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1.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e014, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089383

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although dental implants and bone regenerative procedures are important approaches for the reestablishment of esthetics and function in young patients with a history of generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP), no predictable outcomes have been reported, and the host osteo-immunoinflammatory response may play a relevant role in this context. In view of the lack of molecular investigations into the bone tissue condition of young patients with periodontitis, the aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of bone-related factors in this population. Bone biopsies were obtained from the posterior mandible in 16 individuals previously diagnosed with GAP and on periodontal support therapy and from 17 periodontally healthy (PH) patients. The gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OC), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and type I collagen (COL-I), important biomarkers of bone turnover, was evaluated by qRT-PCR. Lower TGF-β and OPG mRNA levels were observed in GAP patients compared to PH individuals (p ≤ 0.05). There were no between-group differences in levels of TNF-α, BSP, RANKL, OC, or COL-I mRNA (p>0.05). In young adults, a history of periodontal disease can negatively modulate the gene expression of important bone-related factors in alveolar bone tissue. These molecular outcomes may contribute to the future development of therapeutic approaches to benefit bone healing in young patients with history of periodontitis via modulation of osteo-immuno-inflammatory biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Aggressive Periodontitis/genetics , Gene Expression , Aggressive Periodontitis/metabolism , Reference Values , Biomarkers , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteocalcin/genetics , Single-Blind Method , Cross-Sectional Studies , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Collagen Type I/analysis , Collagen Type I/genetics , RANK Ligand/analysis , RANK Ligand/genetics , Osteoprotegerin/analysis , Osteoprotegerin/genetics , Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein/analysis , Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein/genetics , Alveolar Process/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
2.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e007, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055531

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cyclosporine administration on the repair of critical-sized calvaria defects (CSDs) in rat calvaria filled with diverse biomaterials. Sixty animals were divided into two groups: the control (CTR) group (saline solution) and the cyclosporine (CCP) group (cyclosporine, 10 mg/kg/day). These medications were administered daily by gavage, beginning 15 days before the surgical procedure and lasting until the day the animals were euthanized. A CSD (5 mm Ø) was made in the calvaria of each animal, which was allocated to one of 3 subgroups, according to the biomaterial used to fill the defect: coagulum (COA), deproteinized bovine bone (DBB), or biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics of hydroxyapatite and β-phosphate tricalcium (HA/TCP). Euthanasia of the animals was performed 15 and 60 days after the surgical procedure (n = 5 animals/period/subgroup). Bone repair (formation) assessment was performed through microtomography and histometry, while the analyses of the expression of the BMP2, Osteocalcin, and TGFβ1 proteins were performed using immunohistochemistry. The CSDs not filled with biomaterials demonstrated lower bone formation in the CCP group. At 15 days, less bone formation was observed in the CSDs filled with DBB, a smaller volume of mineralized tissue was observed in the CSDs filled with HA/TCP, and the expression levels of BMP2 and osteocalcin were lower in the CCP group compared to the CTR group. The use of cyclosporine impaired bone repair in CSD, and this effect can be partially explained by the suppression of BMP2 and osteocalcin expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Bone Substitutes/pharmacology , Calcineurin Inhibitors/pharmacology , Skull/drug effects , Skull/pathology , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Osteocalcin/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/analysis , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/analysis , X-Ray Microtomography
3.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e007, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089397

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cyclosporine administration on the repair of critical-sized calvaria defects (CSDs) in rat calvaria filled with diverse biomaterials. Sixty animals were divided into two groups: the control (CTR) group (saline solution) and the cyclosporine (CCP) group (cyclosporine, 10 mg/kg/day). These medications were administered daily by gavage, beginning 15 days before the surgical procedure and lasting until the day the animals were euthanized. A CSD (5 mm Ø) was made in the calvaria of each animal, which was allocated to one of 3 subgroups, according to the biomaterial used to fill the defect: coagulum (COA), deproteinized bovine bone (DBB), or biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics of hydroxyapatite and β-phosphate tricalcium (HA/TCP). Euthanasia of the animals was performed 15 and 60 days after the surgical procedure (n = 5 animals/period/subgroup). Bone repair (formation) assessment was performed through microtomography and histometry, while the analyses of the expression of the BMP2, Osteocalcin, and TGFβ1 proteins were performed using immunohistochemistry. The CSDs not filled with biomaterials demonstrated lower bone formation in the CCP group. At 15 days, less bone formation was observed in the CSDs filled with DBB, a smaller volume of mineralized tissue was observed in the CSDs filled with HA/TCP, and the expression levels of BMP2 and osteocalcin were lower in the CCP group compared to the CTR group. The use of cyclosporine impaired bone repair in CSD, and this effect can be partially explained by the suppression of BMP2 and osteocalcin expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Bone Substitutes/pharmacology , Calcineurin Inhibitors/pharmacology , Skull/drug effects , Skull/pathology , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Osteocalcin/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/analysis , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/analysis , X-Ray Microtomography
4.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(5): 567-574, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040356

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives on bone metabolism in adolescents for one year. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. The adolescents were divided into three groups: oral contraceptives 1 (n = 42) (20 µg EE/150 µg desogestrel), oral contraceptives 2 (n = 66) (30 µg EE/3 mg drospirenone), and a control group (n = 70). Adolescents underwent anthropometric assessment and densitometry (dual-energy X-ray). Bone age and bone formation markers (osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase) were evaluated. The oral contraceptives users were evaluated again after 12 months. Linear regression analysis was used to indirectly study the effect of each additional year of chronological age on anthropometric and densitometric variables as well as on bone markers in the control group. Results: At study entry, no significant differences were observed between the oral contraceptives 1, oral contraceptives 2, and controls in the analyzed variables. Linear regression analysis showed an increase in bone mineral density and bone mineral content for each additional year. There was a significant reduction in bone alkaline phosphatase levels; no significant difference was observed for osteocalcin in control individuals. Comparison of dual-energy X-ray variables at baseline and after one year showed no significant differences in the oral contraceptives 1 or oral contraceptives 2 groups. A significant reduction in bone alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels was observed in both the oral contraceptives 1 and oral contraceptives 2 groups. Conclusion: Adolescent women gain peak bone mass during this phase of life. Two low-dose combined oral hormonal contraceptives were associated with lower bone gain and lower bone formation markers than in untreated controls.


Resumo: Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de dois contraceptivos orais combinados de baixa dosagem por um ano sobre o metabolismo ósseo em adolescentes. Métodos: Este foi um estudo quase experimental. As adolescentes foram divididas em três grupos: contraceptivos orais 1 (n = 42) (20 µg de EE/150 µg de desogestrel), contraceptivos orais 2 (n = 66) (30 µg EE/3 mg de drospirenona) e grupo controle (n = 70). As adolescentes foram submetidas à avaliação antropométrica e densitometria (raio-X de dupla energia). Foram avaliados a idade óssea e os marcadores de formação óssea (osteocalcina e fosfatase alcalina óssea). As usuárias de contraceptivos orais foram novamente avaliadas após 12 meses. A análise de regressão linear foi utilizada para estudar, indiretamente, o efeito de cada ano adicional da idade cronológica sobre as variáveis antropométricas e densitométricas e sobre os marcadores ósseos no grupo de controle. Resultados: No início do estudo, não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas variáveis analisadas entre as usuárias de contraceptivos orais 1, contraceptivos orais 2 e o grupo controle. A análise de regressão linear mostrou um aumento na densidade mineral óssea e no conteúdo mineral ósseo para cada ano adicional. Houve uma redução significativa nos níveis de fosfatase alcalina óssea e não foi observada diferença significativa para osteocalcina nos indivíduos controles. A comparação das variáveis do raio-X de dupla energia no início e após um ano não mostrou diferença significativa no grupo de contraceptivos orais 1 ou contraceptivos orais 2. Foi observada uma redução significativa nos níveis de fosfatase alcalina óssea e osteocalcina nos dois grupos contraceptivos orais 1 e contraceptivos orais 2. Conclusão: As adolescentes atingiram o pico de massa óssea durante essa fase da vida. Duas formulações de contraceptivos hormonais orais de baixa dosagem, após um ano de uso, se associaram a menor incremento na densidade mineral óssea e menor concentração de marcadores de formação óssea quando confrontados com resultados de adolescentes não usuárias de contraceptivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Bone Density/drug effects , Desogestrel/administration & dosage , Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Ethinyl Estradiol/administration & dosage , Androstenes/administration & dosage , Osteogenesis/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Bone Density/physiology , Linear Models , Osteocalcin/analysis , Anthropometry , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180317, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-984571

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bone morphogenetic protein type 2 (BMP-2) and retinoic acid (RA) are osteoinductive factors that stimulate endogenous mechanisms of bone repair which can be applied on management of osseous defects in oral and maxillofacial fields. Objective Considering the different results of RA on osteogenesis and its possible use to substitute/potency BMP-2 effects, this study evaluated the outcomes of BMP-2, RA, and BMP-2+RA treatments on in vitro osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and the signaling pathway(s) involved. Material and Methods ASCs were treated every other day with basic osteogenic medium (OM) alone or supplemented with BMP-2, RA, or BMP-2+RA. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined using the r-nitrophenol method. Extracellular matrix mineralization was evaluated using von Kossa staining and calcium quantification. Expression of osteonectin and osteocalcin mRNA were determined using qPCR. Smad1, Smad4, phosphorylated Smad1/5/8, BMP-4, and BMP-7 proteins expressions were analyzed using western blotting. Signaling pathway was evaluated using the IPA® software. Results RA promoted the highest ALP activity at days 7, 14, 21, and 28, in comparison to BMP-2 and BMP-2+RA. BMP-2+RA best stimulated phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 protein expression at day 7 and Smad4 expression at days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Osteocalcin and osteonectin mRNA expressions were best stimulated by BMP-2+RA at day 7. Matrix mineralization was most improved by BMP-2+RA at days 12 and 32. Additionally, BMP-2+RA promoted the highest BMP signaling pathway activation at days 7 and 14, and demonstrated more activation of differentiation of bone-forming cells than OM alone. Conclusions In summary, RA increased the effect of BMP-2 on osteogenic differentiation of human ASCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Tretinoin/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/drug effects , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Osteogenesis/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteocalcin/drug effects , Osteonectin/analysis , Osteonectin/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Alkaline Phosphatase/adverse effects , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism
6.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(4): 438-445, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950087

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study evaluated the effects of combination therapy of curcumin and alendronate on BMD and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Subjects and methods: In a randomized, double-blind trial study, 60 postmenopausal women were divided into three groups: control, alendronate, and alendronate + curcumin. Each group included 20 patients. Total body, total hip, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and after 12 months of therapy. Bone turnover markers such as bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx) were measured at the outset and 6 months later. Results: Patients in the control group suffered a significant decrease in BMD and increased bone turnover markers at the end of study. The group treated with only alendronate showed significantly decreased levels of BALP and CTx and increased levels of osteocalcin compared to the control group. The alendronate group also showed significant increases in the total body, total hip, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs at the end of study compared to the control group. In the curcumin + alendronate group, BALP and CTx levels decreased and osteocalcin levels increased significantly at the end of study compared to the control and alendronate groups. BMD indexes also increased in four areas significantly at the end of study compared to the control and alendronate groups. Conclusion: The combination of curcumin and alendronate has beneficial effects on BMD and bone turnover markers among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2018;62(4):438-45


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Bone Density/drug effects , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/metabolism , Alendronate/pharmacology , Curcumin/pharmacology , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Peptide Fragments/drug effects , Peptide Fragments/urine , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteocalcin/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Collagen Type II/drug effects , Collagen Type II/urine , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Alkaline Phosphatase/drug effects
7.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170326, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954523

ABSTRACT

Abstract Alveolar bone healing after upper incisor extraction in rats is a classical model of preclinical studies. The underlying morphometric, cellular and molecular mechanism, however, remains imprecise in a unique study. Objectives The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the alveolar bone healing after upper incisor extraction in rats by micro computed tomographic (Micro-CT), immunohistochemical and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Material and Methods Thirty animals (Rattus norvegicus, Albinus Wistar) were divided into three groups after upper incisors extraction at 7, 14, and 28 days. Micro-CT was evaluated based on the morphometric parameters. Subsequently, the histological analyses and immunostaining of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear kappa B ligand (RANKL) and tartrate resistant acid phosphate (TRAP) was performed. In addition, RT-PCR analyses of OPG, RANKL, the runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin (OPN), osterix (OST) and receptor activator of nuclear kappa B (RANK) were performed to determine the expression of these proteins in the alveolar bone healing. Results Micro-CT: The morphometric parameters of bone volume and trabecular thickness progressively increased over time. Consequently, a gradual decrease in trabecular separation, trabecular space and total bone porosity was observed. Immunohistochemical: There were no differences statistically significant between the positive labeling for OPG, RANKL and TRAP in the different periods. RT-PCR: At 28 days, there was a significant increase in OPG expression, while RANKL expression and the RANKL/OPG ratio both decreased over time. Conclusion Micro-CT showed the newly formed bone had favorable morphometric characteristics of quality and quantity. Beyond the RUNX2, OC, OPN, OST, and RANK proteins expressed in the alveolar bone healing, OPG and RANKL activity showed to be essential for activation of basic multicellular units during the alveolar bone healing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Wound Healing/physiology , Bone Remodeling/physiology , Tooth Socket/physiology , Tooth Socket/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Time Factors , Tooth Extraction , Transcription Factors/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Gene Expression , Osteocalcin/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/analysis , Osteopontin/analysis , RANK Ligand/analysis , Osteoprotegerin/analysis , X-Ray Microtomography , Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase/analysis
8.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170470, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954503

ABSTRACT

Abstract The hypothesis of this study was that the peri-implant bone healing of the group of pinealectomized rats would differ from the control group. The samples were subjected to immunohistochemical, microtomographic (total porosity and connectivity density), and fluorochrome (mineralized surface) analyses. Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the cellular changes and bone remodeling dynamics along the bone/implant interface in pinealectomized rats. Material and Methods The total of 18 adult male rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar) was divided into three groups (n=6): control (CO), pinealectomized without melatonin (PNX) and pinealectomized with melatonin (PNXm). All animals were submitted to the first surgery (pinealectomy), except the CO group. Thirty days after the pinealectomy without melatonin, the second surgery was conducted, in which all animals received an implant in each tibia (36 titanium implants with surface treatment were installed - Implalife® São Paulo, SP, Brazil). By gavage, the rats of the PNX group received the vehicle solution, and the procedure. Results Immunohistochemical analysis for runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OP) and osteocalcin (OC) showed that the bone repair process in the PNXm group was similar to that of the CO group, whereas the PNX group showed a delay. The microtomographic parameters of total porosity [Po(tot)] and bone surface (BS) showed no statistically significant differences, whereas for the connective density (Conn.Dn) a statistical difference was found between the CO and PNXm groups. Fluorochrome analysis of the active mineralized surface showed statistically significant difference between the CO and PNX and between the CO and PNXm groups. Conclusion The absence of the pineal gland impaired the bone repair process during osseointegration, however the daily melatonin replacement was able to restore this response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pineal Gland/surgery , Osseointegration/drug effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Bone-Implant Interface , Melatonin/pharmacology , Tibia/drug effects , Tibia/injuries , Tibia/pathology , Titanium , Immunohistochemistry , Osteocalcin/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Implants, Experimental , Dental Implantation, Endosseous , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/analysis , Osteopontin/analysis , X-Ray Microtomography , Fluorescent Dyes
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20160531, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893737

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteoconductive potential of BoneCeramic™ on bone healing in rat calvaria 5-mm defects. Material and Methods: A 5-mm calvaria bone defect was induced in three groups and the defect was not filled with biomaterial [Clot Group (CG)], autogenous bone (AG), or Bone Ceramic Group (BCG). Animals were euthanized after 14 or 28 days and the bone tissue within the central area of the bone defect was evaluated. Results were compared using ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05). Immunohistochemistry was performed using primary antibodies against osteocalcin, RUNX-2, TRAP, VEGF proteins, and 3-dimensional images of the defects in μCT were obtained to calculate bone mineral density (BMD). Results: In BCG, the defect was completely filled with biomaterial and new bone formation, which was statistically superior to that in the GC group, at both time-points (p<0.001 for 14 days; p=0.002 for 28 days). TRAP protein showed weak, RUNX-2 showed a greater immunolabeling when compared with other groups, VEGF showed moderate immunostaining, while osteocalcin was present at all time-points analyzed. The μCT images showed filling defect by BCG (BMD= 1337 HU at 28 days). Conclusion: Therefore, the biomaterial tested was found to be favorable to fill bone defects for the reporting period analyzed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Skull/drug effects , Wound Healing/drug effects , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Bone Substitutes/pharmacology , Hydroxyapatites/pharmacology , Skull , Skull/pathology , Time Factors , Wound Healing/physiology , Bone Regeneration/physiology , Immunohistochemistry , Bone Density , Osteocalcin/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Bone Substitutes/therapeutic use , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/analysis , Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase/analysis , Hydroxyapatites/therapeutic use
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170329, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893695

ABSTRACT

Abstract Raloxifene is an antiresorptive drug, selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used in the treatment of osteoporosis. Objective To evaluate proteins related to bone repair at the peri-implant bone in a rat model of osteoporosis treated with raloxifene. Material and Methods 72 rats were divided into three groups: SHAM (healthy animals), OVX (ovariectomized animals), and RLX (ovariectomized animals treated with raloxifene). Raloxifene was administered by gavage (1 mg/kg/day). Tibial implantation was performed 30 days after ovariectomy, and animals were euthanized at 14, 42, and 60 days postoperatively. Samples were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemical reactions, molecular analysis, and microtomographic parameters. Results RLX showed intense staining of all investigated proteins at both time points except for RUNX2. These results were similar to SHAM and opposite to OVX, showing mild staining. The PCR gene expression of OC and ALP values for RLX (P<0.05) followed by SHAM and OVX groups. For BSP data, the highest expression was observed in the RLX groups and the lowest expression was observed in the OVX groups (P<0.05). For RUNX2 data, RLX and SHAM groups showed greater values compared to OVX (P<0.05). At 60 days postoperatively, microtomography parameters, related to closed porosity, showed higher values for (Po.N), (Po.V), and (Po) in RLX and SHAM groups, whereas OVX groups showed lower results (P<0.05); (BV) values (P=0.009); regarding total porosity (Po.tot), RLX group had statistically significant lower values than OVX and SHAM groups (P=0.009). Regarding the open porosity (Po.V and Po), the SHAM group presented the highest values, followed by OVX and RLX groups (P<0.05). The Structural Model Index (SMI), RLX group showed a value closer to zero than SHAM group (P<0.05). Conclusions Raloxifene had a positive effect on the expression of osteoblastogenesis/mineralization-related proteins and on micro-CT parameters related to peri-implant bone healing.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Proteins/analysis , Proteins/drug effects , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/pharmacology , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/pharmacology , Osteoporosis/pathology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Ovariectomy , Gene Expression , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteocalcin/drug effects , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Wnt Proteins/analysis , Wnt Proteins/drug effects , beta Catenin/analysis , beta Catenin/drug effects , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/analysis , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/drug effects , Osteopontin/analysis , Osteopontin/drug effects , X-Ray Microtomography
11.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(5): 515-522, Sept.-Oct. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893656

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hypersensitivity, local irritative and cytotoxic effects are known for the chemical components of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum contained in dental materials. However, there is no intimate data in dentistry using the whole extracts of these plants and introducing new ones. Salvia triloba is a well-known anti-inflammatory plant that correspondingly could be used in several dental traumas. Objectives: We aimed to show and compare the effect of S. aromaticum, C. zeylanicum, and S. triloba extracts on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses. Material and Methods: Using xCELLigence, a real time monitoring system, we obtained a growth curve of DPSCs with different concentrations of the Extracts. A dose of 10 μg/mL was the most efficient concentration for vitality. Osteogenic differentiation and anti-inflammatory activities were determined by using an ELISA Kit to detect early and late markers of differentiation. Results: The level of osteonectin (ON, early osteogenic marker) decreased, which indicated that the osteogenic differentiation may be accelerated with addition of extracts. However, the level of osteocalcin (OCN, late osteogenic marker and sign of calcium granulation) differed among the extracts, in which S. aromaticum presented the highest value, followed by S. triloba and C. zeylanicum. Surprisingly, the determined calcium granules were reduced in S. aromaticum and S. triloba. In response to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), S. triloba-treated DPSCs showed the most reduced level of IL-6 cytokine level. We suggest C. zeylanicum as a promising osteogenic inducer and S. triloba as a potent anti-inflammatory agent, which could be used safely in biocomposite or scaffold fabrications for dentistry. Conclusions: Because calcium granule formation and cell viability play a critical role in hard tissue formation, S. aromaticum in dentistry should be strictly controlled, and the mechanism leading to reduced calcium granule formation should be identified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/chemistry , Syzygium/chemistry , Dental Pulp/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antigens, Differentiation/analysis , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteonectin/analysis , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Calcium/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Cytokines/analysis , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Flow Cytometry
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(1): 42-52, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841161

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sodium alendronate is a bisphosphonate drug that exerts antiresorptive action and is used to treat osteoporosis. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone repair process at the bone/implant interface of osteoporotic rats treated with sodium alendronate through the analysis of microtomography, real time polymerase chain reactions and immunohistochemistry (RUNX2 protein, bone sialoprotein (BSP), alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin). Material and Methods A total of 42 rats were used and divided in to the following experimental groups: CTL: control group (rats submitted to fictitious surgery and fed with a balanced diet), OST: osteoporosis group (rats submitted to a bilateral ovariectomy and fed with a low calcium diet) and ALE: alendronate group (rats submitted to a bilateral ovariectomy, fed with a low calcium diet and treated with sodium alendronate). A surface treated implant was installed in both tibial metaphyses of each rat. Euthanasia of the animals was conducted at 14 (immunhostochemistry) and 42 days (immunohistochemistry, micro CT and PCR). Data were subjected to statistical analysis with a 5% significance level. Results Bone volume (BV) and total pore volume were higher for ALE group (P<0.05). Molecular data for RUNX2 and BSP proteins were significantly expressed in the ALE group (P<0.05), in comparison with the other groups. ALP expression was higher in the CTL group (P<0.05). The immunostaining for RUNX2 and osteopontin was positive in the osteoblastic lineage cells of neoformed bone for the CTL and ALE groups in both periods (14 and 42 days). Alkaline phosphatase presented a lower staining area in the OST group compared to the CTL in both periods and the ALE at 42 days. Conclusion There was a decrease of osteocalcin precipitation at 42 days for the ALE and OST groups. Therefore, treatment with short-term sodium alendronate improved bone repair around the implants installed in the tibia of osteoporotic rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Dental Implants , Osseointegration/drug effects , Alendronate/pharmacology , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Osteoporosis/physiopathology , Tibia/surgery , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Ovariectomy , Bone Density/drug effects , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteocalcin/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Implants, Experimental , Dental Implantation, Endosseous , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Alkaline Phosphatase/drug effects , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/analysis , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/drug effects , Osteopontin/analysis , Osteopontin/drug effects , X-Ray Microtomography , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e17, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839523

ABSTRACT

Abstract Periodontitis develops as a result of a continuous interaction between host cells and subgingival pathogenic bacteria. The periodontium has a limited capacity for regeneration, probably due to changes in periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) phenotype. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PgLPS) on mesenchymal phenotype and osteoblast/cementoblast (O/C) potential of PDLSCs. PDLSCs were assessed for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) expression by immunostaining technique. After, cells were exposed to PgLPS, and the following assays were carried out: (i) cell metabolic activity using MTS; (ii) gene expression for IL-1β, TNF-α and OCT-4 by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR); (iii) flow cytometry for STRO-1 and CD105, and (iv) osteogenic differentiation. PDLSCs were positive for TLR2. PgLPS promoted cell proliferation, produced IL-1β and TNF-α, and did not affect the expression of stem cell markers, STRO-1, CD105 and OCT-4. Under osteogenic condition, PDLSCs exposed to PgLPS showed a similar potential to differentiate toward osteoblast/cementoblast phenotype compared to control group as revealed by mineralized matrix deposition and levels of transcripts for RUNX2, ALP and OCN. These results provide evidence that PgLPS induces pro-inflammatory cytokines, but does not change the mesenchymal phenotype and osteoblast/cementoblast differentiation potential of PDLSCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Periodontal Ligament/cytology , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , Time Factors , Gene Expression , Osteocalcin/analysis , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Octamer Transcription Factor-3/analysis , Toll-Like Receptors/analysis , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(4): 299-307, 4/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744357

ABSTRACT

Bone homeostasis seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle “cross talk” between the nervous system and “osteo-neuromediators” that control bone remodeling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of interactions between neuropeptides and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) on human osteoblasts. We also investigated the effects of neuropeptides and hBMP2 on gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Osteoblasts were treated with neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), or hBMP2 at three concentrations. At various intervals after treatment, cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. In addition, cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin were determined by colorimetric assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The effects of NPY, SP and hBMP on GJIC were determined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The viability of cells treated with neuropeptides and hBMP2 increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, but was inversely associated with the concentration of the treatments. ALP activity and osteocalcin were both reduced in osteoblasts exposed to the combination of neuropeptides and hBMP2. The GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly increased by the neuropeptides and hBMP2. These results suggest that osteoblast activity is increased by neuropeptides and hBMP2 through increased GJIC. Identification of the GJIC-mediated signal transduction capable of modulating the cellular activities of bone cells represents a novel approach to studying the biology of skeletal innervation.


Subject(s)
Humans , /pharmacology , Cell Communication/drug effects , Gap Junctions/drug effects , Neuropeptide Y/pharmacology , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Substance P/pharmacology , /administration & dosage , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Neuropeptide Y/administration & dosage , Osteoblasts/cytology , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Substance P/administration & dosage
15.
J. appl. oral sci ; 22(6): 541-553, Nov-Dec/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-732593

ABSTRACT

Objective The aim of this paper was to evaluate the repair of onlay autogenous bone grafts covered or not covered by an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) membrane using immunohistochemistry in rats with induced estrogen deficiency. Material and Methods Eighty female rats were randomly divided into two groups: ovariectomized (OVX) and with a simulation of the surgical procedure (SHAM). Each of these groups was again divided into groups with either placement of an autogenous bone graft alone (BG) or an autogenous bone graft associated with an e-PTFE membrane (BGM). Animals were euthanized on days 0, 7, 21, 45, and 60. The specimens were subjected to immunohistochemistry for bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteonectin (ONC), and osteocalcin (OCC). Results All groups (OVX+BG, OVX+BMG, SHAM+BG, and SHAM+BMG) showed greater bone formation, observed between 7 and 21 days, when BSP and ONC staining were more intense. At the 45-day, the bone graft showed direct bonding to the recipient bed in all specimens. The ONC and OCC showed more expressed in granulation tissue, in the membrane groups, independently of estrogen deficiency. Conclusions The expression of bone forming markers was not negatively influenced by estrogen deficiency. However, the markers could be influenced by the presence of the e-PTFE membrane. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Bone Regeneration/physiology , Bone Transplantation/methods , Guided Tissue Regeneration/methods , Polytetrafluoroethylene/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/analysis , Estrogens/deficiency , Immunohistochemistry , Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein/analysis , Mandible/surgery , Osteoblasts/physiology , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteonectin/analysis , Osteoporosis/physiopathology , Ovariectomy , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(supl.1): 1-6, 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720405

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) on the induced osteogenic differentiation of human dermal fibroblasts. METHODS: We performed four groups with cultured dermal fibroblasts according to the culture medium: CONTROL (DMEM culture medium); TGF-β1 (DMEM culture medium with 10 ng/ml of TGF-β1); OSTEOG (DMEM culture medium with 0.5 µg/ml of ascorbic acid, 10 mmol/l of β-glycerophosphate and 10 nmol/L of dexamethasone); and OSTEOG/TGF-β1 (osteogenic medium with 10 ng/ml of TGF-β1). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the amount of osteocalcin (OC) in the supernatant, as well as the capability to form calcium phosphate deposits, were analysed for 28 days RESULTS: There were significant differences (p<0.05) between CONTROL and TGF-β1 groups in comparison with OSTEOG and OSTEOG/TGF-β1 groups in the ALP activity and OC amount. Although, both osteogenic groups had the same behavior with regard the expression curve during the experimental time, the OSTEOG/TGF-β1 group achieved significantly higher ALP and OC levels and showed no significant difference in the levels of mineralized deposits and in comparison with the levels found in the OSTEOG group. CONCLUSION: The addition of transforming growth factor beta 1 to the osteogenic culture medium increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase and the amount of osteocalcin, but TGF-β1 did not alter the presence of mineralized calcium phosphate deposits. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Fibroblasts/physiology , Osteogenesis/physiology , Skin/cytology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/physiology , Alkaline Phosphatase/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Culture Media/chemistry , Osteocalcin/analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(6): 502-509, June 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622777

ABSTRACT

In order to understand the mechanisms of poor osseointegration following dental implants in type 2 diabetics, it is important to study the biological properties of alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from these patients. We collected alveolar bone chips under aseptic conditions and cultured them in vitro using the tissue explants adherent method. The biological properties of these cells were characterized using the following methods: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) chemical staining for cell viability, Alizarin red staining for osteogenic characteristics, MTT test for cell proliferation, enzyme dynamics for ALP contents, radio-immunoassay for bone gla protein (BGP) concentration, and ELISA for the concentration of type I collagen (COL-I) in the supernatant. Furthermore, we detected the adhesion ability of two types of cells from titanium slices using non-specific immunofluorescence staining and cell count. The two cell forms showed no significant difference in morphology under the same culture conditions. However, the alveolar bone osteoblasts received from type 2 diabetic patients had slower growth, lower cell activity and calcium nodule formation than the normal ones. The concentration of ALP, BGP and COL-I was lower in the supernatant of alveolar bone osteoblasts received from type 2 diabetic patients than in that received from normal subjects (P < 0.05). The alveolar bone osteoblasts obtained from type 2 diabetic patients can be successfully cultured in vitro with the same morphology and biological characteristics as those from normal patients, but with slower growth and lower concentration of specific secretion and lower combining ability with titanium than normal ones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alveolar Process/cytology , Calcification, Physiologic/physiology , Dental Implants , /physiopathology , Osteoblasts/physiology , Osteocalcin/analysis , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Collagen Type I/analysis , Osseointegration/physiology , Osteoblasts/cytology , Osteoblasts/pathology , Primary Cell Culture/methods
18.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2010 Sept; 77(9): 987-991
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145517

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate osteopathy in thalassemia by bone mineral densitometry (BMD) and biochemical indices. Methods Prospective review analysis with no follow up from 2006 to 2007 of 42 regularly transfused thalassemics aged 10–25 years (27 boys, 15 girls) was done. Anthropometry, pubertal stage and symptomatology were noted. Urinary C–terminal cross–linked telopeptide of type–1 collagen (Crosslaps) by ELISA; serum 25–OH vitamin D and osteocalcin by RIA; parathyroid hormone (PTH) and ferritin by chemiluminescence and IGF–1 by Enzyme immunoassay were evaluated. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) of lumbar spine and femur was done on Lunar prodigy system. Data was entered and analyzed using the SPSS for Windows software. Mean comparisons were done by ANOVA 1 and data was compared using Chi–square test and p value<0.05 was taken as significant. Results Of 42 patients, 81% had osteoporosis by Z–score of DEXA. Urinary crosslaps was high in 55%; 36% had increased osteocalcin; 62% had low vitamin D levels; 38% had high parathyroid levels and IGF–1 was low in 52%. Mean serum ferritin level was 5344±2855 ng/dl. There was statistical significance (p=0.046) between chronological age and BMD. All 42 cases were divided into two groups: Group–1 (Normal DEXA), Group–2 (Abnormal DEXA) and analysis of biochemical indices between two groups showed no significant difference in any of the biochemical parameters. Conclusion This study revealed majority of thalassemics with inadequate chelation have bone resorption with advancing chronological age and BMD should be evaluated regularly for early diagnosis to prevent morbidity.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Analysis of Variance , Biomarkers/analysis , Blood Transfusion/methods , Bone Density/physiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Child , Cohort Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Male , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Osteoporosis/etiology , Osteoporosis/physiopathology , Parathyroid Hormone/analysis , Prospective Studies , Radioimmunoassay , Risk Assessment , Sex Distribution , Thalassemia/complications , Thalassemia/diagnosis , Thalassemia/therapy , Vitamin D/blood , Young Adult
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27823

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of soybean intake on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal rural Korean women. METHOD: This study was carried out during nine months from Oct. 25 2004 to Aug. 31 2005. The subjects of this study were female patients over 50 living in rural areas diagnosed with osteoporosis. There were 18 women in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. In this study, the experimental group received 100 mg of isoflavone (soybean) and calcium 1,500 mg for nine months while the control group received 1,500mg of calcium only. RESULTS: After the soybean intake, the change of bone mineral density between the experimental group and control group was statistically significant. However, the bone turnover markers of osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline between the experimental group and control group were not significantly different statistically. In the Pearson Correlation between bone mineral density and bone turnover markers, the osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline of the experimental group had a positive correlation, and osteocalcin and DPD/osteocalcin ratio had anegative correlation. In the control group, osteocalcin and DPD/osteocalcin ratio had a negative correlation. CONCLUSIONS: This result showed that soybean intake changed bone mineral density in postmenopausal woman.


Subject(s)
Aged , Amino Acids/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Bone Density/drug effects , Bone Resorption , Calcium/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Isoflavones/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/drug therapy , Women's Health
20.
West Indian med. j ; 54(4): 250-256, Sep. 2005.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-472956

ABSTRACT

Bone deposition, for any implant system, is the deciding factor for the success. The biochemical signals at the cellular level will help elucidate the direction of host response. In this report, intercellular messenger, cytokines, that are regulatory for osteoblast and osteoclast function, were measured. Production of osteocalcin, a marker for osteoblast maturation was also estimated. Human osteoblast-like cells from osteosarcoma cell line MG 63 were grown in wells in the presence of titanium (Ti), titanium alloy (Ti6A14V) and stainless steel implant materials incubated at 37 degrees C. Interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, IL-8, IL-11 and osteocalcin were quantitated using standard enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) kits from the growth media extracted at specific intervals over the critical ten day period. In all dishes, cells were seen adhering to the base after 24 hours and to confluence at 96 hours. Both IL-1alpha and IL-11 were not produced in sufficient quantities to be measured in the assay (< pg/ml). Interleukin-6 production was significantly higher for stainless steel than for titanium and the alloy. There was a progressive rise in osteocalcin production for titanium contrasted to a basal rate for stainless steel and alloy. Interleukin-8 levels for all metals and controls increased markedly after two days implicating inherent cellular characteristics. A relatively high constant range for macrophage colony stimulating factor from the first day was seen for all metals, including the controls. In conclusion, it appears that titanium implants activate osteocalcin production while stainless steel activates IL-6.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytokines/analysis , Implants, Experimental , In Vitro Techniques , Osteosarcoma , Osteoblasts , Osteocalcin/analysis , Cell Adhesion , Culture Media, Conditioned , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/analysis , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Prosthesis Design
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