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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(6): e202202937, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1518735

ABSTRACT

La osteomielitis (OM) se define como la inflamación ósea de origen infeccioso. La forma aguda es frecuente en la edad pediátrica. El absceso de Brodie es un tipo de osteomielitis subaguda, históricamente con baja incidencia, pero que actualmente se presenta un aumento de la misma. De poca repercusión clínica, con pruebas de laboratorio inespecíficas y estudios radiológicos de difícil interpretación, es crucial la sospecha diagnóstica. Se asemeja a procesos neoplásicos, benignos o malignos. Recae en la experiencia del profesional realizar el diagnóstico adecuado. El tratamiento consiste en antibioticoterapia, tanto parenteral como por vía oral, y eventualmente drenaje quirúrgico. Presentamos una paciente sana que consultó por una tumoración en topografía de clavícula izquierda de 3 meses de evolución. Se realizó diagnóstico de absceso de Brodie, inició tratamiento y se obtuvo una buena respuesta. Resulta imprescindible tener un alto índice de sospecha de esta entidad para no someter al paciente a estudios, pruebas invasivas o tratamientos erróneos, y evitar secuelas a futuro.


Osteomyelitis is defined as an inflammation of the bone caused by infection. Acute osteomyelitis is common in pediatrics. A Brodie abscess is a type of subacute osteomyelitis, with a historically low incidence; however, its incidence is currently increasing. Given its little clinical impact, with non-specific laboratory tests and radiological studies of difficult interpretation, diagnostic suspicion is crucial. It resembles neoplasms, either benign or malignant. An adequate diagnosis falls on the health care provider's experience. Treatment consists of antibiotics, both parenteral and oral, with potential surgical drainage. Here we describe the case of a healthy female patient with a tumor found in the topography of the left clavicle 3 months before. She was diagnosed with Brodie abscess; treatment was started with a good response. A high index of suspicion of Brodie abscess is critical to avoid invasive tests and studies or inadequate treatments, and to prevent future sequelae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy , Osteomyelitis/therapy , Abscess/drug therapy , Clavicle , Disease Progression , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 25(3): 10-17, Sep.-Dec. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1529065

ABSTRACT

Abstract Osteomyelitis is defined as the inflammation of the either medullary, cortical, or cancellous bone, including nerves and blood vessels, causing necrosis and bone sequestrum formation; this condition has become a rare pathology, and odontogenic infections are considered the most frequent causal factor. This case shows a patient with bi-maxillary osteomyelitis caused by Actinomyces spp, which was worsened for severe COVID-19 infection. Patient was submitted at surgery as, amplified total bilateral maxillectomy through the surgical technique Weber-Fergusson, and prolonged use of combination of antibiotics, achieved a good recovery. Two years later follow- up, the patient no show imaging or clinical evidence of the infection of osteomyelitis. The present case shows an interesting relationship between a rare infection and its association with COVID-19.


Resumen La osteomielitis se define como la inflamación del hueso medular, cortical o esponjoso, incluyendo nervios y vasos sanguíneos, causando necrosis y formación de secuestro óseo; esta condición es una patología rara, y las infecciones odontogénicas son consideradas como el factor causal más frecuente. En este caso, se muestra un paciente con osteomielitis bi-maxilar causada por Actinomyces spp, la cual empeoró por la infección de COVID-19 severo. El paciente fue sometido a una cirugía, maxilectomía bilateral total amplificada, a través de la técnica quirúrgica de Weber- Fergusson, y el uso prolongado de una combinación de antibióticos, logrando una buena recuperación. A los 2 años de seguimiento, el paciente no mostró evidencia clínica o imagenológica de la infección de osteomielitis. El presente caso muestra una interesante relación entre una infección rara y su asociación con COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Osteomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Actinomycosis/drug therapy , Surgery, Oral , COVID-19
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(5): e202201449, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1509734

ABSTRACT

La osteomielitis primaria de esternón es muy infrecuente en niños, con menos de 100 casos publicados hasta la actualidad. Su presentación clínica es a menudo inespecífica, lo que causa un retraso en el diagnóstico. Se presentan dos nuevos casos de osteomielitis primaria de esternón. Ambos referían un cuadro de fiebre, malestar general, dolor torácico y rechazo del decúbito, con eritema preesternal en uno de los casos. La velocidad de sedimentación globular y la proteína C-reactiva estaban elevadas en ambos casos. El diagnóstico se confirmó mediante estudios de imagen y en un caso se aisló Staphylococcus aureus sensible a meticilina en el hemocultivo. Ambos se recuperaron sin complicaciones con tratamiento antibiótico. Debe tenerse en cuenta la osteomielitis primaria de esternón en el diagnóstico diferencial del dolor torácico, especialmente si se acompaña de fiebre, signos inflamatorios locales, intolerancia al decúbito o elevación de reactantes de fase aguda.


Primary sternal osteomyelitis is very rare in children, with less than 100 cases published to date. Its clinical presentation is often non-specific, which results in a diagnostic delay. Here we describe 2 new cases of primary sternal osteomyelitis. Both referred fever, malaise, chest pain, and refusal to lie down, with pre-sternal erythema in one of the cases. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein values were high in both cases. The diagnosis was confirmed by imaging studies; methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in the blood culture of one of them. Both recovered without complications with antibiotic treatment. Primary sternal osteomyelitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest pain, especially if accompanied by fever, local inflammatory signs, intolerance to lying down, or increased acute phase reactants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Child , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus , Chest Pain/drug therapy , Delayed Diagnosis , Fever , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(5): 822-825, Sept.-Oct. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529946

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ewing sarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor of the pelvis in children and young adults. Even with aggressive treatment, its survival rate is amongst the poorest. Classical presentation may not be the rule. It may simulate clinically, imagiologically and histopathologically other nonmalignant entities. Therefore, its suspicion should not be overlooked. We report two cases of pelvic Ewing sarcoma: the first mimicking eosinophilic granuloma, and the second mimicking osteomyelitis. In the latter, we also report an atypical finding of its natural history: an initial response to antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment. In both cases, we highlight the possibility of an inconclusive percutaneous bone biopsy and the importance of immunochemistry and cytogenetics for the definitive diagnosis.


Resumo O sarcoma de Ewing é o tumor ósseo maligno da pelve mais comum em crianças e adultos jovens. Mesmo com tratamento agressivo, sua taxa de sobrevivência está entre as piores. A apresentação clássica pode não ser a regra. Ele pode simular clinicamente, imaginologicamente e histopatologicamente outras entidades não malignas. Portanto, sua suspeita não deve ser negligenciada. Relatamos dois casos de sarcoma pélvico: o primeiro imitando granuloma eosinofílico e o segundo imitando osteomielite. Neste último, também relatamos um achado atípico de sua história natural: uma resposta inicial ao antibiótico e ao tratamento anti-inflamatório. Em ambos os casos, destacamos a possibilidade de uma biópsia óssea percutânea inconclusiva e a importância da imunoquímica e da citogenética para o diagnóstico definitivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Osteomyelitis , Pelvic Neoplasms , Sarcoma, Ewing , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Kimura Disease
5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(2): 200-212, jun. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533925

ABSTRACT

Introduction. The identity of Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors involved in chronic osteomyelitis remains unresolved. SapS is a class C non-specific acid phosphatase and a well-known virulence factor that has been identified in S. aureus strain 154 but in protein extracts from rotting vegetables. Objective. To identify the SapS gene and characterize the activity of SapS from S. aureus strains: 12 isolates from bone infected samples of patients treated for chronic osteomyelitis and 49 from a database with in silico analysis of complete bacterial genomes. Materials and methods. The SapS gene was isolated and sequenced from 12 S. aureus clinical isolates and two reference strains; 49 S. aureus strains and 11 coagulase-negative staphylococci were tested using in silico PCR. Culture media semi-purified protein extracts from the clinical strains were assayed for phosphatase activity with p-nitro-phenyl- phosphate, O-phospho-L-tyrosine, O-phospho-L-serine, and OphosphoL-threonine in conjunction with various phosphatase inhibitors. Results. SapS was detected in the clinical and in-silico S. aureus strains, but not in the in silico coagulase-negative staphylococci strains. Sec-type I lipoprotein-type N-terminal signal peptide sequences; secreted proteins, and aspartate bipartite catalytic domains coding sequences were found in the SapS nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis. SapS dephosphorylated with p-nitro-phenyl-phosphate and ophosphoLtyrosine were selectively resistant to tartrate and fluoride, but sensitive to vanadate and molybdate. Conclusion. SapS gene was found in the genome of the clinical isolates and the in silico S. aureus strains. SapS shares biochemical similarities with known virulent bacterial, such as protein tyrosine phosphatases, suggesting it may be a virulence factor in chronic osteomyelitis.


Introducción. Se desconoce la identidad de los factores de virulencia de Staphylococcus aureus implicados en la osteomielitis crónica. Sin embargo, SapS, una fosfatasa ácida no específica de clase C, es un factor de virulencia reconocido y ya fue identificada en la cepa 154 de S. aureus, pero en extractos proteicos de vegetales podridos. Objetivo. Detectar el gen SapS y caracterizar la actividad de la fosfatasa SapS en cepas de S. aureus aisladas de pacientes con osteomielitis crónica y en las reportadas en una base de datos de análisis in silico de genomas bacterianos completos. Materiales y métodos. Se aisló y secuenció el gen SapS en los 12 aislamientos clínicos de S. aureus y en dos cepas de referencia; estas secuencias se analizaron junto con las secuencias de las cepas reportadas en la base de datos de genomas bacterianos: 49 cepas de S. aureus y 11 cepas de estafilococos negativos para coagulasa. Se evalúo la actividad de la fosfatasa SapS, presente en los extractos de los sobrenadantes de los cultivos de las cepas clínicas, mediante la hidrólisis de fosfato p-nitrofenil, O-fosfo-L- tirosina, O-fosfo-L serina y O-fosfo-L treonina junto con varios inhibidores de fosfatasas. Resultados. Se detectó el gen SapS en el genoma de las cepas clínicas y en las 49 cepas de S. aureus analizadas in silico, pero no en las 11 cepas de estafilococos negativos para coagulasa. La secuenciación de SapS reveló un péptido señal presente en el extremo N-terminal de proteínas extracelulares y los dominios bipartitos de aspartato (DDDD) en su sitio catalítico. SapS hidroliza selectivamente el fosfato p-nitrofenil y la O-fosfo-L-tirosina, pero es sensible a vanadato y molibdato. Conclusión. Se encontró SapS en el genoma de S. aureus de las cepas clínicas y de las cepas de simulación computacional. La SapS con actividad específica para la hidrólisis de la O-fosfo-L-tirosina comparte similitudes bioquímicas con las fosfatasas-tirosina bacterianas, por lo que puede formar parte de la red de factores de virulencia de la osteomielitis crónica.


Subject(s)
Osteomyelitis , Staphylococcus aureus , Virulence Factors
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(2): 206-221, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) is a serious complication of infected ulcers in a diabetic patient. The identification of the infecting microorganisms is generally by culture, which causes a bias. Recently, metagenomics has been used for microbial identification. AIM: To systematically review the scientific literature related to DFO in the last 10 years to evaluate if culture and metagenomics are complementary. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To carry out the systematic review, PRISMA and Rayyan were used for the selection of studies, using three databases, using the keywords diabetes, osteomyelitis, culture and microbiome. Articles in English or Spanish were included, containing information related to bacterial identification in DFO. Characteristics of the technique, patients and frequency of bacterial appearance were collected. RESULTS: Twenty six articles were included, 19 used culture and 7 metagenomics. The patients were predominantly men (68%), with an average age of 61 years, 83% had type 2 diabetes and comorbidities, mainly vascular and neuropathy. The Families with the highest frequency of appearance using the culture technique were Enterobacteriaceae (29.3%) and Staphylococcaceae(28.3%) and with metagenomics Peptoniphilaceae (22.1%) and Staphylococcaceae (9.4%). Peptoniphilaceae were not identified in culture, although they were frequently identified by metagenomics. Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus, regularly identified by culture, was not identified using metagenomics. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing results, there is a certain complementarity between microbiological culture and sequencing to identify bacteria present in DFO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Osteomyelitis/etiology , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Diabetic Foot/complications , Diabetic Foot/diagnosis , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1427219

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El absceso epidural espinal piógeno es la localización de una colección infecciosa dentro del canal raquídeo, por fuera del saco dural. El diagnóstico es difícil y las consecuencias son devastadoras a causa de la compresión o el compromiso vascular. La resonancia magnética tiene una alta sensibilidad y especificidad diagnósticas que aumentan si se administra un medio de contraste. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: determinar la reproducibilidad inter- e intraobservador, y discriminar los distintos parámetros y diferencias entre especialidades. materiales y métodos: Veintisiete observadores independientes evaluaron 5 parámetros: región, ubicación, compromiso, asociación y perivertebral, absceso extravertebral anterior, lateral o posterior. Se analizaron 35 casos en tres oportunidades, se utilizó el coeficiente kappa. Resultados: El nivel de acuerdo global intra- e interobservador global fue kappa 0,76; los valores obtenidos fueron: región 0,94; ubicación 0,88; compromiso 0,55; asociación 0,67 y perivertebral 0,77. Los tres primeros parámetros dan noción de volumen y los dos últimos reflejan la presencia de focos infecciosos vertebrales por fuera del conducto. Conclusiones: La clasificación morfológica propuesta es de uso simple y tiene una muy buena tasa de reproducibilidad intra- e interobservador. Los parámetros con mayor reproducibilidad son: región y ubicación (>0,87). Nivel de Evidencia: III


Introduction: A pyogenic spinal epidural abscess is an infectious collection inside the spinal canal, outside the dural sac. The diagnosis is difficult and the consequences are devastating due to compression or vascular compromise. MRI has a high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, which improves when a contrast medium is used. Objectives: To determine the inter- and intra-observer reproducibility, and to discriminate the different parameters and differences between specialties. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven independent observers evaluated 5 parameters: region, location, involvement, association, and perivertebral, anterior, lateral, or posterior extravertebral abscess. The kappa coefficient was used to analyze 35 cases on three occasions. Results: The overall intra- and inter-observer global agreement level is kappa 0.76, with the following values obtained: region 0.94; location 0.88; involvement 0.55; association 0.67 and perivertebral abscess 0.77. The first three parameters indicate volume, while the final two indicate the presence of vertebral infectious foci outside the canal. Conclusions: The proposed morphological classification is simple to use and has high intra- and inter-observer reproducibility. The most reproducible parameters are region and location (>0.87). Level of Evidence: III


Subject(s)
Osteomyelitis , Spinal Diseases , Discitis , Epidural Abscess , Infections
8.
In. Pradines Terra, Laura; García Parodi, Lucía; Bruno, Lorena; Filomeno Andriolo, Paola Antonella. La Unidad de Pie Diabético del Hospital Pasteur: modelo de atención y pautas de actuación: importancia del abordaje interdisciplinario. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2023. p.251-263, ilus, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1418734
9.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1420053

ABSTRACT

Tanto la osteomielitis como la osteoartritis séptica en el período neonatal son patologías infrecuentes. La afectación ósea de la columna cervical es aún más rara, siendo excepcional en neonatos. Son patologías graves, con elevada morbimortalidad, donde el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz agresivo son de suma importancia para el pronóstico vital y funcional. Presentamos el caso de un neonato que presentó una sepsis a S. Aureus multirresistente, asociada a una osteomielitis de la primera vértebra cervical y a una osteoartritis séptica de la cadera izquierda. Fue tratado precozmente de forma quirúrgica y con antibioticoterapia, presentando una buena evolución.


Both osteomyelitis and septic osteoarthritis in the neonatal period are infrequent pathologies. Bone involvement of the cervical spine is even rarer, being exceptional in neonates. These are serious pathologies, with high morbimortality, where early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are of utmost importance for the vital and functional prognosis. We present the case of a neonate who presented with sepsis due to multidrug-resistant S. Aureus, associated with osteomyelitis of the first cervical vertebra and septic osteoarthritis of the left hip. He was treated early surgically and with antibiotic therapy, presenting a good evolution


Tanto a osteomielite como a osteoartrose séptica no período neonatal são patologias raras. O envolvimento ósseo da coluna cervical é ainda mais raro, sendo excepcional nos recém-nascidos. Estas são patologias graves, com elevada morbimortalidade, onde o diagnóstico precoce e o tratamento agressivo são da maior importância para o prognóstico vital e funcional. Apresentamos o caso de um recém-nascido que apresentou sepse devido a S. Aureus multirresistente, associado a osteomielite da primeira vértebra cervical e osteoartrose séptica da anca esquerda. Foi tratado precocemente cirurgicamente e com terapia antibiótica, com uma boa evolução.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Cervical Atlas/pathology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Hip/pathology , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Delayed Diagnosis , Neonatal Sepsis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
10.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 637-641, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985922

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the clinical characteristics and treatments of chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis with autoimmune hepatitis in children. Methods: A child who had chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis with autoimmune hepatitis was admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology of the Children's Hospital Capital Institute of Pediatrics at April 2022. The clinical data was retrospectively analyzed. Using the keywords of "chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis""autoimmune hepatitis" in Chinese and English, the literature from database establishment to December 2022 in CNKI, Wanfang, China Biomedical Literature Database and Pubmed was searched. Combined with this case, the clinical characteristics and treatment of chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis combined with autoimmune hepatitis were analyzed. Results: A 5 years and 3 months girl was admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology of Children's Hospital, Capital Institute of Pediatrics for "transaminase elevated for 1 year and swelling of right maxillofacial area for half a year". The physical examinations at admission found a 4.0 cm × 4.0 cm swelling area with tenderness before the right ear, abdominal distention with visible abdominal wall vein, firm and enlarged liver (10.0 cm below the xiphoid and 4.5 cm below the right ribs), and splenomegaly (Line Ⅰ 10.0 cm, Line Ⅱ 11.5 cm, and Line Ⅲ 25.0 cm). There was no redness, swelling or restriction of the limbs. Laboratory examination found abnormal liver function with alanine aminotransferase 118 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase 227 U/L, γ-glutamyltransferase 360 U/L, and positive direct anti-human globulin test; immunology test found immunoglobulin G 41.60 g/L and a homogeneous type of antinuclear antibody of 1∶1 000; the autoimmune hepatitis antibody test found a positive anti-smooth muscle antibody (1∶100). Liver biopsy showed moderate interfacial inflammation and the patient was diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis (International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group 19). The imaging findings showed extensive involvement of the bilateral mandible, while the right side was severe. There were expansile bone changes, thinning of the bone cortex, and significant swelling of the surrounding soft tissue in the mandibular body, mandibular angle, and mandibular ramus. After treatment of glucocorticoid, the swelling of the right maxillofacial region disappeared and the transaminase returned to normal. Only one case was reported before in English and none in Chinese. The two cases were both girls whose main clinical features were joint pain and swelling. The previous case started with pain in both knee joints, and developed liver injury during treatment while this case had liver injury as the initial clinical presentation. Besides, the affected sites and degrees of arthritis in the 2 cases were different. After glucocorticoid treatment, the clinical symptoms were alleviated, and transaminases returned to normal. Conclusions: Chronic non bacterial osteomyelitis may involve the liver and manifest as autoimmune hepatitis. Glucocorticoids therapy is effective.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Child , Glucocorticoids , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Alanine Transaminase , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy
11.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 588-592, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982791

ABSTRACT

Skull base osteomyelitis is a rare, refractory, and potentially fatal disease primarily caused by otogenic and sino rhinogenic infections. At times, it can mimic neoplasia complicating the diagnosis. With the use of antibiotics, advancements in diagnostic methods, and skull base surgical techniques, the mortality rate has significantly improved. However, the successful diagnosis and treatment of the disease is still challenging due to delayed diagnosis, lengthy treatment course, a tendency for relapse and lack of guidelines. Therefore, this article aims to review the progress in the diagnosis and treatment of skull base osteomyelitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otitis Externa/diagnosis , Skull Base , Osteomyelitis/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential
12.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 228-235, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981925

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#The study aimed to identify the risk factors of recurrence in chronic osteomyelitis (COM) and to document the microbiological patterns pre- and intra-operatively and at recurrence, if any.@*METHODS@#We performed retrospective review on COM patients treated with surgical debridement and a 6-week course of antibiotics. The patients with symptoms of osteomyelitis for at least 6 weeks, present or past episodes of discharging sinus, documentation of bone sequestration in operative notes or preoperative images were included in the study. Patients with symptoms of osteomyelitis < 6 weeks, lack of history of discharging sinus or lack of evidence of sequestration in preoperative images or intraoperative notes were excluded. Logistic regression models were used to assess the impact of risk factors of recurrence. Cohen-Kappa scores were derived to see the concordance between pre-operative and intra-operative isolates and at recurrence.@*RESULTS@#Totally, 147 COM patients (115 males and 32 females, mean age (33 ± 19) years) were included in this study. Recurrence was noted in 28 patients (19.0%). Polymicrobial growth and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae increased the chance of recurrence. Cierny-Mader stage-1, hematogenous aetiology and negative intraoperative culture reduced the chance of recurrence. Concordance between pre-operative and intra-operative cultures was 59.85% (Kappa score 0.526, p < 0.001) and between index surgery and at recurrence was 23.81% (Kappa score 0.155, p < 0.001). Lack of knowledge of causative organism preoperatively did not affect outcome. At mean follow-up (42 ± 15) months, all patients were apparently infection free for at least 1 year.@*CONCLUSION@#Polymicrobial growth and multi-drug resistant organisms increase the risk of recurrence in COM. Patients' age, gender, diabetes mellitus, previous failed treatment, duration of symptoms, haemoglobin, white cell count, C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate at presentation did not have any impact on the recurrence of infection. Pre-operative isolation of organism is of questionable value. Recurrences of infections do occur and are more of re-infections than relapses. Diligent isolation of organism must be attempted even in re-debridements. Even patients with recurrences do well with appropriate debridement and antibiotic therapy.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Debridement , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Osteomyelitis/surgery , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
13.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(2): 70-75, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428534

ABSTRACT

SPeripheral sympathectomy is a procedure which has shown high rates of decreasing ischemic pain, recover functionality and wound healing, preventing the progression of the disease and further complications. We present a female patient with severe Raynaud´s phenomenon secondary to localized cutaneous systemic sclerosis complicated who presented digital ulcer treated with a sympathectomy of the radial and ulnar artery at the wrist level, undergoing post-operative follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Raynaud Disease/surgery , Sympathectomy/methods , Ulnar Artery/innervation , Osteomyelitis , Raynaud Disease/etiology , Regional Blood Flow/physiology , Scleroderma, Localized , Scleroderma, Systemic , Follow-Up Studies , Radial Artery/innervation
14.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 22(4): 36-41, out.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1414835

ABSTRACT

A Osteomielite dos Maxilares (OM) é uma inflamação óssea, de origem na maioria infecciosa, podendo atingir a porção medular e cortical dos ossos maxilares. Apresenta-se em maior extensão na mandíbula, devido ao pobre suprimento sanguíneo que essa possui, sendo mais prevalente em homens entre a faixa etária de 40 a 60 anos. Sua etiologia está relacionada principalmente às infecções odontogênicas, infecções secundárias e corpos estranhos ocasionais, como os implantes dentários. Tem-se por objetivo apresentar um relato de caso clínico sobre OM na região posterior da mandíbula, bem como sua associação a uma insatisfatória implantação dentária onde houve desenvolvimento de lesão peri-implantar. Paciente do gênero feminino, 53 anos, melanoderma, apresentou dor crônica, abaulamento ósseo sem outros sinais significativos na região de molares inferiores no lado direito, radiograficamente visualizava-se imagem mista sendo sugestiva de sequestro ósseo. Na história pregressa relatou ter realizado explantação na referida região após ser diagnosticada com peri implantite. Ao final do estudo concluiu-se que a afecção teve como causa a infecção bacteriana proveniente de contaminação durante a inserção de implante dentário. Optou-se por remoção cirúrgica do osso necrótico e inflamado... (AU)


Osteomyelitis of the Jaws (OM) is a bone inflammation, of mostly infectious origin, which can affect the medullary and cortical portion of the maxillary bones. It presents itself to a greater extent in the mandible, due to the poor blood supply that it has, being more prevalent in men between the age group of 40 to 60 years. Its etiology is mainly related to odontogenic infections, secondary infections and occasional foreign bodies, such as dental implants. The objective is to present a clinical case report on OM in the posterior region of the mandible, as well as its association with an unsatisfactory dental implantation, where there was development of a peri-implant lesion. Female patient, 53 years old, melanoderma, presented chronic pain, bone bulging without other significant signs in the region of lower molars on the right side, radiographically a mixed image was visualized, suggesting bone sequestration. In her previous history, she reported having performed explantation in that region after being diagnosed with peri-implantitis. At the end of the study, it was concluded that the disease was caused by bacterial infection from contamination during dental implant insertion. We opted for surgical removal of the necrotic and inflamed bone... (AU)


La osteomielitis de los maxilares (OM) es una inflamación de los huesos, en su mayoría de origen infeccioso, que puede afectar la porción medular y cortical de los huesos maxilares. Se presenta en mayor medida en la mandíbula, debido a la escasa irrigación sanguínea que tiene, siendo más prevalente en hombres entre el grupo de edad de 40 a 60 años. Su etiología se relaciona principalmente con infecciones odontogénicas, infecciones secundarias y cuerpos extraños ocasionales, como los implantes dentales. El objetivo es presentar un reporte de caso de OM en la región posterior de la mandíbula, así como su asociación con una implantación dentaria insatisfactoria a partir de la cual desarrollamos una lesión periimplantaria. Paciente femenina, 53 años, melanodermia, presenta dolor crónico, tumefacción ósea con otros signos significativos en región molar inferior del lado derecho, radiográficamente se visualiza imagen mixta sugestiva de pérdida ósea. En su historia previa menciona haber realizado una explantación en esa región tras ser diagnosticada de periimplantitis. Al final del estudio, se concluyó que la enfermedad fue causada por una infección bacteriana provocada por la contaminación durante la inserción del implante dental. Se optó por la extirpación quirúrgica de la piel necrótica e inflamada... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Osteomyelitis/surgery , Maxillary Diseases/surgery , Osteomyelitis/etiology , Osteomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Maxillary Diseases/etiology , Maxillary Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Dental Implants/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Peri-Implantitis/complications
15.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401996

ABSTRACT

Na prática clínica da dermatologia não é incomum nos depararmos com situações desafiadoras, de difícil caracterização e que podem nos induzir ao erro diagnóstico. Quadros cutâneos com apresentações semelhantes entre si estão aqui inclusas e, neste caso, é de suma importância a atuação do médico dermatologista de forma a unir as informações da anamnese, exame físico e exames complementares, a fim de excluir condições de pior prognóstico e que requerem atuação mais agressiva de outras condições benignas e/ou com menor impacto negativo. Apresentamos abaixo uma dessas situações de desafio diagnóstico em que uma lesão cutânea secundária à osteomielite crônica foi inicialmente atribuída à causa inflamatória ou neoplásica (AU)


In the clinical practice of Dermatology, it is not uncommon to encounter challenging situations that are difficult to characterize and may lead to misdiagnosis. Skin conditions with similar presentations are included here and, in this case, it is of utmost importance that the dermatologist combines information from the medical history, physical examination and complementary tests in order to exclude conditions with worse prognosis and that require more aggressive action than other benign conditions and/or with less negative impac (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Osteomyelitis , Diagnostic Errors , Degloving Injuries
16.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(3): 391-397, sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409951

ABSTRACT

Resumen En la terapia con oxígeno hiperbárico (HBO) se utiliza oxígeno al 100% de concentración en una cámara presurizada con presiones supraatmosféricas, que corresponden de 2 a 3 atmósferas. Los mecanismos por los cuales funciona esta terapia se relacionan con propiedades físicas de los gases y su comportamiento fisiológico en el organismo, lo que lleva finalmente a la hiperoxia, evento fisiológico que permite la obtención de diversos efectos beneficiosos. La evidencia en medicina ha demostrado su utilidad mayormente en la enfermedad por descompresión, infecciones cutáneas graves e intoxicación por monóxido de carbono. En el ámbito de la otorrinolaringología ha probado ser útil en algunas enfermedades como la hipoacusia súbita idiopática, tanto como terapia única como asociada al uso de corticosteroides, como en la osteomielitis refractaria del oído externo, la que en conjunto con antibioticoterapia y manejo quirúrgico presenta un evidente aumento en la tasa de mejoría. Cabe mencionar que la terapia con HBO ha demostrado también beneficios en los tratamientos y complicaciones posteriores a la radiación en pacientes con cáncer de cabeza y cuello. Es importante mencionar que la terapia con HBO no está exenta de riesgos y requiere que los pacientes cumplan con características específicas para su utilización, por lo que su indicación debe ser juiciosa y en casos seleccionados.


Abstract In hyperbaric oxygen therapy, 100% pure oxygen is used in a pressurized chamber with super atmospheric pressures which correspond to 2-3 atmospheres. The mechanism by which this treatment works is related to the physical properties of gases and their physiological behavior in the body, which leads to hyperoxia, the physiological event which allows for diverse beneficial health effects. The evidence in medicine has proven its utility mainly in decompression sickness, severe skin infections and carbon monoxide poisoning. In the otolaryngology field it has been proven useful in diseases like idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss, both as the only treatment and as a concurrent treatment along with corticosteroids, in malignant otitis externa which in conjunction with antibiotic treatment and a surgical approach presents a clear increase in improvement rates. It must be mentioned that hyperbaric chamber treatment has also shown benefits in radiation treatment and post radiation complications in head and neck cancer patients. It is important to note that hyperbaric oxygen therapy is not without risks and patients must meet specific criteria for it to be applied, therefore it must be indicated using careful judgement and only in necessary cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Deafness/therapy , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/instrumentation , Osteomyelitis/therapy , Otolaryngology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/therapy
18.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 56(suple. 2): 36-39, may. - ago. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1396499

ABSTRACT

La osteomielitis (OM) es una complicación de las úlceras en pie diabético que habitualmente es subdiagnosticada y tratada en forma tardía e inadecuada. La demora en el tratamiento de estos pacientes aumenta el riesgo de amputación. En esta revisión, se analiza la bibliografía actual acerca del diagnóstico de OM y se realizan recomendaciones en base a la misma, y a las características de los pacientes, los insumos y las posibilidades en nuestro medio.


Diabetic foot osteomyelitis (OM) is a diabetic foot ulcer complication. Usually, it is misdiagnosed and the treatment is delayed and inadequate. Delaying the treatment of these patients rises the risk of amputation. In this revision, current bibliography about this topic is updated and clinical practice recommendations are done, based on the publications and adapted to the characteristics of our country


Subject(s)
Osteomyelitis , Biopsy , Diabetic Foot , Diagnosis
19.
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 16(1): 49-53, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525598

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La osteomielitis es un proceso infeccioso óseo. En adultos, presenta alta mortalidad por sus complicaciones sistémicas, influida por factores de riesgos asociados. Por lo anterior el objetivo del estudio es describir la tasa de mortalidad por osteomielitis según sexo, rango etario y región, en el periodo 2016 - 2020 en Chile. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio ecológico de las defunciones por osteomielitis en los años 2016-2020 en Chile, según sexo, grupo etario y región (n=218). Datos obtenidos del departamento de estadística e información en salud. Se calculó tasa de mortalidad. No se requirió aprobación del comité de ética. Resultados: En el periodo estudiado se presentó una tasa de mortalidad de 0,22 x 100.000 habitantes. El sexo masculino presento un 52% de las defunciones en personas de 70 a 89 años, seguido del 25% en los pacientes de 80-89 años de edad. La región que presentó una mayor tasa de mortalidad fué Los Ríos con 0,49. Discusión: Se reportó mayor número de defunciones en grupos etarios avanzados, pudiendo deberse a que es una patología asociada a enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles y en Chile hay gran prevalencia de éstas. La distribución geográfica de la enfermedad evidenció más reportes de defunciones en la zona sur, sin embargo, hay escasas publicaciones que expliquen las posibles causas de ello. Conclusión: Se requieren mayores estudios nacionales para profundizar en los hallazgos encontrados. Es importante conocer más variables sociodemográficas que influyan en la mortalidad por osteomielitis en adultos.


Introduction: Osteomyelitis is a bone infectious process. In the adult stage, it presents a high mortality due to its systemic complications, influenced by associated risk factors. The aim of this work is to describe the mortality rate due to osteomyelitis according to sex, age range, and region, in the period 2016 - 2020 in Chile. Materials and Methods: Ecological study of deaths due to osteomyelitis in the years 2016-2020 in Chile, according to sex, age group, and region (n=218). Data obtained from the Department of Statistics and Health Information. Mortality rate was calculated. Ethics committee approval was not required. Results: During the period studied, the mortality rate was 0.22 per 100,000 inhabitants. The male sex accounted for 52% of deaths in persons between 70 and 89 years of age, followed by 25% in patients between 80 and 89 years of age. The region with the highest mortality rate was Los Ríos with 0.49. Discussion: A greater number of deaths were reported in advanced age groups, which may be due to the fact that it is a pathology associated with chronic non-communicable diseases and in Chile there is a high prevalence of these diseases. The geographical distribution of the disease showed more reports of deaths due to this cause in the south, however there are few publications on possible causes of geographical distribution. Conclusion: Further national studies are required to deepen the findings. It is important to know more sociodemographic variables that influence osteomyelitis mortality in the adult population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Osteomyelitis/mortality , Osteomyelitis/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Age and Sex Distribution
20.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1413930

ABSTRACT

Introducción: muchos huesos que forman el esqueleto de la cabeza humana y muchas especies de animales están neumatizados. Se han planteado múltiples hipótesis con diversos enfoques con la intención de explicar la existencia de estos espacios aéreos. De todos los huesos con estas características en humanos, solamente los senos paranasales y la neumatización del hueso temporal han sido objeto de múltiples hipótesis. La diversidad de criterios denota un desacuerdo, si no con todos, con la mayoría de ellos. Material y métodos: esta teoría se basa en reflexiones personales apoyadas en radiografías e imágenes anatómicas de los huesos frontal y temporal, con el objetivo de ilustrar y reforzar las razones de la existencia de estas cavidades en todas las especies que las poseen. Resultados, discusión y conclusiones: estos espacios de aire se forman en el cuerpo de los huesos cortos como un mecanismo de defensa natural al reemplazar el tejido esponjoso para prevenir infecciones graves del mismo (osteomielitis), que dada su proximidad al cerebro y sus estructuras representaría un peligro para la vida. Consideramos que los laberintos etmoidales fueron creados con el objetivo de llenar el espacio vacío entre los huesos vecinos y dar estabilidad al esqueleto óseo circundante. La neumatización del hueso temporal (hueso compacto) fue creada para "alojar y proteger" importantes estructuras de los sentidos del oído y del equilibrio, los vasos y los nervios.


Introduction: Many bones that make up the skeleton of the human head and many species of animals are pneumatized. Multiple hypotheses with various approaches have been stated with the intention of explaining the existence of these airspaces. Of all the bones with these characteristics in humans, only the paranasal sinuses and pneumatization of the temporal bone have been the subject of multiple hypotheses. The diversity of criteria denotes disagreement, if not with all, with the majority of them. Material and methods: This theory is based on personal reflections supported by x-rays and anatomical images of the frontal and temporal bones, with the aim of illustrating and reinforcing the reasons for the existence of these cavities in all species that possess them. Results, discussion and conclusions: These air spaces are formed in the body of short bones as a natural defense mechanism by replacing the spongy tissue to prevent serious infections of the same (osteomyelitis), which given its close proximity to the brain and its structures would represent a danger to life from its emergence. We consider that the ethmoid labyrinths were created with the aim of filling the empty space between the neighboring bones to give stability to the surrounding bone skeleton. The pneumatization of the temporal bone, compact bone, was created to "house and protect" important structures of the senses of hearing and balance, vessels and nerves


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone and Bones , Osteomyelitis
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