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1.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(2): 209-215, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098893

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La inmovilización prolongada asociada a diversas enfermedades neurológicas, causa osteoporosis secundaria con fracturas patológicas y dolor óseo persistente. Objetivos: Establecer la asociación entre densidad mineral ósea (DMO), marcadores de neoformación y reabsorción ósea y grado de capacidad funcional en pacientes menores de 18 años con movilidad reducida. Pacientes y Método: Estudio transversal, realizado entre 1/1/2016 y 31/12/2017 en pacientes de 6 a 18 años diagnosticados de distintas enfermedades neurológicas en Ciudad Real (España). Se analizaron las variables biodemográficas, capacidad funcional según la Functional Mobility Scale (FMS), que valora la movilidad en 5, 50 y 500 metros, DMO, 25-hidroxi-vitamina D, fosfatasa alcalina, osteocalcina en sangre y telopéptido amino terminal de cadena cruzada de colágeno tipo I en orina (NTX-I). Se expresan DMO, fosfatasa alcalina, osteocalcina y NTX-I en Z score según valores de referencia para edad y sexo. Se utilizaron estadísticas descriptivas y correlaciones de Pearson y Spearman. Resulta dos: 36 pacientes (52,7% niñas), edad media de 8,6 ± 4,7 años. Valor medio de FMS: 5,3 sobre 18. DMO media: -1,99 ± 1,7 desviaciones estándar (DE), fosfatasa alcalina media: -2,64 ± 1,08, osteocalcina media: -2,15 ± 1,39, y NTX-I medio: +3 ± 1,72. Hubo asociación significativa entre DMO y FMS para 5 metros (r = 0,395; p = 0,017) y para la puntuación total (r = 0,365; p = 0,029). No se encon traron diferencias significativas según estadios de desarrollo puberal. Conclusiones: En la población estudiada se observa disminución en la DMO y en marcadores de neoformación ósea y elevación de marcadores de reabsorción ósea sin asociación con el desarrollo puberal. Los pacientes con menor grado de movilidad presentan una DMO inferior.


Abstract: Introduction: Prolonged immobilization associated with several neurological disorders causes se condary osteoporosis with pathological fractures and persistent bone pain. Objectives: To establish the association between bone mineral density (BMD), neoformation and bone resorption markers and the degree of functional capacity in children under 18 years of age with reduced mobility. Pa tients and Method: Cross-sectional study conducted in Ciudad Real, Spain between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2017 with patients aged between 6 and 18 years diagnosed with different neurological disorders. The following variables were analyzed: age, sex, pubertal stage, functional capacity according to the Functional Mobility Scale (FMS), which assesses the ability to walk from 5, 50 to 500 meters, BMD, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin in blood, and N-terminal telopeptide crosslinks in collagen type I (NTX-I) in urine. BMD, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and NTX-I values are expressed in Z score according to reference values for age and sex. The Pear son and Spearman correlations were used for data analysis. Results: 36 patients (52.7% girls) with an average age of 8.6±4.7 years. Mean FMS value: 5.3 out of 18. Mean BMD: -1.99 ± 1.7 standard deviations (SD), mean alkaline phosphatase: -2.64 ± 1.08, mean osteocalcin: -2.15 ± 1.39, and mean NTX-I: +3 ± 1.72. There was a significant association between BMD and FMS for 5 meters (r = 0.395; p = 0.017) and for total score (r = 0.365; p = 0.029). There were no significant differences according to the stages of pubertal development. Conclusions: In this population, there was a decrease in BMD and bone neoformation markers, and an increase of bone resorption markers with no association with pubertal development. Patients with a lower degree of mobility present a lower BMD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Osteoporosis/etiology , Biomarkers/metabolism , Bone Density , Bone Remodeling/physiology , Mobility Limitation , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Osteoporosis/physiopathology , Osteoporosis/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Disability Evaluation , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology
2.
West Indian med. j ; 67(3): 248-253, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045840

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: It is proposed that in some conditions such as pregnancy and osteoporosis where the bone turnover rate is high, there is mobilization of various minerals including lead (Pb) from bone to blood. This study aimed to determine if there were any differences in serum Pb levels among elderly osteopaenic patients, elderly osteoporotic persons and healthy controls. Methods: Fifty-four elderly persons (26 men and 28 women) from the Amirkola Health and Ageing Project, Iran, were included in this study. The diagnosis of osteopaenia and osteoporosis was based on spine and femur bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. After blood sampling, serum Pb levels were analysed by the method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: According to the BMD measurements, 19 persons had normal BMD, while 16 had osteopaenia and 19 suffered from osteoporosis. The differences in body mass index in these three groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The patients with osteoporosis had the highest levels of alkaline phosphatase and the highest rate of bone turnover. The mean ± standard deviation of the serum Pb levels in these groups were 236.8 ± 98.0, 270.0 ± 81.5 and 258.3 ± 57.5 μg/L, respectively, and the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.467). Conclusion: No statistically significant differences in serum Pb levels were observed in healthy controls compared with osteopaenic persons and osteoporotic persons. This suggests that mobilization of Pb from bone to blood in this population of elderly osteopaenic patients and elderly osteoporotic patients was similar to that in the healthy controls.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Se postula que en algunas condiciones como el embarazo y la osteoporosis donde el índice de recambio óseo es alto, hay movilización de varios minerales - incluyendo plomo (Pb) - de los huesos a la sangre. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar si hubo diferencias en los niveles de plomo sérico entre los pacientes osteopénicos mayores de edad, los pacientes osteoporóticos mayores de edad, y los controles sanos. Métodos: Se incluyeron en este estudio 54 personas de edad avanzada (26 hombres y 28 mujeres) del Proyecto Amirkola de Salud y Envejecimiento, Irán. La diagnosis de la osteopenia y la osteoporosis se basó en mediciones de la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) de la espina dorsal y del fémur (DMO). Después del muestreo de sangre, los niveles séricos de Pb fueron analizados por el método de espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Resultados: Según las mediciones de la DMO, 19 personas tenían DMO normal, mientras que 16 tenían osteopenia y 19 padecían osteoporosis. Las diferencias en el índice de masa corporal en estos tres grupos fueron estadísticamente significativas (p < 0.001). Los pacientes con osteoporosis tenían los niveles más altos de fosfatasa alcalina y el índice más alto de recambio óseo. La media ± desviación estándar de los niveles séricos de Pb en estos grupos fue de 236.8 ± 98.0, 270.0 ± 81.5 y 258.3 ± 57.5 μg/L, respectivamente, y las diferencias no fueron estadísticamente significativas (p = 0.467). Conclusión: No se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los niveles séricos de Pb en los controles sanos en comparación con las personas osteopénicas y las osteoporóticas. Esto sugiere que la movilización de Pb del hueso a la sangre en esta población de pacientes osteopénicos mayores de edad y pacientes osteoporóticos mayores de edad, era similar a la encontrada en los controles sanos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Osteoporosis/blood , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/blood , Lead/blood , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Biomarkers/blood , Bone Density
3.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(2): 179-186, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887646

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Adipose tissue, particularly visceral adipose tissue, secretes a variety of cytokines, among which progranulin is a glycoprotein related to the immune system. Along with other secreted proteins, progranulin may be associated with bone mineral density. The aim of this study was to find out whether there are associations between the progranulin and bone mineral density among obese people. Subjects and methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 244 obese participants (aged 22-52). Serum progranulin, high sensitive C-reactive protein, oxidised-low dencity lipoprotein, tumor necrosis factor-α, parathormone, vitamin D, and interleukins of 1 β, 4, 6, 10, 13, and 17 concentrations were measured. Anthropometric measurements, body composition and bone mineral density were also assessed. Results Serum progranulin was directly associated with interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β, while it had a negative association with interleukin-17 and tumor necrosis factor-α. We also observed a statistically significant direct association between progranulin concentration and visceral fat, abdominal fat, waist, abdominal and hip circumferences, hip T-score, and Z-score and T-score for the lumbar region. A partial correlation test has also shown a significant positive correlation regarding serum progranulin and the hip Z-score. Moreover, progranulin level is inversely associated with ospteopenia (P = 0.04 and CI: 0.17,0.96). Conclusion Our study revealed that central obesity may be related to increased progranulin concentration. In addition, progranulin concentration was directly related to bone formation parameters, which indicates the protective effects of progranulin on bone density. Further studies are needed to clarify the exact mechanisms underlying these associations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bone Density/physiology , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Obesity/blood , Osteoporosis/blood , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Reference Values , Vitamin D/blood , Body Composition , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Absorptiometry, Photon , Sex Factors , Anthropometry , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interleukins/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Progranulins , Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
4.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 93(2): 142-147, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841342

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: To assess bone mineral density (BMD) in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) and normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methods: Cross-sectional case-control study carried out on 50 children: 25 cases of NS (16 steroid-sensitive [SSNS] and nine steroid-resistant [SRNS] under follow up in the pediatric nephrology unit of Menoufia University Hospital, which is tertiary care center, were compared to 25 healthy controls with matched age and sex. All of the participants were subjected to complete history taking, thorough clinical examination, laboratory investigations (serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen [BUN], phosphorus [P], total and ionized calcium [Ca], parathyroid hormone [PTH], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]). Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spinal region (L2-L4) in patients group using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results: Total and ionized Ca were significantly lower while, serum P, ALP, and PTH were higher in SSNS and SRNS cases than the controls. Osteopenia was documented by DXA scan in 11 patients (44%) and osteoporosis in two patients (8%). Fracture risk was mild in six (24%), moderate in two (8%), and marked in three (12%) of patients. Conclusion: Bone mineralization was negatively affected by steroid treatment in children with NS.


Resumo Objetivos: Avaliar a densidade mineral óssea (DMO) em crianças com síndrome nefrótica idiopática (SNI) e com taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) normal. Métodos: O estudo transversal de caso-controle foi feito com 50 crianças: 25 casos de SNI [16 sensíveis a esteroides (SNSE) e nove resistentes a esteroides (SNRE) com acompanhamento na unidade de nefrologia pediátrica do hospital da Menoufia University, centro de cuidados terciário] foram comparados com 25 controles saudáveis do grupo de controle com idade e sexo equivalentes. Todos os participantes foram submetidos a anamnese completa, exame clínico completo, exames laboratoriais [creatinina sérica, nitrogênio ureico no sangue (BUN), fósforo (P), cálcio (Ca) total e ionizado, paratormônio (PTH) e fosfatase alcalina (ALP)]. A densidade mineral óssea foi mensurada na região da coluna lombar (L2-L4) no grupo de pacientes com a absorciometria por raios X de dupla energia (DXA). Resultados: Os níveis de cálcio total e ionizado eram significativamente menores, ao passo que o fósforo sérico, a FA e o PTH eram maiores em casos de SNSE e SNRE do que nos controles. A osteopenia foi documentada pelo exame DXA em 11 pacientes (44%) e a osteoporose em dois (8%). O risco de fratura era leve em seis (24%), moderado em dois (8%) e acentuado em três (12%). Conclusão: A mineralização dos ossos foi afetada negativamente pelo tratamento com esteroides em crianças com SNI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Osteoporosis/etiology , Bone Density/physiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Osteoporosis/physiopathology , Osteoporosis/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Glomerular Basement Membrane , Nephrotic Syndrome/physiopathology , Nephrotic Syndrome/blood
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(1): 13-17, Jan. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041009

ABSTRACT

Summary Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestine that can reduce the absorption of nutrients such as vitamin D and calcium. Objective: To investigate bone alterations and serum levels of vitamin D in patients with IBD. Method: This was a cross-sectional study based on a review of medical records of patients from a private office in Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Serum levels of vitamin D and bone densitometry were measured at diagnosis of IBD. A total of 105 patients were included; 38 (58.4%) with CD; 27 (41.6%) with UC and 40 with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) as comparison group. Results: When compared to patients with UC, CD patients showed a higher prevalence of bone alterations, being 15.8% with osteoporosis and 36.8% with osteopenia. In UC, bone alterations occurred in 29.6% of cases, 3.7% with osteoporosis and 25.9% with osteopenia. As for vitamin D levels, among CD patients, 10.5% had vitamin deficiency, 65.8% insufficiency and 23.7% were sufficient. In UC, 7.4% of cases had deficiency, 74.1% insufficiency and 18.5% had sufficient serum levels of vitamin D. In the group with IBS, deficiency was observed in 17.5% of cases, insufficiency in 55% and sufficiency in 27.5% of them. There was no significant difference between groups. Conclusion: IBD patients have a high prevalence of bone changes, especially those with CD. Serum levels of vitamin D are below the recommended in all the evaluated groups.


Resumo Introdução: A doença inflamatória intestinal (DII), como a doença de Crohn (DC) e a retocolite ulcerativa (RU), caracterizam-se pela inflamação crônica no intestino, que pode reduzir a absorção de vitamina D e cálcio. Objetivo: Investigar as alterações ósseas presentes em pacientes com DII e as dosagens séricas de vitamina D. Método: Estudo transversal analítico baseado na revisão de prontuários de pacientes com DII de um consultório privado de Curitiba, PR. Em todos os pacientes, foram dosadas as concentrações séricas de vitamina D e foi feita a densitometria óssea. Cento e cinco pacientes foram incluídos no estudo, dos quais 38 (58,4%) foram diagnosticados com DC, 27 (41.6%) com RU e 40 com síndrome do intestino irritável (SII) como grupo de comparação. Resultados: Quando comparados com pacientes com RU, os pacientes com DC apresentaram maior prevalência de alterações ósseas, sendo 15,8% com osteoporose e 36,8% com osteopenia. Na RU, as alterações ósseas ocorreram em 29,6% dos casos, 3,7% com osteoporose e 25,9% com osteopenia. Em relação às dosagens de vitamina D, dentre os pacientes com DC, 10,5% apresentavam deficiência, 65,8%, insuficiência e 23,7%, suficiência. Na RU, 7,4% dos casos tinham deficiência, 74,1%, insuficiência e 18,5%, suficiência. No grupo com SII, observaram-se deficiência em 17,5%, insuficiência em 55% e suficiência em 27,5%. Não foi observada diferença significativa entre os grupos. Conclusão: Pacientes com DII apresentaram alta prevalência de alterações ósseas, principalmente aqueles com DC. As concentrações séricas de vitamina D estão abaixo do recomendado em todos os grupos avaliados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Osteoporosis/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/etiology , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/etiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Crohn Disease/complications , Osteoporosis/blood , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/blood , Colitis, Ulcerative/blood , Crohn Disease/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged
6.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(4): 292-296, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757375

ABSTRACT

Objective The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation between serum testosterone levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women.Materials and methods The study group was made up of postmenopausal women admitted to our tertiary center. Serum calcium, phosphorus, albumin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyrotropin (TSH), 25-OH vitamin D, and total testosterone concentrations were measured. Subjects were categorized into three groups regarding bone mineral density (BMD) values: normal (n = 22), osteopenia (n = 21), and osteoporosis (n = 21). Subjects were also categorized into three groups according to serum testosterone levels: low testosterone (n = 10), normal testosterone (n = 42), and high testosterone (n = 12).Results No significant difference was found for serum testosterone, TSH, calcium, phosphorus, albumin, PTH, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among patients with normal BMD, osteopenia, and osteoporosis (p > 0.05). Lumbar spine, total femur, femoral neck, trochanteric, intertrochanteric, and Ward’s triangle BMD values were similar for the different testosterone levels (p > 0.05).Conclusion There was no correlation between serum testosterone levels and patient age, body-mass index, or any measured BMD values. Given the findings in our study, which failed to demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between testosterone and BMD, adjustment of other risk factors for osteoporosis might have a more distinctive effect in this setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Osteoporosis/blood , Testosterone/blood , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/blood , Bone Density , Postmenopause/blood , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(5): 572-582, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719194

ABSTRACT

Objectives To evaluate the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration in Brazilian osteoporotic patients and the modifiable factors of vitamin D status in this population. Subjects and methods In a cross-sectional study, 363 community-dwelling patients who sought specialized medical care were evaluated between autumn and spring in São Paulo, Brazil. Serum levels of 25(OH)D and parathormone (PTH), biochemical and anthropometric measurements, and bone density scans were obtained. The group was assessed using two questionnaires: one questionnaire covered lifestyle and dietary habits, skin phototype, sun exposure, medical conditions, and levels of vitamin D supplementation (cholecalciferol); the other questionnaire assessed health-related quality-of-life. Logistic regression and a decision tree were used to assess the association between the variables and the adequacy of vitamin D status. Results The mean age of the overall sample was 67.9 ± 8.6 years, and the mean 25(OH)D concentration was 24.8 ng/mL. The prevalence of inadequate vitamin D status was high (73.3%), although 81.5% of the subjects were receiving cholecalciferol (mean dose of 8,169 IU/week). 25(OH)D was positively correlated with femoral neck bone mineral density and negatively correlated with PTH. In the multivariate analysis, the dose of cholecalciferol, engagement in physical activity and the month of the year (September) were associated with improvement in vitamin D status. Conclusions In this osteoporotic population, vitamin D supplementation of 7,000 IU/week is not enough to reach the desired 25(OH)D concentration (≥ 30 ng/mL). Engagement in physical activity and the month of the year are modifiable factors of the vitamin D status in this population. .


Objetivos Avaliar a concentração sérica de 25-hidroxivitamina D [25(OH)D] em pacientes osteoporóticos brasileiros e os fatores modificáveis do status de vitamina D nesta população. Sujeitos e métodos Em um estudo transversal, 363 pacientes, residentes na comunidade, que procuravam atendimento médico especializado, foram avaliados entre o outono e a primavera, em São Paulo, Brasil. Níveis séricos de 25(OH)D e paratormônio (PTH), avaliações bioquímicas e antropométricas e exames de densitometria óssea foram obtidos. O grupo foi avaliado por meio de dois questionários: um questionário abordou estilo de vida e hábitos alimentares, fototipo de pele, exposição solar, problemas médicos e os níveis de suplementação de vitamina D (colecalciferol); o outro questionário avaliou a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde. Regressão logística e árvore de decisão foram utilizadas para avaliar a associação entre as variáveis e a adequação do status de vitamina D. Resultados A idade média da amostra foi de 67,9 ± 8,6 anos e a concentração média de 25(OH)D foi de 24,8 ng/mL. A prevalência de um status de vitamina D inadequado foi elevada (73,3%), apesar de 81,5% dos indivíduos receberem colecalciferol (dose média de 8.169 UI/semana). 25(OH)D correlacionou-se positivamente com a densidade mineral óssea do colo de fêmur e negativamente com PTH. Nas análises multivariadas, a dose de colecalciferol, a prática de exercícios físicos e o mês do ano (setembro) foram associados com a melhora do status de vitamina D. Conclusões Nesta população osteoporótica, a suplementação de 7.000 UI/semana não é suficiente para atingir a concentração desejada ...


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ambulatory Care , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Public Sector , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Calcium, Dietary/therapeutic use , Motor Activity , Multivariate Analysis , Osteoporosis/blood , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Seasons , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sunbathing/statistics & numerical data , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
8.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 73(5): 428-432, oct. 2013. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708529

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este trabajo retrospectivo fue evaluar el tratamiento de la osteoporosis grave con teriparatide (PTH) y comparar nuestros resultados con los publicados en la literatura médica. Se incluyeron cuarenta y seis pacientes, cuarenta y dos mujeres y cuatro varones, edad: 69.15 ± 9.43 años. Seis eran vírgenes de tratamiento y cuarenta tratados previamente con bisfosfonatos. Treinta y dos pacientes habían tenido 93 fracturas de las cuales 86 vertebrales. Cuarenta y seis recibieron PTH 6 meses, 29 pacientes durante 12 meses y 20 completaron los 18 meses sugeridos. La densidad mineral ósea (DMO) de columna lumbar aumentó significativamente desde el primer control a los 6 meses (p < 0.0001). La DMO de cuello de fémur alcanzó un incremento significativo al final del tratamiento (p = 0.002). La osteocalcina aumentó significativamente al mes, seguido por el ß crosslaps (beta-CTx, prueba en suero) al tercer mes y la fosfatasa alcalina ósea, regresando los marcadores de recambio óseo a niveles basales a los 18 meses. Las calcemias y las calciurias no se modificaron significativamente, pero 8 pacientes tuvieron hipercalcemias leves y tres hipercalciurias asintomáticas. El tratamiento fue bien tolerado y no se registraron efectos adversos graves que requirieran suspender el tratamiento. En conclusión, la PTH es una alternativa útil y segura para el tratamiento de la osteoporosis grave. Nuestros resultados concuerdan con los previamente publicados en la literatura médica.


The primary objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the treatment of severe osteoporosis with teriparatide (PTH) and to compare our results with those published in the literature. We included 46 patients, 42 women and four men, mean age: 69.15 ± 9.43 years. Six patients were treatment naive and forty previously treated with bisphosphonates. Thirty-two patients had had 93 fractures of which 86 vertebral. Forty-six received PTH for 6 months, twenty-nine for 12 months and twenty completed the 18 months suggested. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine increased significantly at the first control performed at six months of treatment (p < 0.0001), and the femoral neck BMD reached a significant increase at the end of treatment (p = 0.002). Serum osteocalcin values significantly increased from the first month of treatment, followed by ß crosslaps (beta-CTx, serum test) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, returning all the markers of bone turnover to baseline levels at 18 months. Serum and urinary calcium did not change significantly at any time, but 8 (17.9%) patients developed mild hypercalcemia and 3 (6.5%) asymptomatic hypercalciuria. The treatment was well tolerated and there were no serious adverse events requiring discontinuation. In conclusion, PTH is a safe and useful alternative for the treatment of primary severe osteoporosis. Our results agree with those previously reported in the literature.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Teriparatide/therapeutic use , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Bone Density , Calcium/blood , Calcium/urine , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Osteocalcin/blood , Osteoporosis/blood , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
Clinics ; 67(8): 911-916, Aug. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-647795

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Variations in sex hormones and the calcium balance can influence bone health in men. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and biochemical determinants of bone mass, such as sex hormones, parathyroid hormones and serum calcium. METHODS: Data from 549 subjects from the Malaysian Aging Male Study, which included Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and older residing in the Klang Valley, were used for analysis. The subjects' calcaneal speed of sound was measured, and their blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Two sets of multiple regression models were generated for the total/bioavailable testosterone and estradiol to avoid multicollinearity. RESULTS: The multiple regression results revealed that bioavailable testosterone and serum total calcium were significant predictors of the calcaneal speed of sound in the adjusted model. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index, only bioavailable testosterone remained significant; the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. In a separate model, the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significant predictors, whereas the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index (BMI), the significance persisted for total testosterone and SHBG. After further adjustment for age, none of the serum biochemical determinants was a significant predictor of the calcaneal speed of sound. CONCLUSION: There is a significant age-dependent relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia. The relationship between total serum calcium and calcaneal speed of sound is ethnicity-dependent.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Calcaneus/physiology , Calcium/blood , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Sound , Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin/analysis , Testosterone/blood , Body Mass Index , Bone Density/physiology , China , Estradiol/blood , Malaysia , Osteoporosis/blood , Osteoporosis/physiopathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Statistics, Nonparametric
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the diagnostic utility of osteocalcin (OC), undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in pre- and postmenopausal women for femoral neck, L1-4, and L2-4 bone mineral density (BMD) values by taking into consideration their age, body mass index (BMI), and menopausal status. METHODS: Premenopausal (N=40) and postmenopausal cases (N=42) were classified as 25-34 or 35-45 yr of age and within the first 5 yr or 5 yr or more after the onset of menopause, respectively. RESULTS: Among the groups, statistical differences were found for age, BMI, OC, ucOC, ALP, femoral neck BMD, L1-4 BMD, and L2-4 BMD. The highest serum OC, ucOC, and ALP levels were observed in cases within the first 5 yr after the onset of menopause, probably due to a more rapid bone turnover rate. The best predictors for the femoral neck osteoporosis were ALP, OC, and calcium (areas under the ROC curve [AUC]=0.882, 0.829, and 0.761, respectively), and those for L1-4 and L2-4 osteoporosis were OC, ALP, and ucOC (AUC=0.949, 0.873, and 0.845; and 0.866, 0.819, and 0.814, respectively). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the most discriminative parameter for osteoporosis was OC. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that serum OC levels, with or without ucOC and ALP, may be useful to monitor follow-up changes that currently cannot be assessed with BMD and to diagnose femoral neck, L1-4 spine, and L2-4 spine osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Body Mass Index , Bone Density , Discriminant Analysis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Logistic Models , Middle Aged , Osteocalcin/blood , Osteoporosis/blood , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/blood , Postmenopause , Premenopause
11.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 54(2): 99-105, Mar. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-546250

ABSTRACT

To asses fracture risk, bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most commonly used tool. The search for clinical risk factors is also advised and can provide a 10-year fracture probability (FRAX model). Another important determinant of bone strength is bone remodeling. High bone remodeling rates have been associated with a higher fracture risk and bone turnover markers (BTM) may offer dynamic information about skeletal status independent of BMD. The efficacy of antiresorptive agents in fracture prevention goes beyond what can be predicted by BMD especially in the beginning of the treatment. Inhibition of bone remodeling itself is certainly an important mechanism by which antiresorptive agents can rapidly reduce fracture risk. Thus, it seems quite logical to use BTM in patients with bone disease. It can also become a valuable surrogate marker in fracture prediction. However, BTM's pre-analytical and analytical variability should always be considered.


O método mais utilizado para avaliação do risco de fraturas é a densitometria óssea pela técnica de DXA (absorciometria por raios-X duo-energética). A pesquisa de condições clínicas de risco também é recomendada e fornece uma estimativa da probabilidade de fratura em 10 anos (modelo FRAX). Outro fator importante é o grau de remodelação óssea. Um aumento da taxa de remodelação tem sido associado a um maior risco de fraturas e aumento dos marcadores ósseos. A medida desses marcadores fornece informação adicional independente da densitometria. A eficiência das medicações antirreabsortivas na prevenção de fraturas não é explicada apenas pelo aumento da densidade óssea. A menor remodelação óssea é um mecanismo que pode explicar a redução da taxa de fraturas principalmente no início do tratamento. A utilização desses marcadores nas doenças ósseas e na predição de fraturas torna-se lógica. No entanto, para interpretá-los corretamente sua variação pré-analítica e analítica deve ser considerada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers/blood , Bone Remodeling/physiology , Fractures, Bone , Osteoporosis/blood , Bone and Bones , Bone Density , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Osteoporosis/complications , Osteoporosis/therapy
12.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 54(2): 244-249, Mar. 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-546270

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the responses of serum β-CTX and osteocalcin in patients who were undergoing treatment with teriparatide or strontium ranelate (SR). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 14 patients (12 women and 2 men; mean age of 71 years) taking teriparatide, and 13 female patients (mean age of 70 years) taking SR; all the patients having previously been on bisphosphonates. Serum β-CTX and osteocalcin levels were determined before and after the first and third months of teriparatide treatment and up to the fourth month of treatment with SR. RESULTS: We observed an initial significant increase in osteocalcin levels during the first month (165 percent, p = 0.01) followed by a peak of β-CTX (180 percent, p = 0.02) after the third month of treatment with teriparatide. An increase in these markers was also observed with SR: 49 percent in osteocalcin (p = 0.002) and 80 percent in β-CTX (p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: SR had a predominantly short-term bone-forming effect in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis previously treated with bisphosphonates in a lesser degree than with teriparatide.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar as respostas do β-CTX e osteocalcina séricos em pacientes que foram submetidas a tratamento com teriparatida ou ranelato de estrôncio (RE). SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se 14 pacientes (12 mulheres e 2 homens; idade média 71 anos) tomando teriparatida, e 13 mulheres (idade média 70 anos) tomando RE; todos os pacientes haviam previamente tomado bisfosfonatos. Níveis séricos de β-CTX e osteocalcina foram determinados antes e após o primeiro e terceiro meses de tratamento com teriparatida e no quarto mês de tratamento com RE. RESULTADOS: Observou-se um aumento inicial significativo nos níveis de osteocalcina no primeiro mês (165 por cento, p = 0,01), seguido por um pico do β-CTX (180 por cento, p = 0,02) após o terceiro mês de tratamento com teriparatida. Aumento nesses marcadores também foi observado com RE: 49 por cento na osteocalcina (p = 0,002) e 80 por cento no β-CTX (p = 0,008). CONCLUSÃO: RE teve um efeito predominantemente na formação óssea a curto prazo em mulheres na pós-menopausa com osteoporose tratadas previamente com bisfosfonatos em menor grau que a teriparatida.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Osteocalcin/blood , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Teriparatide/therapeutic use , Thiophenes/therapeutic use , Bone Density , Biomarkers/blood , Osteoporosis/blood , Peptides/blood
13.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 53(8): 1020-1025, nov. 2009. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-537040

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study and establish sex hormone cutoff levels for osteoporosis risk in men over 50 years old. METHODS: Case-control study of 216 men > 50 years, 110 with osteoporosis (O) and 106 with normal bone density (C). We measured estradiol (E2), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (TT) and albumin. Free testosterone (FT) and bioavailable testosterone (BT) were calculated through Vermeulen's formula. RESULTS: There was no difference in TT between groups. Relative risks of osteoporosis were 1.89 for E2 < 37 pg/mL (p = 0.02); 1.91 for SHBG > 55 nmol/L (p = 0.019); 2.5 for FT < 7 ng/dL (p = 0.015); 2.7 for BT < 180 ng/dL (p = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: In men over 50 years old, TT was not indicative of osteoporosis risk while E2 < 37 ng/mL was. SHBG > 55 nmol/L, FT < 7 ng/dL and BT < 180 ng/dL can represent additional indications for osteoporosis screening in men over 50 years old.


OBJETIVO: Estudar e estabelecer pontos de corte dos hormônios sexuais para risco de osteoporose em homens após os 50 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle de 216 homens > 50 anos, 110 com osteoporose e 106 com densidade óssea normal. Foram dosados: estradiol (E2), globulina ligadora de hormônios sexuais (SHBG), testosterona total (TT) e albumina. Foram calculadas: testosterona livre (TLC) e testosterona biodisponível (TB) pela fórmula de Vermeulen. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença na TT entre os grupos. Os riscos relativos de osteoporose foram de 1,89 para E2 < 37 pg/mL (p = 0,02); 1,91 para SHBG > 55 nmol/L (p = 0,019); 2,5 para TLC < 7 ng/dL (p = 0,015) e 2,7 para TB < 180 ng/dL (p = 0,0003). CONCLUSÕES: Em homens acima de 50 anos, TT não indicou risco de osteoporose, mas E2 < 37 pg/mL sim. SHBG > 55 nmol/L, TLC < 7 ng/dL e TB < 180 ng/dL podem representar indicações adicionais para pesquisa de osteoporose em homens acima de 50 anos.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Estradiol/blood , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Testosterone/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Osteoporosis/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Reference Values , Risk Factors , Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin/analysis
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 35(2): 183-189, Mar.-Apr. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-516960

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Preexisting bone loss in men with prostate cancer is an important issue due to the accelerated bone loss during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). In addition, a high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level has been reported to be related to bone metabolism. This study assessed the factors associated with osteoporosis in Korean men with non-metastatic prostate cancer before undergoing ADT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled patients admitted for a prostate biopsy because of a high PSA or palpable nodule on a digital rectal examination. We divided the patients (n = 172) according to the results of the biopsy: group I, non-metastatic prostate cancer (n = 42) and group II, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; n = 130). The lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated using quantitative computed tomography. The demographic, health status, lifestyle, body mass index (BMI), serum testosterone concentration, and disease variables in prostate cancer (Gleason score, clinical stage, and PSA) were analyzed prospectively to determine their effect on the BMD. RESULTS: The estimated mean T-score was higher in group I than in group II (-1.96 ± 3.35 vs. -2.66 ± 3.20), but without statistic significance (p = 0.235). The significant factors correlated with BMD in group I were a high serum PSA (ß = -0.346, p = 0.010) and low BMI (ß = 0.345, p = 0.014) in the multiple linear regression model. Also old age (r = -0.481, p = 0.001), a high serum PSA (r = -0.571, p < 0.001), low BMI (r = 0.598, p < 0.001), and a high Gleason’s score (r = -0.319, p = 0.040) were the factors related to BMD in the correlation. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group II were old age (ß = -0.324, p = 0.001) and BMI (ß = 0.143, p = 0.014) in the multiple linear regression model. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer include a low BMI, and elevated serum PSA. Monitoring BMD from the outset of ADT is a logical first...


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bone Density , Osteoporosis/etiology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Body Mass Index , Korea , Linear Models , Osteoporosis/blood , Osteoporosis/physiopathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/ethnology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Testosterone/deficiency
15.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 52(3): 482-488, abr. 2008. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-482577

ABSTRACT

A deficiência de vitamina D (VD) leva ao raquitismo e à osteomalacia e sua insuficiência, caracterizada pelo hiperparatireoidismo secundário, pode resultar osteoporose. Apesar de amplamente prevalente, a insuficiência de VD ainda é pouco reconhecida e subtratada. Os autores estudaram 180 pacientes atendidos em ambulatório de endocrinologia em Belo Horizonte, que tiveram os níveis de 25(OH)VD mensurados, correlacionando-os com paratormônio (PTH), marcadores de remodelação óssea e densidade mineral óssea. Para caracterização de níveis insuficientes de VD, foram correlacionados os níveis de 25(OH)VD com os de PTH, definindo-se, nesta série, ponto de corte de 25(OH)VD de 32 ng/ml. Foi encontrada correlação inversa e significativa entre 25(OH)VD e PTH e entre 25(OH)VD e C-telopeptídeo. A prevalência de insuficiência de VD na população estudada foi de 42,4 por cento. Conclui-se que a insuficiência de VD tem alta prevalência entre pacientes que freqüentam nossos consultórios, alertando para a importância da sua investigação na prática clínica e na instituição de políticas para sua prevenção.


Consequences of VD deficiency include rickets and osteomalacia. However, marginal concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)VD) are associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis. In this context, levels of 25(OH)VD capable to elevate parathyroid hormone (PTH) could be considered as insufficient. The VD insufficiency, although widely prevalent, is still under-recognized and under-treated. The authors have studied 180 patients followed in a endocrinology clinic in Belo Horizonte, who had 25(OH)VD measured, correlating it with PTH, biochemical bone turnover markers and bone mineral density. To determine the sufficiency of VD, 25(OH)VD was correlated with PTH and the cutoff found was of 32ng/ml. CTX-1 and PTH were significantly negative correlated to 25(OH)VD and the prevalence of VD insufficiency was 42 percent. One concludes that the VD insufficiency is widely prevalent among patients who frequently come to our offices, alerting us for the importance to assess VD status more often and to practice politics for prevention of VD insufficiency.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bone Density , Bone Remodeling/physiology , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Biomarkers/blood , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/blood , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Densitometry , Hypothyroidism/blood , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis , Osteomalacia/blood , Osteomalacia/diagnosis , Osteoporosis/blood , Prevalence , Statistics, Nonparametric , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control , Vitamin D/blood , Young Adult
16.
Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2008; 3 (1): 1-8
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-86257

ABSTRACT

Four preterm babies at 23-26 weeks born with extremely low birth weights. Their weights varied between 390: 760 gm. After resuscitation they were transferred to neonatal intensive care unit [NICU]. They received total parenteral nutrition [TPN] The babies developed hypophosphatemia and normal or hypercalemia. After 3-4 months several bone fractures were discovered. This was attributed to the intended decrease by calcium in TPN in response to the lab finding of normal or high Ca. This in turn leads to further decrease in both serum Ca and P and decreased availability of Ca for bones. Hence, one should think about increasing the phosphorus in the TPN rather than only decreasing Ca in similar cases


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Fractures, Bone , Calcium/blood , Phosphorus/blood , Osteoporosis/blood , Parenteral Nutrition, Total , Hypophosphatemia , Hypercalcemia
17.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2008; 29 (7): 980-983
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-100678

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the relationship between the gender hormonal levels and bone mineral density in premenopausal women suffering with sickle cell disease. A cross-sectional study including consecutive female adult patients with sickle cell anemia attending the outpatient hematology/orthopaedic clinics, or admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between August 2006 and June 2007. Patient's age was documented, and body mass index was calculated. Blood was drawn for complete blood picture, biochemistry, and hormonal profile including total estradiol E2 and total testosterone Te. Bone mineral density BMD was measured for all patients using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan at the hip and lumbar spine. We analyzed the data of 51 patients with an average age of 26 +/- 3.1 years. Patients were divided into 2 groups group A and group B. Group A had normal BMD and group B with low BMD. Thirty-one [60.8%] were in group A and 20 [39.2%] were in group B. The E2 level was not statistically different between the 2 groups, while Te level was significantly lower in women with low BMD 38 +/- 11.8 versus 22.3 +/- 11.7 ng/dl, p<0.001. Our study indicates that in premenopausal female patients with sickle cell anemia, testosterone may play a role in the preservation of bone mass


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Bone Density , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Young Adult , Premenopause , Cross-Sectional Studies , Body Mass Index , Estradiol/blood , Testosterone/blood , Absorptiometry, Photon , Osteoporosis/blood
18.
New Egyptian Journal of Medicine [The]. 2007; 37 (6 Supp.): 21-33
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-187285

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of this study was to establish the cutoff value of the signal intensity drop on chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] with appropriate sensitivity and specificity to differentiate osteoporotic from neoplastic wedging of the spine


Patients and Methods: All patients with wedging of vertebral bodies were included consecutively between February 2006 and January 2007. A chemical shift MRI was performed and signal intensities after [in-phase and out-of-phase] images were obtained. A DEXA was performed


Results: A total of 40 patients were included, 20 with osteoporotic wedging [group. 1] and 20 neoplastic [group.2]. They were 21 males and 19 females. On the chemical shift MRI a substantial reduction in signal intensity was found in all lesions in both groups. The proportional changes observed in signal intensity of bone marrow lesions on in-phase compared with out-of-phase images showed significant differences in both groups [p <0.05]. At a cut-off value of 35%, the observed sensitivity of out-of-phase images was 95%, specificity was 100%, positive predictive value was 100% and negative predictive value was 95.2%


Conclusion: A chemical shift MRI is useful in order to differentiate patients with vertebral collapse due to underlying osteoporosis or neoplastic process


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diagnosis, Differential , Osteoporosis/blood , Bone Neoplasms , Sensitivity and Specificity , Osteoporosis/diagnosis
19.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 50(4): 603-620, ago. 2006. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-437611

ABSTRACT

With the ageing population in most countries, disorders of bone and mineral metabolism are becoming increasingly relevant to every day clinical practice. Consequently, the interest in, and the need for effective measures to be used in the screening, diagnosis and follow-up of such pathologies have markedly grown. Together with clinical and imaging techniques, biochemical tests play an important role in the assessment and differential diagnosis of metabolic bone disease. In recent years, the isolation and characterisation of cellular and extracellular components of the skeletal matrix have resulted in the development of molecular markers that are considered to reflect either bone formation or bone resorption. These biochemical indices are non-invasive, comparatively inexpensive and, when applied and interpreted correctly, helpful tools in the diagnostic and therapeutic assessment of metabolic bone disease. This review provides an overview of the current evidence regarding the clinical use of biochemical markers of bone remodelling in bone disease, with an emphasis on osteoporosis.


Tendo em vista o crescimento da população idosa na maioria dos países, os distúrbios do metabolismo ósseo e mineral estão tornando-se cada vez mais relevantes na prática clínica diária. Conseqüentemente, o interesse e a necessidade de medidas efetivas para serem usadas no rastreamento, diagnóstico e seguimento de tais patologias vêm crescendo acentuadamente. Além da avaliação clínica e de técnicas de imagens, os marcadores bioquímicos desempenham um importante papel na avaliação e diagnóstico das doenças ósseas metabólicas. Recentemente, a melhor caracterização dos componentes intracelulares e extracelulares da matriz óssea resultou no desenvolvimento dos marcadores moleculares, os quais refletem tanto a formação como a reabsorção óssea. Estes marcadores bioquímicos não são invasivos e comparativamente são de mais baixo custo, e quando aplicados e interpretados corretamente são instrumentos úteis no diagnóstico e tratamento das doenças ósseas metabólicas. Esta revisão abordará evidências atuais, levando em consideração o uso clínico dos marcadores bioquímicos da remodelação óssea nas doenças metabólicas ósseas, com ênfase na osteoporose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biomarkers/analysis , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/metabolism , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Fractures, Bone/metabolism , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Bone Density , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/urine , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/blood , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/urine , Bone Resorption/blood , Bone Resorption/urine , Bone and Bones/chemistry , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Hip Fractures/etiology , Hip Fractures/metabolism , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/metabolism , Osteoporosis/blood , Osteoporosis/urine , Risk Factors
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