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1.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(3): 300-307, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132606

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Otomycosis, an infection of the ear canal by fungi, is prevalent in hot and humid weather. Nevertheless, there is not sufficient evidence for the effectiveness of different topical antifungal treatments. Tolnaftate, is a topical antifungal agent described to be effective in the treatment of otomycosis. Currently there are not sufficient studies that prove its efficacy. Objectives: To compare the efficacy of clotrimazole and tolnaftate administration in the treatment of otomycosis. Material and methods: A controlled, randomized and open clinical trial included patients diagnosed with fungal external otitis who were treated with topical antifungals, randomized into two treatment groups: (1) clotrimazole cream; (2) tolnaftate solution. They were microscopically evaluated at one and two weeks of treatment to determine resolution of disease. Recurrence and complications were recorded. Demographic and clinical variables were collected and analyzed. Follow-up and final outcomes (absence of infection) were compared between groups. Results: Forty eight patients were included, 28 in the clotrimazole group and 20 in the tolnaftate group. Spring was the weather most commonly associated with otomycosis, while otic manipulation was the risk factor more common in both groups. Predominant symptoms were itching and otic fullness. Aspergillus niger organism was isolated most frequently. Treatment with clotrimazole resulted in 75% resolution vs 45% resolution with treatment with tolnaftate at one week of treatment (p = 0.007). The Tolnaftate treatment group demonstrated higher recurrence rates and treatment failures, 20% and 15% respectively. Conclusions: Clotrimazole cream treatment is more effective than tolnaftate for uncomplicated otomycosis. More studies are needed to corroborate our results.


Resumo Introdução: Otomicose, uma infecção fúngica do canal auditivo externo, é prevalente em climas quentes e úmidos. No entanto, a literatura não apresenta evidências suficientes sobre os diferentes tratamentos antifúngicos tópicos. O tolnaftato é um antifúngico tópico descrito como eficaz no tratamento da otomicose; entretanto, sua eficácia não está suficientemente comprovada. Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia do uso de clotrimazol e tolnaftato no tratamento da otomicose. Material e método: Ensaio clínico controlado e randomizado; incluiu pacientes diagnosticados com otite externa fúngica tratados com antifúngicos tópicos, randomizados em dois grupos de tratamento: 1) clotrimazole (creme); 2) solução de tolnaftato. Eles foram avaliados microscopicamente uma e duas semanas após o início do tratamento para avaliar a resolução da doença. Recorrência e intercorrências foram registradas; além disso, as variáveis demográficas e clínicas foram coletadas e analisadas. Os dados do acompanhamento e desfechos finais (ausência de infecção) foram comparados entre os grupos. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 48 pacientes, 28 dos quais foram alocados ao grupo clotrimazole e 20 ao grupo tolnaftato. A primavera foi a estação mais comum; a manipulação foi o fator de risco mais comum em ambos os grupos. Os sintomas mais comuns foram coceira e plenitude auricular. Aspergillus niger foi o micro-organismo mais comumente isolado. Após uma semana, o tratamento com clotrimazol apresentou uma taxa de resolução de 75% vs. 45% com o tratamento com tolnaftato (p = 0,007). O tratamento com tolnaftato apresentou maiores taxas de recidiva e falhas: 20% e 15%, respectivamente. Conclusões: Em casos de otomicose não complicada, o uso de clotrimazol (creme) é mais eficaz do que o de tolnaftato. Mais estudos são necessários para corroborar os presentes resultados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tolnaftate/administration & dosage , Clotrimazole/administration & dosage , Otomycosis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Otomycosis/microbiology
2.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(4): 400-403, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975604

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Otomycosis is a common problem in otolaryngology practice. However, we usually encounter some difficulties in its treatment because many patients show resistance to antifungal agents, and present high recurrence rate. Objectives To determine the fungal pathogens that cause otomycosis as well as their susceptibility to the commonly used antifungal agents. Additionally, to discover the main reasons for antifungal resistance. Methods We conducted an experimental descriptive study on 122 patients clinically diagnosed with otomycosis from April 2016 to April 2017. Aural discharge specimens were collected for direct microscopic examination and fungal culture. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against the commonly used antifungal drugs. We tested the isolated fungi for their enzymatic activity. Results Positive fungal infection was found in 102 samples. The most common fungal pathogens were Aspergillus and Candida species, with Aspergillus niger being the predominant isolate (51%). The antifungal susceptibility testing showed that mold isolates had the highest sensitivity to voriconazole (93.48%), while the highest resistance was to fluconazole (100%). For yeast, the highest sensitivity was to nystatin (88.24%), followed by amphotericin B (82.35%), and the highest resistance was to terbinafine (100%), followed by Itraconazole (94.12%). Filamentous fungi expressed a high enzymatic ability, making them more virulent. Conclusion The Aspergillus and Candida species are the most common fungal isolates in otomycosis. Voriconazole and Nystatin are the medications of choice for the treatment of otomycosis in our community. The high virulence of fungal pathogens is owed to their high enzymatic activity. Empirical use of antifungals should be discouraged.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Otomycosis/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Candida/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Epidemiology, Experimental , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Voriconazole/pharmacology , /pharmacology
3.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 78(1): 36-42, mar. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902812

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La otomicosis en pacientes inmunosuprimidos esta caracterizada por ser bilateral y ser causada por candida. Pocos estudios comparan las características micológicas encontradas en la microscopía directa y el cultivo. Objetivo: Identificar las características clínicas y micológicas de la otomicosis en pacientes diabéticos. Material y método: Estudio transversal en centro hospitalario de segundo nivel. Criterios de inclusión: pacientes diabéticos con diagnóstico clínico de otomicosis. Intervención: la muestra se examinó directamente bajo el microscopio y se cultivó. Resultados: Se incluyeron 17 pacientes, 10 mujeres y 7 hombres con una edad media de 47,5 años. Los síntomas predominantes fueron hipoacusia en 91,4% (n =16), prurito en 82,4% (n =14), otorrea en 76,5% (n=13)y otalgia en 70,6% (n =12). Afección bilateral se encontró en 47,1% (n =8). Estudio directo al microscopio mostró levaduras en 94,1% (n =16) y 5,9% mostró aspergillus (n =1). Cándida fue el género más comúnmente encontrado en los cultivos y en el examen directo microscópico con 94,1% (n =16) y Candida albicans la especie más común con 88,2% (n =15). Conclusión: Candida albicans es el agente etiológico más común en pacientes diabéticos con otomicosis. Su presentación clínica más frecuente es hipoacusia, prurito y otorrea. El examen directo identificó adecuadamente a los géneros fúngicos.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Otomycosis in immunocompromised patients is characterize by its bilateral course and the predominant etiologic agent is Candida. Few studies compare the mycological features between microscopic direct exam and culture. Aim: To identify the clinical and mycological characteristics of otomycosis in diabetic patients. Material and method: Transversal study. Secondary care center. Inclusion criteria: diabetic patients with clinical diagnosis of otomycosis. Intervention: Direct examination under a microscope of the ear sample and culture. Results: We included 17 patients, 10 women, 7 men with a mean age of 47.5 years. Symptoms were hearing loss 94.1% (n = 16), pruritus 82.4% (n =14) otorrhoea 76.5% (n =13) and otalgia 70.6% (n =12). Bilateral involvement was found in 47.1% (n =8). Direct microscopic study found 94.1% of yeast (n =16) and 5.9% of Aspergillus (n =1). Candida was the most common fungal genus in culture and microscopic exam with 94.1% (n =16) of cases and Candida albicans was the most common species in 88.2% (n =15) cases. Conclusion: Candida albicans is the most common etiologic agent in diabetic patients with otomycosis. Main symptoms were hearing loss, itching and otorrhea. Direct exam correctly identified the fungal genus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Diabetes Complications/microbiology , Otomycosis/microbiology , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Seasons , Time Factors , Opportunistic Infections , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Clinical Evolution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Candida glabrata/isolation & purification , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Otomycosis/epidemiology
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