobro do arroz-vermelho, no entanto próxima ao do arroz-preto de grãos longos. Este resultado indica que o elevado teor de antocianinas, independente do formato do grão, é responsável pela alta capacidade antioxidante no arroz-preto. A análise multivariada demonstrou que o formato do grão é determinante na diferenciação dos dois grupos de arroz-preto em termos de composição de nutrientes, como proteínas e lipídeos, mas não de fitoquímicos e de atividade antioxidante. O método ORAC foi mais apropriado para avaliar a atividade antioxidante do arroz-preto, por ser mais sensível à presença de antocianinas do que o método de DPPH·. Nos outros dois grupos, vermelho e selvagem o método de DPPH· também pode ser utilizado. O cozimento do arroz provocou perda significativa nos teores de CFT e na atividade antioxidante do arroz-preto e vermelho. No arroz-preto, a perda de CFT foi de 26%, em média, enquanto a perda das antocianinas foi de 50%. A explicação pode ser que durante o cozimento uma parte das antocianinas seja convertida em ácido protocatecóico, que é dosado como CFT. No arroz-vermelho, a redução de CFT foi de 60%, possivelmente devido a uma insolubilização de parte das proantocianidinas. No arroz selvagem, o cozimento não causou perdas significativas. A capacidade antioxidante dos vários grupos de arroz após o cozimento depende do método empregado, sendo fortemente correlacionada com os teores de CFT remanescentes. Assim, o arroz-preto, mesmo depois de cozido, apresentou a maior capacidade antioxidante, seguido do arroz-vermelho e do selvagem. Numa avaliação inicial, os teores dos fitoquímicos lipossolúveis, γ-orizanol e homólogos da vitamina E, foram semelhantes em arroz-preto e vermelho, indicando que independem da coloração do pericarpo


Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is mostly consumed in its milled form; however there is an increasing demand for whole non-pigmented and pigmented rice, such as black, red, and wild rice, which the latter belongs to the genus Zizania. Pigmented rice has particular nutritional composition and sensory characteristics, and in addition high amounts of phenolic compounds, which not only confer color but also has been linked to beneficial effects on human health. To date, little is known about the nutritional and bioactive contents of these grains. The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition, including the total phenolic compounds (TPC), the majoritarian polyphenols and the antioxidant radical efficiency of the following accessions: three black rice from the state of São Paulo, two black rice from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, eleven black rice genotypes from Santa Catarina state, nine red rice from those states and six wild rice, imported from Canada and marketed in São Paulo. All samples were cultivated and/or marketed from 2009 to 2011. Data were evaluated by uni- and multivariate statistical analysis. The effect of cooking on the stability of TPC and antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. In addition, a preliminary comparison of γ- oryzanol, tocopherols and tocotrienols was carried out between two groups: seven black rice and four red rice samples, all of them cultivated in 2013. Based on chemical results and multivariate statistical analysis it was possible to cluster the various types of rice in four groups, significantly different among themselves: wild rice, black long grain rice, black medium grain rice, and red rice. Wild rice was the most dissimilar group due to its highest contents of protein (12.9 g/100g) and α-linolenic acid (0.12 g/100g), and the lowest amounts of lipids (0.9 g/100g), TPC, and antioxidant capacity. Black long grain rice was characterized mainly by its high contents of TPC, especially anthocyanins and by its elevated antioxidant capacity. Cyanidin-3-O-glycoside was identified by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS as being the main anthocyanin. The protein and lipid mean contents in these groups were respectively, 9.8 and 3.6 g/100g and were higher than the amounts in the other next two types of rice. The black medium grain rice and red rice were similar in terms of nutrient composition and TPC. The average amount of protein in both groups was about 8.8 g/100g. However, in black rice prevails anthocyanins, while in red rice coloration is provided by proanthocyanidins, which results in differences in antioxidant activity. Medium and long black grain rice showed a 2-fold higher antioxidant activity than red rice. These findings indicate that the high content of anthocyanins, independent of the grain shape, is responsible for the high antioxidant capacity in black rice. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the grain shape is fundamental to differentiate black rice in terms of nutrient composition, like protein and lipids, but not in relation to amounts of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity. ORAC was more suitable than DPPH· methodology to evaluate the antioxidant activity of black rice, due to its high correlation to anthocyanin contents. Conversely, DPPH· can be a consistent method to evaluate antioxidant capacity of red and wild rice. Cooking resulted in significant loss on TPC contents and on the antioxidant capacity of black and red rice. In black rice, 26% of TPC was reduced on average, while the loss of anthocyanins was 50%. The reason may be that during cooking, part of the anthocyanins is converted into protocatechuic acid, which is quantified as TPC. The reduction in TPC in red rice was 60%, possibly due to a partial insolubilization of proanthocyanidins. In wild rice, cooking caused no significant loss of TPC. The antioxidant capacity of different types of cooked rice was dependent on the method used, being strongly correlated with the remaining levels of TPC. Thus, black rice even after cooking showed the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by red and wild rice. From a preliminary evaluation, the contents of lipophilic phytochemicals, γ-orizanol and vitamin E homologues were similar in black and red rice, which indicates that the contents of these compounds are not dependent of the pericarp color


Subject(s)
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Oryza/metabolism , Statistical Analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Benchmarking , Food Samples , Food/analysis , Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Polyphenols
13.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 13(1): 16-22, jul. 2011.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-600569

ABSTRACT

El arroz es fuente de alimento para una gran parte de la población mundial, con alto promedio de consumo anual. En este cultivo las enfermedades de origen microbiano constituyen uno de los factores que inciden en la obtención de bajos rendimientos y calidad de los granos. La piriculariosis o añublo del arroz, causada por Pyricularia grisea, es la enfermedad más importante en este cultivo en América Latina, ya que puede provocar hasta el 100% de reducción de los rendimientos. Como parte de la estrategia de agricultura sostenible, se trata de controlar estos patógenos y lograr altos rendimientos del cultivo mediante una combinación adecuada de fertilizantes químicos y productos biológicos. En este sentido, la aplicación de inoculantes bacterianos constituidos por bacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal (Plant Growth- Promoting Bacteria, PGPB, por sus siglas en inglés) ha constituido una alternativa ecológica que favorece la conservación del medioambiente y el ecosistema. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo abordar el estado actual y las perspectivas de uso de bacterias rizosféricas en el control de Pyricularia grisea en el cultivo del arroz, tratando algunos temas relevantes, como son las principales enfermedades que afectan al cultivo, los géneros de PGPB más utilizados para el control de las mismas y sus principales mecanismos de acción.


Rice is an important food supply for a large part of the world population and its consumption rates are very high. Microbial diseases are one of the main causes that provoke low yields and low-quality spotted grains. Although fungi, bacteria and viruses are mostly the responsible for these losses, fungal diseases strike more frequently. Among fungi, Pyricularia grisea, the blast fungus is responsible for up to 100% of reduction in yields, being the blast the most important rice disease in Latin America. To control this pathogen, a strategy of sustainable agriculture might be developed, combining accurately chemical and biological products. PGPB based bioproducts have been considered as an eco-friendly alternative, which favours environment preservation. This work was aimed to approach the current status and outlook of the use of rhizobacteria in the biocontrol of Pyricularia grisea on rice. Main diseases attacking rice, most beneficial PGPB and its mechanisms of action will be discussed too in this review.


Subject(s)
Pyricularia grisea/classification , Pyricularia grisea/enzymology , Pyricularia grisea/physiology , Pyricularia grisea/immunology , Pyricularia grisea/pathogenicity , Pyricularia grisea/chemistry , Pyricularia grisea/ultrastructure , Oryza/growth & development , Oryza/metabolism , Oryza/microbiology , Oryza/chemistry
14.
J Biosci ; 2006 Dec; 31(5): 645-50
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110778

ABSTRACT

Plants benefit extensively by harbouring endophytic microbes. They promote plant growth and confer enhanced resistance to various pathogens. However, the way the interactions among endophytes influence the plant productivity has not been explained. Present study experimentally showed that endophytes isolated from rice (Oryza sativa) used as the test plant produced two types of interactions; biofilms (bacteria attached to mycelia) and mixed cultures with no such attachments. Acidity, as measured by pH in cultures with biofilms was higher than that of fungi alone, bacteria alone or the mixed cultures. Production of indoleacetic acid like substances (IAAS) of biofilms was higher than that of mixed cultures, fungi or bacteria. Bacteria and fungi produced higher quantities of IAAS than mixed cultures. In mixed cultures, the potential of IAAS production of resident microbes was reduced considerably. There was a negative relationship between IAAS and pH of the biofilms, indicating that IAAS was the main contributor to the acidity. However, such a relationship was not observed in mixed cultures. Microbial acid production is important for suppressing plant pathogens. Thus the biofilm formation in endophytic environment seems to be very important for healthy and improved plant growth. However, it is unlikely that an interaction among endophytes takes place naturally in the endophytic environment, due to physical barriers of plant tissues. Further, critical cell density dependant quorum sensing that leads to biofilm formation may not occur in the endophytic environment as there is a limited space. As such in vitro production and application of beneficial biofilmed inocula of endophytes are important for improved plant production in any agro-ecosystem. The conventional practice of plant inoculation with monocultures or mixed cultures of effective microbes may not give the highest microbial effect, which may only be achieved by biofilm formation.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/physiology , Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , Biofilms , Coculture Techniques , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism , Symbiosis
15.
J Environ Biol ; 2006 Jul; 27(3): 557-60
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113689

ABSTRACT

The severity of Zn deficiency increased with increase in soil exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) with salt sensitive variety M1-48 scoring 6 at ESP 62 as against only score 3 by salt tolerant variety Pokkali under similar soil conditions. Strikingly, zinc contents were much higher in salt tolerant variety than in salt sensitive one. Zinc application increased zinc concentration in the roots by a factor of 2.85 to 3.87 in Pokkali whereas it rose from 2.37 to 4.35 times in M1-48 depending upon ESP but in the leaves it registered increase of 1.5 to 1.8 times only. In general, the concentrations of reducing sugar were less (about 2.2%) than that of non-reducing (about 3.8%) in both the varieties under normal soil conditions. However, the concentration of reducing sugar doubled (4.2-4.4%) at the highest ESP 62, whereas the concentration of non-reducing sugar though increased (4.1 to 5.1%) but not as vigorously as reducing one. Zinc application reduced the concentration of reducing sugar but not that of non-reducing at similar ESP values. In Pokkali, the concentrations of total sugar increased from 6% at ESP 20 to 9.34% at ESP 62, whereas it registered enhancements of 5.98 to 8.6% in M1-48 under similar conditions. The nitrate reductase (NR) activity decreased with increase in soil sodicity however, the varietal differences in NR activity were wider under Zn-stress than under conditions of applied zinc with Pokkali registering higher NR activities. Carbonic anhydrase activities were higher in salt tolerant variety. Inhibition in carbonic anhydrase activity amounted to 23 and 45% in salt-sensitive variely M1-48 whereas only 19 and 33% in salt-tolerant variety Pokkali at ESP 41 and 62, respectively. The effects of zinc application at higher soil sodicity were more obvious in salt-sensitive variety than in salt-tolerant one. The findings suggest that the tolerance to Zn stress runs parallel to salt tolerance abilities of rice varieties.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Oryza/metabolism , Sodium/analysis , Soil , Zinc/administration & dosage
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 65(3): 451-458, Aug. 2005. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-418147

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar as influências do pulso de inundação e do impacto antrópico causado pelo rejeito de bauxita sobre a composição química de O. glumaepatula no lago Batata (PA, Brasil). As amostras foram realizadas em estandes de O. glumaepatula nos períodos de águas baixas, enchente, águas altas e vazante nas áreas natural e impactada desse ecossistema. Nos períodos de águas baixas e vazante, a área coletada encontrava-se exposta, enquanto nos períodos de enchente e águas altas, a profundidade da coluna d'água era de 1,4 e 3,8 m, respectivamente. O material coletado foi seco a 70ºC, moído e suas concentrações de fósforo total, nitrogênio total, carbono orgânico e conteúdo energético foram mensuradas. Os resultados indicaram que o aumento da biomassa causado pela elevação do nível d'água teve efeito diluidor sobre as concentrações de nitrogênio e fósforo em O. glumaepatula. O conteúdo energético não variou significativamente entre as áreas e os períodos estudados. Os resultados sugerem que, à medida que o nível d'água aumenta, O. glumaepatula torna-se limitada por nitrogênio na área impactada e por fósforo na área natural. A população de O. glumaepatula contribui para a recuperação da área impactada do lago Batata em decorrência do acúmulo de detritos dessa espécie sobre o sedimento, impedindo a resuspensão do rejeito de bauxita e promovendo aumento das concentrações de matéria orgânica e nutrientes.


Subject(s)
Aluminum Oxide/metabolism , Biomass , Environmental Monitoring , Nutritive Value , Oryza/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism , Brazil , Carbon/analysis , Fresh Water , Nitrogen/analysis , Oryza/metabolism , Phosphorus/analysis
17.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2001 Aug; 38(4): 220-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-27750

ABSTRACT

Exposure of isolated thylakoids or intact plants to elevated temperature is known to inhibit photosynthesis at multiple sites. We have investigated the effect of elevated temperature (40 degrees C) for 24 hr in dark on rice seedlings to characterize the extent of damage by in vivo heat stress on photofunctions of photosystem II (PSII). Chl a fluorescence transient analysis in the intact rice leaves indicated a loss in PSII photochemistry (Fv) and an associated loss in the number of functional PSII units. Thylakoids isolated from rice seedlings exposed to mild heat stress exhibited >50% reduction in PSII catalyzed oxygen evolution activity compared to the corresponding control thylakoids. The ability of thylakoid membranes from heat exposed seedlings to photooxidize artificial PSII electron donor, DPC, subsequent to washing the thylakoids with alkaline Tris or NH2OH was also reduced by approximately 40% compared to control Tris or NH2OH washed thylakoids. This clearly indicated that besides the disruption of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) by 40 degrees C heat exposure for 24 hr, the PSII reaction centers were impaired by in vivo heat stress. The analysis of Mn and manganese stabilizing protein (MSP) contents showed no breakdown of 33 kDa extrinsic MSP and only a marginal loss in Mn. Thus, we suggest that the extent of heat induced loss of OEC must be due to disorganization of the OEC complex by in vivo heat stress. Studies with inhibitors like DCMU and atrazine clearly indicated that in vivo heat stress altered the acceptor side significantly. [14C] Atrazine binding studies clearly demonstrated that there is a significant alteration in the QB binding site on D1 as well as altered QA to QB equilibrium. Thus, our results show that the loss in PSII photochemistry by in vivo heat exposure not only alters the donor side but significantly alters the acceptor side of PSII.


Subject(s)
Atrazine/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Hot Temperature , Manganese/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins/metabolism , Photosystem II Protein Complex , Seeds , Thylakoids/metabolism
18.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 47(1): 50-6, mar. 1997. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-234554

ABSTRACT

Commercial brown and yellow milled rice submitted to inappropriate storage conditions were characterized and utilized to develop instant flours that were used in the preparation of atoles. The grains were classified as long-thin; the average size was 2.13 x 6.79 mm. The milling yields obtained in laboratory with paddy rice were 70 per cent brown rice and 60 per cent milled rice. Brown rice and yellow milled rice had similar amylose contents, 22.5 and 25.6 per cent respectively. Gel consistency was solf with low gelatinization temperature (63-68ºC) for both samples. Field fungi, such as Helminnthosporium oryzae, and storage fungi, such as Aspergillus spp, were present in paddy, yellow milled and commercial rice. The fungus Helminthosporium oryzae, Aspergillus spp, and Penicillum spp were not present in instant flours. Instant flours were prepared by soaking the grain in water, and then steaming, dryng and milling it. The highest values for water absortion index were obtained from yellow milled instant rice flour. the color of yellow milled instant rice flour varied from white ("L") to pale yellow (lesser values of "b"). The lower viscosity of the instant flours indicates the breakdown of polymers and reveals that unintact starch granules were not present in instant flours. Protein and ash contents of brown and milled rice were unaffected by hydrothernal process, and the lipid content showed only little changes. Sensory analyses carried out on the atoles prepared with instant flours considered them acceptable, specially for products made from milled yellow rice


Subject(s)
Flour/adverse effects , Oryza/metabolism
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