Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 17 de 17
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 728-735, Nov. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951597

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cercopidae is one of the largest families of the spittlebug superfamily Cercopoidea. Most spittlebugs species are characterized by bright color patterns. Thus, this study evaluated for the first time the Cercopidae species collected in rice crops, Novo Progresso, Pará state, Brazil. Insects were collected weekly between November/2010 and March/2011 from areas without (WA) and with agrochemical applications (AA). Four species were recorded: Deois incompleta (Walker, 1851) (71 specimens in WA area and 50 in AA area); Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909) (39 specimens in WA area and 39 in AA area); Mahanarava tristis (Fabricius, 1803) (26 specimens in WA area and 20 in AA area); Zulia pubescens (Fabricius, 1803) (11 specimens in WA area and four in AA area). The species collected displayed pronounced color polymorphism when compared with the color patterns of the same species from other regions. This makes correct identification more difficult for these species. Therefore, taxonomic and diagnostic informations provided in this study will help in the correct identification, control and monitoring of these insects in future studies. Besides that, we recommend monitoring in rice fields and further study of the biology and ecology of cercopids in Brazil to assess the potential of these species as rice pests.


Resumo Cercopidae é uma das maiores famílias de cigarrinhas dentro da superfamília Cercopoidea. A maioria das espécies de cigarrinhas é caracterizada pelos padrões de cores brilhantes. Deste modo, este estudo avaliou pela primeira vez, as espécies de Cercopidae coletados em cultura de arroz, Novo Progresso, Pará, Brasil. Os insetos foram coletados semanalmente entre novembro/2010 e março/2011 em áreas de arroz de terras altas sem (SA) e com aplicações de agroquímicos (CA). Quatro espécies foram registradas: Deois incompleta (Walker, 1851) (71 espécimes na área SA e 50 na área CA); Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909) (39 exemplares na área SA e 39 na área CA); Mahanarava tristis (Fabricius, 1803) (26 espécimes na área SA e 20 na área CA); Zulia pubescens (Fabricius, 1803) (11 espécimes na área SA e quatro na área CA). As espécies coletadas exibiram um polimorfismo de cor pronunciado quando comparadas com os padrões de cores das mesmas espécies de outras regiões. Isso torna mais difícil a identificação correta dessas espécies. Portanto, as informações taxonômicas e de diagnóstico fornecidas neste estudo ajudarão na identificação, controle e monitoramento desses insetos em estudos futuros. Além disso, recomendamos o monitoramento em campos de arroz e estudos posteriores de biologia e ecologia de cercopídeos no Brasil para avaliar o potencial dessas espécies como pragas de arroz.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oryza/parasitology , Hemiptera/classification , Polymorphism, Genetic , Wings, Animal , Brazil , Color
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 774-781, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785026

ABSTRACT

Abstract Among the natural enemies of insect pests in rice fields, parasitoids are especially notable. To better understand the space-time dynamics of these insects, the objectives of this study were to describe and compare groups of parasitoids in organic irrigated rice fields using two management approaches for levee vegetation, and to relate them to the phenological stages of rice cultivation (the seedling, vegetative, and reproductive stages). The samples were taken in a plantation located in Viamão, RS, Brazil. The total area of 18 ha was divided into two parts: a no-cut (NC) subarea in which the wild vegetation of the levees was maintained, and a cut (C) subarea in which the levee vegetation was cut monthly. In each subarea, four Malaise traps considered as pseudo-replicas were installed and remained in the field for 24 hours at each sampling location. Collections occurred twice a month from the beginning of cultivation (October 2012) until harvest (March 2013). A total of 3,184 Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected: 2,038 individuals in the NC subarea and 1,146 in the C subarea. We identified 458 morphospecies distributed in 24 families. Mymaridae was the most abundant and Eulophidae was the richest in both subareas. A total of 198 morphospecies was shared between the subareas, including Platygastridae, Eulophidae, and Mymaridae, which were the families with the highest number of shared species. The richness and abundance of parasitoids varied according to their phenological developmental stages, with peak abundance registering during the vegetative period. The Morisita index identified three groupings, indicating a similarity that was related to the three phases of rice growth and development: seedling, vegetative and post-harvest.


Resumo Entre os inimigos naturais de insetos pragas em campos de arroz, parasitoides são especialmente notáveis. Para melhor entender a dinâmica espaço-temporal destes insetos, os objetivos desse estudo foram descrever e comparar os grupos de parasitoides em campos de arroz orgânico irrigado utilizando duas abordagens de manejo da vegetação das taipas, e relacioná-los com os estádios fenológicos da cultura (plântula, vegetativo e reprodutivo). As amostragens foram realizadas em uma plantação localizada em Viamão, RS. A área total de 18 ha foi dividida em duas partes: uma subárea não roçada (NR) na qual a vegetação espontânea das taipas foi mantida, e uma roçada (R) subárea em que a vegetação das taipas foi roçada mensalmente. Em cada subárea, quatro armadilhas Malaise consideradas pseudo-réplicas foram instaladas e mantiveram-se no campo durante 24 horas, em cada local de amostragem. As coletas ocorreram duas vezes por mês, desde o início do cultivo (outubro de 2012) até a colheita (março de 2013). Um total de 3.184 himenópteros parasitoides foram coletados: 2.038 indivíduos na subárea NR e 1.146 na R. Foram identificadas 458 morfoespécies, distribuídas em 24 famílias. Mymaridae foi a mais abundante e Eulophidae a mais rica para ambas as subáreas. Um total de 198 morfoespécies foi compartilhado entre as subáreas, incluindo Platygastridae, Eulophidae e Mymaridae, que foram as famílias com o maior número de espécies compartilhadas. A riqueza e a abundância de parasitoides variou de acordo com as fases de desenvolvimento fenológico da cultura, com pico de abundância registrado no período vegetativo. O Índice de Morisita identificou três grupamentos indicando uma similaridade relacionada às fases da cultura, plântula, vegetativo e, na pós-colheita.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Oryza/growth & development , Oryza/parasitology , Biodiversity , Agricultural Irrigation , Hymenoptera/physiology , Brazil , Population Dynamics , Population Density , Food Chain , Biota
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130566

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate the life history, morphology, and maturation of larval stages and adult worms of Fasciola gigantica in experimental mice. Lymnaea auricularia rubiginosa was used as the intermediate host, and Oryza sativa was used for encystment of the metacercariae, while Mus musculus was used as the definitive host for maturation study. Fresh eggs from the gall bladder of water buffaloes fully developed into embryonated ones and hatched out at days 11-12 after incubation at about 29masculineC. Free-swimming miracidia rapidly penetrated into the snail host, and gradually developed into the next larval stages; sporocyst, redia, and daughter redia with cercariae. Fully-developed cercariae were separated from the redia and shed from the snails on day 39 post-infection (PI). Free-swimming cercariae were immediately allowed to adhere to rice plants, and capsules were constructed to protect metacercariae on rice plants. Juvenile worms were detected in intestines of mice at days 3 and 6 PI, but they were found in the bile duct from day 9 PI. Juvenile and adult flukes were recovered from 16 mice experimentally infected with metacercariae, with the average recovery rate of 35.8%. Sexually mature adult flukes were recovered from day 42 PI. It could be confirmed that experimentally encysted metacercariae could infect and develop to maturity in the experimental host. The present study reports for the first time the complete life history of F. gigantica by an experimental study in Thailand. The obtained information can be used as a guide for prevention, elimination, and treatment of F. gigantica at environment and in other hosts.


Subject(s)
Acanthaceae/parasitology , Animals , Buffaloes/parasitology , Fasciola/anatomy & histology , Gallbladder/parasitology , Larva/anatomy & histology , Life Cycle Stages , Mice , Microscopy , Oryza/parasitology , Time Factors
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130559

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate the life history, morphology, and maturation of larval stages and adult worms of Fasciola gigantica in experimental mice. Lymnaea auricularia rubiginosa was used as the intermediate host, and Oryza sativa was used for encystment of the metacercariae, while Mus musculus was used as the definitive host for maturation study. Fresh eggs from the gall bladder of water buffaloes fully developed into embryonated ones and hatched out at days 11-12 after incubation at about 29masculineC. Free-swimming miracidia rapidly penetrated into the snail host, and gradually developed into the next larval stages; sporocyst, redia, and daughter redia with cercariae. Fully-developed cercariae were separated from the redia and shed from the snails on day 39 post-infection (PI). Free-swimming cercariae were immediately allowed to adhere to rice plants, and capsules were constructed to protect metacercariae on rice plants. Juvenile worms were detected in intestines of mice at days 3 and 6 PI, but they were found in the bile duct from day 9 PI. Juvenile and adult flukes were recovered from 16 mice experimentally infected with metacercariae, with the average recovery rate of 35.8%. Sexually mature adult flukes were recovered from day 42 PI. It could be confirmed that experimentally encysted metacercariae could infect and develop to maturity in the experimental host. The present study reports for the first time the complete life history of F. gigantica by an experimental study in Thailand. The obtained information can be used as a guide for prevention, elimination, and treatment of F. gigantica at environment and in other hosts.


Subject(s)
Acanthaceae/parasitology , Animals , Buffaloes/parasitology , Fasciola/anatomy & histology , Gallbladder/parasitology , Larva/anatomy & histology , Life Cycle Stages , Mice , Microscopy , Oryza/parasitology , Time Factors
5.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(2): 819-827, Jun.-Aug. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-715474

ABSTRACT

Rice cultivars are affected directly and indirectly by the insect sogata. The mechanical damage or direct loss, is produced after feeding and ovoposition on the young leaves tissues, while the indirect damage is produced after the transmission of the Rice hoja blanca virus. We studied the morpho-anatomic structures associated with the resistance of the mechanical damage produced by the insect, in six rice cultivars, including controls for resistance and susceptibility (Makalioka and Bluebonnet 50), during August 2011, in Fundacion Danac, Venezuela. Samples were taken from leaf 3, where cuticle thickness, presence of macrohair, microhair and silica bodies in the second third of the leaf was evaluated. A significant difference to thickness of the cuticle, the presence of microhair in the leaves, and presence of silica bodies was observed among cultivars, determining a significant correlation among the number of macrohair and microhair in the adaxial leaf blade with the presence of silica bodies, and thickness of the cuticle and number of posed insects. Thickness of the cuticle and presence of silica bodies in the intercostals space of microhair and macrohair showed to be the variables most related to mechanical damage and resistance mechanism.


El arroz es afectado directa e indirectamente por el insecto sogata. El daño directo o mecánico es debido a la postura de huevos y alimentación del tejido foliar por parte del insecto y el daño indirecto que ocurre es por la trasmisión del virus de la hoja blanca del arroz. El ensayo fue conducido en la Fundación DANAC en agosto 2011, con la finalidad de evaluar las estructuras morfoanatómicas asociadas con la resistencia al daño mecánico en seis cultivares de arroz que incluyen a los testigos de resistencia y susceptibilidad (Bluebonnet 50 y Makalioka). En el tercio medio de la tercera hoja, se evaluaron las variables grosor de la cutícula, presencia de macropelos, micropelos y cuerpos silíceos. Se observaron diferencias significativas entre los cultivares para el grosor de cutícula, número de micropelos y presencia de cuerpos silíceos, se determinó una correlación significativa entre el número de macro-pelos y micropelos en la cara adaxial con la presencia de cuerpos silíceos y el grosor de la cutícula y el número de insectos posados a las 96h. El grosor de la cutícula y la presencia de cuerpos silíceos en los espacios intercostales de los micropelos y macropelos mostraron ser los caracteres más relacionados con la resistencia al daño mecánico y los mecanismos de resistencia al insecto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemiptera/physiology , Oryza/parasitology , Plant Epidermis/parasitology , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Hemiptera/classification , Oryza/cytology , Plant Epidermis/cytology , Plant Leaves/cytology , Venezuela
6.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Mar; 52(3): 237-251
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150354

ABSTRACT

Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomus fasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P.indica resembling “Mayan temple” was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza.


Subject(s)
Aerobiosis , Computer Simulation , Mycorrhizae/genetics , Oryza/genetics , Oryza/parasitology , Phosphate Transport Proteins/genetics , Phosphates/metabolism , Plant Roots/genetics , Plant Roots/microbiology , Plant Shoots , Rhizosphere , Soil Microbiology , Water
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(1): 105-117, Mar. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-657766

ABSTRACT

Tagosodes orizicolus is one of the main plagues of rice in tropical America causing two types of damages, the direct one, feeding and oviposition effect, and an indirect one, by the transmission of the “Rice hoja blanca virus”. During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundación Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance to T. orizicolus, which could be acting in commercial varieties and advanced lines of the rice genetic breeding programs of INIA and Fundación Danac. The method of free feeding was used for the antixenosis evaluation, whereas the method of forced feeding was used for antibiosis evaluation (effect on survival and oviposition). Additionally, we used the indirect method based on biomass depression to estimate the tolerance. Some of the evaluated traits included: grade of damage, number of insects settling on rice plants, percentage of sogata mortality at the mature state, number of eggs in the leaf midrib and an index of tolerance. The results showed that rice genotypes possess different combinations of resistance mechanisms, as well as different grades of reactions. The susceptible control ‘Bluebonnet 50’ was consistently susceptible across experiments and the resistant control ‘Makalioka’ had high antixenosis and high antibiosis based on survival and oviposition. The rest of the genotypes presented lower or higher degrees of antixenosis and antibiosis for survival and viposition. The genotype ‘FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1’ was identified with possible tolerance to the direct damage of sogata.


Tagosodes orizicolus es una de las principales plagas del cultivo del arroz en América tropical causando dos tipos de daños a la planta, el directo, por efecto de la alimentación y oviposición; el indirecto, por la transmisión del virus de la hoja blanca del arroz. Durante el período 2006-2007 se llevó a cabo una investigación bajo condiciones de umbráculo en la Fundación Danac, Venezuela, con el objeto de determinar los mecanismos de resistencia de antixenosis, antibiosis y tolerancia a T. orizicolus que pudieran estar actuando en líneas avanzadas y cultivares del programa de mejoramiento enético de arroz de las instituciones INIA y Fundación Danac. Para la evaluación de antixenosis se utilizó el método de libre elección, para antibiosis (efecto sobre sobrevivencia y oviposición de los insectos) el de alimentación forzada, adicionalmente se usó un método indirecto para estimar la tolerancia. Dentro de los principales parámetros determinados se encontraban: grado de daño, número de insectos posados sobre plantas de arroz, porcentaje de mortalidad de sogata en estado adulto, número de huevos y se calculó un índice de tolerancia con base en la biomasa. Los resultados mostraron que los genotipos de arroz evaluados poseen diferentes combinaciones en cuanto a los mecanismos de resistencia, así como el grado de su efecto. El testigo ‘Bluebonnet 50’ se mantuvo consistentemente susceptible en las evaluaciones y el testigo resistente ‘Makalioka’ fue el único genotipo que presentó alta antixenosis y alta antibiosis para sobrevivencia y oviposición. El resto de los genotipos presentaron un menor o mayor grado de resistencia de tipo antixenosis y antibiosis para sobrevivencia y oviposición. Se identificó el genotipo ‘FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1’ con posible tolerancia al daño directo de sogata.


Subject(s)
Animals , Host-Parasite Interactions , Hemiptera/physiology , Oryza/parasitology , Antibiosis/physiology , Genotype , Oryza/genetics , Venezuela
8.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(4): 421-430, July-Aug. 2011. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-599800

ABSTRACT

The fall army worm Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) is a migratory important pest of corn, sorghum, rice, grass and bermudagrass in North and South America. This species has diverged into two genetically differentiated but morphologically identical strains, "the rice" and "the corn". They have been analyzed by sequencing the genes cytochrome oxydase I, II and ITS1 from populations from the United States and Brazil. However, no such studies were performed in Colombia. In here, we identified 43 haplotypes by sequencing a fragment of the COI gene from 102 individuals, of which 40 had already been identified as the "corn" and "rice" strains or to their hybrids from Tolima, and the rest were collected from corn, cotton, sorghum, grass and rice fields in other regions of Colombia. The corn strain haplotype H1 was the most frequently found in this country, representing the main target for FAW monitoring programs. AMOVA analysis confirmed the population structure between Colombian and North American S. frugiperda haplotypes (F ST = 0.76812, P < 0.001), but not within the different Colombian regions, suggesting high gene flow within the country. The ML trees obtained for Tolima and for Colombia as a whole did not generate clustering amongst S. frugiperda sequences, neither via host-plant association nor by geographical areas. The minimum spanning network for Colombia corroborated our finding that the haplotype H1 has the highest frequency in the country. Our data suggest that haplotype frequency determination will be useful in the establishment of a monitoring system for this species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Haplotypes , Oryza/parasitology , Spodoptera/genetics , Zea mays/parasitology , Colombia , United States
9.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(6): 921-929, nov.-dic. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-572472

ABSTRACT

Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) is a polifagous insect of major economic impact in the western hemisphere and exhibits two strains (i.e., corn and rice) that are morphologically identical but differ in ecology, genetics and physiology. In this work we identified these strains and their respective hybrids by using a PCR-RFLP of the COI gene and PCR of the tandem region FR. Moreover, we performed a population structure analysis by using 253 larvae from Tolima, a region where S. frugiperda is a pest on corn, rice, sorghum and cotton. Corn strain was found on 42 percent in corn, 34 percent in cotton, 19 percent in sorghum and 0.04 percent in rice and rice strain on 35 percent in corn, 0.06 percent in cotton, 0.06 percent in sorghum and 53 percent in rice, demonstrating that corn strain specificity is superior to rice strain. Hybrids between these strains were more abundant in corn. The distributions on their host plants reflect a population genetic differentiation in S. frugiperda with values of PhiPT (COI) = 0.31, P < 0.0001, PhiPT (FR) = 0.17, P < 0.0001 for all crops and PhiPT (COI) = 0.42, P < 0.01, PhiPT (FR) = 0.13, P < 0.01 for the sixteen sampled farms. The dendrograms showed two clusters representing both strains. The results obtained in this study suggest that the management of this insect must differ on each host plant, given the specialization that both strains present, particularly in corn and rice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oryza/parasitology , Spodoptera/genetics , Zea mays/parasitology , Colombia
10.
Neotrop. entomol ; 38(5): 671-676, Sept.-Oct. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-532061

ABSTRACT

A divergência genética de 16 cultivares de arroz quanto à resistência ao percevejo-do-colmo-do-arroz, Tibraca limbativentris Stål, foi avaliada por meio de técnicas de análise multivariada. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com oito repetições. Na avaliação foram considerados oito caracteres de resistência ao ataque do inseto. A divergência genética foi avaliada por procedimentos multivariados: distância generalizada de Mahalanobis (D²), método de agrupamento de otimização de Tocher e técnica de variáveis canônicas. As cultivares mais dissimilares foram Bico Ganga e Marabá Branco, enquanto Agulha e Branco Tardão foram as mais similares. Foram formados cinco grupos pelo método de otimização de Tocher. As três primeiras variáveis canônicas explicaram 88,5 por cento da variabilidade total disponível. Conclui-se que as técnicas de análise multivariada são eficientes para a análise da divergência genética entre as cultivares de arroz, com destaque para Marabá Branco e Bico Ganga, consideradas as mais promissoras a serem utilizadas em futuros cruzamentos para melhoramento visando resistência ao percevejo-do-colmo-do-arroz.


The genetic divergence of sixteen rice cultivars regarding their resistance to the rice stem bug, Tibraca limbativentris Stål, was estimated by multivariate analysis techniques. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse, in randomized block design with eight replications. Eight plant resistance related traits were evaluated. Genetic divergence was evaluated by multivariate procedures: generalized Mahalanobis (D²) distance, the Tocher's grouping optimization method and canonical variables. The most dissimilar cultivars were Bico Ganga and Marabá Branco, while Agulha and Branco Tardão were the most similar. Five clusters were formed by the Tocher's optimization method. Three canonic variables explained 88.5 percent of the observed variation. We concluded that the multivariate analysis techniques are suitable for analyzing the genetic divergence among rice cultivars, indicating Bico Ganga and Marabá Branco as the most promising for future breeding programs of resistance to the rice stem bug.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation , Hemiptera/physiology , Oryza/genetics , Oryza/parasitology
11.
Neotrop. entomol ; 36(4): 616-618, July-Aug. 2007. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-464628

ABSTRACT

O percevejo-do-colmo, Tibraca limbativentris Stal, é um dos insetos mais prejudiciais à cultura do arroz no Brasil. Este trabalho avaliou a ocorrência de parasitóides em ovos de T. limbativentris no Maranhão. Os ovos coletados apresentaram em média um parasitismo de 32 por cento. Os parasitóides identificados foram Telenomus podisi (Ashmead), Trissolcus urichi (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) e Oencyrtus submetallicus (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).


The rice stem bug, Tibraca limbativentris Stal, is an important pest of rice in Brazil. This work evaluated the occurrence of parasitoids in eggs of T.limbativentris egg parasitism in rice crops in the Maranhão State. The eggs collected exhibited an average parasitism of 32 percent. The parasitoids collected were Telenomus podisi (Ashmead), Trissolcus urichi (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) and Oencyrtus submetallicus (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).


Subject(s)
Cimicidae/classification , Cimicidae/parasitology , Hymenoptera/growth & development , Hymenoptera/parasitology , Oryza/parasitology
12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 55(2): 373-383, jun. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-637588

ABSTRACT

A reliable bioassay procedure was developed to test ingested Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins on the rice delphacid Tagosodes orizicolus. Initially, several colonies were established under greenhouse conditions, using rice plants to nurture the insect. For the bioassay, an in vitro feeding system was developed for third to fourth instar nymphs. Insects were fed through Parafilm membranes on sugar (10 % sucrose) and honey bee (1:48 vol/vol) solutions, observing a natural mortality of 10-15 % and 0-5 %, respectively. Results were reproducible under controlled conditions during the assay (18±0.1 °C at night and 28±0.1 °C during the day, 80 % RH and a 12:12 day:light photoperiod). In addition, natural mortality was quantified on insect colonies, collected from three different geographic areas of Costa Rica, with no significant differences between colonies under controlled conditions. Finally, bioassays were performed to evaluate the toxicity of a Bt collection on T. orizicolus. A preliminary sample of twenty-seven Bt strains was evaluated on coarse bioassays using three loops of sporulated colonies in 9 ml of liquid diet, the strains that exhibited higher percentages of T. orizicolus mortality were further analyzed in bioassays using lyophilized spores and crystals (1 mg/ml). As a result, strains 26-O-to, 40-X-m, 43S-d and 23-O-to isolated from homopteran insects showed mortalities of 74, 96, 44 and 82 % respectively while HD-137, HD-1 and Bti showed 19, 83 and 95 % mortalities. Controls showed mortalities between 0 and 10 % in all bioassays. This is the first report of a reliable bioassay procedure to evaluate per os toxicity for a homopteran species using Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2): 373-383. Epub 2007 June, 29.


Se desarrolló una metodología de bioensayo para evaluar toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) ingeridas por Tagosodes orizicolus, plaga del arroz y vector del virus de la hoja blanca. Se establecieron colonias del insecto en condiciones de invernadero usando plantas de arroz como alimento. Para el bioensayo, se desarrolló un sistema de alimentación in vitro para ninfas de tercer y cuarto estadío. Los insectos se alimentaron de soluciones de miel de abeja (1:48 vol/vol) y sacarosa (10 %) a través de membranas de Parafilm. Se observaron mortalidades del 10-15 % y 0-5 %, respectivamente, en ambas dietas. Los resultados fueron reproducibles en condiciones controladas de humedad y temperatura (18±0.1 °C de noche y 28±0.1 °C de día, 80 % H.R y a 12:12 fotoperíodo día:noche). Asimismo, se analizó la mortalidad natural de los insectos según su procedencia, sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias significativas en condiciones controladas. Finalmente, se elaboraron bioensayos para evaluar la toxicidad de una colección de cepas de Bt contra T. orizicolus. Se evaluó preliminarmente, una submuestra de 27 cepas de Bt en bioensayos burdos usando tres asadas como inóculo para 9 ml de dieta líquida. Posteriormente, las cepas que mostraron los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad se evaluaron en bioensayos usando esporas y cristales liofilizados (1 mg/ml). Como resultado, las cepas aisladas a partir de homópteros 26-O-to, 40-X-m, 43-S-d y 23-O-to mostraron mortalidades de 74, 96, 44 y 82 % respectivamente, mientras que las HD-137, HD-1 y Bti mostraron 19, 83 y 95 % de mortalidad. Los controles presentaron mortalidades de 0 y 10 % en los bioensayos. Este es el primer informe de un bioensayo para evaluar la toxicidad de cepas de Bt utilizando la especie T. orizicolus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/chemistry , Bacterial Toxins/toxicity , Biological Assay/methods , Hemiptera/drug effects , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Oryza/parasitology
13.
Neotrop. entomol ; 36(3): 471-472, May-June 2007.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-458898

ABSTRACT

Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis (Sasaki) é um inseto que causa dano à cultura do arroz-irrigado e tem ampla distribuição pelo mundo. Durante o período de setembro de 2004 a fevereiro de 2005, foram coletados ninfas e adultos desse afídeo em diversas plantas daninhas presentes em lavouras arrozeiras nos municípios de Alegrete, Quaraí e Uruguaiana, na região da fronteira oeste do Rio Grande do Sul, e Restinga Seca, na Região Central do Estado. O inseto foi encontrado nas raízes de Andropogon bicornis (capim-rabo-de-burro), Echinochloa colona (capim-arroz), arroz espontâneo e Oryza sativa (arroz-vermelho), Paspalum sp. (paspalum) e Soliva pterosperma (roseta).


Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis (Sasaki) is an insect of world-wide distribution that damages irrigated rice. From September, 2004 to February, 2005, nymphs and adults of this aphid were collected in several host weeds of rice farms in Alegrete, Quaraí and Uruguaiana, located in Western of State of Rio Grande do Sul, and Restinga Seca, in Central region of this State, Brazil. The insect was found in the root of Andropogon bicornis (West Indian foxtail), Echinochloa colona (jungle rice), Oryza sativa (volunteer rice and red-rice), Paspalum sp. (paspalum) and Soliva pterosperma (lawn burweed).


Subject(s)
Animals , Aphids , Oryza/parasitology
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 10(2): 240-251, Apr. 15, 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-499177

ABSTRACT

Advanced generations of different transgenic lines of indica basmati rice (Basmati-370) expressing two unrelated Bt genes, cry1Ac and cry2A were evaluated for resistance to Yellow Stem Borer (YSB) and Rice Leaf Folder (RLF) under field conditions compared to control lines over three years (2003-2005). Homozygous lines were selected and analyzed for insect resistance, morphological, physiochemical properties and risk assessment studies. After artificial infestation of target insects, the transgenic plants showed significant resistance. Data were recorded in terms of dead hearts and white heads at vegetative and flowering stage respectively. Transgenic lines showed up to 100 and 96 percent resistance against yellow stem borer at vegetative and flowering stages, respectively. Natural damage of rice leaf folder was also observed during the year 2005. The transgenic plants were 98 percent more resistant as compared to untransformed control plants. Variations in some morphological characteristics, e.g., the average number of tillers, plant height and maturity were also observed. Transgenic lines produced 40 percent more grains than control plants. All these characteristics were stably inherited in advanced generations. The transgenic lines had no significant effect on non-target insects (insects belonging to orders other than Lepidoptera and Diptera) in field or under storage conditions. Chances of pollen-mediated gene flow were recorded at a rate of 0.14 percent.


Subject(s)
Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacterial Proteins , Oryza/genetics , Pest Control, Biological , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Bacterial Toxins , Insect Control , Larva , Moths/pathogenicity , Oryza/parasitology , Risk Assessment , Safety
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32553

ABSTRACT

The rate of ingestion of Fasciola normal metacercariae (NMc) encysted on plants by Lymnaea ollula was examined, and the infectivity of the ingested metacercariae (IMc) in the feces of the host snail to mice was studied. As a result of ingestion by snails, the metacercarial outer cyst disappeared in about 50% of IMc in feces. There was no significant difference in the liver juvenile recovery at autopsy between mice inoculated with NMc and IMc kinds of metacercariae. Compared with NMc, the number of IMc could more easily be counted, because the separation of IMc from fecal contents under a microscope was not laborious.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs , Fasciola/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Gallbladder/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Lymnaea/parasitology , Mice/parasitology , Oryza/parasitology , Zoonoses
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2000 Sep; 38(9): 951-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62297

ABSTRACT

Brown plant hopper, a major pest in rice causes "hopper burn" in the field. The resistance gene for brown planthopper was mapped by using 20 recombinant inbred lines (RIL's) derived from a cross between resistant line Oryza. officinalis derivative (IR 54742-2-21-12-17-6) and a susceptible rice cultivar ASD 16 using bulked segregant analysis. On an average of 4 loci were amplified and two RAPD primers amplified loci that co-segregated with resistance/susceptibility. The segregating RAPD loci were mapped using Mapmaker programme into 13 groups. The expected and the 95% confidence level were found to be 15.2 and 47.7 cM respectively, confirming the location of the brown planthopper resistant gene on the region of chromosome 4. These RAPD markers will accelerate breeding programme for brown planthopper resistance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromosome Mapping , Chromosome Segregation , Drug Resistance , Genetic Markers , Hemiptera/genetics , Genetic Linkage , Oryza/parasitology , Plant Diseases/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Recombination, Genetic , Sequence Analysis, DNA
17.
Bol. micol ; 10(1/2): 47-52, jul.-dic. 1995. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-173455

ABSTRACT

Se determinó la capacidad patogénica y la identidad de un hongo productor de esclerocios, asociado a lesiones de vainas foliares, detectado en cultivos de arroz regados por inundación en el nordeste de la Argentina. Nuestros objetivos fueron diferenciarlo de otros hongos patógenos semejantes en estos cultivos de la región y obtener información sobre la enfermedad denominada podredumbre castaño-rojiza de la vaina del arroz. Se aplicaron métodos comunes para el aislamiento e identificación de hongos fitopatógenos. Se inocularon semillas in vitro y plantas cultivadas en macetas con riego por inundación. Su forma conidial coincidió con el de helicoceras oryzae linder & tullis, agente causal de la podredumbre castaño-rojiza de la vaina de arroz, el cual se comparó como patógeno débil en las pruebas de patogenecidad. Por su morfología, h. oryzae (hyphomycetes helicosporae) debiera incluirse en el género dichotomophthoropsis m.b. ellis


Subject(s)
Fungi/pathogenicity , In Vitro Techniques , Oryza/parasitology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL