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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1405-1411, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134456

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Establishing guidelines for responsible management in fish production systems requires knowledge of the basic biology of the fish to be raised. The objective of this work was to determine the reproductive capacity of hybrids produced from the crossing of females of Pseudoplatystoma metaense with males of Leiarius marmoratus. Males presented a digitiform, unrestricted spermatogonial testicle containing caudal digits producing glycoproteins that do not form a seminal vesicle. It was possible to find free sperm in the lumen of the tubules and in the ducts. The ovary of the females was found to be saccular and synchronous with at least three groups of oocytes. In the first year of life, only oogonia up to previtellogenic oocytes (cortical alveolus 284.9 ± 35.7 mm in diameter) were found. After the second year vitellogenic oocytes 730 ± 3.78 mm in diameter were observed. The events of gonadal development of the hybrids indicate that they are gonochoric, synchronic animals. The maturation peaks in the high-water season, overlapping with the parental species. Therefore, the escape of hybrids from fish cultures to the rivers may increase the risk of crosses, gene introgression, or diminution of the reproductive capacity of the pure species.


RESUMEN: El establecimiento de pautas para la gestión responsable en los sistemas de producción de peces requiere el conocimiento de la biología básica de los peces a criar. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la capacidad reproductiva de los híbridos producidos por el cruce de hembras de Pseudoplatystoma metaense con machos de Leiarius marmoratus. Los machos presentaron un testículo espermatogonial digital no restringido que contiene dígitos caudales que producen glucoproteínas que no forman una vesícula seminal. Fue posible encontrar esperma libre en la luz de los túbulos y en los conductos. Se encontró que el ovario de las hembras era sacular y sincrónico con al menos tres grupos de ovocitos. En el primer año de vida, solo se encontraron oogonia hasta ovocitos previtelogénicos (alvéolo cortical de 284,9 ± 35,7 mm de diámetro). Después del segundo año, se observaron ovocitos vitelogénicos de 730 ± 3,78 mm de diámetro. Los eventos de desarrollo gonadal de los híbridos indican que son animales sincrónicos gonocóricos. La maduración alcanza su punto máximo en la temporada de aguas altas, superponiéndose con las especies parentales. Por lo tanto, el escape de híbridos de cultivos de peces a los ríos puede aumentar el riesgo de cruces, introgresión genética o disminución de la capacidad reproductiva de las especies puras.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Sexual Maturation , Catfishes , Gonads/growth & development , Oocytes , Ovary/anatomy & histology , Ovary/growth & development , Testis/anatomy & histology , Testis/growth & development , Gonads/anatomy & histology
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(1): 167-174, Jan. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895549

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the reproductive stage, histology and morphometry of the ovary of Dermanura cinerea in an Atlantic Forest fragments in the Biological Reserve of Saltinho, Pernambuco, Brazil. Adult females were captured monthly by mist net, during two consecutive nights from June/2014 to November/2015. The meteorological data were provided by the National Institute of Meteorology and grouped together with the reproductive data, in six periods: period I (June to August/2014), period II (September to November/2014), period III (December/2014 to February/2015), period IV (March to May/2015), period V (June to August/2015) and period VI (September to November/2015). The females were classified according to their reproductive stages in: Inactive, pregnant, lactating and postlactating. Among the 25 females caught, 10 inactive females were selected for the histomorphometric analysis of the ovaries and then they were euthanized. After that, the specimens had their ovaries removed, fixed, processed and included in Paraplast. The organs were cut and stained by Hematoxylin - Eosin and the histological slides produced were submitted to the appropriate optical microscope analysis. Each type of ovarian follicle was estimated according to the histological characteristics evidenced for other mammals. In the morphometric analysis, it was considered: The area of the ovary (measured in square millimeter), Quantification of different types of ovarian follicles (unilaminar and multilaminar primary follicles, antral and matures) and corpus luteum, as well as the area of each by those different follicles (measured in square micrometer) The results indicated that 16 females were inactive, 5 were lactating, 4 were pregnant and no post-lactating. The histological analysis revealed that the ovaries of D. cinerea exhibit characteristics, structures and cellular types similar to other mammals. The morphometric data of the study area were statistically evaluated using the Student's t-test. Therefore, ovarian histomorphometric analysis are very important to infer with greater certainty about the reproduction of a species. Thus, it was observed that females of D. cinerea exhibit two reproductive peaks, that is, they can give birth either at the end of dry periods or from the beginning to the middle of the rainy season. The main feature observed in the ovary of this species, found in the Atlantic Forest area of the state of Pernambuco, is the preparation of the ovarian cortex to ovulate in months of high rainfall throughout the year. Therefore, this species tries to adjust its reproductive period with the variations of the environmental conditions, so that the reproduction might occur during the period more favorable for the maintenance of their offspring.(AU)


Esse estudo objetivou analisar o estágio reprodutivo, histologia e morfometria do ovário de Dermanura cinerea em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica da Reserva Biológica de Saltinho (Pernambuco, Brasil). Foram utilizadas fêmeas adultas capturadas por redes de neblina, de modo que as coletas ocorreram mensalmente, durante duas noites consecutivas de Junho/2014 a Novembro/2015. Os dados meteorológicos foram fornecidos pelo Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e agrupados, juntamente com os dados reprodutivos, em seis períodos, sendo estes: período I (Junho a agosto/2014), período II (Setembro a novembro/2014), período III (Dezembro/2014 a fevereiro/2015) período IV (Março a maio/2015), período V (Junho a agosto/2015) e período VI (Setembro a novembro/2015). As fêmeas foram classificadas, de acordo com o estágio reprodutivo em: inativas, grávidas, lactantes e pós-lactantes. Das 25 fêmeas capturadas, foram selecionadas, para as análises histomorfométricas dos ovários, 10 fêmeas inativas, as quais foram eutanasiadas. Depois disso, os espécimes tiveram os seus ovários removidos, fixados, processados e inclusos em paraplast. Os cortes foram corados por Hematoxilina - Eosina e as lâminas histológicas produzidas foram submetidas às devidas análises em microscópio óptico. Cada tipo de folículo ovariano foi estimado de acordo com as características histológicas evidenciadas para outros mamíferos. Nas análises morfométricas, considerou-se: a área do ovário (mensurada em milímetro quadrado), quantificação dos diferentes tipos de folículos ovarianos (primários unilaminar e multilaminar, antrais e maduros) e corpo lúteo, bem como foi medida a área de cada um desses diferentes tipos de folículos (mensurada em micrômetro quadrado). Os resultados indicaram a presença de 16 fêmeas inativas, 5 lactantes, 4 grávidas e nenhuma pós-lactante. As análises histológicas destacaram que os ovários de D. cinerea possui características, estruturas e tipos celulares padrões semelhantes ao dos demais mamíferos. Os dados morfométricos da área do ovário foram avaliados estatisticamente por meio do teste t de Student. Assim, as análises histomorfométricas ovariana são de suma importância para inferir com maior segurança sobre a reprodução de uma dada espécie. Portanto, ficou constatado que as fêmeas de D. cinerea apresentam dois picos reprodutivos, isto é, podem parir no final de períodos secos ou do início para metade do período chuvoso. A principal característica observada no ovário dessa espécie, encontrada em área de Mata Atlântica do estado de Pernambuco, foi a preparação do córtex ovariano para ovular em meses de elevados índices pluviométricos ao longo do ano. Logo, essa espécie procura ajustar seu período reprodutivo com as variações das condições ambientais, de forma que a reprodução ocorra em períodos mais favoráveis para manutenção da prole.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Chiroptera/anatomy & histology , Chiroptera/growth & development , Ovary/anatomy & histology , Ovary/growth & development , Brazil
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 56-61, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840933

ABSTRACT

The gonadal development assessment is a fundamental work in researching the reproduction of Peprilus medius, on the way to understand its population dynamics and to achieve a sustainable management of its fisheries. The diagnosis based on morphochromatic features is the quicker, more practical and cheaper method, and properly validated, it may be an accurate procedure. This is particularly useful in researches when it is required to provide prompt and accurate information to support decision-making for fisheries management, and during long-term fisheries monitoring to detect changes in reproductive patterns due to environmental anomalies. These are issues of concern in P. medius and other fishery resources. In this context, a scale that describes the gonadal development through morphochromatic and histological features is presented, and plus anatomical observations of the reproductive organs. Ovarian development was characterized through six phases: immature, development (sub-phases: early and late), mature, spawning (sub-phases: partial and partial post-spawning), post-spawning and resting. Testicular development was described through five phases: immature, development, ejaculation, ejaculated and resting. The position and shape of the reproductive organs are apparently defined by the shape of the fish and the visceral cavity. P. medius's gonads show a gonadal lobe at lower position and an upper lobe in the visceral cavity, and both lobes presented a horizontal placement from gonopore toward the back of the fish. In addition, gonadal deformities occurrence due to deformities in the visceral cavity was evidenced. We recommend to use presented descriptions as a guide in gonadal assessment.


La evaluación del desarrollo gonádico es una labor fundamental para investigar la reproducción de Peprilus medius, en vías a comprender la dinámica de sus poblaciones y lograr un manejo sustentable de sus pesquerías. El diagnóstico a partir de características morfocromáticas es el método más rápido, práctico y barato, y adecuadamente validado puede ser un procedimiento preciso. Este es particularmente útil en investigaciones cuando se requiere aportar información rápida y precisa que apoye la toma de decisiones de manejo pesquero, y durante los monitoreos pesqueros de largo plazo, que permiten detectar cambios en los patrones reproductivos debido a anomalías ambientales. Estos son temas preocupantes en P. medius y otros recursos pesqueros. En ese contexto se presenta una escala que describe el desarrollo gonádico a través de características morfocromáticas e histológicas, y además se presentan observaciones anatómicas de los órganos reproductores. El desarrollo ovárico fue caracterizado a través de seis fases: inmadura, desarrollo (subfases: inicial y avanzado), maduro, desove (subfases: parcial y postdesove parcial), postdesove y reposo. El desarrollo testicular fue descrito a través de cinco fases: inmadura, desarrollo, eyaculación y reposo. La posición y forma de los órganos reproductores están aparentemente definidos por la forma del pez y su cavidad visceral. Las gónadas de P. medius muestran un lóbulo gonádico en posición inferior y uno superior en la cavidad visceral, y ambos lóbulos presentan una colocación horizontal desde el gonoporo hacia la parte posterior del pez. Además se evidencia la ocurrencia de deformidades en las gónadas debido a deformidades en la cavidad visceral. Recomendamos utilizar las descripciones presentadas como una guía en la evaluación de las gónadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gametogenesis , Ovary/growth & development , Perciformes/anatomy & histology , Testis/growth & development , Ovary/anatomy & histology , Testis/anatomy & histology
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(11): 1116-1120, Nov. 2016. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-842015

ABSTRACT

O estudo do desenvolvimento embriológico de órgãos reprodutivos representa uma ferramenta importante para a compreensão das particularidades da espécie equina, assim como ampliar os conhecimentos sobre o desenvolvimento de folículos antrais que podem ser utilizados para produção in vitro de embriões. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo descrever as alterações morfológicas de ovários fetais equinos ocorrentes durante o desenvolvimento gestacional. Foram utilizados fetos equinos provenientes de abatedouro. Imediatamente após o abate foi realizada medição da distância cefalococcígea para o cálculo da idade gestacional em dias (dias de gestação - DG) e dissecação dos fetos para a retirada e fixação dos ovários. Foram realizadas avaliações macroscópicas e histológicas pelas técnicas de Hematoxilina-eosina e PAS. Foram utilizados 19 fetos com idade de 50-269 dias de gestação, distribuídos em 9 grupos de DG. Na avaliação macroscópica foi observada diferença entre o volume dos ovários de acordo com a idade gestacional, sendo observado maior volume ovariano entre os dias 210 a 269 de desenvolvimento gestacional. Na avaliação histológica foi observado epitélio de revestimento cúbico e distinção entre as camadas cortical e medular nos ovários fetais a partir de 50-89 DG. As principais características identificadas foram à distinção morfológica entre as camadas cortical e medular nos ovários fetais equinos: os cordões ovígeros surgiram no intervalo de 150-179 DG; o córtex iniciada como uma camada delgada e por volta do 210º dia de gestação apresentou espessamento pelo aumento da quantidade de tecido conjuntivo rico em vasos sanguíneos, o qual se manteve até os estágios finais da gestação; a região medular adquiriu uniformidade estrutural por volta do 150º dia, mostrando células similares em tamanho e vasos sanguíneos de calibre maior. A partir desta etapa, as células medulares diminuíram em tamanho e feixes de tecido conjuntivo denso tornaram esta zona parcialmente dividida.(AU)


The study of embryological development of reproductive organs is an important tool for understanding the particularities of the equine species. Also it is important for increasing knowledge about the development of antral follicles that can be used for in vitro production of embryos. This study aimed to describe the morphological changes of fetal equine ovaries occurring during gestational development. It was used equine fetuses from a slaughterhouse. After slaughter, it was performed the measurement of cefalococcígea distance to calculate the gestational age (days of pregnancy - DP). Afterwards, the ovaries were grossly evaluated, removed and fixed. Then, they were histologically assessed by hematoxylin-eosin and PAS techniques. It was used 19 fetuses aged 50 to 269 days of gestation, distributed in 9 groups divided according to DP. In the grossly evaluation, it was observed differences between the volume of the ovaries according to gestational age, being observed bigger/larger ovarian volume between 210 days to 269 DP. During the histological evaluation, it was observed a simple cuboidal epithelium and a distinction between the cortical and medullary layers in fetal ovaries from 50-89 DP. The main characteristics identified were: the morphological distinction between the cortical and medullary layers in equine fetal ovaries; the ovigerous cords emerged in the interval between 150 and 179 DP; the cortex initiated as a thin layer with an increased amount of connective tissue rich in blood vessels by the 210 DP, structural uniformity acquired in the medular region by the 150 DP, showing similar cells in size and blood vessels of larger caliber. From this stage, the cells in this region had decreased in size and dense connective tissue bundles, which made this zone partially divided.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Fetal Development/physiology , Horses/anatomy & histology , Horses/growth & development , Horses/physiology , Ovary/growth & development , Histological Techniques/veterinary
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(6): 389-392, Nov. 2015. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772280

ABSTRACT

Background Prolactin (PRL) regulates development and reproduction, and its effects are mediated by the prolactin receptor (PRLR). In order to clarify the role of PRLR and PRL in the process of follicular development in the goose ovary, the level of PRLR mRNA expression in the ovary and follicles of the Sichuan white goose was determined, as well as the PRL concentration in ovarian follicles. Results The level of PRLR mRNA in the hierarchical follicles (HFs) initially increased, and subsequently decreased, whereas PRLR expression was initially low and later increased in postovulatory follicles (POFs). The level of PRLR mRNA expression was the highest in the F4 follicles, and lowest in the F1 follicles in all of the examined follicles. Compared with the level of PRLR mRNA expression in the small white follicles (SWFs), the level of PRLR mRNA was 2.86- and 1.44-fold higher in the F4 and small yellow follicles (SYFs), respectively (P < 0.05). The level of PRLR mRNA expression in the F4 follicles was highest (P < 0.05) in HFs. The highest PRL concentration in all of the examined samples was observed in SYFs and F1, with concentration of 6162 mLU/g and 6197 mLU/g, respectively. The PRL concentration in SYFs was significantly higher compared with SWFs (P < 0.05). Conclusions The change of PRL concentration was similar to the PRLR mRNA expression level in preovulatory follicles. These results suggest that the PRL mediated by the PRLR plays a stimulatory role in the SWF to SYF transition.


Subject(s)
Animals , Prolactin/physiology , Receptors, Prolactin/physiology , Geese , Ovarian Follicle/growth & development , Ovary/growth & development , Receptors, Prolactin/genetics , RNA, Messenger , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
6.
New Iraqi Journal of Medicine [The]. 2013; 9 (2): 66-71
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-127377

ABSTRACT

Manganese [Mn] is a naturally occurring essential trace element that present as a solid substance with a water soluble property. In the body Mn is absorbed in the intestine and present with a higher concentration in many tissues; It was reported that manganese, is one of the most used metals in the industry, Recently, several new manganese compounds have been used for fungicides and petrol production, in addition to its use as contrasting agent in magnetic resonance tomography. The manganese chloride solution [8000mg/liter] was orally administered via gastric tubes in a dose of 0.1mL/day to 30 pregnant female mice and this considered as treated group, while the control group was given distilled water only in a same dose and route of administration. The number of the born litters was recorded for both groups. Then from the female offspring; blood was aspirated FSH and LH level was evaluated and the ovaries were excised and processed for histological observations. The recorded results showed significant decrease in the number of the litters of both sexes in the treated group compared to control one. The histological features of the mice ovaries which were born by the treated group exhibited structural changes in comparison to control group. The FSH and LH hormones level also showed significant changes in treated group compared to control group. The recorded results of this study assess the presence of teratogenic effect of manganese chloride on the developing ovaries and the hormonal level of the mice exposed to MncL[2] in utero


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Teratogens , Mice , Ovary/growth & development , Ovary/drug effects , Manganese Poisoning
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(4): 1857-1871, Dec. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-662253

ABSTRACT

En el sureste de México A. tropicus es una especie de gran importancia ecológica, económica, cultural y para acuicultura, sin embargo, sus poblaciones silvestres han disminuido a causa de diversas actividades antropogénicas, por lo que se caracterizó el ciclo reproductor de A. tropicus, a partir de los cambios en los elementos germinales y somáticos durante la ovogénesis y la estructura de toda la gónada, información valiosa para el mejor manejo y aprovechamiento de la especie. Mensualmente se capturaron con redes de arrastres, seis hembras sexualmente maduras (N=72), durante un ciclo anual (octubre 2003-septiembre 2004), en poblaciones silvestres de la laguna de Pomposu del municipio de Jalpa de Méndez; Tabasco, México. Las hembras fueron sacrificadas por decapitación y los ovarios se procesaron por métodos histológicos convencionales, se determinó el diámetro entre 10-20 ovocitos en los diferentes estadios de desarrollo al azar. Se determinó mensualmente el índice gonadosomático (IGS), volumen gonadal (gV) y el diámetro del folículo (fD). Además, se identificaron ocho estadios de desarrollo de la ovogénesis: I: cromatina nucléolo, II: perinucléolo temprano, III: perinucléolo avanzado, IV: alvéolos corticales, V: vitelogénesis temprana, VI: vitelogénesis media, VII: vitelogénesis avanzada, VIII: maduración final. El ciclo reproductor la constituye cuatro clases: I.-Proliferativa, II.-Maduración inicial, III.-Maduración tardía, IV.-Regresión-proliferación. El análisis de la información obtenida de los valores encontrados del IGS, gV, fD, estadios de la ovogénesis y clases reproductivas, indican que en diciembre se reinicia el crecimiento de los folículos (previtelogenesis), de mar-zo-julio se presenta la captación del vitelo (vitelogenesis) y en agosto-noviembre se presenta la máxima actividad reproductora, al contrastar este patrón con los factores ambientales (temperatura, precipitación) se sugiere que estos pueden funcionar como un gatillo ambiental, en el desarrollo de la ovogénesis y el desove.


In Southeast Mexico, A. tropicus is a species with great ecological, economic, cultural and aquaculture value, however wild populations have diminished due to diverse anthropological causes. The objective of this study was to characterize the reproductive cycle of A. tropicus, with a description of complete gonad structure and the changes in germinal and somatic elements during oogenesis, for better management and use of this species. Six sexually mature females (N=72) were captured monthly with drag nets during one year cycle (October 2003-October 2004) in wild populations of Pomposu lagoon, municipality of Jalpa de Mendez, Tabasco, Mexico. Females were sacrificed by decapitation and the ovaries were processed by standard histological methods; the diameter of 10-20 oocytes taken at random was determined in different stages of development. Gonadosmatic index (GSI), gonadal volume (gV) and follicule diameter (fD) were determined monthly. Among results we could determine eight oogenesis developmental stages: I: chromatin nucleolus stage, II: early perinucleolus stage, III: mid perinucleolus stage, IV: advanced perinucleolus stage, V: early vitellogenesis stage, VI: mid vitellogenesis stage, VII) advanced vitellogenesis stage and VIII: final maturation stage. The reproductive cycle could be divided in four phases: I: proliferative phase, II: initial maturation phase, III: late maturation phase, IV: regressing phase. Analysis of the data obtained from the IGS, gV and fD values, oogenesis stages and reproductive phases, indicate that in December previtellogenesis phase restarts, from March through July yolk deposition (vitellogenesis) occurs, and from August to November the maximum reproductive activity takes place. Contrasting this pattern with local environmental factors such as temperature and precipitation, we suggested that these may serve as an environmental activator in the development of oogenesis and spawning of this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (4): 1857-1871. Epub 2012 December 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Fishes/physiology , Ovary/growth & development , Reproduction/physiology , Sexual Maturation/physiology , Fishes/classification , Mexico , Oogenesis/physiology , Ovulation/physiology , Seasons
8.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 56(2): 96-103, Mar. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate physical and sexual development and reproductive physiology in female rat offspring that developed in hyperglycemia conditions in utero and during lactation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maternal diabetes was induced in female rats by a single IV injection of streptozotocin before mating. Female offspring development was evaluated by means of the following parameters: physical development; age of vaginal opening and first estrus; weight and histological evaluation of uterus and ovaries; duration of the estrous cycle, sexual behavior, and fertility after natural mating. RESULTS: In the female offspring, maternal diabetes caused delays in initial physical development; diminution in ovary weight and number of follicles; and inferior reproductive performance compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The exposure to hyperglycemia in uterus and during lactation caused delays in physical and sexual development, and affected the reproductive physiology of female rats negatively.


OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento físico e sexual e a fisiologia reprodutiva de ratas que se desenvolveram em condições hiperglicêmicas in utero e lactação. MATERIAIS E METODOS: Para induzir o diabetes nas ratas, foi utilizada estreptozotocina em dose única via intravenosa antes do acasalamento. A prole feminina foi avaliada por meio dos seguintes parâmetros: o desenvolvimento físico; a idade de abertura vaginal e do primeiro estro, peso e avaliação histológica do útero e ovários; a duração do ciclo estral, o comportamento sexual e a fertilidade após acasalamentos naturais. RESULTADOS: O diabetes materno provocou, na prole feminina, retardo no desenvolvimento físico; diminuição do peso dos ovários e do número de folículos; a performance reprodutiva foi inferior à do grupo controle. CONCLUSÕES: Concluiu-se que a exposição aos meios intrauterino e lactacional hiperglicêmicos provocou retardo no desenvolvimento físico e sexual e prejudicou a fisiologia reprodutiva de ratas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Lactation/drug effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/physiopathology , Reproduction/drug effects , Sexual Development/drug effects , Animals, Newborn/growth & development , Disease Models, Animal , Fertility/drug effects , Ovary/drug effects , Ovary/growth & development , Random Allocation , Streptozocin , Sexual Behavior, Animal/drug effects
9.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(1): 89-96, Jan.-Feb. 2011. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578839

ABSTRACT

Ovary development and maturation of Nezara viridula (L.) were evaluated by examining ovariole morphology and the alterations in the biochemical (protein synthesis related to reproduction) composition of the hemolymph. Quantitative and qualitative protein analyses were performed and ovary structural alterations for the pre-reproductive and reproductive stages were recorded. Total concentration of proteins in female hemolymph gradually increased until the end of the pre-mating stage, remaining unaltered thereafter. Proteins linked to reproduction (vitellogenins) appeared in the hemolymph 10 days after adult emergence and indicated the end of the pre-mating stage. After mating, total protein concentration in the hemolymph was lower compared to virgin females; vitellogenin levels were similar during most of the observation period. Oocyte development and maturation were gradual and age dependent. Ten-day-old females had chorionated oocytes ready for fertilization. Mating did not stimulate oocyte development in N. viridula, but the lack of mating activity appeared to have stimulated oocyte resorption in 17-day-old females.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Hemiptera/growth & development , Ovary/growth & development , Age Factors , Sexual Maturation
10.
IJFS-International Journal of Fertility and Sterility. 2011; 5 (1): 39-46
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110544

ABSTRACT

During the last decades, environmental contamination by lead generated from human activities has become an evident concern. The present study assessed the long-term effects of neonatal exposure to different doses of lead acetate on the ovaries of offspring rats. Pregnant female Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control and three experimental groups. The experimental groups received 20, 100 and 300 mg/L/day lead acetate via drinking water during lactation. Ovaries of the offspring were removed at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of age, their weights recorded and fixed in Bouin's solution. Following tissue processing, 5 micro m serial sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and then, the numbers and diameters of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea were estimated. Ovary weights decreased significantly [p<0.05] in the 300 mg/L/day dose groups at 30, 60 and 90 days postnatal development. Significant dose-related decreases were seen in the numbers of primary, secondary and antral follicles in 100 [p<0.05] and 300 mg/L/day doses groups at 30 and 60 days of age [p<0.01]. There was significant decrease in mean number of corpora lutea in the 100 [p<0.05] and 300 [p<0.01] mg/L/day dose groups at 60 days of age. It seems that neonatal lead treatment has transient effects on follicular development in the ovary of offspring and ovarian parameters gradually improve until 90 days of age. The present study showed that maternal lead acetate exposure affects prepubertal ovarian follicle development in a dose dependent manner, but ovarian parameters gradually improve during the postpubertal period


Subject(s)
Female , Animals, Laboratory , Organometallic Compounds , Lead , Rats, Wistar , Random Allocation , Lactation , Ovarian Follicle/growth & development , Infertility , Infant, Newborn/growth & development , Ovary/growth & development
11.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(3): 414-419, May-June 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-556527

ABSTRACT

As many other insects with a restricted diet, the citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, which vector the causing agent of the Huanglongbing, the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp., is intimately associated with symbiotic microorganisms. These mutualist symbionts play a key role on their host nutritional ecology, and are vertically transmitted to the progeny. However, despite the role symbionts play on host development and reproduction, and the growing opportunities of exploitation of the association insect-symbiont to control insect vectored-pathogens, there are very few studies on the host reproductive biology and on the symbiont transovarial transmission. Therefore, we aimed at analyzing the ovary development during D. citri adulthood, and at verifying for the mating requirement as a trigger to initiate ovary development. Newly-emerged D. citri females were grouped as virgin or mated and ovary development was observed during adulthood. Newly-emerged females have immature ovaries, and ovaries remain without any mature eggs until females mate. Once female mates, the vitellogenesis synthesis and uptake are estimulated, and oocytes are quickly developed. Oocytes maturation in ovarioles is metachronic, with only one oocyte developing at a time in each oogenic cycle. Morphological observations of the reproductive system including the ovaries and spermatheca, after the first cluster of eggs is laid, indicated D. citri is polyandrous, and may require multiple mating to develop additional oogenic maturation cycles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Copulation , Hemiptera/growth & development , Hemiptera/physiology , Ovary/growth & development , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Ovary/ultrastructure
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 70(2): 451-456, May 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-548256

ABSTRACT

The Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis is an important fishery resource of the Atlantic Ocean and is a major component of artisanal fisheries in northern and northeastern Brazil. Ovarian development and spawning period of S. brasiliensis were investigated using both macroscopic and histological techniques. Mean monthly values of GSI and ovarian maturation indicate that the main spawning period occurs during the rainy season.


A Serra, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, é uma espécie marinha de valor comercial do oceano Atlântico sendo um maior componente de pesca artesanal no norte e nordeste brasileiros. Desenvolvimento ovariano e época de desova de S. brasiliensis foram investigados utilizando-se técnicas macroscópicas e histológicas. Valores mensais médios de IGS e maturação gonadal indicam que a época de desova ocorre durante o período de chuva.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Fishes/physiology , Ovary/growth & development , Oviposition/physiology , Sexual Maturation/physiology , Brazil , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Fishes/classification , Fishes/growth & development , Seasons
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 61(5): 1173-1182, out. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-532030

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to morphologically characterize and classify the stages of gonad development in different Nile tilapia strains (Oreochromis niloticus). Eighty-four and ninety-two ovaries from Bouaké and Chitralada strains, respectively, were evaluated at different ovarian developmental phases: initial (104 days of culture), intermediate (152 days of culture), and the final (279 days of culture). The ovaries were microscopically evaluated and submitted to histological processing and hematoxylin-eosin staining to determine their characteristics and be classified. No morphological differences in ovaries between strains were observed during the initial phase (stage A - immature). During the intermediate growing phase, higher gonad development was observed for Chitralada strain (stage B - maturation) in comparison with Bouaké strain (stage A - immature). During the final growing phase, no differences between strains were observed for morphological characteristics (stage C - mature). Despite the similarities in reproductive behavior of the Bouaké and Chitralada females at the end of the final growing phase (gain weight phase), differences for macroscopic and microscopic aspects and oocytes during the initial and intermediate growing phases of the strains were observed.


Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar morfologicamente e classificar os estádios de desenvolvimento gonadal de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) de linhagens distintas. Foram avaliados 84 ovários da linhagem Bouaké e 92 da linhagem Chitralada, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento: inicial (imatura - 104 dias de cultivo), intermediária (crescimento - 152 dias de cultivo) e final (ganho de peso - 279 dias de cultivo). Os ovários foram analisados macroscopicamente e submetidos a procedimento histológico, corados com hematoxilina-eosina, para determinação das características microscópicas e subsequente classificação. Não foram observadas diferenças morfológicas nos ovários entre as linhagens na fase inicial (estádio A - imaturo). Na fase intermediária, os ovários revelaram diferenças morfológicas, evidenciando maior desenvolvimento gonadal para a linhagem Chitralada, (estádio B - maturação) em relação à Bouaké (estádio A). Na fase final (ganho de peso) os ovários não apresentaram diferenças morfológicas entre as linhagens (estádio C - maduro). Apesar de semelhanças no comportamento reprodutivo das fêmeas das linhagens Bouaké e Chitralada, na fase final (ganho de peso), diferenças, em relação à classificação da fase intermediária nos aspectos macroscópicos e microscópicos e diâmetro dos ovócitos, foram observadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oocytes/growth & development , Ovary/anatomy & histology , Cichlids , Ovary/growth & development , Reproductive Behavior
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 69(2): 405-413, May 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-519186

ABSTRACT

Chondrichthyes have become an important economic resource in recent years. In spite of this importance, there is little knowledge about their reproductive biology, especially of species from the south-western Atlantic. In this work, we study the morphology and histology of the ovary of Sympterygia acuta. The results show that oogonia were present only in the immature females (stage I of maturity scale), whereas specimens in stages II and III of maturity displayed oocytes in all developmental steps. The most important histological features that vary throughout oocyte development are the presence or absence of yolk, the number of types and layers of follicular cells and the degree of development of the thecae. Follicular cells are, at least, of two different types. Finally, a new point of view for the determination of maturity stages in the field based on the size of follicles is discussed.


Os Chondrichthyes tornaram-se num importante recurso econômico nos últimos anos. Apesar da sua importância, é muito pouco o que se conhece da sua biologia reprodutiva, especialmente das espécies do Atlântico sul-ocidental. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a morfologia e histologia do ovário de Sympterygia acuta. Os resultados mostraram que as oogonias somente encontraram-se presentes nas fêmeas imaturas (fase I de escala de maturidade) e que os animais em estágio II e III de maturidade exibiram oocitos em todas as etapas de desenvolvimento. As características histológicas mais importantes que variam ao longo de desenvolvimento dos oocitos são a presença da suarda, o tipo e quantidade de celas foliculares e o grau do desenvolvimento do thecae. Existem pelo menos dois tipos de células foliculares. Finalmente se discute um novo ponto de vista para a determinação dos estágios de maturidade no campo, baseado no tamanho dos folículos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oocytes/cytology , Ovarian Follicle/physiology , Ovary/anatomy & histology , Sexual Maturation/physiology , Skates, Fish/anatomy & histology , Argentina , Ovary/cytology , Ovary/growth & development , Reproduction , Skates, Fish/growth & development , Skates, Fish/physiology
15.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1171272

ABSTRACT

La apoptosis o muerte celular programada, es un proceso genéticamente controlado mediante el cual las células inducen su propia muerte. Este proceso fisiológico contribuye a la construcción y al mantenimiento de los tejidos y participa a lo largo de la vida de un individuo, desde el desarrollo hasta la senescencia. Mensualmente y en forma cíclica, el ovario, el endometrio y la glándula mamaria atraviesan por ciclos de proliferación celular y apoptosis, respondiendo a los cambios en la secreción hormonal. La regulación de estos ciclos de crecimiento y muerte juega un rol importante, no sólo en la fisiología de los tejidos, sino también en la prevención de transformación neoplásica e inicio del cáncer. Durante el desarrollo embrionario, la apoptosis está implicada en procesos relacionados con la escultura de los diferentes órganos, con la eliminación de estructuras innecesarias en algún estadio de la evolución y con el control de las células defectuosas. Durante las etapas de desarrollo temprano, se eliminan por apoptosis células anormales, con localización errónea, no funcionales o potencialmente peligrosas. Asimismo, la muerte celular programada juega un rol fundamental en el desarrollo y en la funcionalidad del ovario. En los seres humanos, la reserva folicular se establece durante la vida fetal y luego se va eliminando gradualmente. La apoptosis está involucrada tanto en la muerte celular durante el proceso de reclutamiento del folículo dominante, como en la luteólisis. Durante la pubertad la apoptosis contribuye a la formación del espacio luminal de los ductos terminales de la mama. Asimismo, durante cada ciclo menstrual la glándula mamaria adulta está expuesta a fluctuaciones hormonales periódicas que resultan en ciclos de proliferación, diferenciación y muerte celular, en los cuales está involucrada la apoptosis...


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Apoptosis/physiology , Mammary Glands, Human/growth & development , Ovary/growth & development , Menstrual Cycle/physiology , Menstrual Cycle/immunology
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 69(1): 149-152, Feb. 2009. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-510135

ABSTRACT

Ovarian sizes (length and width) were measured in young females of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae) subjected or not to the inhibitor α -difluormethylornithine (α -DFMO). The most effective concentration of α -DMFO used was 50 mM and the ovarian measurements (length and width) of the treated females were smaller than those of females not treated with α -DMFO. These data may suggest some relationship between ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and sexual maturation in A. fraterculus.


As dimensões dos ovários (comprimento e largura) foram mensuradas em fêmeas jovens da Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae) submetidas ou não ao inibidor α -difluormetilornitina (α -DFMO). A concentração mais efetiva de α -DMFO utilizada foi 50 mM e as medidas (comprimento e largura) das fêmeas tratadas com o inibidor foram menores que as fêmeas não tratadas com inibidor α -DMFO. Estes dados podem sugerir uma relação entre ornitina descarboxilase (ODC) e maturação sexual em A. fraterculus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Eflornithine/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ornithine Decarboxylase/antagonists & inhibitors , Ovary/drug effects , Tephritidae/drug effects , Organ Size/drug effects , Ovary/growth & development , Tephritidae/anatomy & histology , Tephritidae/enzymology
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 69(1): 161-169, Feb. 2009. ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-510137

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to provide information on the histological characteristics of the gonads of male and female Armases rubripes crabs, and to try to establish a relationship between the microscopic and macroscopic stages previously identified. Thirty-six crabs were collected by hand between February 2003 and January 2004 in banks of Spartina alterniflora on Sahy Beach in Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The histological analysis of the ovaries of A. rubripes demonstrated a gradual process of development of the oocytes. According to their cellular characteristics, five types of cells were distinguished: oogonia, oocyte I, oocyte II, oocyte III and oocyte IV. The ovaries showed four stages during gonadal activity: stage I (rudimentary), stage II (developing or maturing), stage III (developed or mature) and stage IV (resting). The results of the histochemical analyses showed that the ovaries vary according to the gonad development stage. The histological aspect of one section of the male gonad was always the same in all of the seminiferous tubules, where the lumen of these tubules always contained spermatozoa and/or spermatids. It was not possible to characterize the three stages of gonad development in the males. This agrees with previous reports in the literature. However, in the females there was a relationship between the gonad stages distinguished macroscopically and the results obtained through the histological and histochemical analysis, due to the presence of different cell types, as well as the lysis process and reabsorption of the oocytes in spent females.


O objetivo deste estudo foi fornecer informações sobre as características histológicas das gônadas de machos e de fêmeas de Armases rubripes, tentando estabelecer uma relação entre os estágios microscópicos e os macroscópicos anteriormente identificados. Foram coletados manualmente 36 caranguejos, durante o período de fevereiro de 2003 a janeiro de 2004, em bancos de Spartina alterniflora na praia do Sahy Mangaratiba, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. A análise histológica dos ovários de A. rubripes demonstrou um processo gradual de desenvolvimento dos oócitos. De acordo com sua característica celular, cinco tipos de células foram distinguidos: ovogônias, oócito I, oócito II, oócito III, oócito IV. Os ovários revelaram quatro estágios de atividade gonadal: estágio I (rudimentar), estágio II (em desenvolvimento ou em maturação), estágio III (desenvolvido ou maduro), estágio IV (desovada). Os resultados das análises histoquímicas permitem afirmar que os ovários variam de acordo com o estágio de desenvolvimento gonadal. O aspecto histológico de uma sessão de gônada masculina é sempre o mesmo em todos os túbulos seminíferos, onde o lúmen deste túbulo sempre contém espermatozóides e/ou espermátides. Não foi possível a caracterização de três estágios de desenvolvimento gonadal em machos, conforme descrito previamente na literatura. Entretanto, em fêmeas, houve uma relação entre os estágios gonadais distinguidos macroscopicamente e os resultados obtidos através da análise histológica e histoquímica, devido à presença de diferentes tipos celulares, assim como processo de lise e reabsorção dos oócitos em fêmeas desovadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Brachyura/growth & development , Oocytes/growth & development , Ovary/growth & development , Sexual Maturation/physiology , Testis/growth & development , Brachyura/chemistry , Brachyura/cytology , Histocytochemistry , Oocytes/cytology , Ovary/chemistry , Ovary/cytology , Testis/chemistry , Testis/cytology
18.
Cad. saúde pública ; 24(12): 2747-2754, dez. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-499764

ABSTRACT

Population size and daily survival rates of disease vectors are important determinants of vectorial capacity. A mark-release-recapture experiment was conducted in a dengue endemic urban neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to estimate population size, survival rate and vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti females using back-pack aspirators and gravid sticky traps (MosquiTRAP). Estimations of the gravid female population size were different when using data gathered from just the MosquiTRAP (3,505 individuals) or aspirator (1,470). However Ae. aegypti survival rates and longevity were similar irrespective of the method of capture. Up to 26.3 percent of released females would be able to survive for more than 10 days, the length of time of the extrinsic incubation period. Vectorial capacity value ranged between 0.01567 and 0.4215 and the basic reproductive number (R0) was estimated to be between 0.0695 and 1.88.


O tamanho populacional e a taxa de sobrevivência de vetores de doenças são importantes componentes da capacidade vetorial. Um experimento de marcação-soltura-recaptura foi conduzido numa área urbana endêmica de dengue no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, para estimar o tamanho populacional, taxa de sobrevivência diária e capacidade vetorial de fêmeas de Aedes aegypti; para tal, usaram-se aspirador costal e armadilha para fêmeas grávidas de Ae. aegypti (MosquiTRAP). Estimativas do tamanho populacional de fêmeas grávidas foram diferentes quando foram analisados dados coletados apenas na MosquiTRAP (3.505 indivíduos) e aspiradores (1.470). Por outro lado, taxas de sobrevivência e longevidade de Ae. aegypti foram semelhantes independentemente do método de captura empregado. Até 26,3 por cento das fêmeas seriam capazes de sobreviver mais do que dez dias, tempo equivalente à duração do período de incubação extrínseco. O cálculo da capacidade vetorial revelou valores entre 0,01567 e 0,4215, e o número básico de reprodução foi estimado entre 0,0695 e 1,88.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Aedes/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Longevity , Aedes/classification , Brazil , Dengue/transmission , Insect Vectors/classification , Ovary/growth & development , Population Density , Reproduction/physiology
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 56(3): 1201-1207, sep. 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-637858

ABSTRACT

The freshwater crab Aegla platensis was used as a model to induce ovarian growth by adding different neuroregulators to a pellet food formulation. Added compounds were the dopaminergic inhibitor spiperone or the enkephalinergic inhibitor naloxone, both of them at a dose of 10-8 mol/animal. Animals were fed on the enriched pellets twice a week. After 7 wk, the gonadosomatic index (GI) was calculated as (gonad fresh weight / body fresh weight) x 100. GI significantly increased only for those females fed on spiperone pellets, compared to a control group receiving pellets with no compound added. During the assayed period, spiperone would be reverting the arrest exerted by dopamine on the neuroendocrine stimulation of ovarian growth. On the other hand, for both spiperone and naloxone a higher GI was correlated to a higher lipid content of both gonads and/or hepatopancreas, suggesting an increased energetic demand in accordance with an active investment in reproduction. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3): 1201-1207. Epub 2008 September 30.


Se utilizó al anomuro de agua dulce Aegla platensis como modelo para inducir el crecimiento ovárico mediante el agregado de diferentes neuroreguladores a una formulación de alimento pelleteado. Los compuestos agregados fueron el inhibidor dopaminergico spiperona ó el inhibidor encefalinérgico naloxone, ambos a una dosis de 10-8 moles/animal. Los animales fueron alimentados dos veces a la semana con pellets enriquecidos con alguno de los neuroreguladores. Luego de 7 semanas, se calculó el índice gonadomático (IG) como (peso gonadal fresco/ peso corporal fresco) x 100. El IG mostró un incremento significativamente sólo en aquellas hembras alimentadas con pellets enriquecidos con spiperona, en comparación con un grupo control que recibió pellets sin agregado alguno. Durante el período ensayado, la spiperona estaría revirtiendo el arresto ejercido por la dopamina sobre la estimulación neuroendocrina del crecimiento ovárico. Por otro lado, para ambos grupos experimentales (spiperona y naloxone), un mayor valor de IG estuvo correlacionado a un mayor incremento del contenido de lípidos tanto en gonadas como en hepatopáncreas, sugiriendo una demanda energética incrementada en relación con una activa inversión en reproducción.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Anomura/drug effects , Dopamine Antagonists/pharmacology , Naloxone/pharmacology , Ovary/drug effects , Spiperone/pharmacology , Animal Feed , Food, Formulated , Organ Size/drug effects , Ovary/growth & development
20.
Rev. biol. trop ; 55(supl.1): 39-48, jun. 2007. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-473828

ABSTRACT

Sexual maturity, temporal reproductive pattern, and recruitment of juveniles were examined for the penaeoid shrimp Artemesia longinaris sampled for five and a half years in a tropical locality off the coast of São Paulo (23º S), Brazil. Monthly samples were taken from January 1998 to June 2003 at depths between 5 and 45 m. Ovarian maturity was used to examine breeding in adult females. Recruitment was defined as the percentage of juveniles of the total number of individuals in each month and season. A total of 10 288 females and 5 551 males were collected. Estimated sizes (carapace length) at the onset of sexual maturity were 11.0 mm and 13.4mm for males and females, respectively. Over the five and a half years, females with ripe gonads were found in every season, with the highest percentages in summer (January-March). Juvenile shrimps occurred year-round. These results suggest a continuous reproduction of A. longinaris with temperature acting as an environmentalstimulus for the duration of the ovary development cycle. These data and the hypothesis of the intrusion ofthe South Atlantic Central Water mass, which lowered water temperature and raised plankton production, suggestthat the end of spring and the beginning of summer were the principal reproductive months. The classicalparadigm of continuous reproduction at lower latitudes, with increased seasonality of breeding period at higherlatitudes seems to apply to this species.


El objetivo del presente trabajo fue el estudio de la madurez sexual, la reproducción temporal y el reclutamientodel camarón Artemesia longinaris, en el litoral del estado de São Paulo (23ºS), Brasil. El material fue recolectadomensualmente entre enero 1998 y junio 2003, hasta una profundidad de 45 m. La periodicidad de la madurez gonadalfue verificada en las hembras adultas. El reclutamiento se definió como porcentaje de camarones inmaduros sobre el total de individuos en cada mes y estación. Se obtuvo un total de 10 288 hembras y 5 551 machos. Las tallas dela madurez gonadal estimadas fueron 11.0 mm (machos) y 13.4 mm (hembras). En los cinco años y medio del estudio, el verano (enero-marzo) siempre tuvo mayor porcentaje dehembras con gónadas maduras. En la mayoría de los meses, se recolectaron camarones inmaduros. Estos resultadossugieren que A. longinaris se reproduce en forma continua, y que la temperatura es el estimulo ambiental para la duracióndel desarrollo gonadal. Eso es evidente en los periodos con mayor desarrollo gonadal (primavera y verano) enaguas más frías y mejor oferta de alimento ofrecido por la penetración de las Aguas Centrales del Atlántico Sur y por el aumento en la productividad planctónica. Para este camarónse aplica el paradigma del efecto latitudinal en la reproducciónde especies marinas, donde en regiones tropicales se observa una continuidad en el desarrollo gonadal y en las zonas templado-frías una estacionalidad reproductiva.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Breeding , Penaeidae/growth & development , Sexual Maturation/physiology , Body Size , Brazil , Ovary/growth & development , Reproduction/physiology , Seasons , Temperature
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