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Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(4): e200145, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351157


Morphoanatomical or physiological changes coupled with changes in body size are known as allometric relationships. The objective of this study was to identify the points of growth changes in Centropomus based on otolith morphometry and morphogeometry. For this purpose, 455 individuals of C. undecimalis and 176 of C. parallelus were collected from artisanal fishermen of the coast of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. The sagittal otoliths were measured for length, height, perimeter, area and weighed. The potential and polyphasic models were fitted between total fish length and otolith length. The morphotypes otoliths wen describe by form Fourier descriptors and shape indices. The polyphasic model detected three growth phases. The first stanza for C. undecimalis was at 46.8 cm and the second at 75.9 cm. For C. parallelus, it was at 18.8 cm and at 41.2 cm. Each stanza has a specific otoliths morphotype in both species. The otoliths of C. undecimalis and C. parallelus exhibited ontogenetic allometric changes in their growth pattern with two stanzas changing points. The stanzas corresponded to specific lengths reached by individuals over their life cycles, such as their size at maturity and length at sexual reversion.(AU)

Mudanças morfoanatômicas ou fisiológicas em conjunto com mudanças no tamanho do corpo, são conhecidas como relações alométricas. O objetivo do estudo foi identificar os pontos de mudanças de crescimento de Centropomus com base na morfometria e morfogeometria dos otólitos. Foram coletados 455 indivíduos de C. undecimalis e 176 de C. parallelus, adquiridos com pescadores artesanais do estado de Alagoas, Brasil. Os otólitos sagitta foram medidos quanto ao comprimento, altura, perímetro, área e pesados. Os modelos potencial e polifásico foram ajustados entre o comprimento do peixe e o comprimento do otólito. Os morfotipos de otólitos são descritos por descritores de Fourier e índices de forma. O modelo polifásico detectou três fases de crescimento. A primeira stanza para C. undecimalis foi em 46,8 cm e a segunda em 75,9 cm. Já C. parallelus, a primeira foi em 18,8 cm e segunda em 41,2 cm. Cada stanza possui um morfotipo específico de otólitos em ambas as espécies. Os otólitos de C. undecimalis e C. parallelus exibiram mudanças alométricas ontogenéticas em seu padrão de crescimento com dois pontos de mudança de stanzas. As stanzas corresponderam a comprimentos específicos alcançados por indivíduos ao longo de seus ciclos de vida, como seu tamanho na maturidade e comprimento na reversão sexual.(AU)

Animals , Perciformes/growth & development , Otolithic Membrane , Body Size , Life Cycle Stages
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(3): e190106, 2020. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135398


Lutjanus argentiventris presents a large intertropical distribution within the Eastern Pacific, which is as important to fisheries now as it was in the pre-Hispanic period. The purpose of this article is to present an allometric model that enables the size and weight of L. argentiventris to be predicted, using the isolated bones found in archaeological and paleontological contexts or the stomach contents of ichthyophagous species. A modern collection of L. argentiventris from Ecuador was used, composed of 37 individuals covering a wide range of sizes and weights. The total length (TL), standard length (SL), and total fresh weight (W) of each individual was gathered. The TL of the sample ranged between 210 and 760 mm, the SL between 164 and 627 mm and the W ranged between 123 and 6550 g. The most frequent bones (15) and otoliths were chosen and 39 measurements were taken. The total length-weight relationship was W = 6E-06 TL3.1513 with R 2 = 0.997. In general, it was observed that the relationships between the TL and the bone measurements had a strong correlation (R² > 0.95). The allometric model will be useful not only for archaeologists but also for biologists working on historical ecology.(AU)

Lutjanus argentiventris presenta una distribución intertropical en el Pacífico Oriental, siendo una especie importante desde épocas prehispánicas hasta la actualidad. El propósito de este artículo es presentar un modelo alométrico que prediga la talla y el peso de L. argentiventris, usando restos óseos aislados encontrados en contextos arqueológicos y paleontológicos. Se empleó una colección de 37 individuos con tallas y pesos variados, provenientes del Ecuador. La longitud total (LT), la longitud estándar (LE) y el peso (P) de cada individuo fueron recolectados. La LT varió entre 210 y 760 mm, la LE entre 164 y 627 mm y el P entre 123 y 6550 g. Se escogieron los huesos más frecuentes (15) y los otolitos para realizar 39 mediciones. La relación de la longitud total y el peso fue P = 6E-06 TL3,1513 con un valor de R 2 = 0,997. En términos generales se observa que las relaciones entre la LT y las medidas de los huesos presentan una correlación fuerte (R² > 0,95). El modelo alométrico presentado puede utilizarse para predecir el tamaño y el peso, no sólo de L. argentiventris, sino también de sus congéneres, y será útil para arqueólogos y biólogos interesados en ecología histórica.(AU)

Animals , Weights and Measures , Perciformes , Otolithic Membrane
Acta amaz ; 49(4): 299-306, out. - dez. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118948


The relationships between fish size and sagitta otolith measurements were calculated for the first time for 15 species belonging to six families from the northern Brazilian coast. A total of 220 fish were sampled from the bycatch landed by the bottom-trawl industrial shrimp-fishing fleet between August and September 2016. All species had strong relationships between otolith measurements and fish total length with the coefficient of determination (r 2) ranging between 0.71 and 0.99. The variable most strongly related to fish total length was found to be the sagittal otolith length (OL) with 98% of the variability. These relationships are a useful tool to estimate length and mass of preyed fish from otoliths found in stomach contents of marine predators. (AU)

Otolithic Membrane , Amazonian Ecosystem , Body Size , Fisheries , Gastrointestinal Contents
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764207


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dizzy patients with abnormal otolith function tests, despite a normal caloric response, are defined as having specific (isolated) otolith organ dysfunction. This study was performed to compare the differences in clinical presentation between isolated otolith dysfunction (iOD) patients with lab- and Sx-based iOD group and lab-based iOD symptoms. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The medical records of 23 iOD patients with normal caloric response but abnormal cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP), ocular VEMP, or subjective visual vertical were reviewed. Non-spinning vertigo was considered as otolith-related symptoms. The patients’ age, onset of dizziness, Numeric Rating Scale on the severity of dizziness, and concomitant vestibular disorders were analyzed. RESULTS: Patients in the lab-based iOD group were significantly older than those in the lab- and Sx-based iOD group. Known vestibular disorders were significantly more common in the lab-based iOD group (83.3%) compared to the lab- and Sx-based iOD group (18.2%). Despite the normal caloric response, catch-up saccade was found in the video head impulse test in more than half (54.5%) of the lab-based iOD group patients. There was no catch-up saccade in the lab- and Sx-based iOD group. There were no significant differences in gender ratio, frequency of dizziness attacks, and duration of illness. CONCLUSIONS: We propose new definitions of definite iOD (lab- and Sx-based iOD) and probable iOD (lab- or Sx-based iOD). These new definitions may help researchers to identify patients who are more likely to have true iOD, and facilitate comparisons of results between different studies.

Dizziness , Head Impulse Test , Humans , Medical Records , Otolaryngology , Otolithic Membrane , Saccades , Vertigo
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761296


The vestibular symptoms such as dizziness and imbalance that occurred after traumatic head/brain injury were caused by a combination of central factors such as abnormalities of white matter, diffuse axonal injury and microhemorrhage, and peripheral factors like decreased vestibulo-ocular reflex caused by the energy transmitted to the semicircular canal and otolith organs. These symptoms can affect on the patient's overall physical, cognitive, emotional, and quality of life. There have been reports that vestibular rehabilitation for the treatment of dizziness and imbalance after head trauma can promote vestibular compensation, stabilize of the gaze movements, and also affect the treatment outcomes of the associated injuries. The frequency, duration, and number of people participating in vestibular rehabilitation varied with each study, and physical therapy, occupational therapy, cognitive counseling, medication treatment, duration of treatment for associated injuries were also variable. Most studies have shown that many patients who get the vestibular rehabilitation have a significantly reduced time to return to work and sports activities, and may be able to speed up the recovery of vestibular symptoms. However, further research is needed on its long-term effects. In addition, patients with traumatic head/brain injuries are more susceptible to injuries of other organs as well as vestibular disorders, therefore consideration of treatment planning for associated injuries including precise evaluation mental support, and cognitive therapy is expected to be more effective with vestibular rehabilitation therapy.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Compensation and Redress , Counseling , Craniocerebral Trauma , Diffuse Axonal Injury , Dizziness , Head , Humans , Occupational Therapy , Otolithic Membrane , Quality of Life , Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular , Rehabilitation , Return to Work , Semicircular Canals , Sports , White Matter
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(1): e180032, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1002706


The bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766), was used as a species-specific model to study morphometric relationships between otolith size and relative growth variables. Length-weight relationships between Otolith (Length-OL, Height-OH, and Weight-OW) and fish measurements (Total Length-TL and Total Weight-TW) were determined for fishes captured monthly during the year 2015 off the southeastern coast of Brazil. The ANCOVA and Kruskal-Wallis analysis did not indicate significant differences in the relative growth constants between sexes and length frequency distributions (p > 0.05). The condition factor also did not present significant differences between sexes, and right and left otolith measurements (p > 0.05). A total of 398 specimens were sampled: TL = 43.6-67.0 cm, TW = 365-2400 g, OL = 9.65-15.25 mm, OH = 3.65 - 5.45 mm and OW = 0.03-0.11 g. The LWR for grouped sexes was TW = 0.050TL2.55 and otoliths OW = 6.17E-05OL2.59. The best adjustments were TL vs OL (r2 = 0.90); OL vs OW (r2 = 0.90); TW vs OW (r2 = 0.81); and TW vs OL (r2 = 0.80). These results showed that such relationships are helpful tools for predicting the fish size and weight from otoliths, which may be used in food habits and paleontology studies, and other fisheries management applications.(AU)

A anchova, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766), foi usada como modelo espécie-específico de relações morfométricas de otólitos e variáveis de crescimento relativo. As relações peso-comprimento entre otólito (comprimento-CO, altura-AO e peso-PO) e tamanho do peixe (comprimento total-CT e peso total-PT) foram determinadas para indivíduos capturados mensalmente durante o ano de 2015 na costa sudeste do Brasil. As análises de ANCOVA e Kruskal-Wallis não indicaram diferenças significativas para as constantes de crescimento relativo entre os sexos e distribuições de frequência de comprimento (p> 0,05). O fator de condição também não apresentou diferenças significativas entre os sexos, e medidas do otólito direito e esquerdo (p > 0,05). Um total de 398 espécimes foram amostrados: CT = 43,6-67,0 cm e PT = 365-2400 g. A RPC para peixes foi PT = 0.050CT2,55 e para os seus otólitos foi PO = 6.17E-05CO2,59, CO = 9.65-15.25 mm, AO = 3.65 - 5.45 mm and PO = 0.03-0.11 g. Os melhores ajustes foram observados para CT vs CO (r2 = 0,90); CO vs PO (r2 = 0,90); PT vs PO (r2= 0,81) e PT vs CO (r2 = 0,80). Os resultados mostraram que essas relações são ferramentas úteis na geração de estimativas de tamanho e peso dos peixes a partir dos otólitos, permitindo a sua aplicação em estudos em outras áreas, incluindo hábitos alimentares, paleontologia e manejo da pesca.(AU)

Animals , Perciformes/growth & development , Otolithic Membrane/anatomy & histology , Optimization of Sanitary Sewer Network
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(1): e180101, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1002713


Genidens genidens is a species susceptible to population declines in view of their reproductive biology peculiarities. Morphometric differences between sexes are observed in the literature, and these differences should also be evident in otolith development. Growth patterns are one of the most important biological characteristics regarding population dynamics and management. In this context, the aim of the present study is to describe this species relative growth and identify differences between sex life cycles. Somatic growth-otolith growth relationships and somatic length-weight relationships were estimated based on two methodologies; the Huxley and the polyphasic allometric models. Both models demonstrated different growth patterns between sexes. The three axes of otolith growth were adequate descriptors of growth, and the results of the Huxley model demonstrated distinct growth patterns between sexes, with male otoliths larger in all three measured axes. In the polyphase model, male otoliths were thicker, while female otoliths were longer and higher. Both sexes presented similar length-weight relationships, which may indicate that oocyte production and parental care lead to similar costs for this species.(AU)

Genidens genidens é uma espécie suscetível a declínios populacionais, tendo em vista as peculiaridades de sua reprodução. Diferenças morfométricas entre os sexos são observadas na literatura, e essas diferenças também devem ser evidentes no desenvolvimento dos otólitos. O padrão de crescimento é uma das características biológicas mais importantes no que diz respeito à dinâmica populacional e manejo. Assim, nosso objetivo é descrever o crescimento relativo da espécie e identificar diferenças entre os ciclos de vida dos sexos. A relação crescimento somático-crescimento do otólito e a relação comprimento-peso somáticos foram estimados com base em duas metodologias, os modelos alométricos de Huxley e polifásico. Ambos os modelos demonstraram diferentes padrões de crescimento entre sexos. Os três eixos dos otólitos descreveram adequadamente o crescimento, e os resultados do modelo de Huxley demonstraram padrões de crescimento distintos entre os sexos, com os otólitos dos machos sendo maiores em todos os três eixos medidos. No modelo polifásico os otólitos dos machos foram maiores em espessura, enquanto os otólitos das fêmeas exibiram maior comprimento e altura. Ambos os sexos apresentaram relações de comprimento-peso semelhantes, o que pode indicar que a produção de ovócitos e o cuidado parental apresentam custos semelhantes para essa espécie.(AU)

Animals , Catfishes/growth & development , Catfishes/genetics , Otolithic Membrane , Sex Characteristics
Audiol., Commun. res ; 24: e2037, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001366


RESUMO Objetivos Revisar a literatura científica sobre as principais técnicas usadas para gerar o potencial evocado miogênico vestibular (VEMP) e suas aplicações clínicas. Estratégia de pesquisa Os artigos que descrevem os métodos de registro e as aplicações do VEMP foram localizados nas bases de dados PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, Scopus, LILACS e SciELO. O levantamento realizado limitou-se aos artigos publicados nos idiomas Inglês, Português e Espanhol, entre janeiro de 2012 e maio de 2018. Critérios de seleção Artigos sobre os aspectos técnicos para a realização do VEMP ocular, cervical ou do músculo sóleo, com estimulação auditiva ou galvânica e artigos sobre as aplicações clínicas do VEMP foram incluídos; artigos repetidos nas bases de dados, artigos de revisão de literatura, relato de casos, cartas e editoriais foram excluídos. Resultados A estratégia de busca resultou na seleção de 28 artigos. Os estudos evidenciaram três métodos de registro do VEMP: cervical, ocular e no músculo sóleo. As aplicações clínicas do VEMP incluíram doença de Ménière, neurite vestibular, síndrome da deiscência do canal semicircular superior, doença de Parkinson, lesões centrais isquêmicas e mielopatias motoras. Conclusão Independentemente da técnica de registro, o VEMP mostrou-se útil como ferramenta complementar para o diagnóstico de doenças vestibulares periféricas e centrais.

ABSTRACT Purpose To review the scientific literature on the main techniques used to generate vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) and its clinical applications. Research strategy A search for articles describing VEMP recording methods and applications was conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, Scopus, LILACS and SciELO databases. The search was limited to articles published in English, Portuguese, and Spanish between January 2012 and May 2018. Selection criteria Articles addressing the technical aspects for performing ocular, cervical or soleus VEMP with auditory or galvanic stimulation and articles on the clinical applications of VEMP were included in this review, whereas articles repeated in the databases, literature reviews, case reports, letters, and editorials were excluded. Results The search strategy resulted in the selection of 28 articles. The studies evidenced three methods of VEMP recording: responses from the cervical, ocular and soleus muscle. Clinical applications of VEMP included Meniere's disease, vestibular neuritis, superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome, Parkinson's disease, central ischemic lesions, and motor myelopathies. Conclusion Regardless of the recording technique, VEMP has proved to be useful as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of peripheral and central vestibular diseases.

Humans , Vestibular Function Tests , Vestibular Diseases , Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials , Vestibular Nerve , Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular , Vestibular Nuclei , Otolithic Membrane , Muscle, Skeletal , Electromyography
Audiol., Commun. res ; 24: e2080, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011373


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a vertical visual subjetiva em indivíduos adultos jovens sem queixas vestibulares e/ou alterações do equilíbrio corporal. Método Estudo do tipo observacional, descritivo, analítico, de delineamento transversal, no qual foram avaliados 50 adultos jovens, com idade entre 18 e 30 anos. Foram excluídos do estudo indivíduos com alteração neurológica, alteração cognitiva evidente, deficiência física que influenciasse no equilíbrio corporal, alteração visual sem uso de lentes corretivas, uso de medicamentos com ação sobre o sistema nervoso central e/ou vestibular, relato de ingestão alcoólica 24 horas antes da avaliação e indivíduos com alterações e/ou queixas vestibulares. Os participantes foram submetidos à anamnese e à avaliação da vertical visual subjetiva, por meio do teste do balde. O teste foi realizado em três condições sensoriais diferentes: 1- Indivíduo sentado, com os dois pés sobre superfície estável (piso de paviflex); 2- Indivíduo sentado, com os pés em cima de uma espuma; 3- Indivíduo em pé sobre uma espuma. Resultados A vertical visual subjetiva não apresentou diferença significativa (p= 0,93) entre as condições sensoriais estudadas. Conclusão Em adultos jovens hígidos, o sistema proprioceptivo não influenciou significativamente a avaliação da vertical visual subjetiva, realizada por meio do teste do balde.

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate subjective visual vertical in young adults without vestibular complaints and/or body balance problems. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional, observational and analytical study that assessed 50 young adults aged 18 to 30 years. Adult were excluded from the study if they had neurological and cognitive disorders, physical disability that affected their balance, visual impairment with no use of corrective lenses, use of drugs with effects on the central nervous system and/or the vestibular system and self-report of alcoholic use 24 hours before the assessment, and adults with vestibular problems and/or complaints The participants answered questions in a medical history interview and underwent subjective visual vertical assessment with the bucket method. The test was performed under three different sensory conditions: 1 - Subjects sitting with both feet on a stable surface (Paviflex® flooring); 2- Subjects sitting with their feet on top of foam; 3- Subjects on top of foam. Results The subjective visual vertical did not show a significant difference (p = 0.93) among the study sensory conditions. Conclusion The proprioceptive system did not significantly influence the measurement of the subjective visual vertical in young healthy adults.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Proprioception , Visual Perception , Vestibule, Labyrinth , Bilateral Vestibulopathy/diagnosis , Otolithic Membrane , Saccule and Utricle , Ear, Inner , Medical History Taking
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764339


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Conflicting results about vestibular function in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) prompted a systematic examination of the semicircular canal function, otolith function, and postural stability. METHODS: Sixteen patients with probable PSP [9 females, age=72±6 years (mean±SD), mean disease duration=3.6 years, and mean PSP Rating Scale score=31] and 17 age-matched controls were examined using the video head impulse test, caloric testing, ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (o- and cVEMPs), video-oculography, and posturography. RESULTS: There was no evidence of impaired function of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (gain=1.0±0.1), and caloric testing also produced normal findings. In terms of otolith function, there was no significant difference between PSP patients and controls in the absolute peakto-peak amplitude of the oVEMP (13.5±7.2 µV and 12.5±5.6 µV, respectively; p=0.8) or the corrected peak-to-peak amplitude of the cVEMP (0.6±0.3 µV and 0.5±0.2 µV, p=0.3). The total root-mean-square body sway was significantly increased in patients with PSP compared to controls (eyes open/head straight/hard platform: 9.3±3.7 m/min and 6.9±2.1 m/min, respectively; p=0.032). As expected, the saccade velocities were significantly lower in PSP patients than in controls: horizontal, 234±92°/sec and 442±66°/sec, respectively; downward, 109±105°/sec and 344±72°/sec; and upward, 121±110°/sec and 348±78°/sec (all p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of impairment of either high- or low-frequency semicircular function or otolith organ function in the examined PSP patients. It therefore appears that other causes such as degeneration of supratentorial pathways lead to postural imbalance and falls in patients with PSP.

Accidental Falls , Caloric Tests , Female , Head Impulse Test , Humans , Movement Disorders , Otolithic Membrane , Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular , Saccades , Semicircular Canals , Supranuclear Palsy, Progressive , Tauopathies , Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 523-526, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954148


The morphology of the sagittal otolith of Great sturgeon (Huso huso), Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) species from the Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea were studied. Three otolith measurements and three shape indices were recorded from 90 sturgeon specimens. Fish biometry traits were measured and relationship between sagittal otolith length (OL)-total length (TL), and sagittal otolith weight (WO)-body weight of fish (BW) were estimated. Sagittal otolith has a triangle shape with irregular edges in great sturgeon, elongate triangle with smooth surfaces in Persian sturgeon, and relatively circular with smooth surface in starry sturgeon. The ratio of the WO/BW in starry sturgeon was significantly higher ( P <0.05) than great sturgeon and Persian sturgeon. There is a direct proportional relationship between BW and WO in Persian sturgeon (r2=0.7), great sturgeon (r2=0.9) and starry sturgeon (r2=0.9). Regression line slope for these relationships in starry sturgeon were less than Persian sturgeon and great sturgeon. Furtheremore, there is significant linear regression between OL-TL. Results showed that it is possible to identify Caspian sturgeon species based on body morphometry and sagittal otolith characteristics.

Se estudió la morfología del otolito sagital del gran esturión (Huso huso), el esturión persa (Acipenser persicus) y el esturión estrellado (Acipenser stellatus) de las aguas iraníes del Mar Caspio. Se registraron tres mediciones de otolitos y tres índices de forma, de 90 especímenes de esturión. Se midieron los rasgos de la biometría de los peces y se estimó la relación entre la longitud del otolito sagital (LO) - longitud total (LT) y el peso del otolito (PO) - peso del cuerpo de los peces (PC). El otolito sagital tiene forma de triángulo con márgenes irregulares en el gran estu- rión (Huso huso), triángulo alargado con superficies lisas en estu- rión persa y relativamente circular con superficie lisa en esturión estrellado. La relación del PO / PC en el esturión estrellado fue significativamente mayor (P <0.05) que el gran esturión y el estu- rión persa. Existe una relación directamente proporcional entre PC y PO en el esturión persa (r2 = 0.7), el gran esturión (r2 = 0.9) y el esturión estrellado (r2 = 0.9). La pendiente de la línea de regresión para estas relaciones en el esturión estrellado fue menor que el esturión persa y el gran esturión. Por otra parte, existe una regresión lineal significativa entre LO-LT. Los resultados mostraron que es posible identificar especies de esturión del Caspio basadas en la morfometría corporal y las características del otolito sagital.

Animals , Otolithic Membrane/anatomy & histology , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Iran
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761284


OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the role of vestibular input on spatial memory performance in mice that had undergone bilateral surgical labyrinthectomy, semicircular canal (SCC) occlusion and 4G hypergravity exposure. METHODS: Twelve to 16 weeks old ICR mice (n=30) were used for the experiment. The experimental group divided into 3 groups. One group had undergone bilateral chemical labyrinthectomy, and the other group had performed SCC occlusion surgery, and the last group was exposed to 4G hypergravity for 2 weeks. The movement of mice was recorded using camera in Y maze which had 3 radial arms (35 cm long, 7 cm high, 10 cm wide). We counted the number of visiting arms and analyzed the information of arm selection using program we developed before and after procedure. RESULTS: The bilateral labyrinthectomy group which semicircular canal and otolithic function was impaired showed low behavioral performance and spacial memory. The semicircular canal occlusion with CO₂ laser group which only semicircular canal function was impaired showed no difference in performance activity and spatial memory. However the hypergravity exposure group in which only otolithic function impaired showed spatial memory function was affected but the behavioral performance was spared. The impairment of spatial memory recovered after a few days after exposure in hypergravity group. CONCLUSIONS: This spatial memory function was affected by bilateral vestibular loss. Space-related information processing seems to be determined by otolithic organ information rather than semicircular canals. Due to otolithic function impairment, spatial learning was impaired after exposure to gravity changes in animals and this impaired performance was compensated after normal gravity exposure.

Animals , Arm , Electronic Data Processing , Gravitation , Hypergravity , Memory , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Otolithic Membrane , Semicircular Canals , Spatial Learning , Spatial Memory
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761261


OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the clinical significance of spontaneous nystagmus (SN) in horizontal semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV). METHODS: Twenty-four patients who were diagnosed with HC-BPPV in Eulji University Hospital from January 2015 to December 2016 were recruited. Various bed-side examinations including SN in both sitting and supine position, head roll test, and bithermal caloric test were evaluated. The number of canalith repositioning maneuvers were counted in all patients. RESULTS: SN was observed in 18.2% of geotropic HC-BPPV and 38.5% of apogeotropic HC-BPPV, respectively. There was no significant difference between presence of SN and the direction of initial nystagmus (p=0.386, 2-tailed Fisher exact test). The mean number of otolith repositioning maneuvers in patients with SN was 3.29±1.799 and this was significantly higher than in patients without SN (1.76±0.831) (p=0.009). Although the mean number of repositioning maneuver in patients in apogeotropic HC-BPPV and SN (3.80±1.924) tended to be higher than those who were diagnosed with apogeotropic HC-BPPV without SN (1.88±1.991) (p=0.035), the post hoc analysis with Bonferroni correction revealed that it was not significant because it was higher than the adjusted p-value (p=0.017). The initial direction of nystagmus was changed into the opposite direction in 29.17% of patient. However, this change was not different according to presence of SN (p=0.374, 2-tailed Fisher exact test). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of SN in HC-BPPV may be associated with lower treatment response. In particular, cautions are needed in patients with apogeotropic HC-BPPV.

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo , Caloric Tests , Head , Humans , Otolithic Membrane , Semicircular Canals , Supine Position
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740343


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although repositioning maneuvers have shown remarkable success rate in treatments of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the high recurrence rate of BPPV has been an important issue. The aims of present study were to examine the effects of otolith dysfunction on BPPV recurrence rate and to describe the effect of vestibular rehabilitation exercises on BPPV recurrence in BPPV patients with concomitant otolith dysfunction. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-five BPPV patients included in this study (three groups). Patients in group 1 had no otolith dysfunction and patients in groups 2 and 3 had concomitant otolith dysfunction. Otolith dysfunction was determined with ocular/cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP and cVEMP) abnormalities. Epley’s maneuver was performed for the patients in all groups but patients in group 3 also received a 2-month vestibular rehabilitation program (habituation and otolith exercises). RESULTS: This study showed that BPPV recurrent rate was significantly higher in patients with otolith dysfunction in comparison to the group 1 (p < 0.05). Vestibular rehabilitation resulted in BPPV recurrence rate reduction. Utricular dysfunction showed significant correlation with BPPV recurrence rate. CONCLUSIONS: Otolith dysfunction can increase BPPV recurrence rate. Utricular dysfunction in comparison to saccular dysfunction leads to more BPPV recurrence rate. Vestibular rehabilitation program including habituation and otolith exercises may reduce the chance of BPPV recurrence.

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo , Exercise , Humans , Otolithic Membrane , Recurrence , Rehabilitation
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 16(4)out. 2018. mapas, ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-964160


Here we choose the sábalo Prochilodus lineatus, to answer the following questions: How the otolith length and weight are correlated to fish measurements (length and weight)? How reliable are the otoliths measurements to predict the length and age of P. lineatus? Finally, we propose predictive equations of the length and weight of the fish using length and weight of the otolith. The otoliths were sampled from individuals collected in the Upper Paraná River floodplain during 2012 and 2013 years. The relationships among the otolith measurements and both length and weight of the fish were performed using linear regressions. To test whether the length and weight of the otolith differ between the sampled sites, Variance Analysis was performed. Finally, we made analysis of Kruskal-Wallis to verify if the measurements obtained through the otoliths could be used to distinguish the age of the fish. We demonstrate that the length and weight of the otolith are good proxies to predict the length and weight of the fish. Although some ages were statistically different, this result does not support the idea that the age of the fish can be accurately inferred only using otolith measures.(AU)

Neste trabalho o curimba Prochilodus lineatus foi utilizado para responder as seguintes questões: Como o comprimento e o peso dos otólitos são correlacionados com o comprimento e o peso do peixe? Até que ponto as medidas dos otólitos são confiáveis para predizer a idade do P. lineatus? Finalmente, nós propomos equações preditivas do comprimento e peso do peixe utilizando o comprimento e o peso do otólito. Os otólitos foram amostrados de indivíduos coletados na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná durante os anos de 2012 e 2013. As relações entre as medidas dos otólitos e o peso e comprimento do peixe foram verificadas utilizando regressões lineares. Para testar se o comprimento e o peso do otólito diferem entre locais foram utilizadas Análises de Variância e para testar se as medidas dos otólitos são suficientes para distinguir as idades foram utilizados testes de Kruskal-Wallis. Nós demonstramos que o comprimento e o peso do otólito são bons preditores do comprimento e peso do peixe. Embora algumas idades foram estatisticamente diferentes entre as medidas dos otólitos, esse resultado não suporta a ideia de que a idade do peixe pode ser inferida de forma acurada somente utilizando as medidas dos otólitos.(AU)

Animals , Body Weight , Otolithic Membrane/anatomy & histology , Characiformes/anatomy & histology , Age Groups
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 16(1): e160140, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895122


The tiger shovelnose catfish (Pseudoplatystoma metaense) identified in literature prior to 2007 as P. tigrinum is the most important catfish species in the Orinoco River fishery, because of its abundance and high market price. The aim of this study was to obtain age, growth and population parameters of the of tiger shovelnose catfish. A total of 2,183 catfish, were sampled during 1996-2003 from the commercial fishery of the northwestern Orinoco River Basin in Venezuela, and were aged by examination of otoliths. Validation of otolith annuli was achieved with marginal increment analysis. Results suggest that, the opaque and translucent zones of otoliths were formed once per year. Length-weight relation and the von Bertalanffy growth model parameters were used to evaluate growth and other population parameters. A strong link between the annual flood pulse and opaque zone formation was confirmed in tiger shovelnose catfish. The total mortality (Z) and natural mortality (M) were estimated. Based in the reference points for optimal and limit fishing mortality rates (F opt and F limit ) this species is exploited above optimum levels. We thus recommend a closed fishing season during their seasonal reproduction, and establishment of a system of fish refuges to help sustain the population.(AU)

O bagre capararí (Pseudoplatystoma metaense) identificado na literatura antes de 2007 como P. tigrinum é uma das espécies de bagres mais importantes da pesca no noroeste do rio Orinoco, por sua abundância e alto preço de comercialização no mercado. O objetivo deste estudo foi obter parâmetros populacionais sobre a idade e crescimento do bagre capararí. Um total de 2.183 exemplares de P. metaense foram examinados desde 1996 até 2003, coletados da frota comercial artesanal do rio Apure na Venezuela. A idade foi determinada pela examinação dos otólitos. A validação da idade foi estimada com a análise de incremento marginal. As zonas opacas e translúcidas dos otólitos foram formada anualmente. A relação comprimento-peso e a equação de von Bertalanffy foram usadas para avaliar o crescimento e outros parâmetros populacionais. Uma forte relação entre o pulso anual de inundação e a formação de zonas opacas foi confirmada em P. metaense. A mortalidade total (Z) e a mortalidade natural (M) foram estimadas. Portanto, baseado nos pontos de referência biológicos (F opt e F lim ) esta espécie encontra-se sobreexplotada acima do nível ótimo. Recomenda-se que o período de defeso deva ser sincronizado com o período de reprodução da espécie e um sistema de reservas de pesca deveria ser utilizado para ajudar a sustentabilidade da população.(AU)

Animals , Catfishes/classification , Catfishes/growth & development , Otolithic Membrane/physiology
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 16(1): e170130, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895132


The goliath catfish Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii has crucial economical and ecological functions in the Amazon basin. Although its life history characteristics have been studied in the Amazon, there is little information in the Madeira River basin, which holds genetically distinct populations and where dams were recently built. Using fish collected in Bolivia, Brazil and Peru, this study provides a validation of growth rings deposition and details the growth patterns of B. rousseauxii in the Madeira before the dams' construction. Age structure and growth parameters were determined from 497 otolith readings. The species exhibits two growth rings per year and sampled fish were between 0 and 16 years old. In the Brazilian portion of the basin, mainly young individuals below 5 years old were found, whereas older fish (> 5 years) were caught only in the Bolivian and Peruvian stretches, indicating that after migrating upstream to reproduce, adults remain in the headwaters of the Madeira River. Comparing with previous publications, B. rousseauxii had a slower growth and 20 cm lower maximum standard length in the Madeira River than in the Amazon River. This study provides a baseline for future evaluation of changes in population dynamics of the species following dams closure.(AU)

Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii é um bagre de importante papel econômico e ecológico na bacia amazônica. Embora existam estudos acerca de sua história de vida na Amazônia, há pouca informação para a bacia do rio Madeira, onde existem populações geneticamente distintas e recentemente foram construídas duas usinas hidrelétricas. Este estudo validou a deposição das marcas de crescimento e detalhou os padrões de desenvolvimento dessa espécie no rio Madeira, antes da construção das barragens. As coletas abrangeram os territórios brasileiro, boliviano e peruano, com estrutura etária e parâmetros de crescimento determinados a partir de 497 otólitos. Foram observadas duas marcas de crescimento por ano e indivíduos entre 0 e 16 anos. Na porção brasileira foram encontrados principalmente jovens menores de 5 anos, enquanto que os peixes mais velhos (> 5 anos) foram capturados apenas na Bolívia e Peru, indicando que após a migração reprodutiva, os adultos permanecem nas cabeceiras do rio Madeira. Comparando com estudos prévios realizados na calha principal do rio Amazonas, B. rousseauxii apresentou crescimento mais lento e comprimento padrão máximo inferior de 20 cm no rio Madeira. Este estudo fornece uma base para a avaliação futura das mudanças na dinâmica populacional desse espécie após o implementação das barragens.(AU)

Animals , Catfishes/genetics , Catfishes/growth & development , Life Cycle Stages , Otolithic Membrane/anatomy & histology
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 16(4): e180051, out. 2018. tab, graf, ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976299


Using morphometric measurements and wavelets functions, the asterisci otoliths of curimatã, Prochilodus nigricans were analysed to identify the variation in shape and growth increment of individuals from Solimões, Japurá and Negro rivers of the Amazon basin, Brazil. The morphometric and morphological analyses did not reveal evidences of population segregation among rivers, but variations were found in the estimation of otolith growth increment. Also, the otolith shape showed a high variability between individuals, identifying four morphotypes. Morphotype 1 shows a more oval shape with a posterior zone clearly rounded; Morphotype 2 shows the posterior zone rounded, but the anterior end is more elongated; Morphotype 3 shows a completely different shape, elliptic-pentagonal and Morphotype 4 shows the posterior zone rounded, but the anterior end is more elongated and it is the pattern with antirostrum and rostrum more pointed and a deep notch. Therefore, the otolith shape exhibited a phenotypic plasticity that it was not associated with the metabolism of otolith growth. Whereas the otolith shape indicated a homogeneity in the sound perception through Amazon basin, the growth rates revealed an adaptive mechanism to environmental conditions or migratory process of this species.(AU)

Medidas e funções wavelets dos otólitos asteriscus de curimatã, Prochilodus nigricans foram analisados para identificar a variação da forma e do incremento de crescimento dos indivíduos dos rios Solimões, Japurá e Negro da bacia Amazônica, Brasil. As análises morfométricas e morfológicas não revelaram evidências de segregação populacional entre os rios, mas foram encontradas variações na estimativa do incremento do crescimento dos otólitos. Além disso, a forma do otólito mostrou uma alta variabilidade entre os indivíduos, identificando quatro morfotipos. O Morfotipo 1 mostra uma forma mais oval, com zona posterior levemente arredondada; Morfotipo 2 mostra a zona posterior arredondada, mas a extremidade anterior é mais alongada; Morfotipo 3 mostra uma forma completamente diferente, elíptico-pentagonal e Morfotipo 4 mostra a zona posterior arredondada, mas a extremidade anterior mais alongada e ele tem padrão com antirostrum e rostrum mais pontiagudos e abertura profunda. Portanto, a forma do otólito exibiu uma plasticidade fenotípica que não foi associada ao metabolismo do crescimento do otólito. No entanto a forma do otólito indicou uma homogeneidade através da percepção do som na bacia Amazônica, e as taxas de crescimento revelaram um mecanismo adaptativo às condições ambientais ou ao processo migratório da espécie.(AU)

Animals , Otolithic Membrane/growth & development , Animal Migration/physiology , Characiformes/growth & development , Fishes/growth & development
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(6): 659-664, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889324


Abstract Introduction: Otolith function can be studied by testing the subjective visual vertical, because the tilt of the vertical line beyond the normal range is a sign of vestibular dysfunction. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a disorder of one or more labyrinthine semicircular canals caused by fractions of otoliths derived from the utricular macula. Objective: To compare the subjective visual vertical with the bucket test before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Methods: We evaluated 20 patients. The estimated position where a fluorescent line within a bucket reached the vertical position was measured before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: Before repositioning maneuver, 9 patients (45.0%) had absolute values of the subjective visual vertical above the reference standard and 2 (10.0%) after the maneuver; the mean of the absolute values of the vertical deviation was significantly lower after the intervention (p < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a reduction of the deviations of the subjective visual vertical, evaluated by the bucket test, immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

Resumo Introdução: A função do otólito pode ser estudada por meio de testes da vertical visual subjetiva, porque a inclinação da linha vertical além da faixa normal é um sinal de disfunção vestibular. A vertigem postural paroxística benigna é um distúrbio de um ou mais canais semicirculares labirínticos causado por frações de otólitos derivados da mácula utricular. Objetivo: Comparar a vertical visual subjetiva com o teste do balde antes e imediatamente após a manobra de reposicionamento de partículas em pacientes com vertigem posicional paroxística benigna. Método: Foram avaliados 20 pacientes. A posição estimada, onde uma linha de fluorescência dentro de um balde atingia a posição vertical, foi medida antes e imediatamente após a manobra de reposicionamento de partículas. Os dados foram tabulados e analisados estatisticamente. Resultados: Antes da manobra de reposicionamento, nove pacientes (45%) apresentaram valores absolutos de vertical visual subjetiva acima da referência padrão e dois (10%) depois da manobra; a média dos valores absolutos do desvio vertical foi significativamente mais baixa depois da intervenção (p < 0,001). Conclusão: Há uma redução dos desvios da vertical visual subjetiva, avaliada pelo teste do balde, imediatamente após a manobra de reposicionamento de partículas em pacientes com vertigem posicional paroxística benigna.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vestibular Function Tests/methods , Visual Perception/physiology , Patient Positioning/methods , Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo/physiopathology , Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo/therapy , Posture/physiology , Reference Standards , Reference Values , Otolithic Membrane/physiopathology , Semicircular Canals/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Orientation, Spatial/physiology
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 77(3): 335-338, set. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902785


Las crisis de Tumarkin consisten en caídas bruscas al suelo sin pródromos previos ni pérdida de conciencia y de segundos de duración que pueden ocurrir con frecuencia relativa en pacientes con enfermedad de Ménière. Si bien pueden presentarse de manera aislada durante la evolución de la enfermedad, existen casos con crisis recurrentes que comprometen significativamente la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Se postula que las crisis se producen por una alteración de la función del órgano otolítico, específicamente del sáculo. El tratamiento puede ser desde el manejo expectante hasta el uso de laberintectomía química o quirúrgica.

Tumarkin´s otolithic crisis is a sudden fall that comes with no loss of consciousness, and without warning or prodrome. It has a short duration and can occur with relative frequency in patients with Meniere disease. When it is present, it significantly compromises life quality of patients. There is no certainty about its mechanism, but it is assumed that the crises are caused by an otolithic organ disfunction, specifically a collapse of the saccule. Treatment can range from observation to chemical or surgical labyrinthectomy.

Humans , Syncope/etiology , Otolithic Membrane , Vestibule, Labyrinth , Meniere Disease/complications , Vertigo/etiology , Meniere Disease/diagnosis , Meniere Disease/therapy