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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251970, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345559

ABSTRACT

Abstract In order to better understand the ossification processes in anurans our study was carried out on tadpoles and adults of Lithobates catesbeianus. In this sense, we characterized the kinetic properties of alkaline phosphatase with p-nitrophenylphosphatase (pNPP) and pyrophosphate (PPi) and evaluated the activities of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and acid phosphatase. The enzyme extracts were obtained from tadpoles and adult femurs, which were divided into epiphysis and diaphysis. After homogenization, the samples were submitted to differential centrifugation to obtain cell membranes and, further, to phospholipase C (PIPLC) treatment, to remove membrane-bound proteins anchored by phosphatidylinositol. The average of specific activity for pNPP hydrolysis (at pH 10.5) by alkaline phosphatase released by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC) from Bacillus cereus among different bone regions at different animal ages was 1,142.57 U.mg-1, while for PPi hydrolysis (at pH 8.0), it was 1,433.82 U.mg-1. Among the compounds tested for enzymatic activity, the one that influenced the most was EDTA, with approximately 67% of inhibition for pNPPase activity and 77% for PPase activity. In the case of kinetic parameters, the enzyme showed a "Michaelian" behavior for pNPP and PPi hydrolysis. The Km value was around 0.6mM for pNPPase activity and ranged from 0.01 to 0.11mM for PPase activity, indicating that the enzyme has a higher affinity for this substrate. The study of pNPP and PPi hydrolysis by the enzyme revealed that the optimum pH of actuation for pNPP was 10.5, while for PPi, which is considered the true substrate of alkaline phosphatase, was 8.0, close to the physiological value. The results show that regardless of the ossification type that occurs, the same enzyme or isoenzymes act on the different bone regions and different life stages of anurans. The similarity of the results of studies with other vertebrates shows that anurans can be considered excellent animal models for the study of biological calcification.


Resumo Para melhor compreender o processo de ossificação em anuros, nosso estudo foi conduzido em girinos e adultos de Lithobates catesbeianus. Nesse sentido, as propriedades cinéticas da fosfatase alcalina com p-nitrofenilfosfato (pNPP) e pirofosfato (PPi) foram caracterizadas, e as atividades enzimáticas das fosfatases ácida e ácida tartarato resistente foram avaliadas. Os extratos enzimáticos foram obtidos de fêmur de girinos e adultos, divididos em epífise e diáfise. Após a homogeneização as amostras foram submetidas à centrifugação diferencial para obter membrana celular e, em seguida, ao tratamento com fosfolipase C (PIPLC), para remover as proteínas de membrana ancoradas por fosfatidilinositol. A média da atividade específica da fosfatase alcalina, liberada pela PIPLC de Bacillus cereus, para a hidrólise de pNPP (pH 10,5) nas diferentes regiões do fêmur e idades dos animais foi de 1.142,57 U.mg-1, enquanto para a hidrólise do PPi (pH 8,0) foi de 1.433,82 U.mg-1. Entre os compostos testados para a atividade enzimática, o de maior influência foi o EDTA, inibindo aproximadamente 67% e 77% das atividades de pNPPase e PPase, respectivamente. Quanto aos parâmetros cinéticos, a enzima apresentou comportamento Michaeliano para a hidrólise dos dois substratos. O valor de Km foi de 0,6 mM para a atividade de pNPPase e variou de 0,01 a 0,11 para a atividade de PPase, indicando uma maior afinidade por esse substrato. O estudo da hidrólise de pNPP e PPi revelou que o pH ótimo aparente de atuação foi de 10,5 para o pNPP e 8,0 para o PPi, próximo ao fisiológico, sendo que esse é considerado o substrato natural da fosfatase alcalina. Os resultados demonstram que, apesar do tipo de ossificação que ocorre, a mesma enzima ou isoenzimas, atuam nos diferentes locais do osso e estágios de vida dos anuros. A similaridade dos estudos com os realizados com outros vertebrados apontam que os anuros podem ser considerados excelentes modelos animais para o estudo da calcificação biológica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Osteogenesis , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Rana catesbeiana , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Kinetics
2.
Braz. dent. sci ; 26(1): 1-10, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1412861

ABSTRACT

Objective: to evaluate the differentiation and gene expression of transcripts related to osteogenesis in a primary culture of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) derived from rat femurs submitted to radiotherapy and the installation of pure titanium implants. Material and Methods: fifty-four rats received titanium implants in both femurs and were divided into three groups: Control: implant surgery (C); Implant + immediate irradiation (IrI), and Implant + late irradiation (IrL). Euthanasia occurred 3, 14, and 49 days after surgery. The bone marrow MSCs from the femurs were isolated and cultivated. The cell viability, total protein content, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and the formation of mineralization nodules and cellular genotoxicity were analyzed. The gene expression of Alkaline Phosphatase (phoA), Collagen 1 (COL1), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), Osterix (OSX), Osteopontin (OPN), Integrin ß1(ITGB1), Bone Sialoprotein (BSP), Osteonectin (SPARC), Osteocalcin (Bglap), Transforming Growth Factor ß-type (TGF-ß), Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and Prostaglandin E2 synthase (PGE2) were evaluated by qRT- PCR. Results: ionizing radiation suppresses the gene expression of essential transcripts for bone regeneration, as well as cellular viability, as observed in the IrI and IrL groups. Conclusion: although this can lead to the loss of osseointegration and failure of the implant, the MSCs showed more activity at 49 days than at 3 and 14 days. (AU)


Objetivo: avaliar a diferenciação e expressão gênica de transcritos relacionados à osteogênese em cultura primária de MSCs derivadas de fêmures de ratos submetidos à radioterapia e instalação de implantes de titânio puro. Material e Métodos: cinquenta e quatro ratos receberam implantes de titânio em ambos os fêmures e foram divididos em três grupos: Controle: cirurgia de implante (C); Implante + irradiação imediata (IrI) e Implante + irradiação tardia (IrL). A eutanásia ocorreu 3, 14 e 49 dias após a cirurgia. As MSCs de medula óssea dos fêmures foram isoladas e cultivadas. Foram analisadas a viabilidade celular, teor de proteína total, atividade da fosfatase alcalina (ALP), formação de nódulos de mineralização e genotoxicidade celular. A expressão gênica de Fosfatase Alcalina (phoA), Colágeno 1 (COL1), fator de transcrição relacionado a Runt 2 (RUNX2), Osterix (OSX), Osteopontina (OPN), Integrina ß1 (ITGB1), Sialoproteína Óssea (BSP), Osteonectina (SPARC), Osteocalcina (Bglap), Fator de Crescimento Transformador tipo ß (TGF-ß), Fator Estimulante de Colônia de Granulócitos-Macrófagos (GM-CSF), Interleucina-6 (IL-6), Apolipoproteína E (APOE) e Prostaglandina E2 sintase (PGE2) foram avaliados por qRT-PCR. Resultados: a radiação ionizante suprime a expressão gênica de transcritos essenciais para a regeneração óssea, bem como a viabilidade celular, como observado nos grupos IrI e IrL. Conclusão:embora isso possa levar à perda da osseointegração e falha do implante, as MSCs apresentaram maior atividade aos 49 dias do que aos 3 e 14 dias (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Osteogenesis , Bone Regeneration , Dental Implants , Clinical Protocols , Osseointegration , Neoplasms
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246592, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339408

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have great potential for application in cell therapy and tissue engineering procedures because of their plasticity and capacity to differentiate into different cell types. Given the widespread use of MSCs, it is necessary to better understand some properties related to osteogenic differentiation, particularly those linked to biomaterials used in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to develop an analysis method using FT-Raman spectroscopy for the identification and quantification of biochemical components present in conditioned culture media derived from MSCs with or without induction of osteogenic differentiation. All experiments were performed between passages 3 and 5. For this analysis, MSCs were cultured on scaffolds composed of bioresorbable poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymers. MSCs (GIBCO®) were inoculated onto the pure polymers and 75:25 PHBV/PCL blend (dense and porous samples). The plate itself was used as control. The cells were maintained in DMEM (with low glucose) containing GlutaMAX® and 10% FBS at 37oC with 5% CO2 for 21 days. The conditioned culture media were collected and analyzed to probe for functional groups, as well as possible molecular variations associated with cell differentiation and metabolism. The method permitted to identify functional groups of specific molecules in the conditioned medium such as cholesterol, phosphatidylinositol, triglycerides, beta-subunit polypeptides, amide regions and hydrogen bonds of proteins, in addition to DNA expression. In the present study, FT-Raman spectroscopy exhibited limited resolution since different molecules can express similar or even the same stretching vibrations, a fact that makes analysis difficult. There were no variations in the readings between the samples studied. In conclusion, FT-Raman spectroscopy did not meet expectations under the conditions studied.


Resumo As células-tronco mesenquimais (MSCs) possuem grande potencial para aplicação em procedimentos terapêuticos ligados a terapia celular e engenharia de tecidos, considerando-se a plasticidade e capacidade de formação em diferentes tipos celulares por elas. Dada a abrangência no emprego das MSCs, há necessidade de se compreender melhor algumas propriedades relacionadas à diferenciação osteogênica, particularmente liga à biomateriais usados em engenharia de tecidos. Este projeto objetiva o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de análise empregando-se a FT-Raman para identificação e quantificação de componentes bioquímicos presentes em meios de cultura condicionados por MSCs, com ou sem indução à diferenciação osteogênica. Todos os experimentos foram realizados entre as passagens 3 e 5. Para essas análises, as MSCs foram cultivadas sobre arcabouços de polímeros biorreabsorvíveis de poli (hidroxibutirato-co-hidroxivalerato) (PHBV) e o poli (ε-caprolactona) (PCL). As MSCs (GIBCO®) foram inoculadas nos polímeros puros e na mistura 75:25 de PHBV / PCL (amostras densas e porosas). As células foram mantidas em DMEM (com baixa glicose) contendo GlutaMAX® e 10% de SFB a 37oC com 5% de CO2 por 21 dias. A própria placa foi usada como controle. Os meios de cultura condicionados foram coletados e analisadas em FT-Raman para sondagem de grupos funcionais, bem como possíveis variações moleculares associadas com a diferenciação e metabolismo celular. Foi possível discernir grupos funcionais de moléculas específicas no meio condicionado, como colesterol, fosfatidilinositol, triglicerídeos, forma Beta de polipeptídeos, regiões de amida e ligações de hidrogênio de proteínas, além da expressão de DNA. Na presente avaliação, a FT-Raman apresentou como uma técnica de resolução limitada, uma vez que modos vibracionais de estiramento próximos ou mesmo iguais podem ser expressos por moléculas diferente, dificultando a análise. Não houve variações nas leituras entre as amostras estudadas, concluindo-se que a FT-Raman não atendeu às expectativas nas condições estudadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteogenesis , Polyesters , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Culture Media, Conditioned , Cell Proliferation , Tissue Scaffolds
4.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-4, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368288

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Osteogênese Imperfeita (OI) é uma doença genética rara com fragilidade óssea. A classificação inclui muitos tipos. Além do risco de recorrência, o manejo pode variar com o tipo de OI. Relato do caso: Apresentamos um paciente do sexo masculino nascido com 39 semanas, de pais não consanguíneos e saudáveis. A hidrocefalia foi diagnosticada no pré-natal. Com 50 dias de vida, detectamos muitas fraturas e calos ósseos. O teste molecular identificou uma deleção em homozigose do éxon 4 do gene WNT1. Considerações finais: Concluímos que o caso apresentado tinha características clínicas de OI XV, e o teste molecular foi fundamental para o diagnóstico preciso e aconselhamento genético.


Introduction: Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disease with bone fragility. The classification includes many types. In addition, the risk of a recurrence, the management can vary with the kind of OI. Case report: We report a male patient born at 39 weeks from non-consanguineous healthy parents. The patient was diagnosed with Hydrocephalus at prenatal. At 50 days of life, we detected many fractures and bone calluses. The molecular test identified a homozygous deletion of exon 4 of the WNT1 gene. Final considerations: We conclude this case had clinical features of OI XV, and the molecular test was fundamental for the precise diagnosis and the genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/diagnosis , Osteogenesis , Prenatal Care , Infant, Premature , Fractures, Bone , Genetic Counseling , Genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Hydrocephalus
5.
Rev. ADM ; 79(3): 165-176, mayo-jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378976

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El hueso, reservorio de minerales y moléculas orgánicas, es un tejido dinámico que detecta y se adapta a las cargas mecánicas de los órganos y tejidos del cuerpo, el cual mantiene la estructura ósea del esqueleto durante el crecimiento y a través de la vida del ser humano. Las células óseas son sensibles a las cargas mecánicas y microvibra- ciones que recibe el esqueleto. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática acerca de los efectos que ejerce la microvibración de alta frecuencia-baja intensidad, en osteocitos cultivados in vitro sobre la síntesis de factores solubles, con el propósito de entender si la microvibración tiene influencia en la aceleración del movimiento dentario. Material y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de artículos de revisión de osteocitos y otras células óseas in vitro, a través de la estrategia PICO (Paciente, Intervención, Comparación, Resultado [Outcome]), con el empleo de palabras clave como: «os- teocitos¼, «microvibración¼, «remodelación¼, «osteoclastogénesis¼, «citocinas¼ y «osteoblastos¼. Se estructuró por medio de PRISMA (informe de revisiones sistemáticas y meta-análisis). La captación de datos finales se hizo por medio del método de puntuación de calidad Jadad y Cochrane (modelo de correlación) como herramientas para evaluar el riesgo de sesgo de cada uno de los artículos. Se incluyeron 11 artículos con alta calidad metodológica. Resultados: La mayoría de los experimentos in vitro demostraron que la microvibración tuvo un aumento estadísticamente significativo en la proliferación y dife- renciación de las células madre mesenquimales (MSC), en osteoblastos (MC3T3-E1), en la expresión de proteínas para inducir osteogénesis y en los osteocitos (MLO-Y4). Asimismo, sobrerregularon la expresión de osteoprotegerina (OPG), prostaglandina (PGE2) y óxido nitroso (NO) al alterar y regular los factores solubles como las citocinas, factores de crecimiento y quimiocinas, de las demás células, además de mostrar una disminución en la actividad de los osteoclastos (RAW246.7) en la resorción ósea. Conclusión: La microvibración induce remodelación ósea. Los osteocitos son sensibles a los estímulos mecánicos y producen factores solubles para inducir la remodelación ósea, razón por la cual se emplea la microvibración como una terapia innovadora y prometedora, no invasiva y no farmacológica en la estimulación de la formación ósea de la superficie del hueso (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteogenesis , Vibration , Bone Remodeling , Osteocytes , Bone Resorption , Analysis of Variance , Cytokines , Culture Media , RANK Ligand
6.
Educ. med. super ; 36(2)jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1404548

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Para la formación del médico general de perfil amplio que necesita la sociedad cubana, las ciencias básicas biomédicas tributan a las bases del fundamento científico, el pensamiento médico y la clínica; así como a actitudes, convicciones y valores, en correspondencia con las tendencias de la educación superior contemporánea. Su evolución en la carrera de medicina en Cuba ha incluido una actualización del diseño y la didáctica de la disciplina y las asignaturas. Objetivo: Realizar un análisis crítico del programa analítico de la asignatura Ontogenia y SOMA en los planes de estudio C, D y E. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo de carácter descriptivo. Se emplearon el análisis documental, la sistematización, el análisis y la síntesis para los programas de las asignaturas y las revisiones bibliográficas sobre la temática. Los resultados fueron representados de forma comparativa en figuras y tablas. Resultados: Los aspectos del programa que sufrieron grandes cambios fueron: sistema de habilidades, distribución de tiempo, formas de organización de la enseñanza, estrategias docentes y extracurriculares. Tuvieron algunas modificaciones, pero conservaron elementos de diseños anteriores: objetivos y sistema de evaluación. Los menos modificados resultaron contenido y bibliografía. Conclusiones: Los cambios de diseño de la asignatura han incluido paulatinamente la orientación hacia la atención primaria de salud, el rescate de actividades prácticas, la enseñanza problémica, la utilización del organismo vivo como medio de enseñanza, las tecnologías y el protagonismo del estudiante en la construcción de su conocimiento(AU)


Introduction: For the training of the general physician with a broad profile needed by the Cuban society, basic biomedical sciences contribute to the bases of scientific foundation, medical thinking and clinical practice, as well as attitudes, convictions and values, in correspondence with the tendencies of contemporary higher education. Its evolution in the Cuban medical major has included an update of the design and didactics of the discipline and subjects. Objective: To carry out a critical analysis of the analytical syllabus of the subject Ontogeny and Osteomioarticular System in the study plans C, D and E. Methods: A descriptive and qualitative study was carried out. Document analysis, systematization, analysis and synthesis were used for the subjects' syllabi, as well as for the bibliographic reviews on the topic. The results were represented comparatively in figures and tables. Results: The aspects of the program that underwent major changes were the system of skills, distribution of time, teaching organization forms, as well as teaching and extracurricular strategies. Some modifications were introduced, but other were maintained from previous designs, in the objectives and evaluation system. The least modified aspects were content and bibliography. Conclusions: The changes in the subject's design have gradually included the orientation towards primary healthcare, the recovery of practical activities, problem-solving teaching, the use of the living organism as a teaching aid, technologies, and the student's protagonism in the construction of his or her knowledge(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteogenesis , Evaluation of Medical School Curriculum , Musculoskeletal System , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Education, Medical , Evaluation Studies as Topic
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936320

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Bax inhibitor 1 (BI- 1) and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1) on vascular calcification (VC).@*METHODS@#Mouse models of VC were established in ApoE-deficient (ApoE-/-) diabetic mice by high-fat diet feeding for 12 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injections with Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine for 16 weeks. ApoE-/- mice (control group), ApoE-/- diabetic mice (VC group), ApoE-/- diabetic mice with BI-1 overexpression (VC + BI-1TG group), and ApoE-/- diabetic mice with BI-1 overexpression and OPA1 knockout (VC+BI-1TG+OPA1-/- group) were obtained for examination of the degree of aortic calcification using von Kossa staining. The changes in calcium content in the aorta were analyzed using ELISA. The expressions of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were detected using immunohistochemistry, and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 was determined using Western blotting. Cultured mouse aortic smooth muscle cells were treated with 10 mmol/L β-glycerophosphate for 14 days to induce calcification, and the changes in BI-1 and OPA1 protein expressions were examined using Western blotting and cell apoptosis was detected using TUNEL staining.@*RESULTS@#ApoE-/- mice with VC showed significantly decreased expressions of BI-1 and OPA1 proteins in the aorta (P=0.0044) with obviously increased calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 (P= 0.0041). Overexpression of BI-1 significantly promoted OPA1 protein expression and reduced calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 (P=0.0006). OPA1 knockdown significantly increased calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 in the aorta (P=0.0007).@*CONCLUSION@#BI-1 inhibits VC possibly by promoting the expression of OPA1, reducing calcium deposition and inhibiting osteogenic differentiation and apoptosis of the vascular smooth muscle cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/pathology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/pathology , Optic Atrophy, Autosomal Dominant/pathology , Osteogenesis , Vascular Calcification/pathology , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936154

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To preliminarily investigate the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) MIR4697 host gene (MIR4697HG) in regulating the adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs).@*METHODS@#For adipogenic differentiation, BMSCs were induced in adipogenic media for 10 days. The mRNA expression levels of lncRNA MIR4697HG and adipogenic marker genes including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhanced binding protein α (CEBP/α) and adiponectin (ADIPQ) were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) at different time points (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 days). The MIR4697HG stable knockdown-BMSC cell line was generated by infection of MIR4697HG shRNA-containing lentiviruses. To avoid off-target effect, two target sequences (shMIR4697HG-1, shMIR4697HG-2) were designed. And then cells were induced to differentiate in adipogenic medium. Oil red O staining, Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to detect the effect of MIR4697HG knockdown on adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs.@*RESULTS@#The mRNA expression level of MIR4697HG was significantly increased during adipogenic differentiation (P < 0.01), and adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs was evidenced by upregulated mRNA levels of specific adipogenesis-related genes including PPARγ, CEBP/α and ADIPQ. Observed by fluorescence microscopy, more than 90% transfected target cells expressed green fluorescent protein successfully after shMIR4697HG-1 group, shMIR4697HG-2 group and shNC group transfection for 72 h. And the transfection efficiency of MIR4697HG examined by qRT-PCR was above 60%. Then the BMSCs were treated with adipogenic media for 7 days and showed that the mRNA expression levels of adipogenesis-related genes including PPARγ, CEBP/α and ADIPQ were significantly decreased in the MIR4697HG knockdown group (P < 0.01), while the expression levels of PPARγ and CEBP/α proteins were decreased remarkably as well (P < 0.01). Consistently, MIR4697HG knockdown BMSCs formed less lipid droplets compared with the control BMSCs, which further demonstrated that MIR4697HG knockdown inhibited adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs.@*CONCLUSION@#lncRNA MIR4697HG played a crucial role in regulating the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and MIR4697HG knockdown significantly inhibited the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs. These data may suggest that lncRNA MIR4697HG could serve as a therapeutic potential target for the aberrant adipogenic differentiation-associated disorders including osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis/genetics , Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteogenesis , PPAR gamma/pharmacology , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929152

ABSTRACT

Aging of craniofacial skeleton significantly impairs the repair and regeneration of trauma-induced bony defects, and complicates dental treatment outcomes. Age-related alveolar bone loss could be attributed to decreased progenitor pool through senescence, imbalance in bone metabolism and bone-fat ratio. Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from oral bones (OMSCs) have distinct lineage propensities and characteristics compared to MSCs from long bones, and are more suited for craniofacial regeneration. However, the effect of epigenetic modifications regulating OMSC differentiation and senescence in aging has not yet been investigated. In this study, we found that the histone demethylase KDM4B plays an essential role in regulating the osteogenesis of OMSCs and oral bone aging. Loss of KDM4B in OMSCs leads to inhibition of osteogenesis. Moreover, KDM4B loss promoted adipogenesis and OMSC senescence which further impairs bone-fat balance in the mandible. Together, our data suggest that KDM4B may underpin the molecular mechanisms of OMSC fate determination and alveolar bone homeostasis in skeletal aging, and present as a promising therapeutic target for addressing craniofacial skeletal defects associated with age-related deteriorations.


Subject(s)
Aging , Cell Differentiation , Facial Bones/physiology , Humans , Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases/genetics , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929149

ABSTRACT

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an important lipid mediator that regulates a diverse range of intracellular cell signaling pathways that are relevant to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the precise function of S1P in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and its osteogenic differentiation remains unclear. We here investigated the function of S1P/S1P receptor (S1PR)-mediated cellular signaling in the osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs and clarified the fundamental signaling pathway. Our results showed that S1P-treated DPSCs exhibited a low rate of differentiation toward the osteogenic phenotype in association with a marked reduction in osteogenesis-related gene expression and AKT activation. Of note, both S1PR1/S1PR3 and S1PR2 agonists significantly downregulated the expression of osteogenic genes and suppressed AKT activation, resulting in an attenuated osteogenic capacity of DPSCs. Most importantly, an AKT activator completely abrogated the S1P-mediated downregulation of osteoblastic markers and partially prevented S1P-mediated attenuation effects during osteogenesis. Intriguingly, the pro-inflammatory TNF-α cytokine promoted the infiltration of macrophages toward DPSCs and induced S1P production in both DPSCs and macrophages. Our findings indicate that the elevation of S1P under inflammatory conditions suppresses the osteogenic capacity of the DPSCs responsible for regenerative endodontics.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Dental Pulp/metabolism , Lysophospholipids , Osteogenesis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , Stem Cells
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929147

ABSTRACT

Parental imprinting is an epigenetic process leading to monoallelic expression of certain genes depending on their parental origin. Imprinting diseases are characterized by growth and metabolic issues starting from birth to adulthood. They are mainly due to methylation defects in imprinting control region that drive the abnormal expression of imprinted genes. We currently lack relevant animal or cellular models to unravel the pathophysiology of growth failure in these diseases. We aimed to characterize the methylation of imprinting regions in dental pulp stem cells and during their differentiation in osteogenic cells (involved in growth regulation) to assess the interest of this cells in modeling imprinting diseases. We collected dental pulp stem cells from five controls and four patients (three with Silver-Russell syndrome and one with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome). Methylation analysis of imprinting control regions involved in these syndromes showed a normal profile in controls and the imprinting defect in patients. These results were maintained in dental pulp stem cells cultured under osteogenic conditions. Furthermore, we confirmed the same pattern in six other loci involved in imprinting diseases in humans. We also confirmed monoallelic expression of H19 (an imprinted gene) in controls and its biallelic expression in one patient. Extensive imprinting control regions methylation analysis shows the strong potential of dental pulp stem cells in modeling imprinting diseases, in which imprinting regions are preserved in culture and during osteogenic differentiation. This will allow to perform in vitro functional and therapeutic tests in cells derived from dental pulp stem cells and generate other cell-types.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , DNA Methylation , Dental Pulp , Genomic Imprinting , Humans , Osteogenesis/genetics , Stem Cells
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929137

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Rb1, the effective constituent of ginseng, has been demonstrated to play favorable roles in improving the immunity system. However, there is little study on the osteogenesis and angiogenesis effect of Ginsenoside Rb1. Moreover, how to establish a delivery system of Ginsenoside Rb1 and its repairment ability in bone defect remains elusive. In this study, the role of Ginsenoside Rb1 in cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, osteogenic genes expression, ALP activity of rat BMSCs were evaluated firstly. Then, micro-nano HAp granules combined with silk were prepared to establish a delivery system of Ginsenoside Rb1, and the osteogenic and angiogenic effect of Ginsenoside Rb1 loaded on micro-nano HAp/silk in rat calvarial defect models were assessed by sequential fluorescence labeling, and histology analysis, respectively. It revealed that Ginsenoside Rb1 could maintain cell viability, significantly increased ALP activity, osteogenic and angiogenic genes expression. Meanwhile, micro-nano HAp granules combined with silk were fabricated smoothly and were a delivery carrier for Ginsenoside Rb1. Significantly, Ginsenoside Rb1 loaded on micro-nano HAp/silk could facilitate osteogenesis and angiogenesis. All the outcomes hint that Ginsenoside Rb1 could reinforce the osteogenesis differentiation and angiogenesis factor's expression of BMSCs. Moreover, micro-nano HAp combined with silk could act as a carrier for Ginsenoside Rb1 to repair bone defect.


Subject(s)
Alginates/pharmacology , Animals , Bone Regeneration , Cell Differentiation , Durapatite/pharmacology , Ginsenosides , Osteogenesis , Rats , Silk/pharmacology , Tissue Scaffolds
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929133

ABSTRACT

Neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to play an essential function during tooth and skeletal development. PRX1+ cells constitute an important MSC subtype that is implicated in osteogenesis. However, their potential function in tooth development and regeneration remains elusive. In the present study, we first assessed the cell fate of PRX1+ cells during molar development and periodontal ligament (PDL) formation in mice. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing analysis was performed to study the distribution of PRX1+ cells in PDL cells. The behavior of PRX1+ cells during PDL reconstruction was investigated using an allogeneic transplanted tooth model. Although PRX1+ cells are spatial specific and can differentiate into almost all types of mesenchymal cells in first molars, their distribution in third molars is highly limited. The PDL formation is associated with a high number of PRX1+ cells; during transplanted teeth PDL reconstruction, PRX1+ cells from the recipient alveolar bone participate in angiogenesis as pericytes. Overall, PRX1+ cells are a key subtype of dental MSCs involved in the formation of mouse molar and PDL and participate in angiogenesis as pericytes during PDL reconstruction after tooth transplantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mice , Molar , Osteogenesis/physiology , Periodontal Ligament
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929132

ABSTRACT

Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is widely used for bone tissue engineering technology. Immune regulations play important roles in the process of DO like other bone regeneration mechanisms. Compared with others, the immune regulation processes of DO have their distinct features. In this review, we summarized the immune-related events including changes in and effects of immune cells, immune-related cytokines, and signaling pathways at different periods in the process of DO. We aim to elucidated our understanding and unknowns about the immunomodulatory role of DO. The goal of this is to use the known knowledge to further modify existing methods of DO, and to develop novel DO strategies in our unknown areas through more detailed studies of the work we have done.


Subject(s)
Bone Regeneration/physiology , Bone and Bones , Osteogenesis/physiology , Osteogenesis, Distraction/methods , Tissue Engineering
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore whether the effect of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) in promoting osteoblast mineralization and maturation is related to the primary cilia, polycystin2 (PC2) and sAC/PKA/CREB signaling pathway.@*METHODS@#We detected the expression levels of PC2, sAC, PKA, CREB and their phosphorylated proteins in primary rat calvarial osteoblasts exposed to 50 Hz 0.6 mT PEMFs for 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. We blocked PC2 function with amiloride hydrochloride and detected the changes in the activity of sAC/PKA/CREB signal pathway and the mineralization and maturation of the osteoblasts. These examinations were repeated in the osteoblasts after specific knockdown of PC2 via RNA interference and were the co-localization of PC2, sAC, PKA, CREB and their phosphorylated proteins with the primary cilia were using immunofluorescence staining. The expressions of PC2 and the signaling proteins of sAC/PKA/CREB pathway were detected after inhibition of primary ciliation by RNA interference.@*RESULTS@#The expression levels of PC2, sAC, p-PKA and p- CREB were significantly increased in the osteoblasts after exposure to PEMFs for different time lengths (P < 0.01). Blocking PC2 function or PC2 knockdown in the osteoblasts resulted in failure of sAC/PKA/CREB signaling pathway activation and arrest of osteoblast mineralization and maturation. PC2, sAC, p-PKA and p-CREB were localized to the entire primary cilia or its roots, but PKA and CREB were not detected in the primary cilia. After interference of the primary cilia, PEMFs exposure no longer caused increase of PC2 expression and failed to activate the sAC/PKA/CREB signaling pathway or promote osteoblast mineralization and maturation.@*CONCLUSION@#PC2, located on the surface of the primary cilia of osteoblasts, can perceive and transmit the physical signals from PEMFs and promote the mineralization and maturation of osteoblasts by activating the PC2/ sAC/PKA/CREB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Electromagnetic Fields , Osteoblasts , Osteogenesis/genetics , Rats , Signal Transduction
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939856

ABSTRACT

PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) improves the bone marrow micro-environment to activate the bone-remodelling, but the coordinated regulation of PTHrP and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signalling in TMJ-OA remains incompletely understood. We used disordered occlusion to establish model animals that recapitulate the ordinary clinical aetiology of TMJ-OA. Immunohistochemical and histological analyses revealed condylar fibrocartilage degeneration in model animals following disordered occlusion. TMJ-OA model animals administered intermittent PTHrP (iPTH) exhibited significantly decreased condylar cartilage degeneration. Micro-CT, histomorphometry, and Western Blot analyses disclosed that iPTH promoted subchondral bone formation in the TMJ-OA model animals. In addition, iPTH increased the number of osterix (OSX)-positive cells and osteocalcin (OCN)-positive cells in the subchondral bone marrow cavity. However, the number of osteoclasts was also increased by iPTH, indicating that subchondral bone volume increase was mainly due to the iPTH-mediated increase in the bone-formation ability of condylar subchondral bone. In vitro, PTHrP treatment increased condylar subchondral bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (SMSC) osteoblastic differentiation potential and upregulated the gene and protein expression of key regulators of osteogenesis. Furthermore, we found that PTHrP-PTH1R signalling inhibits TGFβ signalling during osteoblastic differentiation. Collectively, these data suggested that iPTH improves OA lesions by enhancing osteoblastic differentiation in subchondral bone and suppressing aberrant active TGFβ signalling. These findings indicated that PTHrP, which targets the TGFβ signalling pathway, may be an effective biological reagent to prevent and treat TMJ-OA in the clinic.


Subject(s)
Animals , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis , Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein/pharmacology , Temporomandibular Joint , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939851

ABSTRACT

Mandibular defects caused by injuries, tumors, and infections are common and can severely affect mandibular function and the patient's appearance. However, mandible reconstruction with a mandibular bionic structure remains challenging. Inspired by the process of intramembranous ossification in mandibular development, a hierarchical vascularized engineered bone consisting of angiogenesis and osteogenesis modules has been produced. Moreover, the hierarchical vascular network and bone structure generated by these hierarchical vascularized engineered bone modules match the particular anatomical structure of the mandible. The ultra-tough polyion complex has been used as the basic scaffold for hierarchical vascularized engineered bone for ensuring better reconstruction of mandible function. According to the results of in vivo experiments, the bone regenerated using hierarchical vascularized engineered bone is similar to the natural mandibular bone in terms of morphology and genomics. The sonic hedgehog signaling pathway is specifically activated in hierarchical vascularized engineered bone, indicating that the new bone in hierarchical vascularized engineered bone underwent a process of intramembranous ossification identical to that of mandible development. Thus, hierarchical vascularized engineered bone has a high potential for clinical application in mandibular defect reconstruction. Moreover, the concept based on developmental processes and bionic structures provides an effective strategy for tissue regeneration.


Subject(s)
Bone Regeneration , Bone Transplantation/methods , Hedgehog Proteins , Humans , Mandible/surgery , Osteogenesis
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939849

ABSTRACT

Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are a promising cell type for bone tissue regeneration. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been shown to play a critical role in regulating various cell differentiation and involve in mesenchymal stem cell osteogenesis. However, how circRNAs regulate hASCs in osteogenesis is still unclear. Herein, we found circ_0003204 was significantly downregulated during osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. Knockdown of circ_0003204 by siRNA or overexpression by lentivirus confirmed circ_0003204 could negatively regulate the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. We performed dual-luciferase reporting assay and rescue experiments to verify circ_0003204 regulated osteogenic differentiation via sponging miR-370-3p. We predicted and confirmed that miR-370-3p had targets in the 3'-UTR of HDAC4 mRNA. The following rescue experiments indicated that circ_0003204 regulated the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs via miR-370-3p/HDAC4 axis. Subsequent in vivo experiments showed the silencing of circ_0003204 increased the bone formation and promoted the expression of osteogenic-related proteins in a mouse bone defect model, while overexpression of circ_0003204 inhibited bone defect repair. Our findings indicated that circ_0003204 might be a promising target to promote the efficacy of hASCs in repairing bone defects.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Animals , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Histone Deacetylases/metabolism , Humans , Mice , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Osteogenesis/genetics , RNA, Circular/metabolism , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Stem Cells/metabolism
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939825

ABSTRACT

Mammalian bone is constantly metabolized from the embryonic stage, and the maintenance of bone health depends on the dynamic balance between bone resorption and bone formation, mediated by osteoclasts and osteoblasts. It is widely recognized that circadian clock genes can regulate bone metabolism. In recent years, the regulation of bone metabolism by non-coding RNAs has become a hotspot of research. MicroRNAs can participate in bone catabolism and anabolism by targeting key factors related to bone metabolism, including circadian clock genes. However, research in this field has been conducted only in recent years and the mechanisms involved are not yet well established. Recent studies have focused on how to target circadian clock genes to treat some diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, but few have focused on the co-regulation of circadian clock genes and microRNAs in bone metabolic diseases. Therefore, in this paper we review the progress of research on the co-regulation of bone metabolism by circadian clock genes and microRNAs, aiming to provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of bone metabolic diseases such as osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Circadian Clocks/genetics , Circadian Rhythm/genetics , Mammals/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Osteogenesis/genetics , Osteoporosis/genetics
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936109

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of porous surface morphology of zirconia on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts.@*METHODS@#According to different manufacturing and pore-forming methods, the zirconia specimens were divided into 4 groups, including milled sintering group (M-Ctrl), milled porous group (M-Porous), 3D printed sintering group (3D-Ctrl) and 3D printed porous group (3D-Porous). The surface micromorphology, surface roughness, contact angle and surface elements of specimens in each group were detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM), 3D laser microscope, contact angle measuring device and energy-dispersion X-ray analysis, respectively. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on 4 groups of zirconia discs. The cell morphology of MC3T3-E1 cells on zirconia discs was eva-luated on 1 and 7 days by SEM. The cell proliferation was detected on 1, 3 and 5 days by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). After osteogenic induction for 14 days, the relative mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type Ⅰ collagen (Colla1), Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) and osteocalcin (OCN) in MC3T3-E1 cells were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#The pore size [(419.72±6.99) μm] and pore depth [(560.38±8.55) μm] of 3D-Porous group were significantly larger than the pore size [(300.55±155.65) μm] and pore depth [(69.97±31.38) μm] of M-Porous group (P < 0.05). The surface of 3D-Porous group appeared with more regular round pores than that of M-Porous group. The contact angles of all the groups were less than 90°. The contact angles of 3D-Ctrl (73.83°±5.34°) and M-Porous group (72.7°±2.72°) were the largest, with no significant difference between them (P>0.05). Cells adhered inside the pores in M-Porous and 3D-Porous groups, and the proliferation activities of them were significantly higher than those of M-Ctrl and 3D-Ctrl groups after 3 and 5 days' culture (P < 0.05). After 14 days' incubation, ALP, Colla1, Runx2 and OCN mRNA expression in 3D-Porous groups were significantly lower than those of M-Ctrl and 3D-Ctrl groups (P < 0.05). Colla1, Runx2 and OCN mRNA expressions in M-Porous group were higher than those of 3D-Porous group (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The porous surface morphology of zirconia can promote the proliferation and adhesion but inhibit the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Ceramics , Osteoblasts , Osteogenesis , Porosity , Zirconium
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