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1.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(10): e20210524, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1375122

ABSTRACT

The effects of Ca:P total ratio and particle size of oyster shell meal (OSM) were evaluated in broiler diets. In Experiment 1, 800 broilers (22-42 days old) were distributed in a 2×2 factorial design, with two Ca:P ratios (1.7 and 2.0:1) and two OSM particle sizes (coarse = 1,354 µm and fine = 428 µm), totaling four treatments with 10 repetitions with 20 broilers. Feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio were calculated. In Experiment 2, 1,280 broilers were distributed in a 2×2×2 factorial design (1.7 and 2.0:1 Ca:P ratios; coarse and fine OSM; male and female broilers), with eight treatments and 16 repetitions with 10 broilers. Apparent metabolizability of dry matter, Ca, P, and apparent metabolizable energy (AME), as well as bone resistance, bone weight, ash, Ca, and P content in the tibia were assessed. Growth performance was not affected (P > 0.05). Coarse OSM increased tibia Ca content in male broilers (P < 0.001), and higher Ca:P ratio improved bone ash and bone resistance in both sexes (P < 0.001), but reduced P content in male broilers (P < 0.05); male broilers displayed heavier bones with higher ash content than females (P < 0.05). Metabolizability of Ca was improved with coarse OSM (P < 0.05); whereas metabolizability of DM, P, and AME was not affected (P > 0.05). In conclusion, diets with a Ca:P total ratio of 2.0:1 containing coarser OSM improved bone mineral composition, particularly in male broilers, and coarse OSM improved the metabolizability of Ca in broilers regardless of the Ca:P total ratio or broiler sex.


Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar os efeitos do tamanho de partícula da farinha de ostras (FO) e relação Ca:P total em dietas para frangos de corte. No primeiro experimento, 800 frangos (22 a 42 dias) foram distribuídos em um delineamento fatorial 2x2: 2 relações Ca:P (1,7 e 2,0:1) e dois tamanhos de partícula da FO (grossa = 1354 µm e fina = 428 µm), totalizando quatro tratamentos com 10 repetições de 20 aves. O consumo de ração, o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar foram calculados. No segundo experimento, 1.280 frangos foram distribuídos em um fatorial 2x2x2 (relações Ca:P 1,7 e 2,0:1; FO grossa e fina; aves machos e fêmeas) com oito tratamentos e 16 repetições de 10 aves. Foram avaliados: metabolizabilidade aparente da matéria seca, Ca e P, energia metabolizável aparente (EMA), peso e resistência óssea, conteúdo de cinzas, Ca e P na tíbia. As variáveis de desempenho não foram afetadas (P > 0,05). O uso de FO grossa aumentou o conteúdo de Ca na tíbia de frangos machos (P < 0,001), e a relação Ca:P de 2,0:1 aumentou o conteúdo de cinzas e aprimorou resistência óssea em ambos os sexos (P < 0,001), porém reduziu P na tíbia dos machos (P < 0,05); frangos machos também tiveram ossos mais pesados e maior conteúdo de cinzas do que fêmeas (P < 0,05). A metabolizabilidade de Ca foi melhorada com FO grossa, enquanto a metabolizabilidade da matéria seca, P, e EMA não foram afetadas (P > 0,05). Conclui-se que as dietas com relação Ca:P de 2,0:1 e com FO grossa resultaram em melhor composição mineral óssea - particularmente em frangos machos - e a FO grossa melhorou a metabolizabilidade de Ca independentemente da relação Ca:P ou do gênero das aves.


Subject(s)
Animals , Particle Size , Calcification, Physiologic , Calcium, Dietary/administration & dosage , Chickens , Phosphorus, Dietary/administration & dosage , Animal Feed/analysis , Ostreidae
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935355

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the application of real-time RT-PCR and semi-nested RT-PCR in the detection of norovirus in oysters and analyzing the genetic characteristics of the isolates. Methods: Real-time fluorescent RT-PCR and semi-nested RT-PCR were used to detect norovirus GⅠ/GⅡ in fresh oysters collected from the markets in Beijing from November 2014 to October 2015. The detection rate of the parallel test was also analyzed. In addition, the reliability of semi-nested RT-PCR was evaluated by agreement rate and consistency test (Kappa value). The positive products of norovirus GⅠ/GⅡ capsid protein region gene by semi-nested RT-PCR were sequenced. Software BioEdit 7.0.9.0 was used for sequence alignment, and software Mega 6.0 was used to construct the evolutionary tree. Results: In 72 samples, the detection rate of norovirus was 31.94% (23/72) by real-time RT-PCR, 38.89% (28/72) by semi-nested RT-PCR and 48.61% (35/72) by parallel test. The coincidence rate of the two methods was 73.61%, a moderate degree (Kappa value =0.43). A total of 13 norovirus strains were successfully sequenced, and 11 strains (7 GⅡ.17 strains, 2 GⅡ. 4 Sydney_ 2012 strains, 1 GⅡ. 1 strain and 1 GⅡ. 21 strain) were obtained from norovirus positive samples by two RT-PCR methods, two strains (1 GⅡ. 17 strain and 1 GⅡ. 3 strain) were obtained from real-time RT-PCR negative samples which were positive for norovirus by semi-nested RT-PCR. The similarity between these strains and reference strains from diarrhea patients, environmental sewage, and shellfish products were 84.4% - 100.0%. Conclusions: The parallel test of norovirus in oysters by two RT-PCR methods can improve the detection rate and detect more genotypes. Norovirus strains in oysters were highly homologous with reference strains from diarrheal patients, environmental sewage, and shellfish products. Therefore, surveillance, prevention and control for norovirus should be carried out in people who have frequent contacts with oysters and related environments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Beijing , Humans , Norovirus/genetics , Ostreidae , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236182, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153485

ABSTRACT

Abstract The oyster culture has the incrusting organism as problem for production, in this context, it evaluated as biological control against incrusting organism and sediments the introduction of gastropod Tegula atra (Lesson, 1830) in Chilean oysters (Triostrea chilensis Phillippi, 1844) cultures in conditions of starvation presence and absence located in floating cages and bottom cultures. The predation and mechanic effect on T. atra grazing generated a decreasing in seven days of 19.8% and 13.7% of incrusting organisms in cage culture and bottom sediments by effects of gastropods without starvation respectively. Whereas it had a decrease of 12.6% and 11.4% of incrusting organisms in cage culture and bottom sediments by effects of gastropods with starvation respectively. The incrusting organism removed were mainly algae, colonial ascidia, polychaeta, bryozoan and small crustaceans.


Resumo A cultura da ostra tem como problema de produção o organismo incrustante, neste contexto, avaliou como controle biológico contra organismos incrustantes e sedimentos a introdução do gastrópode Tegula atra (Lesson, 1830) em culturas de ostras chilenas (Triostrea chilensis Phillippi, 1844) em condições de presença e ausência de fome, localizadas em gaiolas flutuantes e culturas de fundo. A predação e o efeito mecânico no pastejo de T. atra geraram uma diminuição em sete dias de 19,8% e 13,7% dos organismos incrustantes na cultura em gaiola e nos sedimentos de fundo, por efeito de gastrópodes sem fome, respectivamente. Considerando que houve decréscimo de 12,6% e 11,4% dos organismos incrustantes na cultura em gaiola e nos sedimentos de fundo pelos efeitos dos gastrópodes com fome respectivamente. Os organismos incrustantes removidos eram principalmente algas, ascídias coloniais, poliquetas, briozoários e pequenos crustáceos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ostreidae , Gastropoda , Predatory Behavior , Chile , Geologic Sediments , Crustacea
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190650, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249213

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the last decades the oyster faming stands out as the main mitigating measure to the decline of the fishery, as it presents socio-economic and environmental viability. However, for the success of the activity, it is necessary to understand the stages of cultivation, as well as the growth performance of the species to be cultivated. The present work aims to characterize the growth and survival of Crassostrea tulipa, cultivated on the Amazon coast. For this purpose, oysters were grouped by commercial size class (seed, juvenile, baby, average and masters) and compared the growth rates and their relationships with the abiotic variables. There was no difference in the average growth between the oyster classes, however, when comparing them in the total and percentage growth rates, a higher performance was observed in the oysters classified by juvenile and seed, respectively. The relationship of salinity to oyster growth was evidenced only in the class of juvenile oysters. The cultivation time required to obtain native oysters in the commercial size varied between four and seven months, being inferior to those found in other Brazilian regions.


Subject(s)
Ostreidae , Aquaculture/methods , Amazonian Ecosystem , Crassostrea
5.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21180617, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285551

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Crassostrea oysters larvae patterns in estuarine environments. Larvae distribution patterns in Guaratuba Bay (Paraná State - Brazil).


Abstract Crassostrea oysters present planktonic/planktotrophic larval development. Thus, it is essential knowing larvae distribution patterns in estuarine environments presenting oyster farms and spat collection. The aim of the current research is to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of oyster larvae in Guaratuba Bay (Paraná State - Brazil) based on monthly samplings conducted with a plankton net (50 cm diameter and 225 µm mesh size) from June 2003 to June 2004 in three different points (Point I - bay´s entrance; Point II - cultivation park; Point III - median sector of the bay). Plankton samples were preserved in 4% buffered formaldehyde. They were concentrated and quantified in the laboratory. The total number of larvae in the sample from each net was counted and corrected to a standard larvae/m3 collection tow. Data about sea water temperature, salinity, transparency and pluviosity were also collected. Based on results about the spatial distribution of larvae, mean density was 33.30 ±42.73 larvae/m³ in Point I; 17.84 ±16.88 larvae/m³ in Point II and 55.53 ±78.31 larvae/m³ in Point III, during the studied period. Spring and Summer were the seasons recording the most expressive mean number of larvae; the largest concentration of them was found in Point III, in the middle section of the bay.


Subject(s)
Ostreidae , Plankton , Crassostrea , Brazil
6.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(1): e158316, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122148

ABSTRACT

This work investigated the occurrence of Perkinsus sp. in clam Anomalocardia brasiliana, oyster Crassostrea sp. and mussel Mytella falcata from the Jaguaribe River estuary, northeastern Brazil. The collection of clam (N = 300), oysters (N = 300) and mussels (N = 300) were carried out in the estuary of the Jaguaribe River, Ceará, in March and April (rainy season) and October (dry season) in 2017. The mollusks were measured in their major axis, open, and had their tissues submitted to tissue incubation techniques in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM), histology, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), PCR and sequencing. The RFTM assays showed Perkinsus sp. infecting the three mollusks investigated. The prevalence of infected clams was 1.33% in both sampling periods, oysters ranged from 2.66 (rainy season) to 8% (dry period), and mussels from 0% (dry period) to 51.33% (rainy season). The intensity of infection was very light to light in clams, very soft to severe in oysters and very soft to moderate in mussels. Histological analyses showed cells of Perkinsus sp. infecting the gills and connective tissue around the digestive gland of some individuals. The qPCR generated amplicons in all positive samples in RFTM, confirming the presence of Perkinsus sp., while the sequencing evidenced high similarity (99%) with the species P. beihaiensis. In conclusion, the results obtained contribute to increasing knowledge about the occurrence of Perkinsus sp. in bivalve mollusks from northeastern Brazil.(AU)


Foi investigada a ocorrência da infecção pelo protozoário Perkinsus sp. em berbigões Anomalocardia brasiliana, ostras Crassostrea sp. e mexilhões Mytella falcata do estuário do Rio Jaguaribe, Nordeste do Brasil. As colheitas dos berbigões (N = 300), ostras (N = 300) e mexilhões (N = 300) foram realizadas no estuário do Rio Jaguaribe, Ceará, nos meses de março e abril (período chuvoso) e outubro (período seco) de 2017. Os moluscos foram medidos em seu maior eixo, abertos e os seus tecidos foram submetidos às técnicas de incubação de tecidos em meio fluido de tioglicolato de Ray (RFTM), histologia, reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real (qPCR), PCR e sequenciamento. Os ensaios de RFTM evidenciaram Perkinsus sp. infectando os três moluscos investigados. A prevalência de berbigões infectados foi de 1,33% em ambos os períodos de amostragem, a de ostras variou de 2,66 (período chuvoso) a 8% (período seco) e a de mexilhões de 0% (período seco) a 51,33% (período chuvoso). A intensidade de infecção apresentou-se muito leve a leve em berbigões, muito leve à severa nas ostras e muito leve à moderada nos mexilhões. As análises histológicas mostraram células de Perkinsus sp. infectando as brânquias e tecido conjuntivo em torno da glândula digestiva de alguns indivíduos. A qPCR gerou amplicons em todas as amostras positivas em RFTM, confirmando a presença de Perkinsus sp., enquanto o sequenciamento mostrou alta similaridade (99%) com a espécie P. beihaiensis. Em conclusão, os resultados do presente estudo contribuem para ampliar o conhecimento sobre a ocorrência de Perkinsus sp. em moluscos bivalves do Nordeste do Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Ostreidae , Parasites , Bivalvia , Alveolata , Mollusca , Estuaries , Rainy Season , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(2): 586-597, mar./apr. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048612

ABSTRACT

Water salinity is among the most important factors influencing the distribution, abundance, growth, and survival of Crassostrea gasar, an important aquaculture resource grown in estuarine environments in diverse regions of the world. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the effects of different salinities on survival and the tissues ofC. gasar under laboratory conditions. Two experiments were performed using adult oysters from five marine farms located in the bay of Guaratuba, Brazil. In Experiment 1, the daily survival rates were evaluated after the oysters were submitted to gradual acclimatization at salinities ranging from 0 to 65 gL-1 and maintained in the laboratory without feeding for up to 365 days. In Experiment 2, the oysters were exposed to salinity from 0 to 50 gL-1 for up to 30 days without feeding and possible histological alterations caused by salinity were assessed. Three tolerance ranges of C. gasar to salinity were identified: "Optimal" (between 4 and 40 gL-1), "Tolerable" (between 2.1 and 3.9 and between 41 and 50 gL-1) and "Intolerable" (less than 2 and greater than 50 gL-1). No evidence of histological alterations was observed in oysters exposed to the different salinities.


A salinidade da água está entre os fatores de maior influência na distribuição, abundância, crescimento e sobrevivência de Crassostrea gasar, um importante recurso aquícola cultivado em ambientes estuarinos em diversas regiões do mundo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da salinidade sobre a sobrevivência e nos tecidos de C. gasar exposta a diferentes salinidades, em condições laboratoriais. Foram realizados dois experimentos com ostras adultas provenientes de cinco fazendas marinhas localizadas na baía de Guaratuba, Brasil. No experimento 1, que foi realizado com o propósito de avaliar as taxas diárias de sobrevivência, as ostras foram submetidas à aclimatação gradual a salinidades variando de 0 a 65 gL-1 e mantidas em laboratório, sem alimentação, por até 365 dias. No experimento 2, as ostras foram expostas a salinidades de 0 a 50 gL-1 por até 30 dias, sem alimentação, para avaliação de possíveis alterações histológicas provocadas pela salinidade. Foram identificadas três faixas de tolerância de C. gasar à salinidade: Ótima (entre 4 e 40 gL-1), Tolerável (entre 2,1 e 3,9 e entre 41 e 50 gL-1) e Intolerável (menor que 2 e maior que 50 gL-1). Não foram encontradas evidências de alterações histológicas em função da exposição das ostras às diferentes salinidades.


Subject(s)
Ostreidae , Estuaries , Crassostrea , Salinity , Histology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786630

ABSTRACT

Gymnophalloides seoi (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) is a human intestinal trematode contracted by eating raw oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). It has been known to be highly endemic in Aphae Island, Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do (Province). However, recent epidemiological status of G. seoi has not been reported since the 1990s. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of G. seoi metacercariae in natural and cultured oysters collected from 3 islands and 2 coastal areas in western parts of Korea. The oysters were examined using the artificial digestion method followed by stereomicroscopy. The overall positive rate of G. seoi metacercariae in natural oysters was 66.0% (99/150), and the oysters collected from Yubu Island showed the highest infection rate (74.0%). However, the metacercarial density per oyster was relatively low (1.5–2.4 per oyster). By contrast, no metacercaria was found in cultured oysters purchased from 2 coastal areas in Chungcheongnam-do. Thus, we could confirm that natural oysters produced from 3 western coastal islands are infected with G. seoi metacercariae, whereas cultured oysters purchased from 2 coastal areas were free from infection.


Subject(s)
Digestion , Eating , Humans , Islands , Korea , Metacercariae , Methods , Ostreidae , Prevalence , Republic of Korea
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766382

ABSTRACT

This study examined the microbiological quality of daycare center meals. Six menu items from five daycare centers in Daegu included uncooked processed foods (seasoned cucumber and lettuce salad), post-preparation after cooking processed foods (rolled omelet and seasoned soybean sprout), and cooking processed foods (panbroiled beef with oyster sauce and seasoned pork roast). Microbiological analyses were performed for the aerobic plate counts (APC), coliforms, and Escherichia coli. The analyses were conducted in July and November 2017. The mean APC and coliform count of seasoned cucumber decreased significantly from 4.71 log colony forming units (CFU)/g and 2.50 log CFU/g in July to 4.07 log CFU/g and 1.78 log CFU/g in November, respectively (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001). The APC of panbroiled beef with oyster sauce and seasoned pork roast were significantly lower in July (1.84 and 1.79 log CFU/g) than in November (2.41 and 2.28 log CFU/g) (P < 0.001). The coliform counts of panbroiled beef with oyster sauce and seasoned pork roast were significantly greater in November (2.11 and 1.62 log CFU/g) (P < 0.001). E. coli was not detected. Among the foods prepared using the three preparation processes, the post-preparation after cooking processed foods had the lowest microbial quality. The APC and coliform counts of cooking processed foods were satisfactory in July, with an acceptable rating for pan-broiled beef with oyster sauce in November. Time-temperature control and the prevention of cross-contamination are essential during meal production for food safety, regardless of the season.


Subject(s)
Cooking , Escherichia coli , Food Safety , Lettuce , Meals , Ostreidae , Red Meat , Seasons , Soybeans , Stem Cells
10.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 55-58, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765704

ABSTRACT

In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or liver cirrhosis (LC) accompanied by hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, hepatic failure often leads to debility. Here, we report about a 63-year-old man with alcoholic LC who was referred to our hospital with jaundice and abdominal distension 10 days earlier. Abdominal computed tomography showed necrotic HCC accompanied by left lobe shrinkage without tumor progression. Laboratory and imaging findings revealed no acute infection focus. The patient reported no herbal medicine or alcohol consumption, and there was no evidence of acute viral hepatitis. One month later, HEV immunoglobulin M positivity was confirmed, and deterioration of liver function due to HEV infection was suspected. The patient often ate raw oysters and sashimi, as well as boar meat, which is a well-known risk food for HEV infection. His umbilical hernia deteriorated due to tense ascites and infection by skin abrasion. The patient progressed to hepatorenal syndrome and eventually died. Liver function preservation is important when treating HCC patients. Therefore, clinicians should pay more attention to the prevention of HEV and others causes of direct liver injury.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Alcoholics , Ascites , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis E virus , Hepatitis E , Hepatitis , Hepatorenal Syndrome , Herbal Medicine , Hernia, Umbilical , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Jaundice , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Failure , Meat , Middle Aged , Ostreidae , Skin , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180211, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039127

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mangroves are tropical and subtropical flooded forests that generally develop in estuarine areas over unstable sediments protected from the action of waves in the intertidal zone with an environment characterized by a great diversity of fauna and flora. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the levels of heavy metals that are absorbed by mangrove oysters, in estuarine systems in the Alagoas coast by determining the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd and Cr. Two areas, which consisted of both a collection during the rainy season and the dry season, were selected for sampling of mangrove oysters. In each collection, seven samples were collected, at seven different points, where each sample contained four oysters. In the laboratory the oysters were dried at 105°C for 72 hours and then macerated. It was then digested with 10 ml of a solution comprising a combination of 4:1 nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, initially in 1h at 40°C, followed by 3 hours at 140°C. In General, the medians followed the order Zn > Fe > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd in MMELC and Zn > Cu > Fe > Mn > Cr > Cd in Meirim River. It is concluded that the Crassostrea rhizophorae oysters from the studied environments presented concentrations of all the metals proposed in the research and demonstrates its accumulating and bioindicator character.


Subject(s)
Ostreidae , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Wetlands , Brazil
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203198

ABSTRACT

A survey was performed to know the recent infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae in clams and oysters from 4 sites in western coastal regions of the Republic of Korea (=Korea). Four species of clams (Mactra veneriformis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Cyclina sinensis, and Saxidomus purpuratus) were collected from Taean-gun, Chungcheongnam-do (Province), Buan-gun (County) and Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-do, and oysters, Crassostrea gigas, from Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do were transferred to our laboratory on ice and examined by the artificial digestion method. The metacercariae of Himasthla alincia were detected in 3 species of clams, M. veneriformis, R. philippinarum, and C. sinensis from the 3 surveyed areas. The positive rate and the mean density per clam infected were 98.9% (30.8 metacercariae) in M. veneriformis, 60.0% (5.0) in R. philippinarum, and 96.0% (28.4) in C. sinensis. The positive rate (mean density) of Acanthoparyphium tyosenense metacercariae in M. veneriformis was 50.0% (2.1) from Taean-gun and 70.0% (2.8) from Gochang-gun. The metacercariae of Parvatrema spp. were detected in M. veneriformis and R. philippinarum from Taean-gun and Gochang-gun; the positive rate (mean density) was 63.3% (4,123) and 50.0% (19) in M. veneriformis, and 6.7% (126) and 100% (238) in R. philippinarum from the 2 regions, respectively. The metacercariae of Gymnophalloides seoi were detected in all 30 oysters from Shinan-gun, and their average density per oyster was 646. From the above results, it has been confirmed that more than 3 species of metacercariae are prevalent in clams from the western coastal regions, and G. seoi metacercariae are still prevalent in oysters from Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea


Subject(s)
Bivalvia , Crassostrea , Digestion , Ice , Korea , Metacercariae , Methods , Ostreidae , Prevalence , Republic of Korea , Trematoda
13.
Santa Tecla, La Libertad; ITCA Editores; ene. 2016. 28 p. ^c28 cm.ilus., tab., graf..
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1223443

ABSTRACT

En El Salvador, el cultivo de Ostra del Pacifico (Crassostrea gigas) es una actividad nueva, ya que en el país se desconocía la reproducción, el manejo de la semilla y el desarrollo del cultivo engorde en las zonas de cultivo. Es por ello que el Centro de Desarrollo de la Pesca y la Acuicultura (CENDEPESCA) juntamente con la cooperación técnica del Gobierno del Japón a través de la Agencia de Cooperación Internacional del Japón (JICA) ha implementado el "Proyecto para el Desarrollo de la Acuicultura de Moluscos en El Salvador" que ha introducido una nueva especie de ostra en El Salvador, la Ostra del Pacifico (Crassostrea gigas) con el objetivo de mejorar la calidad de vida de las comunidades de pescadores, que solamente se ha dedicado a la extracción de los recursos del medio natural, mas no al cultivo directamente a causa de la falta de recursos para la realización de la reproducción de los organismos, adquisición de la semilla e insumos para el desarrollo del cultivo. La Escuela Especializada en Ingeniería ITCA-FEPADE regional La Unión se unió a este esfuerzo y realizó una investigación en cooperación con CENDEPESCA, la cual inició con la siembra de 7,000 semillas en el sistema suspendido de Ostra japonesa, posterior a ello se elaboró un cronograma de trabajo para el control y se desarrollo del crecimiento del cultivo en los 6 meses de duración de la investigación,


In El Salvador, the cultivation of Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is a new activity, due to, in the country, the reproduction, the handling of the seed and the development of the fattening crop in the cultivation areas were unknown. That is why the Center for the Development of Fisheries and Aquaculture (CENDEPESCA) together with the technical cooperation of the Government of Japan through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has implemented the "Project for the Development of Aquaculture of Mollusks in El Salvador "that has introduced a new species of oyster in El Salvador, the Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) with the aim of improving the quality of life of the fishing communities, which has only been dedicated to the extraction of the resources of the natural environment, but not to the cultivation directly because of the lack of resources for the realization of the reproduction of the organisms, acquisition of the seed and inputs for the development of the crop. ITCA-FEPADE La Unión joined this effort and carried out an investigation in cooperation with CENDEPESCA, which began with the sowing of 7,000 seeds in the suspended system of Japanese Oyster, after which a schedule of work for the control and development of the growth of the crop in the 6 months of duration of the investigation,


Subject(s)
Ostreidae/growth & development , Aquaculture , Crassostrea/growth & development , Fisheries , Mollusca
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105500

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease in which the symptoms are associated with eosinophilic infiltration in various layers of the gastrointestinal tract. A 56-year-old man complained of severe abdominal pain after eating yellow tail fish and oyster. There was no peripheral blood eosinophilia in the initial laboratory test. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated circumferential wall thickening and dilatation of small intestine with ascites. An emergency laparotomy accompanied by segmental resection of the ileum and end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Histologically, there was a dense infiltration of eosinophils throughout the entire layers of ileal wall, through which this case could be diagnosed as eosinophilic enteritis. We did not prescribe systemic glucocorticosteroid, but asked him to avoid fish and oyster. He did not complain of recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms anymore after discharge. This is the case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis with intestinal obstruction requiring emergency surgery, which was developed or aggravated after ingestion of yellow tail fish and oyster that were suspected to be culprit foods. In patients with eosinophilic gastroenteritis, foods which are related to this abnormal condition should be identified and avoided to control this disease and prevent from aggravation or flare-up.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Ascites , Dilatation , Eating , Emergencies , Enteritis , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Food Hypersensitivity , Gastroenteritis , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Ileum , Intestinal Obstruction , Intestine, Small , Laparotomy , Middle Aged , Ostreidae , Rare Diseases , Tail
15.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 19(4): 209-214, out.-dez. 2016. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-833165

ABSTRACT

O consumo de ostras na forma in natura exige muito cuidado e práticas higiênicas e sanitárias corretas pelos marisqueiros e demais manipuladores desse alimento durante o processo de beneficiamento à comercialização, para que não haja contaminação por microrganismos patogênicos e deteriorantes. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil socioeconômico de marisqueiros e as condições higiênicas e sanitárias praticadas na cadeia produtiva de ostras do gênero Crassostrea desde a extração até a comercialização. No período de janeiro a abril de 2014, por meio da técnica de amostragem "Bola de Neve" foram selecionados 40 marisqueiros na Ilha de São Luís - MA, os quais foram entrevistados utilizando-se questionário semiestruturado. De acordo com os resultados, a maioria dos marisqueiros, possui ensino fundamental incompleto, faixa etária entre 21 e 30 anos e encontram-se em união estável ou casados. Parte das ostras são extraídas em bancos naturais na área de estudo, enquanto outra parte é proveniente de atravessadores oriundos de outros municípios maranhenses.Após a aquisição, pode demorar até três dias para serem comercializadas. Concluiu-se que as condições higiênicos sanitárias adotadas na atividade de extração de ostras até a comercialização são insatisfatórias, indicando falta de boas práticas em todas as etapas ao longo do processo de produção, o que pode representar riscos à saúde da população apreciadora do consumo in natura desse bivalve. Além disso, indica a necessidade de fiscalização dessa atividade, já que os organismos são transportados de forma inadequada e passam muito tempo até chegar ao consumidor final.


Consumption of fresh oysters requires very careful and correct hygienic and sanitary practices by shellfish collectors and other food handlers during the handling process to marketing, in order to avoid contamination by pathogenic microorganisms or deterioration. This study aimed to evaluate the socio-economic profile of shellfish collectors and the hygienic conditions applied in the production chain of Crassostrea oysters from extraction to marketing. In the period from January to April 2014, through a snowball sampling technique, a total of 40 shellfish collector were selected in Ilha de São Luís ­ MA. These collectors were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. According to the results, most shellfish collector had not completed elementary school, aged between 21 and 30 years and married or co-habiting. Part of the oysters is extracted from natural stocks in the study area, while other oysters come from middlemen who bring them from other cities in Maranhão. After acquisition, they can take up to three days to be marketed. Therefore, it was concluded that although it is an important source of income, hygienic and sanitary conditions adopted in the oyster extraction activity are unsatisfactory, indicating a lack of good practices throughout the production process, which can pose risks to the population who consume this bivalve fresh. It also shows the need for supervision of the activity, since the organisms are improperly transported, spending much time until reaching the end consumer.


El consumo de ostras en la forma fresca, in natura, requiere gran cuidado y prácticas higiénicas sanitarias correctas por los marisqueros y otros manipuladores de ese alimento durante el proceso de beneficiación a la comercialización, para que no haya contaminación por microorganismos patógenos y de deterioración. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el perfil socioeconómico de marisqueros y las condiciones higiénicas sanitarias practicadas en la cadena productiva de ostras del género Crassostrea, desde la extracción hasta la comercialización. En el período de enero a abril de 2014, a través de la técnica de muestreo "Bola de Nieve" se seleccionaron 40 marisqueros en la Isla de São Luís - MA, que fueron entrevistados mediante cuestionario semiestructurado. De acuerdo con los resultados, la mayoría de los marisqueros tiene enseñanza primaria incompleta, con edades comprendidas entre 21 y 30 años y se encuentran en unión estable o casados. Parte de las ostras son extraídas en bancos naturales en el área del estudio, mientras otra parte proviene de los intermediarios de otros municipios de Maranhão. Después de la adquisición, puede tardar hasta tres días para que sean comercializadas. Se concluye que las condiciones higiénicas sanitarias adoptadas en la actividad de extracción de ostras hasta la comercialización son insatisfactorias, indicando falta de buenas prácticas en todo el proceso de producción, lo que puede plantear riesgos a la salud de la población aficionada al consumo in natura de ese bivalvo. Además, indica la necesidad de supervisar esta actividad, ya que los organismos son transportados inadecuadamente y pasan mucho tiempo para llegar al consumidor final.


Subject(s)
Fishing Industry , Food Supply/economics , Food Supply , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Ostreidae , Socioeconomic Factors
16.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-875395

ABSTRACT

This study reports the presence of the pathogen Perkinsus marinus, notifiable to the World Organization for Animal Health (Office International des Èpizooties = OIE) in the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in southern Bahia via proteomic analysis. We analyzed Crassostrea brasiliana from a long-line cultivation system and C. rhizophorae from an adjacent mangrove in Porto do Campo, Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil. The collections (n = 100) were performed in October 2012. In the laboratory, the oysters were measured and opened to remove the meat, which was steeped in dry ice. For extraction of proteins, adaptation of a protocol used for mussels was used, after which separation in the first dimension was taken by isoelectric focusing (IEF). The peptides were transferred to a Mass Spectrometer. The obtained spectra were analyzed with the ProteinLynx Global Server 4.2 software tool and also by MASCOT (Matrix Science) and compared to the databases of the SWISSPROT and NCBI, respectively. The identification was evidenced by beta-tubulin, Perkinsus marinus ATCC 50983 and protein homology code in the database NCBI = gi | 294889481. This is the first record of P. marinus in Bahia and the fourth in Brazil.(AU)


Este estudo relata a presença do patógeno Perkinsus marinus, de notificação obrigatória à Organização Internacional de Epizootias (OIE) na ostra Crassostrea rhizophorae no sul da Bahia, via análise proteômica. Foram analisadas as ostras Crassostrea brasiliana de um cultivo em espinhel e C. rhizophorae de um manguezal adjacente, na localidade de Porto do Campo, Baía de Camamu, Bahia. As coletas (n = 100) foram efetuadas em outubro de 2012. Em laboratório, as ostras foram medidas e abertas para a retirada da carne, que foi macerada em gelo seco. Para a extração das proteínas, foi adotada a adaptação de um protocolo utilizado para mexilhões, após o que foi realizada a separação na primeira dimensão, por focalização isoelétrica (IEF). Os peptídeos foram transferidos para um Espectrômetro de Massas. Os espectros obtidos foram analisados no software ProteinLynx Global Server 4.2 e também pela ferramenta MASCOT (Matrix Science) e comparados com os bancos de dados do SWISSPROT e do NCBI, respectivamente. A identificação foi evidenciada por meio da beta-tubulina, homologia Perkinsus marinus ATCC 50983 e código da proteína no banco de dados NCBI = gi|294889481. Este é o primeiro registro de P. marinus na Bahia e o quarto no Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Crassostrea/parasitology , Proteomics , Protozoan Infections, Animal/diagnosis , Mass Spectrometry/veterinary , Ostreidae/parasitology
17.
Rev. téc. (ITCA-FEPADE. En línea) ; 9(9): 35-38, 2016. ^c28 cm.ilus., graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1151338

ABSTRACT

La Escuela Especializada en Ingeniería ITCA-FEPADE Centro Regional MEGATEC La Unión, a través de la carrera "Técnico en Manejo Integrado de Recursos Costero Marinos, con especialidad en Acuicultura y Pesquería" y en coordinación con el Centro de Desa- rrollo de la Pesca y la Acuicultura (CENDEPESCA), se desarrolló el proyecto de investigación aplicada para determinar el crecimiento y sobre vivencia en cultivos de Ostra Japonesa, con la finalidad de buscar y proponer alternativas de cultivo a los productores acuícolas del municipio de Meanguera del Golfo, departamento de La Unión. Para la implementación de este proyecto de investigación, se realizó una siembra de 7,000 semillas de ostras, que fueron colocadas suspendidas en la columna de agua de un sistema de cultivo constituido por un Long Line y linternas de 5 pisos cada una. Al final del periodo de cultivo se cosecharon organismos con tamaño promedio de 5.5 cm, con una sobre vivencia del 7%. El mayor depredador encontrado fue el caracol (Cymatium wiegmanni) y el rango de temperaturas durante este periodo de cultivo fue de 30.1 y 30.5 °C.


The Specialized School in Engineering ITCA-FEPADE, regional Centre MEGATEC in La Unión, through its career "Technician in Integrated Control Coastal marine resources, with an aquaculture and fishery emphasis" and in conjunction with The Development of Fishing and Aquaculture Center (CENDEPESCA), implemented an applied research project to determine the growth and survival in Japanese oyster farming so as to find and propose farming alternatives to aquaculture producers from the municipality of Meanguera del Golfo, departamento de la Unión. To implement this research project, 7,000 oysters were farmed and placed hanging from the water column of a farming system made up of a Long line and flashlights of 5 levels each. By the end of the farming period, organisms with an average size of 5.5 cm were harvested with a 7% survival chance. The main oyster predator found was the (Cymatium wiegmanni) snail, and the temperature range during the farming period was between 30.1 and 30.5 °C.


Subject(s)
Applied Research , Crassostrea/growth & development , Ostreidae , Marine Resources , Aquaculture , Fisheries
18.
Salud pública Méx ; 57(4): 343-351, jul.-ago. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-760499

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Monitorear el dinoflagelado Pyrodinium bahamense y sus toxinas en ostión de roca Striostrea prismatica en Santiago Astata y en Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca, de septiembre de 2009 a junio de 2010. Material y métodos. Se analizó mensualmente la abundancia de Pyrodinium bahamense mediante el método de Sedgewick-Rafter y la concentración de toxinas paralizantes y perfil tóxico en tejido blando del molusco en muestras compuestas de cada zona por el método de cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Resultados. Se encontró alta abundancia de Pyrodinium bahamense en Santiago Astata en diciembre, febrero, abril y junio, y en Puerto Escondido en abril y junio. Los niveles de toxinas paralizantes fueron superiores al límite permisible para consumo humano en Santiago Astata en noviembre, diciembre, enero, febrero y junio; en la zona de Puerto Escondido, en diciembre y junio. Conclusiones. Estos niveles de toxinas representaron riesgo para la salud pública en la zona de estudio.


Objective. Pyrodinium bahamense monitoring in water and their toxins in rock oyster Striostrea prismatica in Santiago Astata and Puerto Escondido Oaxaca was performed from September 2009 to July 2010. Materials and methods. Pyrodinium bahamense abundance in water, and concentration and toxic profile of paralytic shellfish toxins were analyzed monthly in soft tissue of mollusk in composite samples in high performance liquid chromatography. Results. High abundance of Pyrodinium bahamense was found in Santiago Astata on December, February, April and June; and in Puerto Escondido on April and June. The concentrations of the paralyzing toxin that exceeded the regulatory limit for human consumption of mollusks (800 µg STX eq. kg-1) were presented in Santiago Astata on November, December, January, February and June; and in Puerto Escondido on December and June. Conclusions. For several months there was risk to public health due to the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins above the regulatory limit in oysters from the study area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ostreidae/chemistry , Dinoflagellida/growth & development , Food Contamination/analysis , Seafood/analysis , Harmful Algal Bloom , Marine Toxins/analysis , Seawater/chemistry , Dinoflagellida/metabolism , Pacific Ocean , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Maximum Allowable Concentration
19.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(3): 193-196, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752604

ABSTRACT

The following study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains from fresh and frozen oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae sold in Fortaleza-Brazil. An antibiogram was performed on 87 isolates using nine antibiotics: gentamicin (Gen 10 µg), ampicillin (Amp 10 µg), penicillin G (Pen 10U), ciprofloxacin (Cip 5 µg), chloramphenicol (Chl 30 µg), nalidixic acid (Nal 30 µg), tetracycline (Tet 30 µg), vancomycin (Van 30 µg) and erythromycin (Ery 15 µg). All strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 85 (97.7%) were multi-resistant, with predominance of the Van+ Pen+Amp resistance profile (n = 46). Plasmid resistance to Pen, Amp and Ery was detected. Thus, the risk that raw oyster consumption poses to the health of consumers is highlighted, due to the fact that these bivalves may host antibacterial-resistant microorganisms.


O presente estudo objetivou determinar o perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos de cepas de Vibrio parahaemolyticus oriundas de ostras “in natura” e congeladas comercializadas em Fortaleza-Brasil. Oitenta e sete (87) cepas foram submetidas ao antibiograma com emprego de nove antibióticos: gentamicina (Gen 10 µg), ampicilina (Amp 10 µg), penicilina G (Pen 10U), ciprofloxacin (Cip 5 µg), cloranfenicol (Clo 30 µg), ácido nalidíxico (Nal 30 µg), tetraciclina (Tet 30 µg), vancomicina (Van 30 µg) e eritromicina (Eri 15 µg). Todas as cepas mostram-se resistentes a pelo menos um antibiótico, e 85 (97,7%) apresentaram multirresistência, com predomínio do perfil Van+ Pen+Amp (n = 46). Foi detectada resistência plasmidial a Pen, Amp e Eri. Dessa forma, o risco que o consumo de ostras cruas representa para a saúde dos consumidores merece ser destacado, uma vez que esses bivalves podem ser veículos de transmissão de micro organismos multirresistentes a fármacos antibacterianos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Food Microbiology , Ostreidae/microbiology , Shellfish/microbiology , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/drug effects , Brazil , Colony Count, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolation & purification
20.
Mycobiology ; : 423-434, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729594

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to compare the effects of different agro-wastes on the growth, yield, and nutritional composition of oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (PC). Seven substrate formulas including sawdust (SD), corncob (CC), sugarcane bagasse (SB) alone and in combination of 80 : 20, 50 : 50 ratio between SD and CC, SD and SB were investigated. The results indicated that different substrate formulas gave a significant difference in total colonization period, characteristics of fruiting bodies, yield, biological efficiency (BE), nutritional composition and mineral contents of two oyster mushrooms PO and PC. The results showed that increasing CC and SB reduced C/N ratio, and enhanced some mineral contents (Ca, P, and Mg) of substrate formulas. The increased amount of CC and SB of substrate formulas enhanced protein, ash, mineral contents (Ca, K, Mg, Mn, and Zn) of fruiting bodies of both mushrooms. Substrates with 100% CC and 100% SB were the most suitable substrate formulas for cultivation of oyster mushrooms PO and PC in which they gave the highest values of cap diameter, stipe thickness, mushroom weight, yield, BE, protein, fiber, ash, mineral content (Ca, K, and Mg) and short stipe length. However, substrate formula 100% CC gave the slowest time for the first harvest of both mushrooms PO and PC (46.02 days and 64.24 days, respectively). It is also found that the C/N ratio of substrate formulas has close correlation with total colonization period, mushroom weight, yield, BE and protein content of mushroom PO and PC.


Subject(s)
Agaricales , Colon , Fruit , Ostreidae , Pleurotus , Saccharum
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