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2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 656-662, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058092

ABSTRACT

Resumen La criptococosis es una micosis sistémica producida por un hongo levaduriforme encapsulado denominado Cryptococcus neoformans. Es una enfermedad universal, que ocurre con mayor frecuencia en pacientes inmunocomprometidos, manifestándose principalmente como una enfermedad diseminada con compromiso meníngeo o pulmonar. Sin embargo, la osteomielitis ocurre solo en 5-10% de los casos, siendo el compromiso vertebral el más frecuente. Presentamos un caso de criptococosis vertebral aislada y una búsqueda bibliográfica sobre el tema. Se recomienda realizar una terapia antifúngica de inducción intravenosa y continuar con una fase de consolidación, vía oral, de duración variable. La indicación quirúrgica se considera en lesiones que comprometen la estabilidad vertebral y aquellas que presentan un compromiso neurológico, producen deformidad y para reducir el inóculo infeccioso.


Cryptococcosis is an infectious disease caused by a ubiquitous encapsulated yeast called Cryptococcus neoformans, it is usually associated with immunosuppressed patients. Osteomyelitis occurs in 5-10%, the spine involvement is one of the most reported. The purpose of this work is to present a case of isolated vertebral cryptococcosis and detail the results of a literature review. The treatment protocol is not yet established but it is recommended to start with aggressive intravenous therapy and continue with a suppressive treatment orally during a variable time. Surgical indication is considered in lesions that affect the spinal stability, deformity or neurological compromise and for local infectious control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Spinal Diseases/microbiology , Spinal Diseases/pathology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Osteomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cryptococcosis/diagnostic imaging , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification
3.
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 20(1)ene.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991043

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar las características clínicas, serológicas e imagenológicas presentes en los pacientes con úlcera del pie diabético complicada con osteomielitis. Métodos: Estudio observacional prospectivo, en 280 pacientes ingresado en el servicio de Angiología del Hospital Provincial Universitario Comandante Faustino Pérez Hernández de Matanzas por presentar úlceras del pie diabético, con sospecha de infección y de osteomielitis de las úlceras. La osteomielitis se diagnosticó mediante histología del hueso. El período de estudio osciló entre enero de 2013 y diciembre de 2017, ambos incluidos. Resultados: Se encontraron los siguientes elementos clínicos en los pacientes diagnosticados con osteomielitis: proceder de una zona rural, edad mayor de 59 años, tiempo de evolución de la diabetes mayor a los 14 años, glucemia al ingreso mayor de 10 mmol/L, área de la lesión mayor de 5,4 cm2, infección severa según la Infectious disease Society of America, test de contacto óseo con sonda acanalada (positivo), velocidad de sedimentación globular mayor de 90 mm y rayos X positivo del pie. Conclusiones: Existen características clínicas, serológicas e imagenológicas predominantes en los pacientes con úlceras del pie diabético y diagnóstico histopatológico de osteomielitis(AU)


Objective: To determine clinical, serologic and imageonology characteristics that are present in osteomyelitis of these ulcers which are diagnosed by means of histopathological studies and bones histology. Methods: Prospective, observational study in a cohort of 280 patients with diabetic foot ulcer, with suspicious of infection and osteomyelitis of the ulcers that were attended in the Provincial Service of Angiology of Matanzas. Osteomyelitis was diagnosed by bone histology. The study period oscillated between January 2013 to December 2017, both included. Results: The following clinical elements were predominat: rural zone procedence, older than 59 years, time of evolution of the diabetes mellitus bigger than 14 years, fast plasmatic glucose of more than 10 mmol/l , wound area bigger than 5.4 cm2, severe infection according to criteria of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDISA), probing to bone test (positive), VSG > 90 mms; and positive result in the foot´s X Ray. Conclusions: There are clinical, serological and imagenology characteristics that are predominant in the patients with diabetic foot ulcers and histopathological diagnosis of osteomyelitis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Osteomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Diabetic Foot/complications , Prospective Studies , Observational Study
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(5): 678-681, May 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012972

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: We describe the case of a diabetic patient who developed vertebral osteomyelitis and bilateral psoas abscess with gas formation due to klebsiella pneumoniae. METHODS: A 64-year-old woman with a 4-year history of type-2 diabetes mellitus was admitted to the Emergency Department. The subject had a 2-day history of high-grade fever associated with chills and a 5-hour history of consciousness. She received empirical treatment with febrifuge, after which her fever decreased. RESULTS: Her fever recurred after an interval of three hours. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed vertebral osteomyelitis and bilateral psoas muscle abscess with gas formation. Blood culture and purulent fluid described the growth of the Klebsiella pneumoniae. The patient received antibiotic therapy and bilateral drainage therapy after the drainage catheter was placed into the abscess cavity by CT-guidance. Due to the serious damage to the vertebral column and permanent pain, the patient underwent minimally invasive internal spinal fixation and recovered successfully. CONCLUSION: A case of vertebral osteomyelitis and bilateral psoas abscess with gas formation caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a diabetic patient. Antibiotic therapy, drainage, and minimally invasive internal spinal fixation were performed, which enabled a good outcome.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Descrever o caso de uma paciente diabética que desenvolveu osteomielite vertebral e abcesso bilateral do psoas com formação de gás causada por klebsiella pneumoniae. MÉTODOS: Uma mulher de 64 anos de idade, com 4 anos de histórico de diabetes mellitus tipo 2, foi admitida no Serviço de Emergência. A paciente apresentava um quadro de dias de febre alta acompanhada de calafrios e um histórico de 5 horas de consciência. Ela recebeu tratamento empírico com antitérmico, após o qual a febre diminuiu. RESULTADOS: A febre retornou após um intervalo de três horas. Uma tomografia computadorizada do abdome revelou osteomielite vertebral e abcesso bilateral do músculo psoas com formação de gás. A cultura do sangue e o fluido purulento revelaram o crescimento de Klebsiella pneumoniae. A paciente recebeu antibióticos e terapia de drenagem bilateral após o cateter de drenagem ser posicionado na cavidade do abscesso com auxílio de TC. Devido a sérios danos à coluna vertebral e a dor permanente, a paciente foi submetida à fixação vertebral interna minimamente invasiva e recuperou-se com sucesso. CONCLUSÃO: Um caso de osteomielite vertebral e abscesso do psoas bilateral com a formação de gás causada por Klebsiella pneumoniae em uma paciente diabética. Antibioticoterapia, drenagem e fixação vertebral interna minimamente invasiva foram realizadas, o que permitiu um bom resultado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Osteomyelitis/surgery , Spinal Diseases/surgery , Klebsiella Infections/surgery , Psoas Abscess/surgery , Diabetes Complications/surgery , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Spinal Diseases/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Drainage/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Psoas Abscess/microbiology , Diabetes Complications/microbiology , Gases/metabolism , Middle Aged
5.
Acta ortop. mex ; 32(3): 182-187, may.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054777

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El término «síndrome de destrucción vertebral¼ engloba patologías que causan alteraciones estructurales en la columna -en particular, en el cuerpo vertebral-, produciendo deformidad con afectación neurológica y/o mecánica. Dentro de las patologías que se encuentran en esta definición están la infecciosa, tumoral y metabólica. La osteomielitis vertebral es una enfermedad que se da sobre todo en adultos > 50 años; se habla de espondilodiscitis cuando hay afección del disco y cuerpo vertebral. El más importante organismo en la osteomielitis vertebral es el Staphylococcus aureus, visto en más de 50% de los casos. Los tumores de la columna vertebral pueden iniciar desde lesiones locales o adyacentes a la columna o a distancia, diseminados por vía hematógena o linfática; las lesiones por metástasis abarcan cerca de 97% de todos los tumores de la columna. Los tumores primarios que con mayor frecuencia se diseminan a columna vertebral son pulmonar, de próstata, mama y riñón. Las enfermedades metabólicas óseas son un grupo de desórdenes que ocurren como resultado de cambios en el metabolismo del calcio. La columna vertebral contiene grandes cantidades de hueso esponjoso metabólicamente activo que debe resistir cargas axiales durante la postura. La osteoporosis es la enfermedad metabólica que con más frecuencia afecta la columna vertebral; se caracteriza por disminución en la masa ósea. El diagnóstico de estas entidades es importante para el tratamiento y pronóstico del paciente; el término «síndrome de destrucción vertebral¼ propone un esquema protocolizado encaminado a mejorar el pronóstico del paciente, así como su pronto tratamiento.


Abstract: The term «vertebral destruction syndrome¼ comprises pathologies causing structural changes in the spine, mainly in the vertebral body, producing mechanical deformity and neurological involvement. The pathologies found in this definition may be infectious, metabolic or tumoral. Vertebral osteomyelitis is a disease that occurs mainly in adults > 50 years; we speak of spondylodiscitis when the condition affects the disc and vertebral body. The most important organism in vertebral osteomyelitis is Staphylococcus aureus, seen in over 50% of cases. Tumors of the spine can start from local or adjacent spinal injuries or distant ones, and spread through the blood or lymphatic system. Metastases account for about 97% of all tumors of the spine. Primary tumors that most commonly spread to the spine are lung, prostate, breast and kidney. Metabolic bone diseases are a group of disorders that occur as a result of changes in the calcium metabolism. The spine contains large amounts of metabolically active cancellous bone, which must withstand axial loads during stance. Osteoporosis is a metabolic disease that most commonly affects the spine; it is characterized by low bone mass. The diagnosis of these entities is important for the treatment and prognosis of the patient. The term «vertebral destruction syndrome¼ proposes a notarized scheme aimed at improving the patient's prognosis and his/her prompt treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Syndrome , Osteomyelitis/microbiology
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(2): 204-209, abr. 2018. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887461

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las infecciones osteoarticulares son una importante causa de morbilidad y pueden presentar bacteriemia. La epidemiología de estas infecciones se ha modificado en los últimos años. Objetivos. Describir las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y evolutivas de los niños con infecciones osteoarticulares y comparar los pacientes con bacteriemia con los que no la presentaron. Población y métodos. Cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron pacientes menores de 18 años, admitidos en el Hospital Juan P. Garrahan entre el 1/1/2016 y el 31/12/2016 con sospecha de infecciones osteoarticulares en quienes se hubiese realizado artrocentesis y/o biopsia articular. Se excluyeron niños con patología previa. Se compararon las características clínicas y de laboratorio según tuvieran bacteriemia o no. Se utilizó Stata 10. Resultados. N: 62. La mediana de edad fue 59.5 meses (rango intercuartilo -RIC- 24-84). Presentaron fiebre 44 pacientes (70%). Predominaron las artritis (54 pacientes, 87%). Se identificó un agente etiológico en 29 pacientes (47%). Predominó Staphylococcus aureus (n: 20, 32%). Tuvieron bacteriemia 15 de ellos (24%). Recibieron clindamicina como tratamiento empírico 56 pacientes (90%). La mediana de tratamiento endovenoso fue 7 días (RIC 5-11) y de internación, 7 días (RIC 4-12). Los pacientes con bacteriemia tuvieron menor edad (26 meses vs. 60, p < 0,05), mayor valor de proteína C reactiva inicial (101 vs. 33 U/L, p < 0,05), menor valor de hemoglobina al ingresar (10,8 g/dl vs. 12.5 g/dl, p 0,04) y mayor frecuencia de fiebre (100% vs. 57%, p < 0,05). Conclusiones. Predominó Staphylococcus aureus. Los niños con bacteriemia tuvieron menor edad, mayor valor de proteína C reactiva, menos hemoglobina al ingresar y, más frecuentemente, fiebre.


Introduction. Osteoarticular infections are an important cause of morbidity and may present with bacteremia. The epidemiology has changed in recent years. Objectives. To describe the epidemiological, clinical, and evolutionary characteristics of children with osteoarticular infections and compare patients with and without bacteremia. Population and methods. Retrospective cohort. Patients younger than 18 years admitted between January 1st, 2016 and December 31st, 2016 suspected of osteoarticular infections who had undergone an arthrocentesis and/or joint biopsy were included. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between patients with and without bacteremia. The Stata 10 software was used.Results. N: 62. Patients' median age was 59.5 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 24-84). Fever developed in 44 patients (70%). Arthritis predominated (54 patients, 87%). An etiologic agent was identified in 29 patients (47%). Staphylococcus aureus was prevalent (n: 20, 32%). Among these, 15 developed bacteremia (24%). Clindamycin was administered to 56 patients (90%) as empirical therapy. The median intravenous treatment duration was 7 days (IQR: 5-11) and the median length of stay, 7 days (IQR: 4-12). Patients with bacteremia were younger (26 months versus 60 months, p < 0.05), had a higher baseline C-reactive protein level (101 U/L versus 33 U/L, p < 0.05), a lower hemoglobin level at the time of admission (10.8 g/dL versus 12.5 g/dL, p = 0.04), and a higher frequency of fever (100% versus 57%, p < 0.05).Conclusions. Staphylococcus aureus was prevalent. Children with bacteremia were younger, had a higher C-reactive protein level, a lower hemoglobin level at the time of admission, and 100% presented fever


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Osteoarthritis/diagnosis , Osteoarthritis/epidemiology , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/epidemiology , Arthritis/diagnosis , Arthritis/epidemiology , Bone Diseases, Infectious/diagnosis , Bone Diseases, Infectious/epidemiology , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Osteoarthritis/microbiology , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Arthritis/microbiology , Bone Diseases, Infectious/complications , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Bacteremia/complications , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Hospitals, Pediatric
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(3): 235-242, jun. 2017. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899706

ABSTRACT

Background: The most frequent osteoarticular infections (OAI) etiological agent is Staphylococcus aureus. The prevalence of other microorganisms has changed after the introduction of new vaccines. Aim: To describe the etiology and evolution of the OAIs in children hospitalized in Pediatric Hospital Pereira Rossell between 2009 and 2015. Patients and Methods: Joint fluid and bone puncture studies of hospitalized children suspected of OAI. Epidemiological characteristics, isolated microorganisms, complementary tests, initial treatment, complications, and days of hospitalization were analyzed. Results: 335 patients; the etiology was established in 113. Clinical data could be analyzed in 87 cases. The average age was 6.1 years. They corresponded to: methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (n: 47), community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) (n: 11), Streptococcus pyogenes (n: 6), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n: 1), Haemophilus influenzae type b (n: 2), Gram-negative bacilli (n: 9), Kingella kingae (n: 1) others (n: 6). In 4 cases, more than one microorganism was isolated. CA-MRSA infections were more serious. Discussion: A decrease is observed in the number of CA-MRSA isolates. A fact to be highlighted is the impact of universal vaccination against S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae type b. It is a finding to be monitored the increasing number of Gram-negative bacilli isolates.


Introducción: El agente etiológico más frecuente de las infecciones osteoarticulares (IOA) es Staphylococcus aureus. Luego de la introducción de nuevas vacunas la prevalencia de otros microorganismos ha cambiado. Objetivo: Describir la etiología y evolución de las IOA en niños internados en el Hospital Pediátrico del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell entre los años 2009 y 2015. Pacientes y Métodos: Se identificaron los cultivos de muestras de líquido articular y punción ósea de niños con sospecha de IOA. Se analizaron sus características epidemiológicas, microorganismos aislados, exámenes complementarios, tratamiento inicial, complicaciones y días de hospitalización. Resultados: Se estudiaron 335 pacientes, se aisló microorganismo en 113. Se analizó 87 casos. Edad media 6,1 años. Correspondieron a S. aureus sensible a meticilina (n: 47), S. aureus resistente a meticilina adquirido en la comunidad (SARM-AC) (n: 11), Streptococcus pyogenes (n: 6), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n: 1), Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (n: 2), bacilos gramnegativos (n: 9): Kingella kingae (n: 1), otros (n: 6). En 4 casos se aisló más de un microorganismo. Las infecciones por SARM-AC fueron más graves. Discusión: Se observa un descenso de aislados de SARM-AC. Se destaca el impacto de la vacunación universal contra S. pneumoniae y H. influenzae tipo b. Se debe vigilar el aumento de aislamiento de bacilos gramnegativos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization , Length of Stay
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(6): 696-699, dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844424

ABSTRACT

A case of a girl with chronic posttraumatic osteomyelitis of the right tibia with microbiological isolation of Bacillus spp. by conventional methods and confirmation by mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass) of Corynebacterium striatum is presented. Diagnostic methods, clinical manifestations, and resistance pattern of these infections are described.


Se presenta el caso de una adolescente con osteomielitis crónica postraumática de la tibia derecha con aislamiento microbiológico por métodos convencionales de Bacillus spp. y confirmación por espectrometría de masas MALDI-TOF de Corynebacterium striatum, microorganismo considerado generalmente saprófito. Se describen las presentaciones clínicas de estas infecciones descritas en la literatura científica, la necesidad del diagnóstico etiológico por técnicas no convencionales y el patrón de resistencia comúnmente expresado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Osteomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Surgical Wound Infection/diagnostic imaging , Tibia/injuries , Corynebacterium/isolation & purification , Corynebacterium Infections/diagnostic imaging , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Surgical Wound Infection/microbiology , Tibia/surgery , Tibia/microbiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 114(5): e333-e337, oct. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-838277

ABSTRACT

El absceso del psoas es una enfermedad infrecuente en niños. Puede tener una presentación clínica inespecífica, ser de inicio insidioso y relacionarse o no con fiebre. El tipo más frecuente en pediatría es primario; sin embargo, en ocasiones, puede ser de origen secundario y asociarse a infecciones graves, como la osteomielitis, por lo que se requiere un alto índice de sospecha para detectarlo y tratarlo oportunamente. Presentamos un caso atípico de absceso del psoas con infiltración del cuerpo vertebral de L2 en un paciente masculino de 14 años previamente sano, sin antecedente de traumatismo ni fiebre al momento del ingreso. Se realizaron una radiografía y una ecografía, pero el diagnóstico se confirmó a través de una resonancia nuclear magnética de columna lumbosacra. Conhemocultivos positivos para Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente, completó 2 semanas de tratamiento antibiótico endovenoso y 4 semanas por vía oral con negativización de cultivos y resolvió por completo la sintomatología inicial.


Psoas abscess is a common disease in children. It can have a nonspecific clinical presentation, insidious onset and sometimes fever. The most common type in children is the primary one; however, it can sometimes be of secondary origin and associated with severe infections such as osteomyelitis so a high index of suspicion is required to detect and treat it promptly. We present an unusual case of psoas abscess with infiltration of the vertebral body of L2 in a 14 year old male patient previously healthy with no history of trauma or fever on admission. X-ray and ultrasound were performed but the diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. With positive blood cultures for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus he completed 2 weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy and 4 weeks of oral antibiotic therapy with blood cultures negativization and resolution of symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Osteomyelitis/complications , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Spinal Diseases/complications , Spinal Diseases/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Psoas Abscess/complications , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Lumbar Vertebrae
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(4): 527-529, July-Aug. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792798

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sporotrichosis is the most common subcutaneous mycosis in South America and its association with zoonotic transmission remains a relevant public health problem in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The disease most commonly presents as subacute or chronic cutaneous lesions, although dissemination to various organs and systems occurs in rare cases, mainly in immunosuppressed individuals. This report describes a case of sporotrichosis with severe bone and subcutaneous damage in an immunocompetent patient who did not exhibit the characteristic skin lesions of sporotrichosis, including ulcers, nodules, and lymphangitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Sporotrichosis/complications , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Sporotrichosis/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Immunocompetence
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(3): 322-330, jun. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-791027

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La espondilodiscitis (ED) implica prolongados períodos de hospitalización, de latencia diagnóstica y riesgo de complicaciones a largo plazo. No existen publicaciones recientes en Chile al respecto. Objetivos: Caracterizar un grupo de pacientes con ED. Pacientes y Métodos: Serie clínica, que incluyó pacientes en un período de ocho años. Resultados: 37 pacientes, 37,8% mujeres y 62,2% hombres, con promedio etario 66,8 años; 64,9% adultos mayores, 35,1% diabéticos y 21,6% con co-morbilidad urológica. Los principales síntomas fueron dolor y fiebre. 89,2% tuvo elevación de VHS. 86,5% contó con resonancia magnética, que siempre fue confirmatoria, siendo la columna lumbar la localización más frecuente (43,2%). Se identificó etiología en 28/37 pacientes: en 71,4% cocáceas grampositivas (Staphylococcus aureus predominantemente), sólo en 10,7% M. tuberculosis. Staphylococcus aureus estuvo asociado a co-morbilidades médicas en forma significativa (p < 0,05) y el grupo de bacilos gramnegativos a historia hepatobiliar y/o intestinal (p < 0,05). El método de mayor rendimiento fue el cultivo obtenido por punción quirúrgica. El tratamiento antimicrobiano fue indicado en promedio por 63,8 días (IQR 53-72), con reacciones adversas en 18,9%. La estadía hospitalaria fue 38,9 días promedio, no existiendo fallecidos durante este período. 18,9% presentó secuelas motoras. Discusión: La mayoría de pacientes con ED correspondió a adultos mayores, siendo S. aureus la principal etiología. Hubo una baja frecuencia de M. tuberculosis. Resultó considerable la magnitud de efectos adversos asociados a la terapia antimicrobiana y las complicaciones neurológicas.


Background: Spondylodiscitis (SD) involves long periods of hospitalization, diagnostic latency and risk of long-term complications. No updated series are available in Chile and a change in demographic features and etiology is suspected. Aim: To characterize a group of patients with SD. Patients and Methods: Clinical series including patients over an 8 year period. Results: We identified 37 patients; 37.8% women and 62.2% men (mean age 66.8 years); 64.9% were elderly; 35.1% had diabetes and 21.6% urological comorbidity. Main symptoms were pain and fever. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated in 89.2%, and 86.5% patients had MRI, which was always confirmatory. Lumbar spine was the most common site of infection (43.2%). Etiology was identified in 28/37 patients: 71.4% yielded grampositive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus predominantly), Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified in only 10.7%. Staphylococcus aureus was associated to medical comorbidities (p < 0,05) and gramnegative bacilli to hepatobiliar or intestinal symptoms (p < 0,05). Culture obtained by a surgical procedure had the highest yield. The average duration of antibiotic therapy was 63.8 days (IQR 53-72). Treatment-related side effects were detected in 18.9% of patients. The average hospital stay was 38.9 days. No deaths occurred during hospitalization. Motor sequelae were present in 18.9% of this series. Discussion: Most patients with SD were older adults. Staphylococcus aureus was predominant and M. tuberculosis was uncommon. Antibiotic side effects were relevant as well as the neurological complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Discitis/microbiology , Discitis/epidemiology , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Osteomyelitis/epidemiology , Spinal Diseases/microbiology , Spinal Diseases/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Discitis/therapy , Comorbidity , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Sex Distribution , Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Hospitals, General/statistics & numerical data
12.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 87(1): 53-58, feb. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779475

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La enfermedad por arañazo de gato (EAG) causada por Bartonella henselae tiene prevalencia e incidencia desconocida en la población pediátrica chilena. La presentación como linfoadenopatía regional es la más frecuente, y sus formas atípicas constituyen un reto diagnóstico. Objetivo: Comunicar un caso de EAG con osteomielitis vertebral y entregar posibles lineamientos respecto al tratamiento. Cuadro clínico: Escolar de 8 años con síndrome febril prolongado y dolor dorsal con rigidez cervical. En estudio destaca IgG para Bartonella henselae positiva, ecotomografía abdominal con microabscesos esplénicos y resonancia magnética con lesiones vertebrales sugerentes de osteomielitis. Discusión: El diagnóstico de las formas atípicas requiere de un alto índice de sospecha, como en este caso, en que el paciente con síndrome febril manifiesta sintomatología musculoesquelética, lo que nos lleva a estudiar posibles complicaciones de la enfermedad. El conocimiento actual del tratamiento de EAG atípica o complicada se deriva de la observación de estudios de casos y no de ensayos aleatorios; se sugiere analizar de manera individual la terapia antimicrobiana y con ayuda de especialistas. Conclusión: Se discute y enfatiza la importancia de la alta sospecha clínica y se exponen algunas alternativas de tratamiento en función de la evidencia de la literatura actual.


Abstract: Cat scratch disease (CSD) is caused by Bartonella henselae, with unknown prevalence and incidence in the Chilean paediatric population. Regional lymphadenopathy is the most common presentation, while atypical forms constitute a diagnostic challenge. Objective: To report a case of CSD with osteomyelitis and present guidelines regarding treatment. Clinical case: An eight year-old patient, with prolonged febrile illness, back pain and neck stiffness. Laboratory studies highlight positive IgG for Bartonella henselae. The abdominal ultrasound showed splenic micro-abscesses, and the MRI showing vertebral lesions suggestive of osteomyelitis. Discussion: The diagnosis of atypical forms requires a high rate of suspicion, as in this case, in which the patient manifested the musculoskeletal symptoms simultaneously with the febrile syndrome, which led us to study possible complications of the disease. Current knowledge of the treatment of atypical or complicated CSD is derived from the observation of case studies, rather than randomized trials. It is suggested that antibiotic therapy is analysed individually, with the help of a specialist. Conclusion: The importance of high clinical suspicion are emphasised and discussed, as well presenting some treatment options based on the evidence from the current literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Child , Cats , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Cat-Scratch Disease/diagnosis , Bartonella henselae/isolation & purification , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Osteomyelitis/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cat-Scratch Disease/complications , Cat-Scratch Disease/therapy , Chile , Ultrasonography , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Back Pain/etiology , Fever/etiology
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 32(3): 321-325, jun. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753490

ABSTRACT

Background: Bone and joint infections (BJI) are relatively common in children, and community -acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is the leading cause in some countries. Aim: To evaluate epidemiological data, clinical and microbiological features and outcome of BJI. Methods: A prospective descriptive study was conducted. Results: 40 patients (p) completed the study. Bacterial cultures were positives in 30 p (75%): CA-MRSA was found in 19 p, methicillin-sensitive S. aureus in 6 p, and others in 5 p. Cultures were negatives in 10 p (25%). Median treatment duration was 28 days (r: 21-40 d); Analyzing patients with CA-MRSA positive cultures separately, initial CRP was higher (Md 76 vs 50 mg/L, p < 0.02), normalization occurred later (Md 14 days vs 7days, p < 0.03), and duration of treatment (Md 32 days vs 23, p < 0.004) as well as hospital stay (Md 9 days vs 7, p = 0.12) were longer. Sequelae were present in 3 p and 1 relapsed: All of them with CA-SAMR. Conclusion: CA-MRSA was the leading cause of BJI and was associated with higher CRP on admission, later normalization and longer treatment duration. Complications as drainage requirement, and sequelae were common in those p.


Introducción: Las infecciones osteo-articulares (IOA) son relativamente comunes en los niños, siendo la infección por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina de la comunidad (SARM-Co) una de las más frecuentes. Objetivo: Evaluar los datos epidemiológicos, características clínicas, microbiológicas y de evolución en niños con IOA. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo prospectivo. Resultados: Se incluyeron 40 pacientes (p). Los cultivos fueron positivos en 30 p (75%). Se aisló SARM-Co en 19 p; S. aureus sensible a meticilina en 6 p; otros microorganismos en 5 p. La duración del tratamiento fue de 28 días Md (r: 21-40 d). En los p con cultivos positivos para SARM-Co, la PCR inicial fue mayor (Md 76 vs 50 mg/L, p < 0,02), la normalización se produjo después (Md 14 días vs 7 días, p < 0,03) y la duración del tratamiento (Md 32 días vs 23, p < 0,004), así como la estancia hospitalaria (Md 9 días vs 7, p = 0,12) fueron más prolongados. En la evolución 1 p recayó y 3 tuvieron secuelas; en todos se aisló SARM-Co. Conclusión: SARM-Co fue la causa más frecuente de las IOA y se asoció con mayor valor de PCR al ingreso, normalización tardía, mayor duración del tratamiento, y complicaciones.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Infectious/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Arthritis, Infectious/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy
14.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 45(1): 61-mar. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1171765
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 16(6): 594-596, Nov.-Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-658931

ABSTRACT

An interesting case of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with multiple epidural abscesses caused by non-pigmented Prevotella oralis is reported. The patient was a 68-year-old female who presented to the emergency room (ER) with severe pain and tenderness in her lower back with fever. She had recently undergone esophagogastroduodensoscopy (EGD) for complaints of esophageal reflux, which showed submucosal cyst in the esophagus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thoracic spine revealed multiple spinal epidural abscesses with signal enhancement at the level of T6 and T7, suggestive of vertebral osteomyelitis. Two blood cultures drawn one hour apart grew Prevotella oralis. The body fluid aspirated from the abscesses was also positive for the anaerobic commensal P. oralis. Necrosis associated with the submucosal cyst was implicated as the cause of sepsis and osteomyelitis due to this organism.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Bacteroidaceae Infections/complications , Epidural Abscess/microbiology , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Prevotella/isolation & purification , Spinal Diseases/microbiology , Thoracic Vertebrae , Bacteroidaceae Infections/diagnosis , Epidural Abscess/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Spinal Diseases/diagnosis
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(3): 348-355, May 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624016

ABSTRACT

We investigated the cytokine profile of peripheral mononuclear cells from chronic osteomyelitis (OST) patients following in vitro stimulation with staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA). We demonstrate that stimulation with SEA induced prominent lymphocyte proliferation and high levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 secretion in both OST and non-infected individuals (NI). Even though stimulation with SEA had no impact on IL-6 production in either patient group, the baseline level of IL-6 production by cells from OST patients was always significantly less than that produced by cells from NI. After classifying the osteomyelitic episodes based on the time after the last reactivation event as "early" (1-4 months) or "late" osteomyelitis (5-12 months), we found that increased levels of TNF-α and IL-4 in combination with decreased levels of IL-6 were observed in the early episodes. By contrast, increased levels of IL-10, IL-2 and IL-6 were hallmarks of late episodes. Our data demonstrate that early osteomyelitic episodes are accompanied by an increased frequency of "high producers" of TNF-α and IL-4, whereas late events are characterised by increased frequencies of "high producers" of IL-10, IL-6 and IL-2. These findings demonstrate the distinct cytokine profiles in chronic osteomyelitis, with a distinct regulation of IL-6 production during early and late episodes.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Enterotoxins/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Osteomyelitis/immunology , Staphylococcal Infections/immunology , Staphylococcus aureus/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Interleukins/biosynthesis , Lymphocyte Activation , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis
18.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 16(1): 63-67, Jan.-Feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614552

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite the growing interest in the study of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) infections, very little information on osteomyelitis caused by GNB is available in the medical literature. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To assess clinical and microbiological features of 101 cases of osteomyelitis caused by GNB alone, between January 2007 and January 2009, in a reference center for the treatment of high complexity traumas in the city of São Paulo. RESULTS: Most patients were men (63 percent), with median age of 42 years, affected by chronic osteomyelitis (43 percent) or acute osteomyelitis associated to open fractures (32 percent), the majority on the lower limbs (71 percent). The patients were treated with antibiotics as inpatients for 40 days (median) and for 99 days (median) in outpatient settings. After 6 months follow-up, the clinical remission rate was around 60 percent, relapse 19 percent, amputation 7 percent, and death 5 percent. Nine percent of cases were lost to follow-up. A total of 121 GNB was isolated from 101 clinical samples. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Enterobacter sp. (25 percent), Acinetobacter baumannii (21 percent) e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20 percent). Susceptibility to carbapenems was about 100 percent for Enterobacter sp., 75 percent for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 60 percent for Acinetobacter baumannii. CONCLUSION: Osteomyelitis caused by GNB remains a serious therapeutic challenge, especially when associated to nonfermenting bacteria. We emphasize the need to consider these agents in diagnosed cases of osteomyelitis, so that an ideal antimicrobial treatment can be administered since the very beginning of the therapy.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Follow-Up Studies , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Hospitals, University , Osteomyelitis/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
19.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 51(6): 645-647, dez. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-624865

ABSTRACT

O lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES) é uma doença autoimune multissistêmica na qual há grande prevalência e manifestações incomuns de doenças infecciosas oportunistas, principalmente pelas múltiplas anormalidades no sistema imunológico e pelo efeito imunossupressor das medicações utilizadas em seu tratamento. Pacientes com LES têm incidência aumentada de tuberculose, e o acometimento osteoarticular ocorre em 1%-3% desses casos. Manifesta-se com dor, diminuição da mobilidade e aumento do volume osteoarticular, e os achados radiográficos costumam ser inespecíficos. A ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN) é exame útil para definir o grau de acometimento ósseo; entretanto, o diagnóstico etiológico é dado apenas pela cultura de líquido sinovial, pela cultura óssea ou pela histologia dessas regiões. Devido à inespecificidade dos achados, geralmente há atraso diagnóstico, em média de 11 meses. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente do gênero feminino com LES apresentando fatores predisponentes para a infecção/reativação da tuberculose. A RMN foi importante para definir o acometimento ósseo, e o diagnóstico etiológico foi dado pela biópsia óssea. A paciente também apresentava acometimento pulmonar devido à tuberculose, em sua forma miliar, demonstrado pela radiografia simples de tórax e pela tomografia computadorizada e confirmado pela cultura do bacilo de Koch no escarro. Houve demora de 1,5 mês para o início da terapêutica, tempo considerado curto em relação à literatura. Conclui-se dessa maneira que a tuberculose óssea, apesar de rara, deve sempre ser lembrada como diagnóstico diferencial nos pacientes lúpicos com osteomielite, principalmente naqueles com antecedente de tuberculose pulmonar.


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease, which has great prevalence and uncommon manifestations of opportunistic infectious diseases, mainly due to the multiple abnormalities of the immune system and the immunosuppressive effect of the medications used in its treatment. Patients whit SLE have an increased incidence of tuberculosis, and osteoarticular involvement occurs in 1%-3% of the cases, manifesting as pain, reduction in mobility, and increased osteoarticular volume. The radiographic findings are often nonspecific. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an useful test to define the severity of bone involvement; however, the etiological diagnosis can only be established by use of synovial fluid or bone cultures or the histological study of the affected areas. Due to the lack of specificity of the findings, there is usually a mean diagnosis delay of 11 months. We report the case of a female patient with SLE and predisposing factors for tuberculosis infection/reactivation. The MRI was important to define bone involvement, and the etiological diagnosis was established by use of bone biopsy. The patient also had lung involvement due to miliary tuberculosis, shown on plain chest radiography and CT scan and confirmed on culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum. There was a 1.5-month delay in beginning therapy, which is considered a short time when compared to the reports in the literature. In conclusion, bone tuberculosis, although rare, should always be remembered as a differential diagnosis of patients with SLE and osteomyelitis, mainly those with history of pulmonary tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Tibia , Tuberculosis, Miliary/complications
20.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2011; 27 (1): 107-109
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-112882

ABSTRACT

Osteomyelitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among sickle cell patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of osteomyelitis among children with sickle cell disease at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. This was a retrospective review of all the medical records of sickle cell patients below the age of sixteen years who were admitted into the Paediatric ward of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt from January 2003 to December 2007. Those with incomplete records were excluded. A total of 187 sickle cell patients were reviewed. Mean age of the study population was 6.95 +/- 4.23. There were more males [105] than females [82] giving a male female ratio of 1.3:1. Out of the 187 subjects with sickle cell anaemia 15 had osteomyelitis which accounted for a prevalence of 0.08%. Acute osteomyelitis accounted for 100% of cases. Klebsiela pneumonia was commonest organism isolated from blood culture 5 [33.3%]. Fever, leg swelling and bone pains were the commonest mode of presentation. The Tibia bone was commonly involved 8 [53.3%].The aetiological organisms were sensitive to ceftazidine and gentamycin in 55% of the positive blood cultures. The preponderance of Klebsiella pneumonia indicates a change in the previously accepted pattern of infection in which Salmonella species were considered to be the main causative organism


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Acute Disease , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Salmonella Infections/complications , Osteomyelitis/etiology , Child , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Hospitals, Teaching , Review Literature as Topic , Retrospective Studies , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy
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