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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927692

ABSTRACT

Salt stress may cause primary osmotic stress and ion toxicity, as well as secondary oxidative stress and nutritional stress in plants, which hampers the agricultural production. Salt stress-responsive transcription factors can mitigate the damage of salt stress to plants through regulating the expression of downstream target genes. Based on the soil salinization and its damage to plants, and the central regulatory role of transcription factors in the plant salt stress-responsive signal transduction network, this review summarized the salt stress-responsive signal transduction pathways that the transcription factors are involved, and the application of salt stress-responsive transcription factors to enhance the salt tolerance of plants. We also reviewed the transcription factors-regulated complex downstream gene network which is formed by forming homo- or heterodimers between transcription factors and by forming complexes with regulatory proteins. This paper provides a theoretical basis for understanding the role of salt stress-responsive transcription factors in the salt stress regulatory network, which may facilitate the molecular breeding for improved stress resistance.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Osmotic Pressure , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified , Salt Stress , Salt Tolerance , Stress, Physiological , Transcription Factors/metabolism
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 19-24, Mar. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pyruvic acid (PA), a vital α-oxocarboxylic acid, plays an important role in energy and carbon metabolism. The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica (Y. lipolytica) has considerable potential for the production of PA. An increased NaCl concentration reportedly increases the biomass and PA yield of Y. lipolytica. RESULTS: To increase the yield of PA, the NaCl-tolerant Y. lipolytica A4 mutant was produced using the atmospheric and room temperature plasma method of mutation. The A4 mutant showed growth on medium containing 160 g/L NaCl. The PA yield of the A4 mutant reached 97.2 g/L at 120 h (0.795 g/g glycerol) in a 20-L fermenter with glycerol as the sole carbon source, which was 28.9% higher than that of the parental strain. CONCLUSION: The PA yield from Y. lipolytica can be improved by increasing its NaCl tolerance.


Subject(s)
Pyruvic Acid/metabolism , Yarrowia/genetics , Yarrowia/metabolism , Osmotic Pressure , Yeasts , Carbon/metabolism , Sodium Chloride , Bioreactors , Salt Tolerance/genetics , Fermentation , Glycerol/metabolism , Mutation
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761388

ABSTRACT

Adipsic hypernatremia is a rare disease where patients do not feel thirst even in the increased serum osmotic pressure and results in electrolyte imbalance, severely increased osmotic pressure and neurologic symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and seizures. We report a 12-year-old male patient who had underwent a trans-sphenoidal surgery for craniopharyngioma newly diagnosed with adipsic hypernatremia after having growth hormone replacement for growth hormone deficiency. The patient visited emergency room complaining of generalized weakness, tremor in both legs, and poor oral intake including water after starting growth hormone replacement therapy. Laboratory test revealed serum sodium 168 mmol/L and serum osmolality 329 mOsm/kg, despite the patient didn't feel any thirst at all. We treated him with scheduled water intake of 2.5 L a day with intranasal vasopressin. He admitted to Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital and Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital for 4 times during the following 8 months and serum sodium level and osmolality was controlled by scheduled water intake combined with intranasal vasopressin treatment. It is still unclear whether growth hormone replacement worked as a trigger of hypernatremia.


Subject(s)
Child , Craniopharyngioma , Drinking , Emergency Service, Hospital , Growth Hormone , Humans , Hypernatremia , Leg , Male , Nausea , Neurologic Manifestations , Osmolar Concentration , Osmotic Pressure , Rare Diseases , Seizures , Seoul , Sodium , Thirst , Tremor , Vasopressins , Vomiting , Water
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(1): 133-136, Jan. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895533

ABSTRACT

The objective this study is to evaluate colloid osmotic pressure (COP) fluctuations in adult and senile dogs during surgical interventions. Thirty-six healthy dogs to surgical interventions, distributed in two groups, A and B, according to their age, and were all subjected to the same anesthetic protocol. Values of albumin, total plasmatic protein and COP were evaluated from samples collected before pre-anesthetic medication, fifteen minutes after pre-anesthetic medication, and shortly after the end of the intervention. Results were tested using t-test to compare among groups and ANOVA for repeated measures followed by Tukey's test to compare different moments within the same group. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. In both groups, significant decreases were observed in colloid osmotic pressure, as well as albumin and total proteins (p<0.001). Despite slightly lower COP values for the group of adult animals, this difference was not significant as there was a high individual variation within groups. The results therefore indicate no difference in colloid osmotic pressure values or fluctuation patterns among adult and senile dogs (p=0.124). The observed results indicate that colloid osmotic pressure decreases significantly during surgical procedures, due to hypotension caused by the anesthetic drugs and to hemodilution caused by the fluid administration but there is no difference between groups. However, in both adult and senile dogs, these variables recover gradually after the animals awaken, through increased urine production and recovery of vascular tonus, indicating the successful reestablishment of homeostasis.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar as flutuações da pressão coloidosmótica (PCO) em cães adultos e idosos durante a intervenção cirúrgica. Foram utilizados 36 cães hígidos submetidos à intervenção cirúrgica, distribuídos em dois grupos de acordo com a idade e submetidos ao mesmo protocolo anestésico. Os valores de albumina, proteína plasmática total e PCO foram avaliados de amostras coletadas antes da medicação pré-anestésica, 15 minutos após e ao final do procedimento cirúrgico. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através do teste-t para comparação entre os grupos e ANOVA para medidas repetidas seguido do teste de Tukey para comparar diferentes momentos dentro do mesmo grupo. Foram considerados estastisticamente diferentes com p<0.05. Em ambos os grupos foram observados decréscimo dos valores da pressão coloidosmótica, como os valores de albumina e proteína total (p<0.001). Apesar de ligeiramente inferior, os valores de PCO para o grupo adulto não apresentaram diferença significativa. Os resultados indicam que não houve diferença nos valores da pressão oncótica ou padrão de flutuação entre adultos e idosos (p=0,124). Os resultados observados indicam significativo decréscimo da pressão coloidosmótica durante os procedimentos cirúrgicos devido à hipotensão causada pelos fármacos anestésicos e pela hemodiluição causada pela administração de fluídos, mas não houve diferença entre os grupos. Entretanto, tanto em cães adultos como idosos, essas variações retornaram gradualmente após a recuperação dos animals, através do aumento da produção de urina e da recuperação do tônus vascular, indicando restabelecimento da homeostase.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Adult , Aged , Dogs , Colloids , Osmotic Pressure , Proteins , Surgical Procedures, Operative/veterinary
5.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 30(2): 68-75, 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-905949

ABSTRACT

The best material for repairing enamel surface defects is one very similar to the original enamel and which interacts with natural remineralization mechanisms. It does not repair extensive damage, so in order to fill large defects,external help is required using phosphocalcic ceramic composites that activate salivary remineralization efficiently though on smaller in scale. Effective adhesion of the repair may depend on the amount of aqueous fluids present in the enamel, which apparently enable nucleation and growth of new minerals to ensure adhesion and stability. The amount of fluids is governed by osmotic pressure. This study evaluated the influence of two osmotic pressure values of isotonic and hypotonic saliva and two modified remineralizing agent compositions: combinations of "conditioner" and "remineralizing agent" in proportions of 90%: 10% (A) and 50%: 50%(B), on filling artificial cracks. Results were evaluated by profilometer, stereomicroscope and confocal laser microscope. A 22 factorial design and a logistic model for statistical analysis were used. Only the composition of the mineralizing agent had a significant effect on efficiency in repairing defects. Compositions A and B both repaired dental enamel defects, but composition B presented higher levels of repair and more compact deposits as observed under stereomicroscope (AU)


El mejor material para reparar defectos superficiales del esmalte es uno muy similar al original y que este interactúe con los mecanismos naturales de remineralización. Este no arregla daños extensos por lo que se requiere de una ayuda externa para rellenar defectos grandes con un material que active la remineralización salivar que sea eficiente pero de menor alcance. Para esto se emplearon cerámicas compuestas principalmente fosfocálcicas. La adhesión efectiva de la reparación puede depender de la cantidad de fluidos acuosos existentes en la porosidad del esmalte pues aparentemente permiten la nucleación y crecimiento de nuevos minerales para asegurar adhesión y estabilidad. La cantidad de fluidos está gobernada por la presión osmótica. En este estudio se evaluó la influencia que tienen dos valores de presión osmótica de la saliva isotónica y hipotónica y dos composiciones de agente remineralizante modificado: condicionador y agente remineralizante en composiciones de 90%/10% (A) y 50%/50%(B) respectivamente, sobre el llenado de grietas artificiales por perfilometría, estereomicroscopio y microscopía confocal láser. Se trabajó con un diseño factorial 22 y tratamiento estadístico: modelo logístico. Solamente la composición de la sustancia remineralizante tuvo efecto significativo en la eficiencia para reparar defectos. La composición tiene un efecto reparador sobre los defectos del esmalte dental en sus dos composiciones, no obstante, la composición 50%/50% presenta niveles más altos de reparación y forma depósitos que al estereomicroscopio se observan más compactos (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Tooth Remineralization , Biocompatible Materials , Dental Enamel , Osmotic Pressure , Materials Testing , Calcium Phosphates , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Microscopy, Confocal
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37426

ABSTRACT

Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a demyelinating disorder characterized by the loss of myelin in the center of the basis pons, and is mainly caused by the rapid correction of hyponatremia. We report the case of a young woman who presented with gait disturbance and alcohol withdrawal, and who was eventually diagnosed with CPM. Generally, the cause and pathogenesis of CPM in chronic alcoholics remain unclear. In this cases, the CPM may be unrelated to hyponatremia or its correction. However, it is possible that the osmotic pressure changes due to refeeding syndrome after alcohol withdrawal was the likely cause in this case. This case illustrates the need for avoiding hasty, and possibly incomplete diagnoses, and performing more intensive test procedures to ensure a correct diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Alcoholics , Demyelinating Diseases , Diagnosis , Female , Gait , Humans , Hyponatremia , Myelin Sheath , Myelinolysis, Central Pontine , Osmotic Pressure , Pons , Refeeding Syndrome
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 917-924, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828189

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of terpinen-4-ol, tyrosol, and β-lapachone against strains of Coccidioides posadasii in filamentous phase (n = 22) and Histoplasma capsulatum in both filamentous (n = 40) and yeast phases (n = 13), using the broth dilution methods as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of these compounds. The mechanisms of action of these compounds were also investigated by analyzing their effect on cell membrane permeability and ergosterol synthesis. The MIC and MFCf these compounds against C. posadasii, mycelial H. capsulatum, and yeast-like H. capsulatum, were in the following ranges: 350-5720 µg/mL, 20-2860 µg/mL, and 40-1420 µg/mL, respectively for terpinen-4-ol; 250-4000 µg/mL, 30-2000 µg/mL, and 10-1000 µg/mL, respectively, for tyrosol; and 0.48-7.8 µg/mL, 0.25-16 µg/mL, and 0.125-4 µg/mL, respectively for β-lapachone. These compounds showed a decrease in MIC when the samples were subjected to osmotic stress, suggesting that the compounds acted on the fungal membrane. All the compounds were able to reduce the ergosterol content of the fungal strains. Finally, tyrosol was able to cause a leakage of intracellular molecules.


Subject(s)
Phenylethyl Alcohol/analogs & derivatives , Terpenes/pharmacology , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Osmotic Pressure , Phenylethyl Alcohol/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Membrane Permeability/drug effects , Ergosterol/metabolism , Fungi/classification , Fungi/metabolism
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 181-190, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775120

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classification , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolation & purification , Vitis/microbiology , Acetic Acid/metabolism , Bacterial Adhesion , Czech Republic , DNA Fingerprinting , Drug Tolerance , Ethanol/toxicity , Hydrogen Sulfide/metabolism , Molecular Typing , Mycological Typing Techniques , Malates/metabolism , Osmotic Pressure , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Stress, Physiological , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/physiology , Sulfur Dioxide/toxicity
9.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 201-208, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192317

ABSTRACT

Here in this study, we investigated the lifespan-extending effect and underlying mechanism of methanolic extract of Moringa olelifa leaves (MML) using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model system. To define the longevity properties of MML we conducted lifespan assay and MML showed significant increase in lifespan under normal culture condition. In addition, MML elevated stress tolerance of C. elegans to endure against thermal, oxidative and osmotic stress conditions. Our data also revealed that increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and expressions of stress resistance proteins were attributed to MML-mediated enhanced stress resistance. We further investigated the involvement of MML on the aging-related factors such as growth, food intake, fertility, and motility. Interestingly, MML significantly reduced growth and egg-laying, suggesting these factors were closely linked with MML-mediated longevity. We also observed the movement of aged worms to estimate the effects of MML on the health span. Herein, MML efficiently elevated motility of aged worms, indicating MML may affect health span as well as lifespan. Our genetic analysis using knockout mutants showed that lifespan-extension activity of MML was interconnected with several genes such as skn-1, sir-2.1, daf-2, age-1 and daf-16. Based on these results, we could conclude that MML prolongs the lifespan of worms via activation of SKN-1 and SIR-2.1 and inhibition of insulin/IGF pathway, followed by DAF-16 activation.


Subject(s)
Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis , Eating , Fertility , Longevity , Methanol , Moringa oleifera , Moringa , Osmotic Pressure
10.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 548-561, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757407

ABSTRACT

TAZ, a transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif, is encoded by WWTR1 gene (WW domain containing transcription regulator 1). TAZ is tightly regulated in the hippo pathway-dependent and -independent manner in response to a wide range of extracellular and intrinsic signals, including cell density, cell polarity, F-actin related mechanical stress, ligands of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), cellular energy status, hypoxia and osmotic stress. Besides its role in normal tissue development, TAZ plays critical roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and stemness in multiple human cancers. We discuss here the regulators and regulation of TAZ. We also highlight the tumorigenic roles of TAZ and its potential therapeutic impact in human cancers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Energy Metabolism , Genetics , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Humans , Hypoxia , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Neoplasms , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Osmotic Pressure , Stress, Mechanical , Transcription Factors , Genetics , Metabolism
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1963-1968, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251266

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>L-proline is a natural, nontoxic cryoprotectant that helps cells and tissues to tolerate freezing in a variety of plants and animals. The use of L-proline in mammalian oocyte cryopreservation is rare. In this study, we explored the cryobiological characteristics of L-proline and evaluated its protective effect in mouse oocyte cryopreservation.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The freezing property of L-proline was detected by Raman spectroscopy and osmometer. Mature oocytes obtained from 8-week-old B6D2F1 mice were vitrified in a solution consisting various concentration of L-proline with a reduced proportion of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG), comparing with the control group (15% DMSO and 15% EG without L-proline). The survival rate, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) expression, fertilization rate, two-cell rate, and blastocyst rate in vitro were assessed by immunofluorescence and in vitro fertilization. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>L-proline can penetrate the oocyte membrane within 1 min. The osmotic pressure of 2.00 mol/L L-proline mixture is similar to that of the control group. The survival rate of the postthawed oocyte in 2.00 mol/L L-proline combining 7.5% DMSO and 10% EG is significantly higher than that of the control group. There is no difference of 5-mC expression between the L-proline combination groups and control. The fertilization rate, two-cell rate, and blastocyst rate in vitro from oocyte vitrified in 2.00 mol/L L-proline combining 7.5% DMSO and 10% EG solution are similar to that of control.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>It indicated that an appropriate concentration of L-proline can improve the cryopreservation efficiency of mouse oocytes with low concentrations of DMSO and EG, which may be applicable to human oocyte vitrification.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cryopreservation , Methods , Cryoprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Female , Fertilization in Vitro , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Male , Mice , Oocytes , Osmotic Pressure , Proline , Pharmacology , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Vitrification
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(2): 128-133, Mar. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745581

ABSTRACT

Background The production of biofuels from renewable energy sources is one of the most important issues in biotechnology today. The process is known to generate various by-products, for example glycerol that is obtained in the making of biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Crude glycerol may be utilized in many ways, including microbial conversion to 1,3-propanediol. The main drawback of that technology is the use of high concentrations of glycerol, which inhibits the growth of bacterial cells. Results This study investigated the impact of crude glycerol on Clostridium butyricum DSP1 and its ability to adapt to an environment of high osmotic pressure. It was found that a crude glycerol concentration of up to 70 g/L did not have an inhibitory effect on C. butyricum DSP1. Adaptation procedures involving the passage of metabolically active biomass from a fermentation medium with a lower concentration of crude glycerol to one with a greater substrate concentration allowed breaking the barrier of high osmotic pressure (150 g/L crude glycerol) and receiving a 1,3-PD concentration of 74 g/L in a batch culture operation. The work looked into intracellular modifications shown by proteomic profiling in order to explain the mechanisms underlying the response and adaptation of bacterial cells exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions. Conclusions This study of the effect of glycerol on the growth and metabolism of C. butyricum DSP1 demonstrated that the maximum substrate concentrations that do not inhibit the metabolic activity of bacterial cells are 90 g/L and 70 g/L for pure and crude glycerol, respectively.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Clostridium butyricum/growth & development , Clostridium butyricum/metabolism , Glycerol/metabolism , Osmotic Pressure , Propylene Glycols , Stress, Physiological , Proteins/analysis , Environment , Biofuels , Fermentation , Batch Cell Culture Techniques , Glycerol/analysis
13.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 566-569, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-276056

ABSTRACT

Based on the principles of the in vitro staining technique, hypotonic swelling test, and water test, the Eosin Y-water test method was developed to simultaneously detect the integrity of the sperm head and tail and sperm membrane structure and function. As a widely used method in clinical laboratories in China, the Eosin Y-water test is methodologically characterized by three advantages. Firstly, both the sperm head and tail can be detected at the same time, which allows easy and comprehensive assessment of membrane damage in different parts of sperm. Secondly, distilled water is used instead of the usual formula solution to simplify and standardize the test by eliminating any potential effects on the water molecules through the sperm membrane due to different osmotic pressure or different sugar proportions and electrolyte solutions. Thirdly, the test takes less time and thus can be repeated before and after treatment. This article focuses on the fundamental principles and modification of the Eosin Y-water test and its application in sperm function examination and routine semen analysis for male infertility, assessment of the quality of sperm retrieved by testicular fine needle aspiration, semen cryopreservation program development, and evaluation of sperm membrane integrity after microwave radiation.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane , China , Cryopreservation , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Fluorescent Dyes , Humans , Infertility, Male , Diagnosis , Male , Osmotic Pressure , Semen Analysis , Methods , Sperm Head , Sperm Motility , Sperm Tail , Spermatozoa , Staining and Labeling , Water
14.
Medical Principles and Practice. 2015; 24 (5): 465-469
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166594

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the effect of smoking on the osmotic pressure [OP] of human dental pulp tissue. Sixty male dental patients [smokers and nonsmokers] scheduled for root canal treatment for prosthodontics were included in the study. Fifteen patients [1 premolar tooth/patient] were allocated to each of the following groups according to their smoking habits, i.e. group 1: <10 cigarettes/day, group 2:11-20 cigarettes/day, group 3: >20 cigarettes/day and group 4: nonsmoking controls. Apical pulp tissues were removed via coronal access. Pulp tissue supernatants were obtained to measure the pulpal OP by means of a semimicro digital osmometer. One-way analysis of variance and the post hoc Duncan test were used to analyze the differences in OP between groups. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked daily and the pulpal OP. The mean [ +/- SD] OP value decreased as cigarette consumption increased: group 4 [268.00 +/- 10.09 mosm/kg] > group 1 [259.20 +/- 7.16 mosm/kg] > group 2 [248.90 +/- 2.23 mosm/kg] > group 3 [239.90 +/- 7.40 mosm/kg]. The OP differed significantly between groups [p < 0.01], and a significant negative correlation was found between cigarette consumption and pulpal OP [r = -0.809, p < 0.01]. In this study, the OP decreased as the number of cigarettes smoked increased. In clinical examination, there may be mis-diagnosis of pulpal conditions in smokers [even in healthy pulp tissue] due to the effect of altered OP on pulpal tissue reactions.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Dental Pulp , Osmotic Pressure
15.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; nov. 2014. 106 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-836783

ABSTRACT

As microalgas são candidatas promissoras para a produção em larga escala de biocombustíveis devido a sua alta eficiência fotossintética. No entanto, os custos relativamente altos de produção por baixas produtividades em lipídios têm sido um dos principais obstáculos que impedem sua produção comercial. Portanto, é necessário focar a pesquisa no aumento da biomassa e na produtividade em lipídios, através do desenvolvimento de biorreatores e técnicas de cultivo inovadoras. Numa primeira fase, este estudo mostra a otimização dos regimes de adição de nutrientes no cultivo de Neochloris oleoabundans em fotobiorreatores tubulares, determinando que a melhor metodologia de adição de CO2 é adicionando-o de forma intermitente e automatizada, enquanto que o melhor processo de alimentação de nitrogênio é por meio de um processo em batelada alimentada tomando como uma referência a produtividade diária de biomassa. Na segunda etapa, foi testada a influência de agentes estressores adicionados ao cultivo sob carência de nitrogênio, tais como tiossulfato de sódio como agente redutor e cloreto de sódio e glicerina como agentes de choque osmótico, buscando um acúmulo de lipídios na biomassa. Os resultados mostraram que o tiossulfato de sódio em 1,2 mM e o cloreto de sódio em 2,2 mM aumentaram o total de lipídios em 21% e 25%, respectivamente. Finalmente, foram testados diferentes regimes de luz, com um esquema 12:12, sendo 12 horas de luz fluorescente e 12 horas com um sistema distinto: escuro, diodos emissores de luz (LED) vermelha e LED branca. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com LED branca, com um acúmulo de lipídios de até 27% da biomassa seca e uma concentração final de células de 2335mg/L, estabelecendo assim um método de iluminação econômica com alta produtividade (145mg / L dia)


Microalgae are promising candidates for large-scale global biofuel production because of their high photosynthetic efficiency. However, relatively high production costs due to low lipid productivity have been one of the major obstacles impeding their commercial production. Therefore, it is necessary to accurate the research into an increase in biomass and oil productivity, by means of novel bioreactors' design and cultivation techniques. On a first stage, this study shows the optimization of nutrients' addition regimes in Neochloris oleoabundans cultivation in tubular photobioreactors, finding that the best CO2 addition methodology is an automatized intermittent adding and the best feeding process for nitrogen is a fed-batch process taking as a reference the daily biomass productivity. On the second step, it was tested the influence of stressing agents added to the culture under nitrogen starvation, such as sodium thiosulphate for reducing environment and sodium chloride and glycerol for osmotic shock, aiming lipid accumulation in the biomass. The results showed that sodium thiosulphate at 1,2mM and sodium chloride at 2,2mM raised the total lipids up to 21% and 25% respectively. Finally, there were tested different light regimes, with a scheme 12:12, being 12 hours of fluorescent light and 12 hours of a singular system: dark, red light-emitting-diodes (LED) and white LED. The best results were obtained with white LED, with an accumulation up to 27% of dry biomass and a final cell concentration up to 2335mg/L, establishing an economic illumination method with high productivity


Subject(s)
Biomass , Lipids/pharmacology , Microalgae/growth & development , Stress, Mechanical , Osmotic Pressure , Photobioreactors/classification , Thiosulfates/pharmacology
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 1105-1112, July-Sept. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727045

ABSTRACT

Studies were conducted to determine the effect of osmotic and matric stress on germination and growth of two Fusarium solani strains, the etiological agent responsible of peanut brown root rot. Both strains had similar osmotic and matric potential ranges that allowed growth, being the latter one narrower. F. solani showed the ability to grow down to -14 MPa at 25 °C in non-ionic modified osmotic medium, while under matric stress this was limited to -8.4 MPa at 25 °C. However, both strains were seen to respond differently to decreasing osmotic and matric potentials, during early stages of germination. One strain (RC 338) showed to be more sensitive to matric than osmotic (non ionic) and the other one (RC 386) showed to be more sensitive to osmotic than matric imposed water stress. After 24 h of incubation, both isolates behaved similarly. The minimum water potential for germination was -8.4 MPa on glycerol amended media and -5.6 MPa for NaCl and PEG amended media, respectively. The knowledge of the water potential range which allow mycelia growth and spore germination of F. solani provides an inside to the likely behaviour of this devastating soilborne plant pathogen in nature and has important practical implications.


Subject(s)
Fusarium/growth & development , Osmotic Pressure , Water/metabolism , Arachis/microbiology , Fusarium/drug effects , Fusarium/radiation effects , Glycerol/metabolism , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Polyethylene Glycols/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Temperature
17.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 27(1): 3-8, July 2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761841

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir el efecto de la composición de una sustancia remineralizante (SRM) y de la presión osmótica sobre el color dental mediante espectrofotometría. Se tomaron 104 premolares y molares humanos repartidos aleatoriamente en 2 grupos, cada uno de 52 especímenes. El grupo 1 se trató con la sustancia remineralizante SRM 55 (agente remineralizante 1) mezcla de 50 por ciento - 50 por ciento de mineral de grano fino y otro mineral de grano grueso y el grupo 2 se trató con la sustancia remineralizante SRM 91(agente remineralizante 2) contienen los mismos minerales en proporción 90 por ciento - 10 por ciento. A su vez cada grupo se dividió en 2 subgrupos, cada uno de 26 especímenes que se almacenaron así: Un subgrupo en saliva sintética con presión osmótica isotónica (PI) y el otro con presión osmótica hipotónica (PH). Se tomaron registros iniciales y finales con el espectrofotómetro Vita Easy Shade®. Con las lecturas se calcularon losparámetros de color (L*; a*; b*) y los índices de blanqueamiento (WIC; WIO; W). Los cambios de color (ΔL; ΔA; ΔB; yΔE) y los índices de blanqueamiento se compararon y se trataron todos mediante un análisis descriptivo. Las variables ΔA, ΔL, ΔB, ΔE e índice de blanqueamiento W se trataron con ANOVA y los índices WIC y WIO con un análisis de varianza no paramétrico Kruskal Wallis. Los resultados indican que la combinación A2 (SRM 91 y PI) afectó las variables ΔB y ΔE. La combinación B1 (SRM 55 Y PH) afectó las variables ΔA, ΔB y el índice de blanqueamiento WIO. Solamente SRM 91afectó la variable ΔL. La presión osmótica de la saliva y la sustancia remineralizante afectan el color del esmalte dental...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Female , Young Adult , Dental Enamel , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Color , Egg Shell/chemistry , Spectrophotometry/methods , Tissue Extracts/pharmacology , Phosphates/pharmacology , Osmotic Pressure , Dental Prophylaxis/instrumentation , Saliva, Artificial , Hypotonic Solutions/chemistry , Isotonic Solutions/chemistry
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 613-620, Apr.-June 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723125

ABSTRACT

Less than 0.5% of total water in the world is available for human consumption and agriculture. The major part of the world's water is saline and salinity in soils interferes in germination of seeds and the posterior development of the plant. In order to increase the osmotolerance of tomato, seedlings were associated with Azospirillum brasilense Cd, Azospirillum brasilense Cd transformed bacteria with a plasmid harboring a trehalose biosynthesis gene-fusion or Chlorella vulgaris. Two plant culture media: Hydroponic and Murashige and Skoog were tested. In the first set of studies seedlings were associated to single free cells meanwhile in a second set single and combined free cells were studied. A positive interaction between transformed Azospirillum and Chlorella vulagris and tomato plants was observed. Seedlings showed a salt concentration tolerance, as sodium chloride, up to 200 mM. According to our results, the association of plants with A. brasilense Cd-BIF and C. vulgaris is a viable approach to increase their salt tolerance and biomass, as consequence the possible use of sea water to irrigate horticultural plants.


Subject(s)
Azospirillum brasilense/growth & development , Chlorella vulgaris/growth & development , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiology , Osmotic Pressure , Salinity , Seedlings/microbiology , Culture Media/chemistry , Lycopersicon esculentum/physiology , Seedlings/physiology
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195451

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In order to determine whether the Tonicity responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is expressed by hypertonic and hyperosmolar stress, TonEBP expression was investigated in the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) line, RGC-5 cells. METHODS: After RGC-5 cells were cultured by Staurosporine, TonEBP expression was measured with Western immunoblotting analysis and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM mannitol, 50 mM glucose, or 100 mM glucose at 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after exposure to each environment. RESULTS: In this study, the protein expression of TonEBP was determined to be statistically significantly checked in 50 mM NaCl after 3, and 6 hours, in 100 mM mannitol after 6 hours, and in 100 mM glucose after 3, and 6 hours. TonEBP messenger Ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression was determined to be statistically significantly checked in 50 mM NaCl after 3 hours, in 100 mM mannitol after 3, and 24 hours, and in 50 mM glucose after 3, and 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that TonEBP was expressed by hypertonic and hyperosmolar stress at the protein and mRNA levels. Further studies are nedded to determine the role of TonEBP and the mechanism of expression and regulation of TonEBP.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Glucose , Mannitol , NFATC Transcription Factors , Osmotic Pressure , Retinal Ganglion Cells , RNA , RNA, Messenger , Staurosporine
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727693

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous myometrial contraction (SMC) in pregnant uterus is greatly related with gestational age and growing in frequency and amplitude toward the end of gestation to initiate labor. But, an accurate mechanism has not been elucidated. In human and rat uterus, all TRPCs except TRPC2 are expressed in pregnant myometrium and among them, TRPC4 are predominant throughout gestation, suggesting a possible role in regulation of SMC. Therefore, we investigated whether the TRP channel may be involved SMC evoked by mechanical stretch in pregnant myometrial strips of rat using isometric tension measurement and patch-clamp technique. In the present results, hypoosmotic cell swelling activated a potent outward rectifying current in G protein-dependent manner in rat pregnant myocyte. The current was significantly potentiated by 1microM lanthanides (a potent TRPC4/5 stimulator) and suppressed by 10microM 2-APB (TRPC4-7 inhibitor). In addition, in isometric tension experiment, SMC which was evoked by passive stretch was greatly potentiated by lanthanide (1microM) and suppressed by 2-APB (10microM), suggesting a possible involvement of TRPC4/5 channel in regulation of SMC in pregnant myometrium. These results provide a possible cellular mechanism for regulation of SMC during pregnancy and provide basic information for developing a new agent for treatment of premature labor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Lanthanoid Series Elements , Mice , Muscle Cells , Myometrium , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Osmotic Pressure , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Pregnancy , Rats , Uterine Contraction , Uterus
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