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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 656-662, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058092

ABSTRACT

Resumen La criptococosis es una micosis sistémica producida por un hongo levaduriforme encapsulado denominado Cryptococcus neoformans. Es una enfermedad universal, que ocurre con mayor frecuencia en pacientes inmunocomprometidos, manifestándose principalmente como una enfermedad diseminada con compromiso meníngeo o pulmonar. Sin embargo, la osteomielitis ocurre solo en 5-10% de los casos, siendo el compromiso vertebral el más frecuente. Presentamos un caso de criptococosis vertebral aislada y una búsqueda bibliográfica sobre el tema. Se recomienda realizar una terapia antifúngica de inducción intravenosa y continuar con una fase de consolidación, vía oral, de duración variable. La indicación quirúrgica se considera en lesiones que comprometen la estabilidad vertebral y aquellas que presentan un compromiso neurológico, producen deformidad y para reducir el inóculo infeccioso.


Cryptococcosis is an infectious disease caused by a ubiquitous encapsulated yeast called Cryptococcus neoformans, it is usually associated with immunosuppressed patients. Osteomyelitis occurs in 5-10%, the spine involvement is one of the most reported. The purpose of this work is to present a case of isolated vertebral cryptococcosis and detail the results of a literature review. The treatment protocol is not yet established but it is recommended to start with aggressive intravenous therapy and continue with a suppressive treatment orally during a variable time. Surgical indication is considered in lesions that affect the spinal stability, deformity or neurological compromise and for local infectious control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Spinal Diseases/microbiology , Spinal Diseases/pathology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Osteomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cryptococcosis/diagnostic imaging , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(5): 679-683, oct. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973673

ABSTRACT

La osteomielitis crónica multifocal recurrente fue recientemente clasificada dentro de las enfermedades autoinflamatorias, caracterizadas por episodios de inflamación sistèmica, que incluyen indicadores serológicos de inflamación, en ausencia de autoanticuerpos o agentes patógenos. La característica clínica es la aparición insidiosa de dolor, tumefacción y sensibilidad localizada sobre el hueso afectado, principalmente, en la metáfisis y epífisis de los huesos largos, clavícula y también vértebras. Son episodios autolimitados y recurrentes. Se presenta a un paciente de 2 años y 2 meses con afectación ósea tipo osteolítica en dos focos aislados con un año de diferencia entre ambos episodios. La biopsia ósea fue compatible con osteomielitis crónica y se descartó patología de origen infeccioso, neoplásico y enfermedad proliferativa. Presentó buena respuesta al tratamiento con antiinflamatorios. El conocimiento de esta entidad como diagnóstico diferencial evita el tratamiento antibiótico prolongado, estudios complementarios y biopsias óseas, considerando los criterios diagnósticos y recurrencia de los episodios.


Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis has recently been classified as an autoinflammatory disorder characterized by episodes of systemic inflammation including serological signs of inflammation occurring in the absence of autoantibodies or pathogen agents. The insidious onset of pain with swelling and tenderness localized over the affected bones are the main manifestations. The metaphysis and epiphyses of the long bones, clavicle and vertebrae are affected. We report a male patient aged 2 years and 2 months with osteomyelitis with lytic destruction in two different single sites with a year difference between the episodes. Histological examination of the bone showed inflammation and chronic osteomyelitis, excluding the existence of infectious osteomyelitis, neoplasm and myeloproliferative disease. Clinical symptoms improved under treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Considering chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis may shorten time to diagnosis in order to avoid potentially unnecessary prolonged courses of intravenous antibiotics, complementary studies and multiple biopsies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Inflammation/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Osteomyelitis/drug therapy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Diagnosis, Differential , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/drug therapy
3.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 26-34, May-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953023

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is a sclerosing disease that affects the mandible, especially the alveolar process, and that is, in most cases, bilateral; however, in some cases it affects up to three or even four quadrants. During the disease, normal bone is replaced with a thinly formed, irregularly distributed tissue peppered with radiolucent areas of soft tissue. Newly formed bone does not seem to invade periodontal space, but, in several images, it is confused with the roots, without, however, compromising pulp vitality or tooth position in the dental arch. There is no replacement resorption, not even when the images suggest dentoalveolar ankylosis. Orthodontists should make an accurate diagnosis when planning treatments, as this disease, when fully established, is one of the extremely rare situations in which orthodontic treatment is contraindicated. This contraindication is due to: (a) procedures such as the installment of mini-implants and mini-plaques, surgical maneuvers to apply traction to unerupted teeth and extractions should be avoided to prevent contamination of the affected bone with bacteria from the oral microbiota; and (b) tooth movement in the areas affected is practically impossible because of bone disorganization in the alveolar process, characterized by high bone density and the resulting cotton-wool appearance. Densely mineralized and disorganized bone is unable to remodel or develop in an organized way in the periodontal ligaments and the alveolar process. Organized bone remodeling is a fundamental phenomenon for tooth movement.


RESUMO A displasia cemento-óssea florida é uma doença óssea esclerosante exclusiva dos maxilares, relacionada ao osso do processo alveolar e, na maioria dos casos, envolvendo bilateralmente a mandíbula; mas há casos em que envolve três ou até os quatro quadrantes. Nesse processo, troca-se o osso normal por um tecido densamente formado, irregularmente distribuído e salpicado por áreas radiolúcidas com tecido mole. O osso neoformado parece não invadir o espaço periodontal, mas, em muitas imagens, confunde-se com as raízes, sem comprometer a vitalidade pulpar e a posição dentária na arcada. Não há reabsorção dentária por substituição, mesmo quando as imagens sugerem anquilose alveolodentária. Um diagnóstico preciso por parte do ortodontista deve ser feito em seus planejamentos, visto que essa doença, quando se encontra plenamente instalada, representa uma das raríssimas situações em que o tratamento ortodôntico está contraindicado. Nesses casos, o tratamento ortodôntico está contraindicado porque: a) alguns procedimentos, como a aplicação de mini-implantes e miniplacas, manobras cirúrgicas para tracionamento de dentes não irrompidos e exodontias, devem ser evitados, para se impedir a entrada de bactérias da microbiota bucal no osso comprometido; e b) a possibilidade de movimentação dos dentes nas áreas comprometidas praticamente inexiste, pela desorganização óssea no processo alveolar, caracterizada por elevada densidade óssea, que gera as imagens tipo flocos de algodão. O osso densamente mineralizado e desorganizado não é capaz de se remodelar e desenvolver organizadamente, nos ligamentos periodontais e no osso do processo alveolar. A remodelação óssea organizada é fundamental como um dos fenômenos necessários para o deslocamento dos dentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Osteomyelitis/physiopathology , Tooth Movement Techniques/adverse effects , Bone Remodeling , Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone/physiopathology , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Osteomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Tooth Extraction/adverse effects , Dental Implantation/adverse effects , Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone/pathology , Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone/diagnostic imaging , Contraindications, Procedure
4.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(1): 15-20, Mar. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893298

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Actinomycosis is a bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces species, which usually affect the soft tissues of the cervicofacial region of adult males. Clinically, it's characterized by a slow-growing indurated mass, especially in the submandibular area. However, in a few cases, the jaws bones can be affected developing osteomyelitis characteristics. The aim of this paper is to report a rare clinical case of Actinomycotic Osteomyelitis affecting the maxilla of a child, involving the maxillary sinus, orbital and zygomatic areas that was treated by the association of antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement. The patient's 2 years follow-up was uneventful and no signs of the lesion recurrence.


RESUMEN: La actinomicosis es una infección bacteriana causada por la especie Actinomyces, que generalmente afecta los tejidos blandos de la región cervicofacial de los hombres adultos. Clínicamente, se caracteriza por una masa endurecida de crecimiento lento, especialmente en la zona submandibular. Sin embargo, en algunos casos, los huesos de las mandíbulas pueden ser afectados desarrollando características de osteomielitis. El objetivo de este trabajo es reportar un caso clínico poco frecuente de osteomielitis actinomicótica que afecta el maxilar de un niño, envolviendo el área del seno maxilar, y zonas orbitales y cigomáticas que fueron tratadas con la asociación de terapia con antibióticos y desbridamiento quirúrgico. El seguimiento del paciente por 2 años ocurrió sin incidentes y sin signos de recidiva de las lesiones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Palate/microbiology , Palate/pathology , Periapical Diseases/diagnosis , Actinomycosis/diagnosis , Mouth Diseases/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Actinomycosis/pathology , Radiography, Panoramic , Diagnosis, Differential , Hematoxylin , Maxilla , Mouth Diseases/microbiology , Mouth Diseases/pathology
5.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e23, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889482

ABSTRACT

Abstract It is largely known that some oral diseases can be diagnosed based upon their clinical manifestation combined with the patient's medical history and generally not depending on examination. This is the case of some bone diseases such as osteoradionecrosis of the jaw (ORNJ), osteomyelitis of the jaw (OMJ), and medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). The present study aimed to analyze the histopathological features of these specific bone diseases in order to evaluate similarities and differences. Forty-four bone specimens resected from each bone disease (22 cases of ORNJ, 6 cases of OMJ, and 16 cases of MRONJ) were analyzed by two experienced oral pathologists without prior knowledge of the diagnosis, considering bone tissue condition, inflammation, vascularization, and the presence of microorganisms. In addition, the examiners formulated a diagnostic hypothesis for each specimen. Many histopathological similarities were found among the diseases, especially considering the presence of necrotic bone, inflammation, and microorganisms. Statistically significant differences were detected in empty bone lacunae, which was decreased in ORN (p = 0.042), and considering neutrophil count, which was low in the MRONJ group (p ≤ 0.001). The Kappa coefficient was calculated and agreement was detected based on the histopathological parameters, but not for diagnostic suggestion (p=0.23). In conclusion, histopathological aspects of ORNJ, OMJ, and MRONJ do not permit a conclusive diagnosis, emphasizing the necessity of a detailed clinical report.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/pathology , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Osteoradionecrosis/pathology , Age Factors , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Observer Variation , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteoradionecrosis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(4): 303-306, Apr. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842543

ABSTRACT

Summary Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is an idiopathic nonpyogenic autoinflammatory bone disorder involving multiple sites, with clinical progression persisting for more than 6 months and which may have episodes of remission and exacerbation in the long term. It represents up to 2-5% of the cases of osteomyelitis, with an approximate incidence of up to 4/1,000,000 individuals, and average age of disease onset estimated between 8-11 years, predominantly in females. The legs are the most affected, with a predilection for metaphyseal regions along the growth plate. We describe the case of a female patient, aged 2 years and 5 months, with involvement of the left ulna, right jaw and left tibia, showing a predominance of periosteal reaction as main finding.


Resumo Osteomielite crônica multifocal recorrente é uma desordem autoinflamatória óssea idiopática não piogênica, envolvendo vários sítios e com evolução clínica persistindo por mais de 6 meses, podendo apresentar episódios de remissão e exacerbação em longo prazo. Representa de 2 a 5% das osteomielites, com incidência aproximada de até 4/1.000.000, com idade média de apresentação estimada entre 8 e 11 anos, predominando no gênero feminino. Os membros inferiores são os mais afetados, com predileção para regiões metafisárias junto à fise. Descrevemos um caso da doença em uma menina de 2 anos e 5 meses de idade, com acometimento de ulna esquerda, mandíbula à direita e tíbia esquerda, exibindo predomínio de reação periosteal como achado principal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Osteomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Periostitis/pathology , Periostitis/diagnostic imaging , Tibia/pathology , Tibia/diagnostic imaging , Ulna/pathology , Ulna/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Mandible/diagnostic imaging
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(2): 249-252, Mar.-Apr. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838046

ABSTRACT

Abstract: We report a 35-year-old mulatto female patient with neurofibromatosis Type 1 who presented with facial asymmetry. The patient had two lesions: florid cemento-osseous dysplasia associated with peripheral giant cell granuloma. She was referred for surgical treatment of the peripheral giant cell granuloma and the florid cemento-osseous dysplasia was treated conservatively by a multidisciplinary team. So far, no changes have been observed in the patient's clinical status. We observed no recurrence of peripheral giant cell granuloma. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first report of a patient with neurofibromatosis Type 1 associated with a giant cell lesion and florid cemento-osseous dysplasia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Osteomyelitis/complications , Granuloma, Giant Cell/complications , Neurofibromatosis 1/etiology , Facial Asymmetry/etiology , Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone/complications , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Osteomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Granuloma, Giant Cell/pathology , Granuloma, Giant Cell/diagnostic imaging , Neurofibromatosis 1/pathology , Neurofibromatosis 1/diagnostic imaging , Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone/pathology , Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone/diagnostic imaging
8.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 52(5): 625-627, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899177

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a rare idiopathic inflammatory disease that affects mainly children and young adults. The clinical signs and symptoms are nonspecific, hindering and delaying diagnosis. Radiological and histopathological tests are essential for its definition. A case of CRMO is reported, demonstrating the importance of clinical, laboratory, and radiological data for diagnosis.,


RESUMO Osteomielite crônica multifocal recorrente (OCMR) é uma doença inflamatória idiopática rara que acomete principalmente crianças e adultos jovens. Os sintomas e sinais clínicos são inespecíficos, dificultam e retardam o diagnóstico. Os exames radiológicos e histopatológicos são indispensáveis para sua definição. Neste relato, os autores apresentam um caso de OCMR que demonstra a importância dos dados clínicos, laboratoriais e radiológicos para o diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Female , Adult , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/pathology
9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e52, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952112

ABSTRACT

Abstract Great attention has been given to the study of radiolucent periapical lesions to avert possible misdiagnosis of apical periodontitis associated with certain radiolucent non-endodontic lesions. However, there are a significant number of radiopaque lesions found in the periapical region, which could be equally relevant to endodontic practice. The diagnosis and management of these radiopaque/hyperdense lesions could be challenging to the endodontist. These bone alterations could be neoplastic, dysplastic or of metabolic origin. In the context of the more widespread use of cone-beam CT, a detailed review of radiopaque inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions is timely and may aid clinicians perform a differential diagnosis of these lesions. Distinguishing between inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions simplifies diagnosis and consequently aids in choosing the correct therapeutic regimen. This review discusses the literature regarding the clinical, radiographic, histological and management aspects of radiopaque/hyperdense lesions, and illustrates the differential diagnoses of these lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Periapical Diseases/therapy , Periapical Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Jaw Diseases/therapy , Jaw Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Osteomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Periapical Diseases/pathology , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Bone Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Panoramic , Jaw Diseases/pathology , Disease Management , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods
10.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 31(1): 129-132, jan.-mar. 2016. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1542

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A reconstrução da parede torácica ainda permanece como um dos grandes desafios da cirurgia plástica reparadora. O presente estudo tem como objetivo apresentar o relato de pacientes submetidos à reconstrução de parede torácica com a utilização de retalhos miocutâneos, após ressecções de parede por tumores/osteomielite. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos quatro pacientes, três deles portadores de osteomielite e o último apresentando-se com sarcoma, todas as afecções acometendo a parede torácica. Foram submetidos à ressecção de parede e reconstrução com retalhos miocutâneos do grande dorsal (dois casos) e reto abdominal (dois casos). RESULTADOS: Os retalhos utilizados foram suficientes para cobertura cutâneo-muscular e mantiveram boa vitalidade. Em apenas um caso, houve sofrimento parcial do retalho. Não houve recidiva precoce da doença. A estabilidade da caixa torácica foi preservada. CONCLUSÕES: A utilização dos retalhos citados no reparo dos defeitos torácicos mostrou-se satisfatória na intenção de prover revestimento cutâneo e músculo bem vascularizado, este fundamental no combate aos quadros infecciosos locais.


INTRODUCTION: Chest wall reconstruction remains one of the great plastic surgery repair challenges. The present work aims to report on cases of chest wall reconstruction using myocutaneous flaps after wall resection due to tumor/osteomyelitis. METHODS: Four patients were included, among which three presented with osteomyelitis and the other presented with sarcoma; both of these conditions affected the chest wall. Each patient underwent wall resection and reconstruction using myocutaneous flaps from the latissimus dorsi (two cases) and abdominal rectus (two cases). RESULTS: The flaps used were sufficient for skin-muscle covering and maintained good vitality. Partial flap injury occurred in one case. Chest cavity stability was preserved. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the above flaps to repair chest defects was satisfactory with the aim of covering the skin and providing well-vascularized muscles, the latter of which was fundamental to preventing local infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , History, 21st Century , Osteomyelitis , Sarcoma , Thorax , Rectus Abdominis , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Thoracic Surgical Procedures , Abdominal Wall , Thoracic Wall , Abdomen , Superficial Back Muscles , Osteomyelitis/surgery , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Sarcoma/surgery , Rectus Abdominis/surgery , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Thoracic Surgical Procedures/methods , Abdominal Wall/surgery , Thoracic Wall/surgery , Superficial Back Muscles/surgery , Abdomen/surgery
11.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 29(2): 190-193, apr.-jun. 2014. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-572

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Feridas em pés são muito frequentes e requerem abordagem multidisciplinar para a sua prevenção, tratamento e reabilitação. Quando acometem o calcâneo, oferecem dificuldade ainda maior e podem apresentar complicação com a ocorrência de osteomielite. Debridamento de tecido desvitalizado e antibioticoterapia são etapas obrigatórias para o tratamento. Na reconstrução, retalhos locais ou livres são necessários. Porém, nem todos os pacientes, devido a condições sistêmicas ou de vascularização local, são candidatos a esse tipo de reconstrução e acabam sendo submetidos a amputações. Relato de caso: Os autores relatam dois casos nos quais foram utilizadas calcanectomias subtotais para o tratamento de feridas em calcâneo. Em ambos os casos, foram evitadas as amputações.


Introduction: Feet wounds are very common and require multidisciplinary approach for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. When involving the calcaneus, they offer even greater difficulty and may complicate with osteomyelitis. Debridement of devitalized tissue and antibiotics are important steps for treatment. For the reconstruction, local or free flaps are needed. However, not all patients, due to systemic conditions or local blood supply, are not candidates for this type of reconstruction and some times are submitted to amputations. Cases Report: The authors report two cases in which subtotals calcanectomies were used for the treatment of wounds in the calcaneus. In both cases, amputations were avoided.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , History, 21st Century , Osteomyelitis , Postoperative Complications , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Wounds and Injuries , Case Reports , Calcaneus , Pressure Ulcer , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Osteomyelitis/surgery , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Wounds and Injuries/pathology , Calcaneus/surgery , Calcaneus/injuries , Calcaneus/pathology , Pressure Ulcer/surgery , Pressure Ulcer/pathology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Acta méd. peru ; 30(4): 86-90, oct.-dic. 2013. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-702432

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La osteomielitis es un cuadro, de presentación ocasional, que resulta como complicación de diversas etiologías y requiere un tratamiento quirúrgico y médico inmediato. Objetivos: Evaluar los resultados de patología informados como osteomielitis a nivel de los maxilares en pacientes pediátricos, tanto de la mandíbula como del maxilar superior, los cuales requirieron tratamiento quirúrgico y cobertura antibiótica en el periodo del 2008 – 2013. Material y método: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo, realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño. Resultados: Se encontró predominio en el sexo masculino (64.7%) y mayor presentación en menores de 10 años de edad (91%), la mandíbula fue en mayor frecuencia afectada (92,1%); con predominio de osteomielitis crónica en 82,4% de los casos. La región del cuerpo y ángulo mandibular resultaron los más afectados con 75 y 62,5% respectivamente. A todos los pacientes se les realizó limpieza quirúrgica y remoción de secuestros óseos con exodoncias de las piezas comprometidas. Conclusión: La cirugía junto a la cobertura antibiótica son la base del tratamiento el cual se busca erradicar el foco infeccioso y al microorganismo patógeno. Proponemos como cobertura antibiótica clindamicina y penicilina resistente a betalactamasa durante 8 semanas, en forma parenteral por 2 semanas como mínimo y luego vía oral hasta completar el tratamiento.


Introduction: Osteomyelitis is a picture of casual presentation, resulting as a complication of various etiologies and requires immediate surgical and medical treatment. Objective: To evaluate the results of pathology-level reported as osteomyelitis of the jaws in pediatric patients , both the jaw and the upper jaw, which required surgical treatment and antibiotic coverage, for the period from 2008 to 2013. Material Methods: Study descriptive, retrospective , held at the National Institute of Child Health Results : predominance was found in males ( 64.7 %) and higher filing under 10 years of age (91%), the mandible was more frequently affected (92.1 %) with a predominance of chronic osteomyelitis in 82.4 % of cases . The region of the mandibular body and angle were the most affected with 75 and 62.5 % respectively. All patients were performed surgical cleaning and removal of sequestra with extractions of compromised parts. Conclusion: Surgery with antibiotic coverage are the mainstay of therapy , which seeks to eradicate the source of infection and the pathogen. We propose as clindamycin antibiotic coverage lactamase resistant penicillin for 8 weeks parenterally for at least 2 weeks and then orally until complete.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Maxillary Diseases , Mandible , Osteomyelitis/surgery , Osteomyelitis/etiology , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Osteomyelitis/therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
13.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 49(1): 13-27, Jan.-Mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671397

ABSTRACT

Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory bone disorder caused by infection, leading to necrosis and destruction of bone. It can affect all ages, involve any bone, become a chronic disease and cause persistent morbidity. Treatment of osteomyelitis is challenging particularly when complex multiresistant bacterial biofilm has already been established. Bacteria in biofilm persist in a low metabolic phase, causing persistent infection due to increased resistance to antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most common causative organism responsible for more than 50% of osteomyelitis cases. Osteomyelitis treatment implies the administration of high doses of antibiotics (AB) by means of endovenous and oral routes and should take a period of at least 6 weeks. Local drug delivery systems, using non-biodegradable (polymethylmethacrylate) or biodegradable and osteoactive materials such as calcium orthophosphates bone cements, have been shown to be promising alternatives for the treatment of osteomyelitis. These systems allow the local delivery of AB in situ with bactericidal concentrations for long periods of time and without the toxicity associated with other means of administration. This review examines the most recent literature evidence on the causes, pathogeneses and pharmacological treatment of osteomyelitis. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Springer link, B-on. Papers from 1979 till present were reviewed and evaluated.


A osteomielite é um processo inflamatório do tecido ósseo, de origem infecciosa, que resulta em destruição inflamatória, necrose e formação de novo osso. Pode aparecer em qualquer idade, afetar qualquer osso e tornar-se uma doença crônica com morbidade persistente. Apesar dos progressos na quimioterapia infecciosa, o tratamento da osteomielite é caro e difícil, em particular quando associada à presença de biofilmes bacterianos, especialmente de Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis. O tratamento da osteomielite inclui a administração de doses elevadas de antibióticos (AB) por via endovenosa e oral, durante um período de pelo menos 6 semanas. Os sistemas de veiculação localizada de fármacos, utilizando materiais não biodegradáveis (polimetilmetacrilato) ou biodegradáveis e osteoativos como os cimentos ósseos de ortofosfatos de cálcio e vidro bioativo, surgiram como uma alternativa promissora para o tratamento da osteomielite. Estes sistemas permitem a veiculação de AB in situ com concentrações bactericidas por longos períodos de tempo e sem a toxicidade associada às outras vias de administração. O presente trabalho propõe uma revisão da literatura relativa às causas, à patogenia e ao tratamento farmacológico da osteomielite. A metodologia do estudo da revisão consistiu numa pesquisa bibliográfica, nas bases de dados Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Springer link, B-on. Foram revistos e analisados diversos artigos publicados desde o ano de 1979.


Subject(s)
Osteomyelitis/classification , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Staphylococcus aureus/classification
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 27(2): 179-184, Feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614539

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study the main effects of local use of liquid nitrogen on bone marrow tissue in rats. METHODS: The femoral diaphyses of 42 Wistar rats were exposed to three local and sequential applications of liquid nitrogen for one or two minutes, intercalated with periods of five minutes of passive thawing. The animals were sacrificed after one, two, four and 12 weeks and the specimens obtained were analyzed histomorphologically. RESULTS: In the second experimental week of one-minute protocol, histological degree of inflammation obtained a mean score of one (mild), ranging from 0 (absent or scarce) and two (moderate) (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0.01). In the second experimental week of two-minute protocol, degree of inflammation to the medullar tissue obtained an average score of two (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0.01). CONCLUSION: The degree of inflammation of the bone marrow tissue was higher in protocol of three applications of two minutes compared to protocol of three applications of one minute.


OBJETIVO: Investigar os principais efeitos do uso local de nitrogênio líquido sobre o tecido medular ósseo em ratos. MÉTODOS: As diáfises femorais de 42 ratos Wistar foram expostas a três aplicações sequenciais locais de nitrogênio líquido por um ou dois minutos, intercaladas por períodos de cinco minutos de degelo espontâneo. Os animais foram sacrificados após uma, duas, quatro e 12 semanas e os espécimes obtidos foram analisados histomorfologicamente. RESULTADOS: Na segunda semana experimental do protocolo de um minuto, o grau histológico de inflamação obteve um escore médio de um (leve) variando entre 0 (ausente ou escarço) a dois (moderado) (Teste de Kruskal-Wallis p=0.01). Na segunda semana experimental do protocolo de dois minutos, o grau histológico de inflamação do tecido medular obteve um escore máximo de dois (moderado) (Teste de Kruskal-Wallis p=0.01). CONCLUSÃO: O grau de inflamação do tecido medular ósseo foi maior no protocolo de três aplicações de dois minutos comparado ao protocolo de três aplicações de um minuto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Bone Marrow/drug effects , Cryotherapy/methods , Femur/drug effects , Nitrogen/pharmacology , Bone Marrow/pathology , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Bone and Bones/pathology , Cryosurgery/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Diaphyses/drug effects , Diaphyses/pathology , Femur/pathology , Nitrogen/therapeutic use , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 48(3): 293-300, jul.-set. 2011.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-615125

ABSTRACT

Las lesiones benignas fibro-óseas de los maxilares constituyen un grupo diverso de enfermedades con una característica histológica común: la sustitución de hueso normal por tejido compuesto de colágeno y fibroblastos, con cantidades variables de una sustancia mineral que puede ser de hueso, cemento o ambos. Estas lesiones incluyen la displasia fibrosa, la displasia cemento-ósea en sus variantes: periapical, focal o florida, el cementoma gigantiforme familiar y el fibroma osificante cemento-osificante. La osteomielitis es un proceso inflamatorio agudo o crónico de los espacios medulares o corticales del hueso, que se extiende más allá del sitio inicial de desenvolvimiento. La osteomielitis esclerosante difusa es más frecuente en adultos, principalmente en la mandíbula. Se presenta radiográficamente como una lesión radiopaca difusa adyacente a los dientes, que puede ser multifocal. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir un caso inusual de lesión fibro-ósea, cuyo diagnóstico diferencial se hizo también con la osteomielitis de los maxilares. Se concluyó que las lesiones fibro-óseas benignas, presentaron muchas similitudes con respecto a sus aspectos clínicos, radiográficos e histológicos. Por lo tanto, es fundamental el análisis conjunto de estas informaciones para obtener un diagnóstico definitivo(AU)


The benign fibrous-bony lesions are a diverse group of diseases with common features: replacement of normal bone by tissue composed of collagen and fibroblasts, with variable amounts of a mineral substance that could be bone, cement or both. These lesions include the fibrous dysplasia, the periapical cement-bony dysplasia, focal or florid, familiar giant cementoma and ossifying fibroma (cement-ossifying). Osteomyelitis is an acute or chronic inflammatory process of medullar or cortical spaces of bone extending beyond the onset site of development. Diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis involves to adults mainly the mandible and radiographically is a diffuse radiopaque lesion adjacent to teeth and could be multifocal. The aim of present paper is to describe an uncommon case of fibrous-bony lesion also diagnosed with maxillary osteomyelitis. We conclude that the above mentioned lesions are very similar regarding its clinical, radiographic and histological features. Thus, it is fundamental the combined analysis of these informations to obtain a definite diagnosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Osteomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Cementoma/diagnostic imaging , Osteomyelitis/pathology
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(2): 366-369, mar.-abr. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-587679

ABSTRACT

Doente do sexo masculino, de 78 anos, portador de uma úlcera venosa crônica na perna esquerda, com cerca de 24 anos de evolução, complicada por carcinoma espinocelular. Após o estadia mento da doença, o tratamento preconizado foi amputação acima do joelho esquerdo. A úlcera de Marjolin é a transformação maligna de uma lesão ulcerosa crônica. Trata-se de um fenômeno relativamente raro. A neoplasia maligna mais frequentemente descrita na literatura é o carcinoma espinocelular, seguido do basalioma, sarcoma e melanoma. A sua patogenia permanece pouco compreendida.


This report describes a 78-year old male patient with a chronic venous ulcer on his left leg for the past 24 years, complicated by a squamous-cell carcinoma. After staging of the disease, the treatment administered was amputation of the leg above the knee. Marjolin's ulcer consists of the malignant transformation of a chronic ulcerative lesion. It is a relatively rare phenomenon. The malignant tumor most commonly described in the literature is squamous cell carcinoma, followed by basal-cell carcinoma, sarcoma and melanoma. The pathogenesis of Marjolin's ulcer remains to be fully clarified.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/complications , Leg Ulcer/complications , Leg Ulcer/surgery , Osteomyelitis/complications , Skin Neoplasms/complications , Amputation , Chronic Disease , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Leg Ulcer/pathology , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Osteomyelitis/surgery , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/surgery
17.
Rev. med. nucl. Alasbimn j ; 12(48)abr. 2010. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-553019

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El centellograma óseo con 99mTc-MDP es una técnica útil en el diagnóstico de osteomielitis, sin embargo, presenta especificidad limitada en presencia de patología ósea previa (osteomielitis complicada). La 99mTc-ciprofloxacina es uno de los radiofármacos más difundidos para la detección de infecciones óseas, aunque persisten controversias sobre su rendimiento diagnóstico. Objetivo. Determinar el valor clínico del protocolo combinado de centellograma con 99mTc-ciprofloxacina y 99mTc-MDP en el diagnóstico de osteomielitis complicada y prótesis articular infectada. Materiales y métodos 37 pacientes con sospecha clínica de osteomielitis complicada o prótesis infectada fueron estudiados mediante centellograma con 99mTc-ciprofloxacina y 99mTc-MDP. 26/37 pacientes presentaban fractura previa, 7 prótesis de rodilla y 4 prótesis de cadera. En todos ellos se realizó seguimiento clínico y bacteriológico. Resultados. El método presentó sensibilidad de 94 por ciento, especificidad de 79 por ciento, valor predictivo positivo de 81 por ciento y valor predictivo negativo de 94 por ciento, con una exactitud de 86 por ciento. Conclusiones. El protocolo combinado de 99mTc-ciprofloxacina y 99mTc-MDP presenta elevado rendimiento para el diagnóstico de osteomielitis complicada y prótesis articular infectada.


Introduction. Bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-MDP is a useful technique in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis, however, has limited specificity in the presence of previous bone pathology (complicated osteomyelitis). 99mTc-ciprofloxacin is one of the most widely used radiotracers for the detection of bone infection, although controversies persist on its diagnostic performance. Objective To determine the clinical value of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin/99mTc-MDP combined protocol in the diagnosis of complicated osteomyelitis and infected joint prosthesis. Materials and methods 37 patients with clinically suspected complicated osteomyelitis or infected prosthesis were studied with 99mTc-ciprofloxacin and 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy. 26/37 patients had previous fractures, 7 had knee replacements and 4 had hip replacements. All of the patients underwent clinical and bacteriological follow-up. Results. The method presented sensitivity of 94 percent, 79 percent specificity, 81 percent positive predictive value and 94 percent negative predictive value, with an accuracy of 86 percent. Conclusions. The combined protocol using 99mTc-ciprofloxacin/99mTc-MDP showed high diagnostic performance in complicated osteomyelitis and infected joint prosthesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ciprofloxacin , Organotechnetium Compounds , Prosthesis-Related Infections , Osteomyelitis , Ciprofloxacin/analogs & derivatives , Bacterial Infections , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Joint Prosthesis/adverse effects , Radiopharmaceuticals , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Rev. invest. clín ; 58(3): 211-216, June-May- 2006. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-632353

ABSTRACT

Coccidioidomycosis (CM) is primarily a lung disease. Systemic spread occurs in 1% of cases and one of its manifestation is osteoarthritis. Aim. To describe the clinical and pathological characteristics of 36 patients with osteoarthritis by Coccidioides immitis (COA). Material and methods. The surgical pathology records of two medical institutions were reviewed; patients with clinical diagnosis of osteoarthritis and definitive histopathological diagnosis of COA were included in the study. Results were analyzed by contingence tables (RXC) and test. Results. Twenty six adults (19 men, seven women) and 10 children (seven males, three females) were studied. The analysis demonstrated a predominance of disease in men (72.2%, p - 0.008). There was no difference between males and females in relation to history of mycotic disease or diagnosis of lung disease after the diagnosis of COA. Bone involvement (76% of cases) was more frequent that pure joint lesions and the predominant radiological lesion was of lytic type. 30.5% of patients (11 cases) had multiple bone lesions and eight of them were men with multiple vertebral bone lesions. Discussion. The COA was the only manifestation of disease in 83% of the patients. Therefore is important to consider this etiology in patients of endemic area. The clinical and radiological spectrum of COA is wide and may include a dentigerous and synovial cyst or simulates metastatic disease. The recognition of the clinical manifestations of COA may contribute to an opportune diagnosis and treatment.


La coccidioidomicosis (CM) es una enfermedad primariamente pulmonar. La diseminación sistémica ocurre en 1% de los casos y una de sus manifestaciones es la osteoartritis. Objetivo. Conocer las características clínicas y patológicas de 36 pacientes con osteoartritis por Coccidioides immitis (OAC). Material y métodos. Se revisaron los archivos de patología quirúrgica de dos instituciones y se incluyeron aquellos pacientes que consultaron por enfermedad osteoarticular y cuyo diagnóstico final histopatológico fue de CM. Los resultados se analizaron con tablas de contingencia (programa RXC) y prueba de . Resultados. Se estudiaron 26 adultos (19 hombres, siete mujeres) y 10 niños (siete hombres y tres mujeres). La prueba de mostró un predominio de casos en hombres (72.2%, p = 0.008). No hubo diferencia entre hombres y mujeres en relación con antecedentes de enfermedad micótica ni en el diagnóstico de enfermedad pulmonar posterior al diagnóstico de OAM. El compromiso óseo (76% de los casos) fue más frecuente que las lesiones articulares puras y la imagen radiológica predominante fue la osteolítica. De los casos estudiados, 30.5% (11 casos) presentaban lesiones óseas múltiples. De estos 11 casos, ocho eran hombres que en su mayoría presentaban lesiones vertebrales dorsales bajas y lumbares. Discusión. En 83% de los pacientes que se presentaron por OAC, esta fue la única manifestación de la enfermedad. El espectro clínico y radiológico de OAC es muy amplio y puede presentarse como un quiste dentígero, un quiste sinovial o simular enfermedad metastásica. El reconocimiento de esta variedad de presentaciones clínicas en individuos de zonas endémicas puede contribuir a un diagnóstico oportuno y tratamiento específico.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arthritis, Infectious/epidemiology , Bone Diseases, Infectious/epidemiology , Coccidioidomycosis/epidemiology , Arthritis, Infectious/microbiology , Arthritis, Infectious/pathology , Bone Cysts/epidemiology , Bone Cysts/microbiology , Bone Cysts/pathology , Bone Diseases, Infectious/microbiology , Bone Diseases, Infectious/pathology , Coccidioidomycosis/pathology , Immunocompromised Host , Lung Diseases, Fungal/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Mexico/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/microbiology , Osteolysis/etiology , Osteolysis/microbiology , Osteomyelitis/epidemiology , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Retrospective Studies
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