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Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-6, 2023. map, graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468859


Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.

Os cães ferozes são caçadores bem organizados de ungulados em muitas partes do mundo, causando grandes danos à população de animais selvagens e, em última instância, ao ecossistema. No Paquistão, os impactos dos cães selvagens na vida selvagem ainda não foram documentados. Em um período de 15 anos (2006-2020), cães selvagens mataram centenas de markhor ameaçados no parque nacional Chitral gol (CGNP), Paquistão. Apesar da predação direta, outros impactos, incluindo distúrbios e competições com outros predadores naturais podem comprometer os esforços de conservação e manejo. A população de cães selvagens parece ter aumentado com o aumento dos locais de despejo pelas comunidades. Nossas descobertas sugerem que há necessidades urgentes para controlar a população de cães selvagens e erradicá-los da zona central do CGNP e das comunidades-tampão vizinhas. O abate convencional de cães deve ser combinado com técnicas modernas como castração e esterilização. As comunidades devem ser educadas sobre o meio ambiente limpo, o descarte adequado de resíduos domésticos e a conservação da biodiversidade.

Male , Female , Animals , Dogs , Dogs/growth & development , Orchiectomy , Ovariectomy , Population Control/methods
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1417500


This study aimed to observe the effects of 17 ß-estradiol replacements on the fecal microbiota in spayed cats. Individual samples of fresh feces were collected and stored at -80° C. Sequencing of the V3/V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene was used, and bioinformatic analysis was performed. Firmicutes/Bacteriodetes ratio was lower in the group receiving estrogen replacement compared to the SHAM group (P = 0,005). Jaccard index (P = 0.123) and Yue & Clayton index (P = 0.094) did not reveal alpha and beta diversity differences. The linear discriminant analysis effect size (LefSe) identified Firmicutes and MegasPhaera as the biomarkers for the SHAM group, and Burkholderiales, Betaproteobacteria, Sutterellaceae, Suterella, Proteobacteria, Proteobacteria unclassified and Collinsella for the group receiving estrogen replacement.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi observar os efeitos da reposição de 17 ß-estradiol na microbiota fecal de gatas castradas. Amostras individuais de fezes frescas foram colhidas e armazenadas a -80°C. Foi realizado o sequenciamento das regiões V3/V4 do gene 16S rRNA e a análise bioinformática. A razão Firmicutes/Bacteriodetes foi menor no grupo que recebeu reposição estrogênica em comparação ao grupo SHAM (P = 0,005). O índice de Jaccard (P = 0,123) e o índice de Yue & Clayton (P = 0,094) não revelaram diferenças na alfa e beta diversidade. A análise discriminatória linear de tamanho do efeito (LefSe) identificou Firmicutes e Megasphaera como biomarcadores para o grupo SHAM, e Burkholderiales, Betaproteobacteria, Sutterellaceae, Suterella, Proteobacteria, Proteobacteria não classificada e Collinsella para o grupo que recebeu reposição estrogênica.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cats , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Estrogen Replacement Therapy/veterinary
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 45: e59835, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1419132


We compared the effect of the treatment with strength training (ST) and raloxifene (RALOX) on bone weight, blood glucose, lipid, and antioxidant profile in ovariectomized rats. Twenty-four Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: ovariectomy + VEHICLE (control); ovariectomy + RALOX; ovariectomy + ST; ovariectomy + RALOX + ST. Thirty days after ovariectomy, the animals underwent the treatment with RALOX (750 µcg day-1) and/or ST (three sessions week-1). Thirty days after, all groups were scarified, tibia and femur were weighed, and the blood was collected for analysis of the lipid profile, glucose, and antioxidants catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH). The ST group showed greater femur weight (0.82 ± 0.18 g) and RALOX + ST had greater tibia weight (0.61± 0.17 g) than CONTROL with femur weight of 0.65 ± 0.08 g and tibia of 0.49 ± 0.08 g with no differences between treatments (p > 0.05). ST group showed significantly higher catalase (181.7 ± 15.4 µM g-1) compared to the other groups. In contrast, the GSH value was lower in ST group (89.2 ± 8.1 µM g-1) compared to RALOX (175.9 ± 17.1 µM g-1) and RALOX + ST (162.8 ± 12.1 µM g-1), but the values of these two groups did not differ from CONTROL(115.3 ± 21.1 µM g-1). Total cholesterol did not differ between groups (p > 0.05), but exercise alone(54.3 ± 2.5 mg dL-1) or with RALOX (53.0 ± 1.5 mg dL-1) resulted in higher HDL cholesterol than CONTROL (45.5 ± 2.5 mg dL-1). Only RALOX+ST presented lower glucose (140.3 ± 9.7 mg dL-1) values than CONTROL (201.7 ± 30.6 mg dL-1). In conclusion, ST promotes similar benefits on bone and metabolic parameters compared to pharmacological treatment in ovariectomized rats.(AU)

Animals , Female , Rats, Wistar/physiology , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/adverse effects , Resistance Training/adverse effects , Blood Glucose/analysis , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Lipid Metabolism , Antioxidants
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982287


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the protective effect and mechanism of Kuntai (KT) Capsule on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension in ovariectomized (OVX) rats.@*METHODS@#Fifty-four rats were randomly divided into 6 groups according to a random number table, 9 in each group: control, OVX sham+Ang II, OVX, OVX+Ang II, OVX+Ang II +E2, and OVX+Ang II +KT. OVX rats model was constructed by retroperitoneal bilateral ovariectomy. After 4 weeks of pretreatment with KT Capsule [0.8 g/(kg·d) and 17- β -estradiol (E2, 1.2 mg/(kg·d)] respectively, Ang II was injected into a micro-osmotic pump with a syringe to establish a hypertensive rat model. Blood pressure of rat tail artery was measured in a wake state of rats using a non-invasive sphygmomanometer. Blood pressure changes were compared between the intervention groups (OVX+Ang II +KT, OVX+Ang II +E2) and the negative control group (OVX+Ang II). Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were detected respectively. The expressions of oxidative stress-related protein superoxide dismutase2 (SOD2) and anti-thioredoxin (TRX), autophagy marker protein [beclin1, light chain (LC) 3 II/I ratio and autophagy canonical pathway protein phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine/threonine kinase (AKT)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)] were evaluated by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the OVX+Ang II group, the systolic blood pressure of OVX+Ang II +KT group was significantly lowered (P<0.05) but not the diastolic blood pressure. Besides, SOD2 and TRX protein levels in mycardial tissues were significantly reduced in the OVX+Ang II +KT group compared with the OVX+Ang II group (P<0.05). Oxidative stress serum markers MDA and SOD were down- and up-regulated in the OVX+Ang II +KT group, respectively (P<0.05). Compared with OVX+Ang II group, the levels of cardiac proteins beclin-1 and LC3II/LC3 I in OVX+Ang II +KT group were also up-regulated (P<0.05), and the expression levels of p-PI3K, p-AKT and mTOR protein were down-regulated (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#KT could protect blood pressure of Ang II-induced OVX rats by inhibiting oxidative stress and up-regulating protective autophagy.

Female , Rats , Animals , Humans , Angiotensin II , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Hypertension/drug therapy , Estradiol/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase , Ovariectomy , Mammals/metabolism
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 309-313, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981943


Transmasculine individuals, considering whether to undergo total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingectomy, have the option to have a concomitant oophorectomy. While studies have evaluated hormone changes following testosterone therapy initiation, most of those patients have not undergone oophorectomy. Data are currently limited to support health outcomes regarding the decision to retain or remove the ovaries. We performed a retrospective chart review of transmasculine patients maintained on high-dose testosterone therapy at a single endocrine clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Twelve transmasculine individuals who underwent bilateral oophorectomy and had presurgical and postsurgical serum data were included. We identified 12 transmasculine subjects as controls, who were on testosterone therapy and did not undergo oophorectomy, but additionally matched to the first group by age, testosterone dosing regimen, and body mass index. There was a statistically significant decrease in the estradiol levels of case subjects postoophorectomy, when compared to presurgical estradiol levels (P = 0.02). There was no significant difference between baseline estradiol levels between control and case subjects; however, the difference in estradiol levels at follow-up measurements was significant (P = 0.03). Total testosterone levels did not differ between control and case subjects at baseline and follow-up (both P > 0.05). Our results demonstrate that oophorectomy further attenuates estradiol levels below what is achieved by high-dose exogenous testosterone alone. Correlated clinical outcomes, such as impacts on bone health, were not available. The clinical implications of oophorectomy versus ovarian retention on endocrinological and overall health outcomes are currently limited.

Female , Humans , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Ovariectomy , Hysterectomy/methods , Estradiol
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-8, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411263


Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on glycerol-induced renal changes in rats. Methods: Twenty-four female Wistar rats were submitted to ovariectomized (OVX) or sham surgery. One week after surgery, the animals received an intramuscular injection (8ml/kg) of 50% glycerol or saline (0.15 M) solution. These animals were divided into the following groups (n=6 per group): Sham, sham-operated female rats injected with saline; OVX, ovariectomized female rats injected with saline; Sham+Gly, sham-operated female rats injected with glycerol; OVX+Gly, ovariectomized female rats injected with glycerol. All rats were euthanized 3 days after the injections and the kidneys were removed for histological and immunohistochemical studies. Blood and urine samples were also collected for renal function studies. Results: The OVX+Gly group presented higher creatinine serum levels, as well as greater fractional excretion of sodium and urinary flow than the Sham+Gly group. Histological lesions and tubulointerstitial staining for macrophages, nuclear factor-kappa B, and nitrotyrosine were more pronounced in the renal cortex of the OVX+Gly group compared to the Sham+Gly group. Conclusion: We conclude that ovariectomy aggravated changes in renal function and structure in glycerol-induced acute kidney injury by the intensification of the proinflammatory tissue response.

Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da ovariectomia nas alterações renais induzidas pelo glicerol em ratas. Métodos: Vinte e quatro ratas Wistar foram submetidas à ovariectomia (OVX) ou cirurgia sham (intervenção falsa). Uma semana após a cirurgia, os animais receberam injeção intramuscular (8ml/kg) de glicerol a 50% ou solução salina (0,15 M). As ratas foram divididas nos seguintes grupos (n=6 por grupo): Sham, fêmeas sham-operadas e injetadas com solução salina; OVX, fêmeas ovariectomizadas e injetadas com solução salina; Sham+Gly, fêmeas sham-operadas e injetados com glicerol; OVX+Gly, fêmeas ovariectomizadas e injetadas com glicerol. Todas as ratas foram eutanasiadas 3 dias após as injeções e os rins foram removidos para estudos histológicos e imuno-histoquímicos. Amostras de sangue e urina também foram coletadas para estudos de função renal. Resultados: O grupo OVX+Gly apresentou maiores níveis séricos de creatinina, assim como maiores fração de excreção de sódio e fluxo urinário do que o grupo Sham+Gly. As lesões histológicas e imunomarcação tubulointersticial para macrófagos, fator nuclear-kappa B e nitrotirosina foram mais pronunciadas no córtex renal do grupo OVX+Gly em comparação ao grupo Sham+Gly. Conclusão: Concluímos que a ovariectomia agravou as alterações na função e estrutura renal, na lesão renal aguda induzida por glicerol, pela intensificação da resposta tecidual pró-inflamatória.

Ovariectomy , Rhabdomyolysis , Acute Kidney Injury , Glycerol , Inflammation , Kidney
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 832-838, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385655


RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue establecer la influencia de diferentes materiales en el proceso de regeneración ósea de alveolos post exodoncia de ratas hembra adultas ovariectomizadas (OVX). Para ello, se utilizaron 40 ratas sprague dawley, divididas en grupo experimental (OVX) (n=20) y grupo control (Sin ovariectomía) (n=20). Todas las ratas del grupo experimental fueron sometidas a ovariectomía bilateral para simular un estado de osteoporosis inducida por déficit de estrógeno. Posterior a 12 semanas post OVX, las ratas de ambos grupos fueron divididas en 4 subgrupos, en los cuales fue extraído el primer molar superior derecho de cada rata. Posteriormente, las terapias realizadas en los alveolos post-exodoncia fueron: A: (N=5) Alveolo no rellenado para ser utilizado como control negativo. B: (N=5) Aplicación de injerto bifásico (HA+BTCP). C: (N=5) Aplicación de PRF. D: Aplicación de una combinación de injerto bifásico + PRF. Luego de tres semanas se realizó la eutanasia de los animales y obtención de las muestras para los análisis respectivos. Todos los animales sobrevivieron al final del estudio sin ninguna complicación postoperatoria. Los resultados cuantitativos del área ósea interradicular del segundo molar superior, mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre grupo control y grupo OVX. Mientras que no se observaron diferencias en la descripción histológica ni en el análisis cuantitativo de fibras colágenas tipo I y III. Es posible concluir que el modelo de osteoporosis inducida por déficit de estrógeno modificaría también la microarquitectura ósea de la Maxila. No obstante, nuevos estudios son necesarios para continuar con el estudio de biomateriales para regeneración ósea en modelos de osteoporosis inducida.

SUMMARY: The aim of the present study was to establish the influence of different materials on the process of bone regeneration in post-extraction sockets of ovariectomized (OVX) adult female rats. For this, 40 Sprague Dawley rats were used, divided into an experimental group (OVX) (n=20) and a control group (without ovariectomy) (n=20). All rats in the experimental group underwent bilateral ovariectomy to simulate a state of estrogen deficiency osteoporosis. After 12 weeks post OVX, rats from both groups were divided into 4 subgroups, in which the upper right first molar of each rat was extracted. Subsequently, the therapies performed in the post-extraction sockets were A: (N=5) Unfilled alveolus to be used as a negative control. B: (N=5) Biphasic graft application (HA+BTCP). C: (N=5) PRF application. D: Application of a combination of biphasic graft + PRF. After three weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the samples were obtained for the respective analyses. All animals survived to the end of the study without any postoperative complications. The quantitative results of the interradicular bone area of ??the upper second molar showed significant differences between the control group and the OVX group. While no differences were observed in the histological description or in the quantitative analysis of collagen fibers type I and III. It is possible to conclude that the model of osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency would modify the bone microarchitecture of the Maxilla. However, new studies are necessary to continue with the study of biomaterials for bone regeneration in models of induced osteoporosis.

Animals , Female , Rats , Osteoporosis/therapy , Bone Regeneration , Ovariectomy , Bone Transplantation , Tooth Extraction , Biocompatible Materials , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal
Ibom Medical Journal ; 15(2): 178-182, 2022. figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380102


Background: Abdominal pain is a common presentation in women of child bearing age. It has a broad diagnosis that includes disorders of the gastrointestinal, gynaecological, vascular, urogenital, and pulmonary systems. It may be caused by infections, inflammatory, anatomic or neoplastic processes. Its management varies by aetiology, and accurate diagnosis is key to avoiding inappropriate treatment. In some rare instances, acute appendicitis has been shown to occur simultaneously with a variety of gynaecologic diseases, which can add to the diagnostic dilemma. Method: We report a case of concurrent acute appendicitis and infected ovarian cyst in a 49 year old P6+4A6 who presented with recurrent abdominal pain for 4 years duration. Result: She had oophorectomy and appendicectomy. She did well post operatively and was discharged to outpatient department after stitches removal. Conclusion: Abdominal pain, being from various aetiology in women of child bearing age, detail history, thorough physical examination, and necessary imaging investigations need to be done to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment.

Therapeutics , Abdominal Pain , Ovarian Cysts , Appendicitis , Ovariectomy , Abdomen, Acute
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936140


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of 275 nm and 310 nm ultraviolet irradiation on ovariectomized rats' bone metabolism.@*METHODS@#Twenty four 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat were randomly divided into control group, sham operated group, 275 nm ultraviolet (UV) irradiation group and 310 nm UV irradiation group. Each group contained 6 rats. The rats in the two irradiation groups were treated with bilateral ovariectomy. The rats in sham operated group received sham operation (They were given the same back incision and a bit of par-ovarian fat were removed). Control group received no disposition. About 24 weeks after operation, all the rats received detailed bone mineral density (BMD) detection again. Detection regions include cervical vertebra, lumbar vertebra, proximal femur, mid femur and distal femur. Next, osteopenia rats in 275 nm irradiation group were UV irradiated 275 nm with fixed illumination intensity (15 μW/cm2) everyday for 16 weeks. The osteopenia rats in 310 nm irradiation group were UV irradiated 310 nm with fixed illumination intensity (15 μW/cm2) everyday for 16 weeks. The backs of the rats were shaved regularly as irradiation area (6 cm×8 cm). After 16-week irradiation, all the rats' BMD of cervical vertebra, lumbar vertebra, proximal femur, mid femur and distal femur were measured. At the end of the trial, all the rats' blood specimens were obtained and serum 25(OH)D, procollagen type Ⅰ N-peptide (PINP) and osteocalcin (OC) were measured.@*RESULTS@#Compared with control group [(238.78±26.74) mg/cm3], the BMD of the whole body were significantly lower in 275 nm [(193.34±13.28) mg/cm3] and 310 nm [(191.19±18.48) mg/cm3] irradiation groups (P=0.002, P=0.001). There were no significant difference between sham operated group [(227.20±14.32) mg/cm3] and control group. After 16-week ultraviolet irradiation, the BMD of the whole body were significantly increased in 275 nm [(193.34±13.28) mg/cm3 vs. (221.68±25.52) mg/cm3, P=0.005] and 310 nm groups [(191.19±18.48) mg/cm3 vs. (267.48±20.54) mg/cm3, P < 0.001] after corresponding irradiation. The BMD of the four body regions (lumbar vertebra, proximal femur, mid femur and distal femur) had significantly increased after irradiation in 275 nm irradiation group. For 310 nm irradiation group, the BMD in cervical vertebra, lumbar vertebra, proximal femur, mid femur and distal femur also had increased significantly after 310 nm ultraviolet irradiation. The concentration of serum 25(OH)D and OC was higher in 275 nm irradiation group than in control group [(46.78±5.59) μg/L vs. (21.32±6.65) μg/L, P=0.002;(2.05±0.53) U/L vs. (1.32±0.07) U/L, P=0.022]. Compared with the control, the concentration of serum 25(OH)D [(58.05±12.74) μg/L], OC [(2.04±0.53) U/L] and PINP [(176.16±24.18) U/L] was significantly higher (P < 0.001, P=0.015, P=0.005) in 310 nm irradiation group. However, there were no significantly difference between sham operated group and the control.@*CONCLUSION@#Both 275 nm and 310 nm ultraviolet could improve rats' vitamin D synthesis. Both 275 nm and 310 nm ultraviolet could improve osteopenia rats' bone condition. The irradiation of 310 nm might be more effective on bone condition improvement.

Animals , Female , Humans , Rats , Bone Density , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/metabolism , Femur/metabolism , Osteocalcin/metabolism , Ovariectomy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936110


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the influence of chronic masseter hyperalgesia induced by 17β-estradiol (E2) and experimental occlusal interference (EOI) on underlying mechanism in hippocampus of ovariectomized (OVX) rats.@*METHODS@#In the study, 32 OVX rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (8 rats/group): The control group was OVX group, and 0 μg/d E2 (vehicle) injection was started 7 d after OVX without EOI; in the experimental group (1) OVX + E2 group, 80 μg/d E2 injection was started 7 d after OVX without EOI; in the experimental group (2) OVX + EOI group, vehicle injection was started 7 d after OVX and EOI was applied 17 d after OVX; in the experimental group (3) OVX + E2 + EOI group, 80 μg/d E2 injection was started 7 d after OVX and EOI was applied 17 d after OVX. Bilateral masseter muscle mechanical withdrawal thresholds were measured before OVX, 7 days after OVX (before E2 injection), 17 days after OVX (10 days after E2 injection and before EOI) and 24 days after OVX (7 days after EOI). Immunofluorescence staining was used to reveal phospho-extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2)-positive neurons in CA3 of hippocampus. The protein expression of p-ERK1/2 in hippocampus was detected using Western Blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group [left side: (135.3±8.5) g, right side: (135.4±10.8) g], bilateral masseter muscle mechanical withdrawal thresholds of OVX+E2 group [left side: (113.3±5.6) g, right side: (112.5 ± 5.6) g] and OVX+EOI group [left side: (93.3±5.4) g, right side: 90.8±5.5) g] were decreased (P < 0.01). Bilateral masseter muscle mechanical withdrawal thresholds were significantly lower in OVX+E2+EOI group [left side: (81.2±6.2) g, right side: 79.8±7.7) g] than in the control, OVX+E2 and OVX+EOI groups (P < 0.05). The proportion of p-ERK1/2 positive neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus was increased in the control, OVX+E2, OVX+EOI and OVX+E2+EOI groups in turn, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). p-ERK1/2 protein expression was increased in the control, OVX+E2 and OVX+EOI groups in turn, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). p-ERK1/2 expression was significantly higher in OVX+E2+EOI group than in the other three groups (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#High concentration of E2 could exacerbated EOI-induced chronic masseter hyperalgesia in ovariectomized rats, and its central mechanism may be related to the upregulation of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in hippocampus.

Animals , Female , Humans , Rats , Estradiol , Hippocampus , Hyperalgesia/chemically induced , Masseter Muscle , Ovariectomy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19224, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383989


Abstract Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death in postmenopausal women. The activity of heart ACE increases whereas the activity of ACE-2 decreases after menopause. The present study was designed to investigate the role of ACE and ACE-2 in the abrogated cardioprotective effect of IPC in OVX rat heart. The heart was isolated from OVX rat and mounted on Langendorff's apparatus for giving intermittent cycles of IPC. The infarct size was estimated using TTC stain, and coronary effluent was analyzed for LDH, CK-MB, and nitrite release. IPC induced cardioprotection was significantly attenuated in the ovariectomized rat heart as compared to the normal rat heart. However, this attenuated cardioprotection was significantly restored by perfusion of DIZE, an ACE-2 activator, and captopril, an ACE inhibitor, alone or in combination noted in terms of decrease in myocardial infarct size, the release of LDH and CK-MB, and also increase in the release of NO as compared to untreated OVX rat heart. Thus, it is suggested that DIZE and captopril, alone or in combination restore the attenuated cardioprotective effect of IPC in OVX rat heart which is due to an increase in ACE-2 activity and decrease in ACE activity after treatment.

Animals , Female , Rats , Ovariectomy/classification , Myocardial Ischemia , Heart/physiopathology , Infarction/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Women , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Captopril/pharmacology
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1269-1277, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355673


The objective of this study was to quantify the number and frequency of monocyte (MnOF) and multi-oocyte (MtOF) follicles in ovaries of bitches subjected to ovary salpingohysterectomy (OSH). Right and left ovaries of 38 bitches were collected after OSH, prepared, and a histological analysis was carried out. The ovaries were subjected to surface and deep histological cuts; the follicles were classified, and the number of follicles and cumulus oophorus complexes (COC) per follicle were quantified for each histological cut. MnOF and MtOF were found in all ovaries, at different developmental stages; primary follicles were grouped in the ovarian cortex, and follicles at other follicular stages presented a random distribution. MtOF containing two, three, four, or more COC were found in the ovaries of bitches, with a decreasing frequency trend, according to the number of COC in the MtOF. The effect of the age, number of estrus, estrus interval, and number of progenies per delivery was not significant for the number and frequency of MtOF in the ovaries of the bitches, whereas the size, number of pregnancies, use and number of contraceptive applications had some effect on the number and frequency of MtOF in the ovaries of the bitches.(AU)

Objetivou-se, com este estudo, quantificar o número e a frequência de folículos monocitários (MOF) e polioocitários (POF) provenientes de ovários de cadelas submetidas à ovariossalpingo-histerectomia (OSH). Para tanto, coletaram-se os ovários (direito e esquerdo) de 38 cadelas após OSH, com posterior preparação e análise histológica. Cada ovário foi submetido a dois cortes histológicos (superficial e profundo) onde se quantificou o número e a classificação dos folículos, bem como o número de complexos cumulus oophorus (COCs) por folículo em cada corte histológico. Observaram-se MOF e POF em todos os ovários estudados, em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento, sendo os folículos primários agrupados no córtex ovariano, frente a uma distribuição aleatória dos outros estádios foliculares. FOPs contendo dois, três, quatro ou mais COCs foram observados nos ovários de todas as fêmeas estudadas, e sua frequência tendeu a diminuir de acordo com o número de COC presente no POF. Não se observou influência da idade, do número e do intervalo de estros, assim como do número de filhotes por gestação sobre o número/frequência de FOP nos ovários das cadelas estudadas, enquanto o porte, o número de gestações, o uso e o número de contraceptivo apresentaram algum grau de influência sobre o número/frequência de FOP nos ovários das cadelas estudadas.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cats , Oocytes/classification , Cumulus Cells/classification , Ovarian Follicle , Periodicity , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Hysterectomy/veterinary
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(2, cont.): e2405, jul-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1352310


A castração em fêmeas pode ser feita pela ovariectomia (retirada dos ovários), ou ovariohisterectomia (retirada dos ovários e do útero). Essa última técnica é a mais recomendada em cães e gatos, devido à prevenção de afecções que podem ocorrer posteriormente no útero. Dentre essas complicações pode-se encontrar sangramento por ligadura mal feita em coto, hidroureter, hidronefrose, piometra de coto, formação de tratos sinusais, aderência, obstrução crônica, incontinência urinária, retenção abdominal de compressas cirúrgicas, transcecção de parte do ureter e ovário remanescente. Em cadelas castradas, a causa mais comum da formação de tratos sinusais é a presença de reação tecidual ao redor do fio de sutura. O presente estudo teve como objetivo relatar um caso de uma cadela sem raça definida, 8,7 kg, seis anos, que deu entrada no Hospital Veterinário de Uberaba, MG com queixa principal a presença de ferida no flanco direito sendo tratada há nove meses, porém sem sucesso. Já haviam feito uso de vários antibióticos sistêmicos e antinflamatorios esteroidais e não esteroidais. Diante do caso observado, foram realizados exames laboratoriais e de imagem. Perante o resultado do exame de imagem, a principal suspeita foi a formação de trato sinusal com comunicação com a cavidade abdominal devido a uma reação ao fio de algodão utilizado na ovariohisterectomia.(AU)

Female animals can be castrated by ovariectomy (removal of the ovaries), or ovariohysterectomy (removal of the ovaries and uterus). The latter is the most recommended in dogs and cats due to the prevention of conditions that may subsequently occur in the uterus. Among these complications, one can find bleeding by poor ligation in the stump, hydroureter, hydronephrosis, stump pyometra, formation of sinus tracts, adherence, chronic obstruction, urinary incontinence, abdominal retention of surgical compresses, transection of part of the ureter and remaining ovary. In castrated bitches, the most common cause of the formation of sinus tracts is the presence of tissue reaction around the suture thread. This study aimed at reporting a case of a mixed breed, six-year-old dog, 8.7 kg that was admitted to the Veterinary Hospital of Uberaba with the main complaint of the presence of a wound on the right flank being unsuccessfully treated for nine months. Several systemic antibiotics and steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs had already been used. In view of the observed case, laboratory and imaging exams were performed. In view of the result of the imaging examination, the main suspicion was the formation of a sinus tract with communication to the abdominal cavity due to a reaction to the cotton thread used in the ovariohysterectomy.(AU)

La castración en hembras se puede realizar mediante ovariectomía (extirpación de los ovarios) u ovario histerectomía (extirpación de los ovarios y del útero). Esa última técnica es la más recomendada en perros y gatos, debido a la prevención de afecciones que pueden presentarse posteriormente en el útero. Entre estas complicaciones se puede encontrar hemorragias por ligadura mal realizada en muñón, hidruréter, hidronefrosis, piometra de muñón, formación de tractos sinusales, adherencia, obstrucción crónica, incontinencia urinaria, retención abdominal de compresas quirúrgicas, transección de parte del uréter y ovario remanente. En las perras castradas, la causa más común de formación de trayectos sinusales es la presencia de reacción tisular alrededor del hilo de sutura. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo reportar el caso de una perra sin raza definida, de 8,7 kg, de seis años de edad, que ingresó en el Hospital Veterinario de Uberaba, MG con el principal síntoma de presencia de una herida en el flanco derecho siendo tratada durante nueve meses, pero sin éxito. Ya habían usado varios antibióticos sistémicos y medicamentos antiinflamatorios esteroides y no esteroides. A la vista del caso observado, se realizaron exámenes de laboratorio y de imagen. A la vista del resultado del examen de imagen, la principal sospecha fue la formación de un tracto sinusal con comunicación con la cavidad abdominal debido a una reacción al hilo de algodón utilizado en el ovario histerectomía.(AU)

Animals , Female , Dogs , Ovary , Sutures , Ovariectomy , Castration , Dogs/surgery , Pyometra , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 327-334, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248930


Ovariohysterectomy (OHE) is the most performed elective surgery in veterinary medicine. Although this procedure brings benefits both to the animal and public health, acquired urinary incontinence is a possible complication resultant from it. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence and evaluate size, breed, and time of surgery as risk factors in a population of spayed female dogs in the Hospital de Clínicas Veterinárias da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, in the year of 2013, through the use of a multiple-choice screening instrument. Identified estimated prevalence was 11.27% and main risk factors were as follows: large size (OR = 7.12 IC95% = 1.42 - 35.67), Rottweiler breed (OR = 8.92; IC95% = 5.25 - 15.15), Pit-bull breed (OR = 4.14; IC95% = 2.19 - 7.83), and Labrador breed (OR = 2.73; IC95% = 1.53 - 4.87). Time of surgery was not considered a risk factor for urinary incontinence in this population (OR = 1.45; IC95% = 0.86 - 2.40). Even though most owners reported a small impact on their relationship with the animal, urinary incontinence hazard should be addressed before spaying.(AU)

A ovário-histerectomia (OHE) é a cirurgia eletiva mais realizada em medicina veterinária. Embora seja um procedimento que beneficie a saúde pública e do animal, a incontinência urinária adquirida é uma complicação possível resultante desse procedimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de incontinência urinária e avaliar porte, raça e momento da castração como fatores de risco em uma população de cadelas castradas no HCV/UFRGS, no ano de 2013, através do uso de um instrumento de triagem de múltipla escolha. A prevalência estimada foi de 11,27% e os principais fatores de risco foram: grande porte (OR = 7,12 IC95% = 1,42 - 35,67), raça Rottweiler (OR = 8,92; IC95% = 5,25 - 15,15), raça Pitbull (OR = 4,14; IC95% = 2,19 - 7,83) e raça Labrador (OR = 2,73; IC95% = 1,53 - 4,87). O tempo da cirurgia não foi considerado fator de risco para incontinência urinária nessa população (OR = 1,45; IC95% = 0,86 - 2,40). Embora a maioria dos proprietários tenha relatado um pequeno impacto no relacionamento com o animal, a possibilidade de incontinência urinária deve ser devidamente discutida antes da castração.(AU)

Animals , Female , Dogs , Urethra/pathology , Urinary Incontinence/etiology , Urinary Incontinence/veterinary , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Castration/veterinary , Hysterectomy/veterinary
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 282-286, feb. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385324


RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar un análisis histopatológico de un modelo animal en ratas, que simule las características observables en huesos de pacientes con osteoporosis. Para ello, se utilizaron 10 ratas hembras (Rattus norvegicus) Sprague Dawley de 12 semanas de desarrollo y aproximadamente 200-250 g. De las cuales, a 5 se le realizó ovariectomía (OVX) bilateral, mientras que las 5 restantes fueron utilizadas como control. Posterior a 12 semanas de realizadas las ovariectomías en el grupo experimental, se realizó la eutanasia de los animales y la obtención de ambos fémur, los cuales fueron posteriormente seccionados para procesar su porción distal para su procesamiento histológico de rutina. Todos los animales sobrevivieron al final del estudio sin ninguna complicación postoperatoria, las imágenes histológicas evidenciaron en el grupo experimental (OVX), una disminución del grosor del hueso cortical, mayor cantidad de hueso esponjoso, pérdida de la continuidad de periostio y endostio alrededor de la matriz ósea además de mayor cantidad de tejido adiposo en la médula ósea, al ser comparados con el grupo control. Se puede concluir que a las 12 semanas post ovariectomía se observa un fenotipo histopatológico compatible con características oseteoporóticas en ratas adultas.

SUMMARY: The aim of the present study was to conduct a histopathological analysis of an animal model in rats, which simulates the characteristics observable in bones of patients with osteoporosis. To this end, 10 female rats (Rattus norvegicus) Sprague Dawley of 12 weeks of development and approximately 200-250 g were used. Of these, 5 underwent bilateral ovariectomy (OVX), whereas the remaining 5 were used as control. After 12 weeks of ovariectomy in the experimental group, the animals were euthanized and the two femurs were collected, which were then sectioned to process their distal portion. All the animals survived at the end of the study without any signs of postoperative complications. In the experimental group (OVX), the histological images showed a decrease in the thickness of the cortical bone, a greater amount of cancellous bone, loss of the continuity of the periosteum and endostium around the bone matrix in addition to a greater amount of adipose tissue in the bone marrow, when compared with the control group. It can therefore be inferred that a histopathological phenotype can be found at 12 weeks post- ovariectomy that would be consistent with osteoporotic characteristics in adult rats.

Animals , Female , Rats , Osteoporosis/pathology , Ovariectomy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub 1822, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363835


Many variations of ovariohysterectomy techniques have been described, including the traditional one and minimally invasive procedures. Non-laparoscopic Snook hook technique is an alternative for performing minimally invasive ovariohysterectomy. Few studies have been carried out in order to assess pain in animals submitted to minimally invasive surgeries, especially involving one of the most performed surgical procedures in veterinary practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate surgical duration, intraoperative nociception and acute postoperative pain after traditional ovariohysterectomy or minimally invasive non-laparoscopic technique in dogs using Snook hook. The hypothesis is that non-laparoscopic minimally invasive ovariohysterectomy would be faster and less painful than the conventional technique. Thirty dogs were divided into Traditional Group (TG = 15) and Minimally Invasive Group (MIG = 15). Heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, body temperature, oxyhemoglobin saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (ETCO2) and end-tidal isoflurane concentration were evaluated before the surgery begins (M0), during incision (M1), clamping of the first ovarian pedicle (M2), second ovarian pedicle (M3), uterine cervix (M4), abdominal suture (M5) and at the end of surgery (M6). The modified Glasgow Pain Scale was used for acute postoperative pain assessment and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to assess the sensitivity of surgical wound. The level of significance established for all statistical analysis was 5%. Statistical differences were not observed between groups considering total surgical time and postoperative acute pain intensity (P > 0.05), in spite of MIG having shorter duration of surgery. There was no statistical difference between groups considering all intraoperative parameters except respiratory rate (TG < MIG; P < 0.05) and ETCO2 (MIG < TG; P < 0.05) at the moment of traction of the first ovarian pedicle (M2). Pain assessment by VAS showed statistical difference 24h after the end of surgery (TG < MIG) (P < 0.05). Both procedures were similar regarding intraoperative nociception and acute postoperative pain. It is possible that the sensation of pain in both procedures was blocked by the effectiveness of analgesics, once they might cause an inhibition of painful behaviors limiting a possible difference in pain identification. Higher respiratory stress observed in MIG at M2 and higher pain score by VAS noted in MIG 24 h after the end of surgery can be justified by greater traction of ovarian pedicle, due to limited surgical access of minimally invasive technique. Minimally invasive ovariohysterectomy non-laparoscopic seems to be potentially faster, probably due to the smaller size of the abdominal incision, which takes less time to be closed. In the present study, both techniques were performed by an experienced surgeon, providing safe procedures, nevertheless it is important to emphasize that iatrogenic injury can be caused by surgeons non-proficient in the Snook hook technique, considering the limited visualization of anatomical abdominal structures. Data obtained indicate that traditional ovariohysterectomy and non-laparoscopic Snook hook technique promote similar intraoperative nociception and acute postoperative pain, however minimally invasive procedure is potentially faster with less surgical trauma.(AU)

Animals , Female , Dogs , Pain, Postoperative/veterinary , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Dog Diseases/surgery , Nociception , Hysterectomy/veterinary , Dogs
Araçatuba; s.n; 2021. 66 p. graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1434346


O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a ação sinérgica do risedronato de sódio sistêmico e da genisteína administrada localmente, através da funcionalização de implantes, de ratas submetidas a ovariectomia e com hábitos de mimetizam a síndrome metabólica. A parte in vitro deste estudo foi executado em 2 etapas. Na primeira etapa, foi realizada a funcionalização da superfície de discos/implantes com genistína na concentração de 100 µM pela técnica layer by layer (lbl). Na segunda etapa foram feitos testes biológicos em culturas de células, para avaliar as propriedades da superfície funcionalizada, quanto às respostas osteogênicas. Para a cultura de células foram utilizadas células mesenquimais diferenciadas em osteoblastos, isoladas de fêmures de ratos. Após a validação pelos testes executados nas superfícies funcionalizadas, foi realizado estudo in vivo (3ª etapa). Para tanto, no dia 0, as ratas Wistar adultas jovens, fêmeas (n=64) foram divididas em 4 grupos: 1- SHAM (n= 16), animais foram submetidos à ovariectomia (OVX) fictícia e dieta balanceada. 2- SHAM Síndrome Metabólica (SM) (n=16), animais foram submetidos à ovariectomia fictícia e dieta de cafeteria. 3- OVX SM (n=16), animais foram submetidos à ovariectomia bilateral e dieta de cafeteria. 4- OVX SM Risedronato (RIS) (n=16), animais foram submetidos à ovariectomia bilateral, dieta de cafeteria e tratadas com risedronato de sódio. Em cada grupo há 2 subgrupos: A- implantes convencionais e B- implantes funcionalizados com genisteína. No dia 30, foi iniciado o tratamento medicamentoso com risedronato de sódio, na concentração de 0,35mg/kg, ou apenas solução salina, via gavagem, 1 vez por semana. Passados 60 dias da medicação (dia 90), todos os animais foram submetidos à cirurgia para exodontia dos 1os molares superiores bilateralmente e, imediatamente, no alvéolo da raiz mesial, foi instalado os implantes com superfície convencional ou funcionalizada. Os animais foram eutanasiados aos 28 dias (dia 118) após a instalação dos implantes para mensuração do torque de falha na interface osso implante em N/cm. Os dados foram submetidos ao teste de homocedasticidade (Shapiro Wilk). Houve a confirmação de distribuição normal dos dados amostrais e na sequência, foi realizado o teste paramétrico ANOVA One Way or Two Way, seguido do pós teste de Tukey, com o nível de significância de 5% (p< 0,05). Concluiu-se que, a concentração de 100 µM da genisteína manteve a viabilidade celular e resultados favoráveis quanto a genotoxicidade. A dieta de cafeteria e a ovariectomia bilateral mimetizam a síndrome metabólica e a predisposição para osteoporose por deficiência de esteroides gonadais. E, a ação sinérgica entre fármaco sistêmico (risedronato de sódio) e genisteína local foi promissora para a melhora no processo de reparo periimplantar, principalmente no grupo SHAM e OVX SM RIS(AU)

The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic action of systemic risedronate sodium and locally administered genistein, through implant functionalization, of rats submitted to ovariectomy and with habits mimicking the metabolic syndrome. The in vitro part of this study was performed in 2 steps. In the first step, the surface functionalization of discs/implants was performed with genistein at a concentration of 100 µM by the layer by layer (lbl) technique. In the second step biological tests were performed in cell cultures to evaluate the properties of the functionalized surface for osteogenic responses. For the cell culture, mesenchymal cells differentiated into osteoblasts, isolated from rat femurs, were used. After validation by tests performed on the functionalized surfaces, the in vivo study (third test) was performed. For this purpose, on day 0, young adult female Wistar rats (n=64) were divided into 4 groups: 1- SHAM (n=16), animals were submitted to sham ovariectomy (OVX) and balanced diet. 2- SHAM Metabolic Syndrome (MS) (n=16), animals were submitted to sham ovariectomy and cafeteria diet. 3- OVX SM (n=16), animals underwent bilateral ovariectomy and cafeteria diet. 4- OVX SM Risedronate (RIS) (n=16), animals underwent bilateral ovariectomy, cafeteria diet and treated with risedronate sodium. In each group there are 2 subgroups: A- conventional implants and B- implants functionalized with genistein. On day 30, drug treatment was started with risedronate sodium, at a concentration of 0.35 mg/kg, or just saline solution, via gavage, once a week. After 60 days of medication (day 90), all animals underwent surgery to extract the 1st upper molars bilaterally, and implants with conventional or functionalized surfaces were immediately installed in the mesial root alveolus. The animals were euthanized at 28 days (day 118) after implant installation to measure the failure torque at the implant-bone interface in N/cm. The data were submitted to the homoscedasticity test (Shapiro Wilk). The normal distribution of the sample data was confirmed and then the parametric One Way or Two Way ANOVA test was performed, followed by Tukey's post-test, with a significance level of 5% (p< 0.05). It was concluded that, the concentration of 100 µM of genistein maintained cell viability and favorable results regarding genotoxicity. The cafeteria diet and bilateral ovariectomy mimic the metabolic syndrome and predisposition to osteoporosis by gonadal steroid deficiency. And, the synergistic action between systemic drug (risedronate sodium) and local genistein was promising for the improvement in the periimplant repair process, especially in the SHAM and OVX SM RIS groups(AU)

Rats , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Dental Implants , Osseointegration , Genistein , Metabolic Syndrome , Risedronic Acid , Osteoporosis , Surgery, Oral , Bone and Bones , Ovariectomy , Cell Survival , Rats, Wistar , Genotoxicity
Clinics ; 76: e3175, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339705


OBJECTIVES: In addition to the classic motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), patients also present with non-motor symptoms, such as autonomic dysfunction, which is present in almost 90% of patients with PD, affecting the quality of life and mortality. Regarding sex differences in prevalence and presentation, there is increasing concern about how sex affects autonomic dysfunction. However, there are no previous data on autonomic cardiac function in females after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) striatal injection. METHODS: Wistar female rats were ovariectomized. After 20 days, the animals received bilateral injections of 6-OHDA (total dose per animal: 48 µg) or a vehicle solution in the striatum. Thirty days after 6-OHDA injection, subcutaneous electrodes were implanted for electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. Ten days after electrode implantation, ECG signals were recorded. Analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were performed, and the 6-OHDA lesion was confirmed by analyzing the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). RESULTS: A high dose of 6-OHDA did not affect HRV of females, independent of ovariectomy. As expected, ovariectomy did not affect HRV or lesions in the SNpc after 6-OHDA injection. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that females with 6-OHDA present with cardioprotection, independent of ovarian hormones, which could be related to female vagal predominance.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Quality of Life , Ovariectomy , Oxidopamine , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Rate
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(4): 332-338, 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349501


Introduction: Postmenopausal women are more susceptible to chronic conditions, such as osteoporosis, arthritis, and other inflammatory diseases. We investigated the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on biomarker levels in ovariectomized rats subjected to an inflammatory model. Methods: Twenty adult female Wistar rats underwent ovariectomy and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation. We divided them into 2 groups: OAS (sham tDCS) and OAT (active tDCS). Fifteen days later, the rats underwent bimodal tDCS treatment (20 min, 0.5 mA, 8 days). After 24 h of the last tDCS session, we killed the rats and collected tissue samples (hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, and brainstem) for biomarker analysis by ELISA. We removed the paws for histological analysis. Results: Active tDCS increased hypothalamic and cortical TNF-α and NGF levels, hypothalamic and brainstem IL-1ß levels, and hypothalamic IL-10 levels. Histology of paws showed an inflammatory profile. We observed a small tDCS effect, not statistically significant. Discussion: Bimodal tDCS had an effect on the central inflammatory axis, with a small effect on the peripheral site as evaluated by histology in the current study. (AU)

Animals , Female , Rats , Ovariectomy/adverse effects , Biomarkers , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Inflammation
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18976, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345448


Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5Is) exert positive effects on bone healing and mineralization by activation the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase-G (NO/cGMP/PKG) signaling pathway. In this study, the effects of zaprinast and avanafil, two PDE-5Is, on the NO signaling pathway, estrogen levels, selected bone formation and destruction marker levels, whole-body bone mineral density (WB-BMD), right femur trabecular bone thickness (RF-TBT) and epiphyseal bone width, angiogenesis in the bone-marrow, and selected oxidative stress parameter levels were investigated in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. Twenty four adult rats (8 months old) were equally divided into four groups. The first group was the sham operated group. Groups 2, 3 and 4 included ovariectomized rats. At six months after ovariectomy, the 3rd and 4th groups were administered 10 mg/kg zaprinast and avanafil daily as a single dose for 60 days, respectively. Increases in the activity of the NO/cGMP/PKG signalling-pathway, C-terminal collagen peptide levels, angiogenesis in the bone marrow, RF-TBT, epiphyseal bone width and WB-BMD were observed compared to the ovariectomized positive control group (OVX), while the pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline levels were decreased in the OVX+zaprinast and OVX+avanafil groups (p<0.05). The malondialdehyde, ubiquinone10/ubiquinol10 and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine/106deoxyguanosine levels were also increased in the ovariectomized groups compared to the sham group (p<0.05). Based on these results, the levels of bone atrophy and some markers of oxidative stress were increased due to acute estrogen deficiency induced by ovariectomy, but zaprinast and avanafil administration significantly prevented these changes

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Protein Kinases , Bone and Bones , Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5 , Osteoporosis/complications , Atrophy/prevention & control , Ovariectomy/classification , Bone Density/physiology , Single Dose/classification , Oxidative Stress