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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248024, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355855

ABSTRACT

Abstract By applying the in-silico method, resveratrol was docked on those proteins which are responsible for bone loss. The Molecular docking data between the resveratrol and Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-Β ligand [RANKL] receptors proved that resveratrol binds tightly to the receptors, showed the highest binding affinities of −6.9, −7.6, −7.1, −6.9, −6.7, and −7.1 kcal/mol. According to in-vitro data, Resveratrol reduced the osteoclasts after treating Marrow-Derived Macrophages [BMM] with Macrophage colony-stimulating factor [MCSF] 20ng / ml and RANKL 50ng / ml, with different concentrations of resveratrol (2.5, 10 μg / ml) For 7 days, the cells were treated with MCSF (20 ng / ml) and RANKL (40 ng / ml) together with concentrated trimethyl ether and resveratrol (2.5, 10 μg / ml) within 12 hours. Which, not affect cell survival. After fixing osteoclast cells with formaldehyde fixative on glass coverslip followed by incubation with 0.1% Triton X-100 in PBS for 5 min and after that stain with rhodamine phalloidin staining for actin and Hoechst for nuclei. Fluorescence microscopy was performed to see the distribution of filaments actin [F.actin]. Finally, resveratrol reduced the actin ring formation. Resveratrol is the best bioactive compound for drug preparation against bone loss.


Resumo Com a aplicação do método in-silico, o resveratrol foi ancorado nas proteínas responsáveis ​​pela perda óssea. Os dados de docking molecular entre o resveratrol e o ligante do receptor ativador do fator nuclear kappa-Β [Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B Ligant (RANKL)] provaram que o resveratrol se liga fortemente aos receptores, mostraram as afinidades de ligação mais altas de −6,9, −7,6, −7,1, −6,9, - 6,7 e -7,1 kcal / mol. De acordo com dados in-vitro, o resveratrol reduziu os osteoclastos após o tratamento de macrófagos derivados da medula óssea [Bone Marrow-derived Macrophage (BMM)] com fator estimulador de colônias de macrófagos [Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (MCSF)] 20ng / ml e RANKL 50ng / ml, com diferentes concentrações de resveratrol (2,5, 10 μg / ml). Durante sete dias, as células foram tratadas com MCSF (20 ng / ml) e RANKL (40 ng / ml) juntamente com éter trimetílico concentrado e resveratrol (2,5, 10 μg / ml) em 12 horas, processo que não afeta a sobrevivência celular. Após a fixação de células de osteoclastos com fixador de formaldeído em lamela de vidro seguido de incubação com 0,1% Triton X-100 em PBS por 5 min, foi realizado posteriormente o procedimento para corar com rodamina faloidina a actina e Hoechst os núcleos. A microscopia de fluorescência foi realizada para ver a distribuição dos filamentos de actina [F.actina]. Finalmente, o resveratrol reduziu a formação do anel de actina. O resveratrol é o melhor composto bioativo para o preparo de medicamentos contra a perda óssea.


Subject(s)
Osteoclasts , RANK Ligand , Cell Differentiation , Molecular Docking Simulation , Resveratrol/pharmacology
2.
Actual. osteol ; 18(1): 40-52, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1396075

ABSTRACT

El "microbioma" no solo está constituido por los microbios, sino por todos los componen-tes que viven en el mismo hábitat conforman-do un nicho ecológico. Es decir, está conformado por los microorganismos (bacterias, hongos, protozoos, etc.), todo el espectro de moléculas producidas por ellos tales como sus componentes estructurales (ácidos nucleicos, proteínas, lípidos y glúcidos), meta-bolitos, toxinas, etc., y las moléculas producidas por el huésped. El microbioma intestinal (MI) ha emergido como un factor que tiene un gran efecto sobre la cantidad, calidad y fuerza del hueso. Las investigaciones revelan que la homeostasis ósea está ligada al micro-bioma saludable, mientras que la disbiosis (alteración en la biodiversidad microbiana) puede exacerbar la actividad osteoclástica y promover la osteoporosis. Los mecanismos potenciales involucrados en la interacción del microbioma intestinal y el hueso son la influencia del metabolismo del huésped, el mantenimiento de la integridad intestinal y regulación de la absorción de nutrientes, la regulación del eje intestino-sistema inmune y la modulación del sistema endocrino. Es decir que hay múltiples vías por las cuales el MI influye sobre el hueso, pero estos y otros mecanismos deben profundizarse más aún. También es necesario que se identifiquen y caractericen mejor los microorganismos que están asociados a las enfermedades óseas. El conocimiento de estos aspectos podría ser útil para el desarrollo de herramientas terapéuticas basadas en el MI que puedan mejorar la eficacia de los distintos tratamientos existentes. (AU)


The microbiome is not only constituted by microbes, but by all the components that live in the same habitat forming an ecological niche. It is conformed by the microorganisms ( bacteria, fungi, protozoa, etc), the entire spectrum of molecules produced by them (nucleic acids, proteins, lipid and carbohydrates, metabolites, toxins, etc) and the molecules produced by the host. The intestinal microbiome (IM) has emerged as a factor with great effects on the quantity, quality and strength of bone. The investigations reveal that bone homeostasis is linked to the healthy microbiome, while the dysbiosis (alteration in the microbial biodiversity) can exacerbate the osteoclastic activity and promote osteoporosis. The potential mechanisms involved in the interaction between IM and bone are the influence of the host metabolism, the maintenance of the intestinal integrity and regulation of the nutrient absorption, the regulation of the intestine/ immune system axis and the modulation of the endocrine system. That is, there are multiple ways through which IM influences on bone, but these and other mechanisms need to be further studied. It is also necessary to identify and characterize the microorganisms associated with the bone diseases. Knowledge of these aspects could be useful to develop therapeutical tools based on the IM that could improve the efficacy of the current treatments. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoblasts/immunology , Osteoclasts/immunology , Bone and Bones/immunology , Dysbiosis/complications , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Osteoblasts/metabolism , Osteoclasts/metabolism , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Intestines/immunology , Intestines/microbiology
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929134

ABSTRACT

Inflammation-associated proteinase functions are key determinants of inflammatory stromal tissues deconstruction. As a specialized inflammatory pathological process, dental internal resorption (IR) includes both soft and hard tissues deconstruction within the dentin-pulp complex, which has been one of the main reasons for inflammatory tooth loss. Mechanisms of inflammatory matrix degradation and tissue resorption in IR are largely unclear. In this study, we used a combination of Cre-loxP reporter, flow cytometry, cell transplantation, and enzyme activities assay to mechanistically investigate the role of regenerative cells, odontoblasts (ODs), in inflammatory mineral resorption and matrices degradation. We report that inflamed ODs have strong capabilities of matrix degradation and tissue resorption. Traditionally, ODs are regarded as hard-tissue regenerative cells; however, our data unexpectedly present ODs as a crucial population that participates in IR-associated tissue deconstruction. Specifically, we uncovered that nuclear factor-kappa b (NF-κB) signaling orchestrated Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-induced matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps) and Cathepsin K (Ctsk) functions in ODs to enhance matrix degradation and tissue resorption. Furthermore, TNF-α increases Rankl/Opg ratio in ODs via NF-κB signaling by impairing Opg expression but increasing Rankl level, which utterly makes ODs cell line 17IIA11 (A11) become Trap+ and Ctsk+ multinucleated cells to perform resorptive actions. Blocking of NF-κB signaling significantly rescues matrix degradation and resorptive functions of inflamed ODs via repressing vital inflammatory proteinases Mmps and Ctsk. Utterly, via utilizing NF-κB specific small molecule inhibitors we satisfactorily attenuated inflammatory ODs-associated human dental IR in vivo. Our data reveal the underlying mechanisms of inflammatory matrix degradation and resorption via proteinase activities in IR-related pathological conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Minerals/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Odontoblasts/metabolism , Osteoclasts/metabolism , RANK Ligand/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939856

ABSTRACT

PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) improves the bone marrow micro-environment to activate the bone-remodelling, but the coordinated regulation of PTHrP and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signalling in TMJ-OA remains incompletely understood. We used disordered occlusion to establish model animals that recapitulate the ordinary clinical aetiology of TMJ-OA. Immunohistochemical and histological analyses revealed condylar fibrocartilage degeneration in model animals following disordered occlusion. TMJ-OA model animals administered intermittent PTHrP (iPTH) exhibited significantly decreased condylar cartilage degeneration. Micro-CT, histomorphometry, and Western Blot analyses disclosed that iPTH promoted subchondral bone formation in the TMJ-OA model animals. In addition, iPTH increased the number of osterix (OSX)-positive cells and osteocalcin (OCN)-positive cells in the subchondral bone marrow cavity. However, the number of osteoclasts was also increased by iPTH, indicating that subchondral bone volume increase was mainly due to the iPTH-mediated increase in the bone-formation ability of condylar subchondral bone. In vitro, PTHrP treatment increased condylar subchondral bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (SMSC) osteoblastic differentiation potential and upregulated the gene and protein expression of key regulators of osteogenesis. Furthermore, we found that PTHrP-PTH1R signalling inhibits TGFβ signalling during osteoblastic differentiation. Collectively, these data suggested that iPTH improves OA lesions by enhancing osteoblastic differentiation in subchondral bone and suppressing aberrant active TGFβ signalling. These findings indicated that PTHrP, which targets the TGFβ signalling pathway, may be an effective biological reagent to prevent and treat TMJ-OA in the clinic.


Subject(s)
Animals , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis , Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein/pharmacology , Temporomandibular Joint , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology
5.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 132-137, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928489

ABSTRACT

The repair of bone defects, especially for the large segment of bone defects, has always been an urgent problem in orthopedic clinic and attracted researchers' attention. Nowadays, the application of tissue engineering bone in the repair of bone defects has become the research hotspot. With the rapid development of tissue engineering, the novel and functional scaffold materials for bone repair have emerged. In this review, we have summarized the multi-functional roles of osteoclasts in bone remodeling. The development of matrix-based tissue engineering bone has laid a theoretical foundation for further investigation about the novel bone regeneration materials which could perform high bioactivity. From the point of view on preserving pre-osteoclasts and targeting mature osteoclasts, this review introduced the novel matrix-based tissue engineering bone based on osteoclasts in the field of bone tissue engineering, which provides a potential direction for the development of novel scaffold materials for the treatment of bone defects.


Subject(s)
Bone Regeneration , Bone and Bones , Humans , Osteoclasts , Tissue Engineering
6.
Rev. cient. Esc. Univ. Cienc. Salud ; 8(1): 32-39, ene-. jun. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1371202

ABSTRACT

La osteopetrosis es una enfermedad infrecuente, se caracteriza por el incremento de la densidad ósea observada en las radiografías, resultado de anormalidades en la diferen- ciación y función de los osteoclastos que les incapacita para la resorción ósea y cartilaginosa, formándose huesos más densos, pero más frágiles. Objetivo: describir la Osteopetrosis Auto- sómica Dominante mostrando nuestra experiencia el método de tratamiento. Con un amplio conocimiento de esta patología, los hallazgos radiográficos característicos y los manejos tera- péuticos adecuados podremos lograr un diagnóstico precoz certero y una mejor sobrevida de los pacientes. Reporte de caso: Paciente femenina de 13 años, con historia de fracturas espontáneas a repetición en los antebrazos principalmente, la madre niega antecedentes de trauma; asimismo refiere observar retraso en el crecimiento de la paciente, por lo cual acude al hospital regional de occidente, Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, para evaluación. Se le realizan radiografías en proyección anteroposterior (AP) y lateral de cráneo, de extremidades superio- res e inferiores y de columna dorsal evidenciando en las radiografías de cráneo aumento de la densidad ósea y aumento de grosor de la misma, en la columna dorsal se observó aumento de la esclerosis a nivel de las placas terminales superiores e inferiores de los cuerpos vertebrales, dando la típica apariencia de "vertebra en sándwich", signo patognomónico de esta enferme- dad. La paciente recibió tratamiento con prednisolona, vitamina D y calcio en dosis de acuerdo a las medidas antropométricas de la paciente y control médico por año para evaluar estado clínico...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Osteopetrosis/diagnosis , Bone Density , Fractures, Spontaneous , Osteoclasts , Bone Resorption
7.
São Paulo; s.n; 20210523. 75 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1369753

ABSTRACT

A cartilagem de Meckel é uma estrutura transitória embrionária presente durante os estágios iniciais da formação da mandíbula, localizada em toda sua extensão e dividida em três porções, anterior, intermediária e posterior. O enfoque deste trabalho foi direcionado à elucidação do destino final da porção intermediária por meio de um estudo temporal sequenciado. Por isso, foi investigado a presença de células de reabsorção e a presença de fibras colágenas, bem como da proteína óssea osteopontina (OPN) na cartilagem de Meckel na região do germe do 1º molar inferior e no seu entorno. Foram utilizados fetos de ratos Wistar em períodos gestacionais pré-estabelecidos, G18 a G21 (grupos de dias intrauterinos), bem como P0 e P1 (recém-nascidos) para remoção das cabeças. Em sequência, os espécimes foram fixados em solução de formaldeído 4% + glutaraldeído 0,1% com tampão fosfato 0,1M, descalcificados em EDTA 4,13%, desidratados em concentrações crescentes de etanol e incluídos em parafina. As amostras foram coradas em hematoxilina e eosina (HE) e tricrômico de Mallory para análise histológica. Adicionalmente, os grupos G19 a P0 foram submetidos à reação histoquímica de TRAP para determinação da presença de células clásticas. Além disso, os grupos G21 e P0 (dia do nascimento) passaram por reações de imunomarcação para análise da expressão de OPN. Foi observado a degeneração gradual da cartilagem com a observação de mudanças estruturais, a justaposição de células clásticas na superfície da cartilagem por reação histoquímica TRAP a partir do G21, o aparecimento de colágeno tipo I nas fases terminais da degeneração, assim como a marcação positiva para a osteopontina na superfície de G21 e em todo o remanescente da cartilagem de Meckel no grupo P0. O estudo apontou um processo de degeneração da cartilagem com evidências de formação de matriz mineralizada de natureza óssea, a qual foi reabsorvida por células clásticas, sugerindo a ossificação da porção intermediária da cartilagem de Meckel.


Subject(s)
Osteoclasts , Cartilage , Osteopontin , Mandible
8.
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20200791, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250185

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: IGF-1 may be an important factor in bone remodeling, but its mechanism of action on osteoclasts during orthodontic tooth movement is complex and unclear. Methodology: The closed-coil spring was placed between the left maxillary first molar and upper incisors with a force of 50 g to establish an orthodontic movement model. Eighty SD rats were randomized to receive phosphate buffer saline or 400 ng rhIGF-1 in the lateral buccal mucosa of the left maxillary first molar every two days. Tissue sections were stained for tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP), the number of TRAP-positive cells was estimated and tooth movement measured. Results: The rhIGF-1 group exhibited evidential bone resorption and lacuna appeared on the alveolar bone compared to the control group. Moreover, the number of osteoclasts in compression side of the periodontal ligament in the rhIGF-1 group peaked at day 4 (11.37±0.95 compared to 5.28±0.47 in the control group) after the orthodontic force was applied and was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.01). Furthermore, the distance of tooth movement in the rhIGF-1 group was significantly larger than that of the control group from day 4 to day 14 (p<0.01), suggesting that rhIGF-1 accelerated orthodontic tooth movement. Conclusion: Our study has showed that rhIGF-1 could stimulate the formation of osteoclasts in the periodontal ligament, and accelerate bone remodeling and orthodontic tooth movement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Osteoclasts , Tooth Movement Techniques , Periodontal Ligament , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Bone Remodeling , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878434

ABSTRACT

Bone invasion by oral cancer is a common clinical problem, which affects the choice of treatment and predicts a poor prognosis. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon has not been fully elucidated. Current studies have revealed that oral cancer cells modulate the formation and function of osteoclasts through the expression of a series of signal molecules. Many signal pathways are involved in this process, of which receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB/osteoprotegerin signaling pathway attracted much attention. In this review, we introduce recent progress in molecular mechanisms of bone invasion by oral cancer.


Subject(s)
Bone Resorption , Bone and Bones , Humans , Mouth Neoplasms , Osteoclasts , Osteoprotegerin , RANK Ligand , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878423

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to explore the changes in the expression of the characteristic transcription factor retinoid related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) and the cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17) of T helper cell 17 (Th17) in the pressure side of the periodontal tissue of rats under different orthodontic forces. Their effects on the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the quantity of osteoclast (OC) were also explored. The role of Th17 cell in alveolar bone remodeling under different forces was preliminarily investigated.@*METHODS@#A total of 108 rats were chosen and randomly divided into three groups. Mesial forces of 0, 50, and 100 g were loaded on the maxillary first molar in the three groups. The rats were executed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days. The expression of RORγt mRNA was quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression of IL-17 protein was quantified by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The expression levels of RORγt and OPG proteins were quantified, and the quantity of OC was counted via immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#The expression levels of RORγt and IL-17 and the quantity of OC increased first and then decreased in the 50 and 100 g groups, and the peak values of the two groups were on days 5 and 7, respectively. The expression levels in the 50 g group basically recovered to normal level on day 14, while that in the 100 g group remained at a high level. The expression levels in the 50 g group were higher than those in the 0 g group and lower than those in the 100 g group. The expression of OPG in the 50 g group decreased first, then increased, and finally decreased. It basically recovered to normal level on day 14. The expression of OPG in the 100 g group decreased first and then increased. It remained at a high level on day 14. The expression in the 50 g group was significantly higher than that in the 0 g group on day 7, while the expression in the 100 g group was significantly higher than that in the 0 g group on day 14.@*CONCLUSIONS@#RORγt, IL-17, and OPG were expressed regularly over time under different orthodontic forces, indicating that Th17 participated in the process of bone resorption on the pressure side of periodontal tissue by secreting IL-17.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Resorption , Cytokines , Interleukin-17 , Molar , Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3 , Osteoclasts , Osteoprotegerin , Rats , Th17 Cells , Tooth Movement Techniques
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942198

ABSTRACT

In recent years, developing new methods to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) has attracted extensive attention in the field of orthodontic clinical and scientific research. It reduces orthodontic treatment time and risks. Over the past, various approaches have been done to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. Several forms of corticotomy techniques have been effective in inducing rapid tooth movement. These techniques activate regional acceleratory phenomenon and create a favorable microenvironment for accelerating tooth movement. Root resorption is one of most common side effects of orthodontic treatment. It affects the long-term viability and health of teeth. However, the effect of corticotomy techniques accelerating orthodontic tooth movement on root resorption still remains unclear. Accelerating tooth movement may have two-side effects on root resorption. Through shortening the treatment period and removing the hyalinized tissues, the acceleration of orthodontic tooth movement could reduce root resorption. The increase of root resorption might be due to the local inflammation and function of cementoclasts/odontoclasts. In this paper, we reviewed the effects of different corticotomy techniques accelerating orthodontic tooth movement on root resorption. Corticotomy techniques deal with mucoperio-steal flaps and bone tissues differently and develop towards minimally invasive. Previous studies on root resorption use two-dimensional images, including apical films and panoramic tomography, to evaluate the degree of root resorption. In recent years, researches measure the volume of root resorption accurately using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and micro-CT. Most studies suggest that the root resorption during acceleration of orthodontic tooth movement through corticotomy techniques is not statistically different from that of traditional orthodontic treatment. Some studies using micro-CT have shown that the root resorption in the groups of corticotomy techniques increases compared with the control group without surgery. Because of the short duration of these studies, the clinical significance is controversial on the overall impact of corticotomy techniques on orthodontic treatment. Accelerating orthodontic tooth movement is still at its emerging phase and need further research in the form of clinical trials to illustrate the effect of corticotomy techniques accelerating orthodontic tooth movement on root resorption.


Subject(s)
Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Humans , Osteoclasts , Root Resorption/etiology , Tooth Movement Techniques , Tooth Root , X-Ray Microtomography
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of siRNA hsa-circ-0000885 modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on osteogenic differentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis in order to provide new ideas and methods for the clinical treatment of osteoporosis (OP).@*METHODS@#From September 2018 to February 2020, 13 patients with osteoporosis admitted to our hospital were selected as the research objects, including 11 females and 2 males, with an age of (65.45±10.77) years old. After obtaining the informed consent of patients, peripheral blood tissues were extracted. Then the expression level of cir-cRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMC) was detected by circ RNA chip. The expression of circ RNA was silenced by siRNA technology. The BMSCs were transfected with lentivirus. According to the siRNA interference plasmid hsa-circ-0000885, the cells were divided into the blank group, the empty vector group and the siRNA interference group. After 72 hours of treatment, the cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry, the apoptosis level was detected by AV-PI kit, and the osteogenic differentiation ability of BMSCs was detected by ALP staining.@*RESULTS@#The expression of hsa-circ-0000885 in PBMC of patients with osteoporosis was significantly higher than that of healthy controls (@*CONCLUSION@#The lentivirus mediated siRNA hsa-circ-0000885 plasmid transfected into BMSCs and osteoclast co culture system can promote cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis and promote osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, which can be used as a potential therapeutic target for OP patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Apoptosis/genetics , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Female , Humans , Lentivirus , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Middle Aged , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Transfection
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921366

ABSTRACT

The maintenance of bone homeostasis is critical for bone health. It is vulnerable to cause bone loss, even severely osteoporosis when the balance between bone formation and absorption is interrupted. Growing evidence has shown that energy metabolism disorders, such as abnormal glucose metabolism, irregular amino acid metabolism, and aberrant lipid metabolism, can damage bone homeostasis, causing or exacerbating bone mass loss and osteoporosis-related fractures. Here, we summarize the studies of energy metabolism in osteoblasts and osteoclasts and provide a better appreciation of how energy metabolism, especially glucose metabolism maintains bone homeostasis. With this knowledge, new avenues will be unraveled to understand and cue bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones , Energy Metabolism , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888697

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, orthodontic treatment has become increasingly popular. However, the biological mechanisms of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) have not been fully elucidated. We were aiming to summarize the evidences regarding the mechanisms of OTM. Firstly, we introduced the research models as a basis for further discussion of mechanisms. Secondly, we proposed a new hypothesis regarding the primary roles of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) and osteocytes involved in OTM mechanisms and summarized the biomechanical and biological responses of the periodontium in OTM through four steps, basically in OTM temporal sequences, as follows: (1) Extracellular mechanobiology of periodontium: biological, mechanical, and material changes of acellular components in periodontium under orthodontic forces were introduced. (2) Cell strain: the sensing, transduction, and regulation of mechanical stimuli in PDLCs and osteocytes. (3) Cell activation and differentiation: the activation and differentiation mechanisms of osteoblast and osteoclast, the force-induced sterile inflammation, and the communication networks consisting of sensors and effectors. (4) Tissue remodeling: the remodeling of bone and periodontal ligament (PDL) in the compression side and tension side responding to mechanical stimuli and root resorption. Lastly, we talked about the clinical implications of the updated OTM mechanisms, regarding optimal orthodontic force (OOF), acceleration of OTM, and prevention of root resorption.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Periodontal Ligament , Periodontium , Root Resorption , Tooth Movement Techniques
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888005

ABSTRACT

Cannabinoid receptor type 2( CB2 R),a member of the G protein-coupled receptor( GPCR) superfamily,has a variety of biological activities,such as regulating pain response,resisting inflammation and fibrosis,and mediating bone metabolism. Some CB2 R regulators exhibit a good regulatory effect on bone metabolism. Cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa can cause psychoactive effects despite various pharmacological actions they exerted by targeting CB2 R. Therefore,it is of great significance to discover CB2 R regulators in non-Cannabis plants for finding new lead compounds without psychoactive effects and elucidating the action mechanism of plant drugs. The present study clarifies the discovery,structure,and physiological functions of CB2 R,especially its regulatory effects on bone metabolism,summarized CB2 R regulators extracted from non-Cannabis plants,and systematically analyzes the regulatory effects of CB2 R regulators on bone metabolism in animals,osteoblasts,and osteoclasts,to provide a scientific basis for the discovery of new CB2 R regulators and the development of anti-osteoporotic drugs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Cannabis , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Receptors, Cannabinoid
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887750

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to explore the role of osteoclast differentiation in the occurrence of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA).@*METHODS@#A mouse TMJOA model was constructed. Micro-CT was used to observe the changes in condylar bone during the development of TMJOA. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the histological structure changes of the condyle of TMJOA mice. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was used to observe the presence of osteoclasts in TMJOA joint tissue. The synovial fluid of patients with TMJ-OA was collected to determine the effect on osteoclast differentiation.@*RESULTS@#Micro-CT revealed that the condyle of the TMJOA group had the most obvious damage in the second and third weeks, and the shape of the condyles also changed in a beak-like manner. HE staining showed that the condyle cartilage and subchondral bone structure of TMJOA mice were disordered in the second week. TRAP tissue staining showed that the number of osteoclasts of the TMJOA group obviously increased in the second week. Results of cell experiments showed that the number of osteoclast differentiation significantly increased after stimulation of synovial fluid from TMJOA patients, and the cell volume increased.@*CONCLUSIONS@#TMJOA animal models and TMJOA patient synovial cell experiments could induce osteoclast differentiation, indicating that osteoclast differentiation plays an important role in TMJOA occurrence.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Humans , Mice , Osteoarthritis , Osteoclasts , Temporomandibular Joint , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880824

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the regulatory role of long non-coding RNA Kcnq1ot1 in osteoclast differentiation, osteogenic differentiation and osteoporosis.@*METHODS@#The expression of lnc-Kcnq1ot1, Bglap, Runx2, Alp, Bsp, Nfatc1, Mmp9, Ctsk and Oscar were detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) in the femoral bones from mouse models of postmenopausal osteoporosis (ovariectomized mice, @*RESULTS@#The expression of lnc-Kcnq1ot1 was significantly upregulated during osteoblast differentiation but downregulated in the bone tissues of osteoporotic mice and during osteoclast differentiation (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our data demonstrate that lnc-Kcnq1ot1 promotes osteogenic differentiation and alleviates osteoclast differentiation, suggesting the potential of lnc-Kcnq1ot1 as a therapeutic target against osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Mice , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879968

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of interleukin (IL)-17-mediated autophagy on the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF6)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38 pathway and osteoclast differentiation. Mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) were cultured with a medium containing 30 ng/mL macrophage colony stimulating factor and 50 ng/mL receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligard (RANKL), and IL-17 (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10 ng/mL) was added for intervention (IL-17 group). Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was used to observe TRAP positive multinucleated cells; phalloidin fluorescent staining was used to detect actin ring circumference; toluidine blue staining was used to analyze bone resorption lacuna formation. To further examine the mechanism of the effect of IL-17-mediated autophagy on the differentiation of osteoclasts, the control group used RANKL medium to culture mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells, while the IL-17 group was treated with IL-17 (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, /mL). Western blot was used to detect the expression of autophagy-related proteins Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and osteoclast-related proteins c-fos and nuclear factor of activated T cell 1 (NFATc1) after treatment with different concentrations of IL-17. The expression of LC3, NFATc1, TRAF6/ERK/p38 signaling pathway related proteins were detected in IL-17 and autophagy inhibitor 3-MA group. The number of TRAP positive multinucleated cells, the circumference of the actin ring and the area of bone resorption lacuna in IL-17 group treated with IL-17 (0.01, 0.1, were significantly higher than those in the control group. In IL-17 treated RAW264.7 cells, the expression of c-fos, NFATc1, Beclin-1, LC3, TRAF6, p-ERK, and p-p38 was all significantly up-regulated (all 0.05). After treatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA, the expression levels of LC3, NFATc1, TRAF6, p-ERK, and p-p38 all decreased significantly (all 0.05). IL-17 can promote the expression of autophagy proteins and enhance the differentiation ability of osteoclast precursor cells, and the TRAF6/ERK/p38 signaling pathway may be involved in this process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Bone Resorption , Cell Differentiation , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Interleukin-17 , Mice , NFATC Transcription Factors/metabolism , Osteoclasts/metabolism , RANK Ligand/metabolism , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879427

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis is one of the common clinical orthopedic diseases, which can lead to a variety of complications. There are many pathogenic factors in this disease. The latest research found that ATP6V1H is a new gene leading to the occurrence of osteoporosis, and it is likely to become a new target for the future drug treatment of osteoporosis.This paper introduces the biological structure and characteristics of H subunit, summed up the human body caused by loss of ATP6V1H and animal models such as zebrafish, mice bone loss and osteoporosis symptom such as related research reports of the loss, from osteoclast, osteoblast and marrow stromal cell level and the connection between the various subunits further expounds the H subunit regulate bone dynamic balance of mechanism, to explore ATP6V1H in bone developmentand bone related diseases has laid a solid foundation, also provide new ideas for clinical treatment of osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone and Bones , Mice , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Osteoporosis/genetics , Zebrafish
20.
Araçatuba; s.n; 2021. 52 p. ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1381565

ABSTRACT

A perda óssea dentária e a formação de lesões periapicais surgem como uma consequênc ia do desequilíbrio da homeostase óssea. Os osteoblastos, juntamente com os osteoclastos e osteócitos, atuam na formação e na reabsorção óssea. Vários marcadores de formação óssea são produzidos por osteoblastos ativos e refletem diferentes aspectos da dif erenciação osteoblástica e da remodelação óssea. Com isso, muitos autores têm explorado o uso de fitoterápicos, visando obter novos compostos que apresentem propriedades terapêuticas, como os flavonoides, e que estimulem a neoformação óssea e o reparo da r egião periapical. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro a citotoxicidade e efeito indutor de mineralização de flavonoides sobre células osteoblásticas humanas. Para isso, células osteoblásticas da linhagem Saos expostas aos seguintes flavono2 foram ides: quercetina, miricetina e seus derivados taxifolina, isoquercitrina, rutina, ampelopsina e EGCG, além de pinocembrina, crisina e canferol, de forma isolada e combinada. Foi avaliado o efeito citotóxico, a atividade de fosfatase alcalina e indução de n mé todo de Shapiroódulos de mineralização. Os resultados foram analisados p elo Wilk, e as variáveis foram submetidas à análise de ANOVA seguida pelo teste de Tukey para comparar entre os grupos e/ou concentrações ou teste de Dunnett para comparar entre cada grupo e o controle, com nível de significância de 5%. A viabilidade da cultura de osteoblastos não teve uma redução estatisticamente significativa na presença da maioria dos compostos, exceto crisina a 100µM. Taxifolina, isoquercitrina, rutina, ampelopsina e EGCG foram os compostos que estimularam significativamente a atividade da fosfatase alcalina, juntamente com as combinações taxifolina+isoquercitrina, taxifolina+ampelopsina e taxifolina+rutina a 25/25 µM. Quanto a formação de nódulos de mine ralização, ampelopsina, isoquercitrina, rutina, pinocembrina e miricetina isolados e taxifolina+isoquercitrina, taxifolina+ampelopsina e taxifolina+rutina combinados obtiveram os melhores resultados, variando de acordo com as concentrações. Concluise que a taxifolina, isoquercitrina, rutina e ampelopsina e combinações de taxifolina com esses flavonoides são citocompatíveis e apresentam efeito indutor de mineralização em osteoblastos Saos-2(AU)


Dental bone loss and the formation of periapical lesions arise as a consequence of imbalance of bone homeostasis. Osteoblasts, together with osteoclasts and osteocytes, act in bone formation and resorption. Several markers of bone formation are produced by active osteoblasts and reflect different aspects of osteoblastic differentiation and bone remodeling. Thus, many authors have explored the use of phytotherapics in order to obtain new compounds with therapeutic properties, such as flavonoids, and also stimulate bone neoformation and periapical region repair. The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the cytotoxicity and inducing effect of flavonoid mineralization on human osteoblastic cells. For this, osteoblastic cells of the Saos-2 lineage were exposed to the following flavonoids: quercetin, myricetin and its derivatives taxifoline, isoquercitrin, rutin, ampelopsin and EGCG, in addition to pinocembrin, chrysin and kaempferol, in an isolated and combined manner. The cytotoxic effect, the activity of alkaline phosphatase and the induction of mineralization nodules were evaluated. The results were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk method, and the variables were submitted to ANOVA analysis followed by the Tukey test to compare between groups and/or concentrations or Dunnett's test to compare between each group and the control, with a level of 5% significance. The viability of the osteoblast culture did not have a statistically significant reduction in the presence of most compounds, except 100 µM chrysin. Taxifoline, isoquercitrin, rutin, ampelopsin and EGCG were the compounds that significantly stimulated the activity of alkaline phosphatase, together with the combinations taxifoline+isoquercitrin, taxifoline+ampelopsin and taxifoline+rutin at 25/25 µM. As for the formation of mineralization nodules, ampelopsin, isoquercitrin, rutin, pinocembrin and myricetin alone and taxifoline+isoquercitrin, taxifoline+ampelopsin and taxifoline+rutin combined obtained the best results, varying according to the concentrations. It is concluded that taxifoline, isoquercitrin, rutin and ampelopsin and combinations of taxifolin with these flavonoids are cytocompatible and have a mineralization-inducing effect on Saos-2 osteoblasts(AU)


Subject(s)
Osteoblasts , Periapical Periodontitis , Flavonoids , Bone Resorption , Osteoclasts , Osteocytes , Quercetin , Rutin , Flavonoids/toxicity , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Bone and Bones , Calcification, Physiologic , Bone Remodeling , Flavanones , Homeostasis
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