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1.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(1): 104-110, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360562

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity development in adolescents with early diagnosed phenylketonuria treated exclusively by diet. Methodology: In this cross-sectional study anthropometric measurements, serum phenylalanine levels, and 10 metabolites associated with lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were analyzed in 101 adolescents aged 10-20 years. Adolescents were categorized into overweight/obesity and eutrophic/low body mass index groups. These patients were compared using Student's t-test, Pearson's chi-square test, Wald's chi-square test for multivariate analysis. Further, to verify whether the prevalence of overweight/obesity found in the study population was similar to that in the general population, the authors compared the nutritional status of 46 patients aged 13-17 years with that of healthy students of the same age from the National School Health Survey using the chi-square test for adherence. The significance threshold was p < 0.5. Results: The prevalence of overweight/obesity in adolescents was 27.7%. There was no difference in prevalence between sexes. Older age was a protective factor and Increased Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance index and high phenylalanine and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were predictive factors for overweight/obesity. The equality hypothesis was not rejected in the comparison of nutritional states of 46 patients aged 13-17 years and healthy students of the same age. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight/obesity in phenylketonuria adolescents was similar to what is found in healthy adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Phenylketonurias/complications , Phenylketonurias/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Causality , Overweight/complications , Overweight/diagnosis , Overweight/epidemiology
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(1): 363-375, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356041

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a tendência temporal da prevalência de excesso de peso (EP) em crianças menores de cinco anos assistidas pelo Programa Bolsa Família (PBF) entre 2008 e 2018. O painel de dados foi baseado nos relatórios de estado nutricional do Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional (SISVAN) (n=30.574.118) e analisado por meio de modelos de regressão joinpoint específicos para idade (lactentes e pré-escolares) e macrorregião. Ainda, calculou-se a cobertura do SISVAN para o PBF e a representatividade nacional, segundo projeção censitária. Na década analisada, o EP em lactentes reduziu de 11,9% (11,8; 12,0 IC95%) para 8,5% (8,4; 8,6 IC95%) (-3,6%/ano [-5,1; -2,0 IC95%]); quanto aos pré-escolares, a prevalência EP aumentou em 3,1%/ano (2,0; 4,2 IC95%) até 2015, seguida por uma retração até 2018 (-6,4%/ano [-10,1; -2,6 IC95%]). Em ambos os grupos etários, a região Norte apresentou a menor prevalência em toda série histórica e a Nordeste o pior desempenho no controle do EP infantil. A cobertura do SISVAN no PBF foi elevada e a representatividade dos dados variou entre 13,9% (Sul) e 42,2% (Nordeste). Apesar da prevalência estar acima do esperado, após 2014, identificou-se redução linear no EP em lactentes e desaceleração na taxa de crescimento nos pré-escolares.


Abstract This study aimed to analyze the overweight (OW) prevalence trends from 2008 to 2018 among under-five-year-old children assisted by the conditional cash transfer program entitled Programa Bolsa Família (PBF). The panel was based on the Food and Nutritional Surveillance System (SISVAN) (n=30,574,118) nutritional status reports. Age- (infants and preschoolers) and region-specific joinpoint regression models were used to analyze OW's prevalence temporal changes. Besides, the coverage of SISVAN for PBF and national representativity were calculated according to census projection. In the decade analyzed, OW in infants decreased from 11.9% (11.8; 12.0 95%CI) to 8.5% (8.4; 8.6 95%CI) (-3.6%/year [-5.1; -2.0 95%CI]); for preschool children, the prevalence of OW increased by 3.1%/year (2.0; 4.2 95%CI) until 2015, followed by a decrease until 2018 (-6.4%/year [-10.1; -2.6 95%CI]). In both age groups, the North region had the lowest prevalence in all time-series, and the Northeast had the worst performance in managing childhood obesity. The SISVAN's coverage in the PBF was high, and the data representativity varied between 13.9% (South) and 42.2% (Northeast). Although the prevalence was higher than expected, after 2014, it was detected a linear reduction in OW in infants and a deceleration in the growth rate in preschoolers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Poverty , Nutritional Status , Prevalence
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(2): 771-782, Fev. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356090

ABSTRACT

Abstract A cross-sectional study enrolled participants from the CUME project (n = 289) who lived in Viçosa, Brazil. The neighborhood unit adopted was the buffer (200 meters), considering the participant's residence as central point. We measure the number of public and private facilities inside the buffer as well as violent criminal occurrences. Food establishments were categorized into establishments with predominant sale of natural or minimally processed foods, mixed establishments, and establishments with predominant sale of ultra-processed foods. Those who attended the face-to-face interview filled two scales of perception of the environment. Overall, 33.6% of participants reported overweight. We observed a higher concentration of individuals close to the central region of the city. Access to different establishments, food environments, and criminal occurrences differed between normal-weight and overweight individuals. The groups deferred in the perception of the location of squares, open public spaces, clubs, and soccer fields. The results indicate the association between environmental characteristics and overweight in Brazilian adults.


Resumo Realizou-se um estudo transversal com participantes do projeto CUME (n = 289) que moravam em Viçosa, Brasil. A unidade de vizinhança adotada foi o buffer (200 metros), considerando a residência do participante como ponto central. Foi contabilizado o número de instalações públicas e privadas dentro do buffer, bem como as ocorrências criminais. Os estabelecimentos alimentares foram categorizados em estabelecimentos com venda predominante de alimentos naturais ou minimamente processados, estabelecimentos mistos e estabelecimentos com venda predominante de alimentos ultraprocessados. Os participantes que compareceram à entrevista presencial, preencheram duas escalas de percepção do ambiente. No total, 33,6% dos participantes apresentaram excesso de peso. Foi observada uma maior concentração de indivíduos próximos à região central da cidade. O acesso a diferentes estabelecimentos, ambientes alimentares e ocorrências criminais diferiram entre indivíduos com eutrofia e com excesso de peso. Os grupos diferiram na percepção da localização de praças, espaços públicos abertos, clubes e campos de futebol. Os resultados indicam a associação entre as características ambientais e o excesso de peso em adultos brasileiros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Social Environment , Overweight/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(2): 783-792, Fev. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356082

ABSTRACT

Abstract Our aim was to analyze the joint association of parental characteristics and offspring obesity indicators with metabolic risk in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 972 adolescents and their parents. We observed that overweight adolescents who have a normal weight mother show lower metabolic risk in comparison with their counterparts with overweight mothers. In conclusion, mother's weight status moderates the relationship between offspring' obesity indicators and metabolic risk in adolescents.


Resumo Nosso objetivo foi analisar a associação combinada entre características dos pais e indicadores de adiposidade dos filhos com o risco metabólico em adolescentes. Foi realizado estudo transversal com 972 adolescentes e seus pais. Observamos que adolescentes com sobrepeso que possuem mãe com peso normal apresentaram menor risco metabólico em comparação com seus pares com mães que apresentam sobrepeso. Concluímos que o status de peso da mãe modera a relação entre indicadores de obesidade e risco metabólico dos adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Overweight/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Parents , Exercise , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
5.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(4): 1109-1118, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360725

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to evaluate feeding practices in the first year of life and their association with the development of overweight and obesity in children in Mexico. Methods: the association between overweight and obesity with different feeding practices were evaluated. The data was processed using the statistical package Stata version 14 using logistic regression models. Results: 396 children were evaluated; the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6% and 7.7% presented a possible risk of overweight. 6.9% had exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life and 71.7% were fed infant formula. The variables significantly associated with the development of overweight and obesity in the first year of life were the age of the child (p =0.043, RR=0.57), the introduction of fluids in the first three days of life (p=0.02, RR=2.90), consumption of foods with a high sugar content (p =0.01, RR=0.25), consumption of milk other than breast (p =0.02, RR3.25) and egg consumption (p =0.05; RR=0.28). Conclusions: our results show that it is essential to attend complementary feeding practices and reinforce exclusive breastfeeding in the first year of life, as measures to prevent overweight and obesity to improve health in childhood.


Resumen Objetivos: evaluar las prácticas de lactancia y alimentación en el primer año de vida y su asociación con desarrollo del sobrepeso y obesidad de niños en México. Métodos: estudio transversal, analítico, y explicativo, se evaluó la asociación entre sobrepeso y obesidad con las distintas prácticas de alimentación en menores de un año de edad. Resultados: se evaluaron 396 menores, la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad fue de 6% y 7.7% presentaba posible riesgo de sobrepeso. El 6.9% tuvo lactancia materna exclusiva en los primeros 6 meses de vida; 71.7% fueron alimentados con fórmula infantil. Las variables asociadas significativamente con el desarrollo de sobrepeso y obesidad en el primer año de vida fueron: la edad del menor (p =0.043; RR=0.57), introducción de líquidos en los tres primeros días de vida (p=0.02; RR=2.90), consumo de alimentos con alto contenido de azúcar (p = 0.01; RR=0.25), consumo de leches distintas al pecho (p = 0.02; RR=3.25) y consumo de huevo (p =0.05; RR=0.28). Conclusiones: nuestros resultados muestran que es fundamental atender las prácticas de alimentación complementaria y reforzar la lactancia materna exclusiva en el primer año de vida, como medidas de prevención del sobrepeso y obesidad para mejorar la salud en la infancia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Breast Feeding , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Maternal Behavior , Mexico/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(12): 6129-6139, Dez. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350511

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a relação entre duração insuficiente do sono, sobrepeso/obesidade e o consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados em adolescentes de 10 a 14 anos. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, com avaliação de 1.384 adolescentes de escolas públicas de João Pessoa-PB, participantes do Estudo Longitudinal sobre Comportamento Sedentário, Atividade Física, Hábitos Alimentares e Saúde de Adolescentes (LONCAAFS). Foram mensuradas variáveis sociodemográficas, duração do sono, turno de aula, estado nutricional antropométrico, comportamento sedentário e consumo alimentar. Foram realizadas regressão linear e logística por meio do Software Stata 13.0. Prevalência de curta duração do sono de 29,5% (<9h/noite). Associação significativa entre a curta duração do sono e o excesso de peso somente para adolescentes <12 anos. Quanto à relação entre a duração do sono e o consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados, quanto maior a duração do sono, menor o consumo de lanches pelos adolescentes menores de 12 anos, com associação positiva para ≥12 anos apenas com ajuste pela variável atividade física. Não houve associação com os grupos "bebidas açucaradas" e "biscoitos" para nenhuma das faixas etárias analisadas.


Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze the relationship between insufficient sleep duration, overweight/obesity and the consumption of ultra-processed foods among adolescents aged 10 to 14 years. This is a cross-sectional study, with an evaluation of 1,384 adolescents from public schools in João Pessoa-PB, participating in the Longitudinal Study on Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, Diet and Adolescent Health (LONCAAFS). Sociodemographic variables, sleep duration, class shift, anthropometric nutritional status, sedentary behavior and food consumption were measured. Linear and logistic regression of the following were performed using Stata 13.0 Software: the prevalence of short sleep duration of 29.5% (<9h/night); a significant association between short sleep duration and excess weight only for adolescents <12 years old. With respect to the relationship between sleep duration and the consumption of ultra-processed foods, the longer the sleep duration, the lower the consumption of snacks by adolescents under 12 years old, with a positive association for ≥12 years old only with adjustment by the physical activity variable. There was no association with the "sugary drinks" and "cookies" groups for any of the age groups analyzed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Overweight/epidemiology , Fast Foods , Sleep , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Diet , Feeding Behavior
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(12): 6189-6198, Dez. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350488

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as mudanças na prevalência do excesso de peso em adolescentes e sua associação com variáveis sociodemográficas e insegurança alimentar em período de 5 anos. Foram realizados dois estudos transversais com 511 (2005) e 314 (2010) adolescentes de 12 a 18,9 anos residentes de Campos Elíseos (Duque de Caxias-RJ). Excesso de peso foi avaliado por meio do IMC (peso/estatura²). A insegurança alimentar foi investigada por meio da Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar (EBIA). Utilizou-se regressão logística para verificar a associação entre as mudanças temporais de excesso de peso segundo sexo, idade, cor da pele, e insegurança alimentar. Quanto à evolução do excesso de peso pode se notar que nos meninos houve aumento significativo para os mais novos (20,1% para 49,5%), os de cor preta ou parda (22,2% para 37,3%), os que tinham renda per capita de até ½ salário mínimo (13,6% para 32,5%) e os que apresentavam insegurança alimentar moderada e grave (9,2% para 36,3%) entre 2005 e 2010. Conclui-se que o aumento do excesso de peso foi expressivo nos adolescentes residentes em área de insegurança alimentar, e os meninos mais novos, pretos ou pardos, de menor renda e residentes em lares com insegurança alimentar moderada e grave estão mais expostos a este aumento.


Abstract This study ascertained changes, over 5 years, in the prevalence of overweight in adolescents and associations with socio-demographic variables and food insecurity. Two cross-sectional population-based studies were conducted with 511 (2005) and 314 (2010) adolescents resident in Campos Elíseos (Duque de Caxias-RJ). Overweight was evaluated by sex and age specific cut-off points of BMI (weight/height²). The prevalence of food insecurity was investigated using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between changes in overweight over time and sex, age, skin colour, and food insecurity. Overweight was found to increase significantly, between 2005 and 2010, in boys who were younger (from 20.1% to 49.5%), black or brown (22.2% to 37.3%), those with per capita income of up to half a minimum wage (13.6% to 32.5%) and those experiencing moderate or severe food insecurity (9.2% to 36.3%). It was concluded that overweight increased significantly in adolescents living in an area of food insecurity, and that younger, black or brown, lower-income adolescents, and those living with moderate and severe food insecurity, were more exposed to that increase.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Overweight/epidemiology , Food Supply , Socioeconomic Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Insecurity
8.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(6): 676-684, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350975

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence of excessive weight and to identify associations with socioeconomic, demographic, biological, and lifestyle factors in adolescents. Methods: It is a cross-sectional school-based study, with a stratified and complex sample. The evaluated individuals were adolescents (2404), aged 12-17 years old, participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents (ERICA). Demographic, socioeconomic, biological, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables were assessed. Poisson regression was used to verify the association between excess weight and independent variables. Results: The prevalence of excessive weight was 26.3% in the study population, being 16.3% for overweight and 10% for obesity. In the multivariate analysis (hierarchical model), were associated with excessive weight: private education network, a higher number of televisions in the residence, eating habits related to the breakfast consumption, snacks purchase in the canteen, snacks in front to screens consumption and consumption of carbohydrates and lipids, in addition to age group (12-14 years) and sexual maturation (post-pubertal). Conclusions: The prevalence of excessive weight among the school adolescents studied is high, with a value higher than the national average and the results of previous studies with adolescents. Its distribution is associated with different factors, which are socioeconomic, demographic, biological, and related to lifestyle, reinforcing the complexity of this condition, which deserves a broad coping approach, involving not only individual efforts but social and public ones as well.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Overweight/epidemiology , Life Style , Schools , Socioeconomic Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Obesity
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(supl.3): 4835-4848, Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345770

ABSTRACT

Resumo Estudo transversal com 2.909 participantes (≥ 18 anos) da linha de base da Coorte de Universidades Mineiras (CUME), Brasil, que verificou a associação entre o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e o excesso de peso. Por meio de questionário virtual, coletaram-se dados sociodemográficos, de estilo de vida, hábitos alimentares, antropométricos e condições clínicas. Considerou-se Índice de Massa Corporal ≥ 25 kg/m2 como excesso de peso. Avaliou-se o consumo diário de bebidas alcoólicas no total em gramas (álcool) e segundo tipo em mililitros (cerveja, vinhos e destiladas). As prevalências de consumo de álcool e excesso de peso foram 73,6% e 40,8%, respectivamente. Houve uma tendência significativa de aumento da prevalência de excesso de peso quanto maior o consumo de cerveja (p de tendência = 0,038), fato não observado para os demais tipos de bebidas. Após análises de sensibilidade, a ingestão de álcool associou-se ao excesso de peso, com tendência de aumento da prevalência quanto maior o consumo diário. Ressalta-se a necessidade de reduzir a visão amplamente aceita de que o consumo leve a moderado de álcool não é nocivo à saúde, adotando cautela nesta proposição. Deve-se considerar a influência da ingestão de bebidas alcoólicas no ganho de peso nas políticas públicas de saúde e de controle do consumo do álcool.


Abstract This is a cross-sectional study with 2,909 participants (aged ≥18 years) from the baseline of the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais [CUME - Coorte de Universidades Mineiras] which verified the association between alcohol consumption and overweight. Data on sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, eating habits, anthropometric factors and clinical conditions were collected through an online questionnaire. Body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m² was considered an indicator of overweight. The daily consumption of alcohol was evaluated in grams (alcohol) and according to type in milliliters (beer, wine, hard liquor). The prevalence of alcohol consumption and overweight was 73.6% and 40.8%, respectively. There was a significant tendency of an increase in overweight with higher beer consumption (tendency p value of 0.038), which was not observed for the other types of alcohol. After sensitivity analyses, alcohol consumption was associated to overweight, with a tendency of increase in prevalence with higher daily consumption. There is a crucial need to curb the widely accepted idea that a low or moderate alcohol consumption is not harmful to one's health, and to be cautious of such a proposition. The influence of alcohol consumption regarding weight gain must be considered in public health policies and policies of alcohol consumption control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies
10.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(5): 531-539, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340166

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between birth weight and excess weight among students aged 6-14 years, adjusted for life course confounding factors. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 6-14-year-old schoolchildren in 2010; 795 school children from two public schools. In addition, a sub-sample was selected using a case-cohort study approach. Sociodemographic, breastfeeding, food introduction, previous weight gain, family history, current clinical and behavioral variables as well as maternal variables related to pregnancy, were collected. Multivariable weighted logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between birth weight and overweight. All prevalent cases of overweight (n = 160) were selected to compose the case group and a random sub-sample of all students participating in the study (n = 276 students, of whom 88 were cases) were the control group. Results: An unadjusted 6% increase in the excess weight prevalence ratio (p-value = 0.004) was found for each 100 g increase in birth weight. With adjustment for age, sex and behavioral variables (models 1 and 2), the association of birth weight with excess weight was positive and statistically significant, but it was no longer significant in the final model (model 3) when clinical variables were considered. Conclusions: Although some of the secondary associations were statistically significant, we could not identify a significant association between birthweight and excess weight in adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Weight Gain , Overweight/epidemiology , Birth Weight , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(7): 2613-2624, jul. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278789

ABSTRACT

Resumo Trata-se de um estudo ecológico que objetivou analisar a tendência do estado nutricional de gestantes adolescentes beneficiárias do programa brasileiro de transferência condicionada de renda, Bolsa Família, no período 2008-2018. Foram avaliados dados secundários de gestantes adolescentes beneficiárias do Programa Bolsa Família no período de janeiro de 2008 a dezembro de 2018, extraídos dos relatórios públicos do Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional WEB. Foram consultados os relatórios de acompanhamento das condicionalidades de saúde consolidados de acesso público do Programa Bolsa Família, sempre considerando a 2ª vigência. Observou-se uma variação anual de -1,2% (IC95%: [-1,6; -0,8] p<0,01) na prevalência de baixo peso na amostra estudada. Com relação as prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade no país, observou-se variações anuais de 2,9% (IC95%: [2,0; 3,7] p<0,01) e 7,5% (IC95%: [5,7; 9,3] p<0,01), respectivamente. Conclui-se que, no período avaliado, a prevalência de baixo peso entre as gestantes adolescentes beneficiárias do Programa Bolsa Família apresentou uma tendência decrescente, ao passo que as prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade apresentam uma tendência crescente em todo o Brasil.


Abstract This ecological study aimed to analyze the trend of the nutritional status of pregnant adolescent beneficiaries of the Brazilian Bolsa Família conditional cash transfer program in the 2008-2018 period. We evaluated secondary data of pregnant adolescent beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família Program from January 2008 to December 2018, extracted from the public reports of the WEB Food and Nutrition Surveillance System. We accessed the monitoring reports on the consolidated public-access health conditionalities of the Bolsa Família Program, always considering the second validity. An annual variation of -1.2% (95%CI: [-1.6; -0.8] p<0.01) was observed in the prevalence of underweight in Brazil in the studied sample. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the country had annual variations of 2.9% (95%CI: [2.0; 3.7] p<0.01) and 7.5% (95%CI: [5.7; 9.3] p<0.01), respectively. We conclude by saying, that, in the evaluated period, the prevalence of underweight among pregnant adolescent beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família Program showed a decreasing trend, while the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased throughout Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Thinness/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Overweight/epidemiology , Obesity
13.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(3): 246-254, may.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346103

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: COVID-19, causada por el betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ha saturado los sistemas de salud del mundo. Objetivo: Describir las características epidemiológicas de los pacientes atendidos en un hospital de tercer nivel. Métodos: Se realizó una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes con diagnóstico o sospecha de COVID-19, del 23 de marzo al 31 de julio de 2020. Resultados: En el Hospital Central Militar se hospitalizaron 4401 pacientes, 35 % derechohabientes, 26 % civiles, 28 % militares en activo y solo 11 %, militares retirados. Predominó el sexo masculino, tanto en los pacientes hospitalizados como en los que fallecieron, el grupo O+ y la ausencia de comorbilidades; entre las comorbilidades que se observaron, las principales fueron el sobrepeso y la diabetes. La mediana de edad de los pacientes hospitalizados fue de 49 años, mientras que 62 años fue la edad de quienes fallecieron; las mujeres mayores de 51 años tuvieron mayor riesgo de fallecer. La tasa de letalidad ajustada fue de 18.5 %; 50 % falleció durante los primeros seis días. Conclusiones: En este estudio se lograron identificar las características epidemiológicas y se destacaron las principales comorbilidades en pacientes mexicanos con infección por SARS-CoV-2.


Abstract Introduction: COVID-19, caused by the betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has overwhelmed the world's health systems. Objective: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of patients treated in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with or suspected of having COVID-19 from March 23 to July 31, 2020 was conducted. Results: 4,401 patients were hospitalized at the Central Military Hospital, out of which 35 % were beneficiaries, 26 % civilians, 28 % active military, and only 11%, retired military. Male gender predominated, both in hospitalized patients and in those who died, as well as the O+ group and absence of comorbidities; among the observed comorbidities, the main ones were overweight and diabetes. Hospitalized patients' median age was 49 years, while median age of those who died was 62 years; women older than 51 years had a higher risk of dying. Adjusted case fatality rate was 18.5 %; 50 % died within the first six days. Conclusions: In this study, the epidemiological characteristics and main comorbidities in Mexican patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , COVID-19/mortality , Mexico/epidemiology
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(3): 386-391, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285153

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the correlation between the prevalence of overweight condition and obesity with mortality rates due to COVID-19 in Brazil's state capitals. Materials and methods: This is an ecological study, whose units of analysis were the 26 state capitals and the Federal District of Brazil. Prevalence was estimated by the results of the Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico 2019 (VIGITEL). The general mortality rates due to COVID-19 were collected on the official website of the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MH) and stratified by the same Brazilian capitals evaluated in the VIGITEL survey. The rates included the period between the 1st and 29th Epidemiological Weeks of 2020. The Partial Correlation Test (r) was used, controlled for confounding factors, to evaluate the correlation between the prevalence of overweight/obesity and the overall mortality rates due to COVID-19. Results: The mean mortality rate for COVID-19 in the period was 65.1 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. Regarding the prevalence of obesity and overweight, 20.2% and 54.7% were the mean values observed in the state capitals, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was positively correlated with the overall mortality rate due to COVID-19, with mean positive correlation (r=0.380) and statistically significant correlation (p=0.034). Conclusion: This study pointed out that, at the aggregate level, there is a concomitant and correlated increase in mortality rates due to COVID-19 and prevalence of obesity in Brazilian capitals. The data found may contribute to actions to cope with the pandemic aimed at this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Obesity/epidemiology
15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(3): 234-240, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252246

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic prevalences. Obesity control involves many factors and needs to begin early in childhood. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the association between tracked extracurricular sports practice and weight status; and to analyze tracking of overweight and obesity among school-aged children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study conducted in 13 public schools in Cianorte, Paraná, in 2012-2016. METHODS: The sample comprised 2459 schoolchildren in Cianorte, of mean age 6.3 years at baseline and 9.4 years at follow-up. Body mass index was calculated from body mass and height measurements. The children were grouped as normal weight, overweight or obese. Information on extracurricular sports practice was collected through the dichotomous question "Do you participate in any extracurricular sports?" ("yes" or "no"). RESULTS: Tracking of weight status showed that 75.5% maintained this, with kappa of 0.530. Tracking of extracurricular sports practice showed that 80.9% maintained this, with low concordance (kappa of 0.054). Weight status correlation between baseline and follow-up showed that overweight or obese individuals were 4.65 times (CI: 4.05-5.34) more likely to maintain the same classification or move from overweight to obese at follow-up. Correlation of extracurricular sports practice with overweight or obesity at follow-up was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that overweight or obese children were at higher risk of gaining weight than were normal-weight children. In addition, the proportion of these children who maintained extracurricular sports practices over the years was low. Maintenance of this variable was not associated with weight status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Sports , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Prospective Studies , Overweight/epidemiology
16.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(4): 566-570, Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340633

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether there is an association between the body mass index z-score and waist-to-height ratio of children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a school in Santo André, SP, between June and August 2019. Body mass index was measured for all participants, adopting the z-score cutoff of +2 recommended by the World Health Organization. The waist-to-height ratio was determined in children over two years of age and considered abnormal when ≥0.5. The qualitative variables are presented as absolute numbers and percentages. To compare qualitative data, we used the χ2 test or Fisher's exact test. Pearson's test was applied to assess the correlation between BMI and waist-to-height ratio. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The body mass index was calculated for 518 children and the waist-to-height ratio for 473 children. Regarding body mass index, 60.6% of the participants had normal weight, 3.1% were underweight, and 36.3% were overweight. overweight (24.7%) and obesity (22.7%) were more prevalent in adolescents. The waist-to-height ratio was abnormal in 50.5% of the sample. There was an increasing association between body mass index and waist-to-height ratio with age, according to the Pearson correlation coefficients for the age groups <5 years (r=0.459; p<0.001), 5 to 10 years (r=0.687; p<0.001) and >10 years (r=0.805; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: There was a significant correlation between body mass index and waist-to-height ratio. This association was higher in adolescents. The waist-to-height ratio is easy to apply and may be useful as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Overweight/epidemiology , Obesity , Thinness , Body Height , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Waist Circumference
17.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(1): e2552, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289574

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La transición epidemiológica y nutricional del país se caracteriza por un aumento excesivo del peso corporal, asociado a un ambiente obesogénico que obliga a aplicar medidas encaminadas a lograr modificaciones dietéticas y conductuales. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento del sobrepeso, obesidad y conductas alimentarias en escolares de primaria del municipio Cruces, en la provincia Cienfuegos. Métodos: Estudio transversal, con un universo de 1263 escolares de 6 a 12 años de edad, pertenecientes a 7 escuelas, 4 urbanas y 3 rurales del municipio de Cruces en Cienfuegos. La evaluación nutricional se realizó utilizando los valores cubanos del índice de masa corporal en niños y adolescentes de 0 a 19 años; para determinar el riesgo cardiometabólico, percentiles de la circunferencia de la cintura en escolares de 8 años y más. Como indicadores dietéticos se estudiaron la frecuencia de eventos semanales y el consumo de alimentos. Resultados: Prevalencia de sobrepeso global del 37,3 por ciento, mayor afectación zona urbana (37,9 por ciento) vs. zona rural (33,7 por ciento), con incremento con la edad, predominio ligero en hembras. El 38,8 por ciento de los varones presentó valores no deseables de circunferencia de la cintura vs. 24 por ciento en hembras. Se encontraron preferencias por alimentos fritos, elevada adición de azúcar, incumplimiento de eventos de comida como el desayuno, bajo consumo de vegetales y alto consumo de refrescos instantáneos y gaseados. Conclusiones: El estado nutricional en Cruces se caracteriza por una alta prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, con un mayor riesgo de que se presenten enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles relacionadas con la dieta, resultados que podrían encontrarse en la población de escolares del país. Lo que justifica las acciones de promoción del consumo de alimentos sanos en la comunidad educacional del territorio y la implementación de pautas obesogénicas y de acciones transformadoras del entorno(AU)


Introduction: The epidemiological and nutritional transition of the country is characterized by an excessive increase in body weight, associated with an obesogenic environment that requires the implementation of measures aimed to achieve dietary and behavioral modifications. Objective: Describe the behavior of overweight, obesity and eating behaviors in primary school students in Cruces municipality, Cienfuegos province. Methods: Cross-sectional study, with a sample group of 1 263 students aged 6 to 12 years, belonging to 7 schools, 4 of them urban ones and 3 rural ones in Cruces municipality, Cienfuegos province. The nutritional assessment was carried out using the Cuban values of the body mass index in children and adolescents aged 0 to 19 years, to determine the cardiometabolic risk, percentiles of waist circumference in school children aged 8 and over. The frequency of weekly events and food consumption were studied as dietary indicators. Results: Prevalence of overall overweight of 37.3 percent, greater affectation in urban area (37.9 percent) vs rural area (33.7 percent), with increase in the ages, slight predominance in females. 38.8 percent of males had undesirable waist circumference values vs. 24 percent in females. Preferences for fried foods, and high sugar addition were found, and non-compliance with food events such as breakfast, low vegetable consumption and high consumption of instant and sparkling soft drinks. Conclusions: The nutritional state in Cruces municipality is characterized by a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, with a higher risk of chronic non-communicable diseases related to diet, results that could be found in the country's school population. This justifies actions to promote the consumption of healthy food in the educational community of the territory and the implementation of obesogenic guidelines and environmental transformative actions(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Overweight/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Obesity/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cuba
18.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(1): e1333, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289573

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En el campo de la salud pública la tendencia es priorizar el tema de la vigilancia nutricional en la población, a través del monitoreo del comportamiento del estado nutricional. Objetivo: Evaluar la situación nutricional en menores de 18 años del municipio Pasto en el periodo 2014-2016. Métodos: Estudio observacional-descriptivo de la situación nutricional de la población de estudio, reportada en las bases de datos de la Secretaría de Salud Municipal de Pasto-Colombia. Resultados: Se analizaron 158 614 registros, de los cuales 40,82 por ciento fueron de menores de 5 años y 9,18 por ciento en edades entre 5-18 años. Respecto a la desnutrición global se encontró que 18,9 por ciento de los menores fueron diagnosticados en riesgo: 7,2 por ciento con desnutrición global aguda y 0,7 por ciento con desnutrición global severa. Para la desnutrición aguda 10,4 por ciento tuvo diagnóstico de riesgo, 4,8 por ciento desnutrición aguda y 0,8 por ciento desnutrición aguda severa. En la estimación de desnutrición crónica 30,9 por ciento de los niños presentó riesgo de retardo en el crecimiento y 13,05 por ciento retardo en el crecimiento. El 16,7 por ciento de la población tuvo sobrepeso, 4,2 por ciento obesidad, 10,6 por ciento riesgo de delgadez y 2,7 por ciento delgadez. Conclusiones: De acuerdo con la Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional en Colombia, la desnutrición disminuyó en el país entre los años 2010 a 2015. Sin embargo, aún existe desnutrición en el municipio de Pasto que, junto al aumento de la tasa de sobrepeso y obesidad en niños y adolescentes, representa una situación de malnutrición, que podría verse reflejada en importantes problemas para la salud por la generación de enfermedades crónicas a la que conlleva(AU)


Introduction: In the field of public health, the tendency is to prioritize the issue of nutritional surveillance in the population, through the monitoring of the nutritional state´s behavior. Objective: Assess the nutritional state of children under 18 years old in Pasto municipality in the period 2014-2016. Methods: Observational-descriptive study of the studied population´s nutritional state reported in the databases of the Municipal Health Secretariat of Pasto-Colombia. Results: 158 614 records were analyzed, of which 40.82 percent were children under 5 years and 9.18 percent in ages between 5 and 18 years. Regarding global malnutrition, 18.9 percent of children were diagnosed at risk: 7.2 percent with acute global malnutrition and 0.7 percent with severe global malnutrition. For acute malnutrition, 10.4 percent had a risk diagnosis, 4.8 percent acute malnutrition and 0.8 percent severe acute malnutrition. In the estimate of chronic malnutrition, 30.9 percent of the children presented risk of growth retardation and 13.05 percent growth retardation. 16.7 percent of the population were overweight, 4.2 percent obese, 10.6 percent risk of thinness and 2.7 percent thinness. Conclusions: According to the National Survey of the Nutritional Situation in Colombia, malnutrition decreased in the country between 2010 and 2015. However, there is still malnutrition in Pasto municipality which, together with the increase in the rate of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, represents a situation of malnutrition, which could be reflected in major health problems from the generation of chronic diseases to which it leads(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Nutritional Surveillance/methods , Nutritional Status/genetics , Overweight/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Colombia , Observational Study , Obesity/epidemiology
19.
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021301, 09 fev. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147213

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among young Brazilian aged 5 to 19 years through systematic review and metaanalysis of data available in the literature. An electronic search was conducted for articles in the MedLine/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Scielo e Lilacs published from 2000 to 2018 were selected using predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Measures of heterogeneity and variability were calculated, and random effect model were used to estimate pooled prevalence rates. Forest-plots graphs were generated by sex and age. Meta-regression models were fitted to identify possible sources of heterogeneity in the prevalence estimates. Of the 1,002 articles initially identified 26 met the inclusion criteria. In children (5-9 years) the pooled prevalence rates of verweight were 16.2% (95%CI 13.2-19.3; Q=411.7, p<0.001; I2=97.8%) in girls and 14.4% (95%CI 11.5-17.3; Q=403.9, p<0.001; I2=97.7%) in boys. Obesity, 9.2% (95%CI 5.9-12.3; Q=1111.7, p<0.001; I2=99.2%) and 9.0% (95%CI 5.5-12.5; Q=1413.1, p<0.001; I2=99.4%), respectively. Regarding adolescents (10-19 years), in girls 16.4% (95%CI 15.1-17.7; Q=245.6, p<0.001; I2=92.3%) for overweight and 6.2% (95%CI 4.9-7.5; Q=842.9, p<0.001; I2=97.7%) for obesity. In boys, 15.3% (95%CI 13.4-17.1; Q=493.7, p<0.001; I2=96.2%) and 6.7% (95%CI 5.0-8.5; Q=1200.4, p<0.001; I2=98.4%), respectively. Geographic region, year of data collection and diagnostic criteria had a significant impact on the heterogeneity of the prevalence of overweight and obesity. The review identified increasing trends in the prevalence rates, highlighting the urgent need to promote healthy lifestyles from the young ages, in order to effectively address the presence of excess body weight.


O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em jovens brasileiros entre 5 e 19 anos através de revisão sistemática e metanálise de dados disponibilizadas na literatura. Foi realizada busca eletrônica nas bases de dados MedLine/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Scielo e Lilacs publicados de 2000 a 2018, utilizando critérios de inclusão/ gerados por sexo e idade. Modelos de metarregressão foram ajustados para identificar exclusão pré-definidos. Medidas de heterogeneidade e variabilidade foram calculadas e modelos de efeito aleatório foram usados para estimar taxas de prevalência global. Gráficos forest-plots foram possíveis fontes de heterogeneidade. Dos 1002 estudos identificados inicialmente 26 atenderam os critérios de inclusão. Nas crianças (5-9 anos) as taxas de prevalência global de sobrepeso foram equivalentes a 16,2% (IC95% 13,2-19,3; Q=411,7, p<0,001; I2=97,8%) nas moças e 14,4% (IC95% 11,5-17,3; Q=403,9, p<0,001; I2=97,7%) nos rapazes. No caso da obesidade, 9,2% (IC95% 5,9-12,3; Q=1111,7, p < 0,001; I2=99,2%) e 9,0% (IC95% 5,5-12,5; Q=1413,1, p<0,001; I2=99,4%), respectivamente. Referente aos adolescentes (10-19 anos), nas moças 16,4% (IC95% 15,1-17,7; Q=245,6, p<0,001; I2=92,3%) para sobrepeso e 6,2% (IC95% 4,9-7,5; Q=842,9, p<0,001; I2=97,7%) para obesidade. Nos rapazes, 15,3% (IC95% 13,4-17,1; Q=493,7, p<0,001; I2=96,2%) e 6,7% (IC95% 5,0-8,5; Q=1200,4, p<0,001; I2=98,4%), respectivamente. Região geográfica, ano de coleta dos dados e critérios diagnósticos impactaram significativamente na heterogeneidade das prevalências. Foram identificadas tendências crescentes nas taxas de prevalência, ressaltando a necessidade urgente de promover estilos de vida saudáveis desde as idades jovens, a fim de abordar com eficácia a presença do excesso de peso corporal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Brazil , Nutritional Status , Overweight/epidemiology , Child Nutrition , Adolescent Nutrition , Obesity/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Life Style
20.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 3-9, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279066

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Durante los primeros 1000 días de vida se establece la base para la salud futura de un niño. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de una intervención educativa prenatal en mujeres embarazadas sobre el estado nutricional del hijo desde el nacimiento hasta los cuatro meses de edad. Métodos: Diseño cuasiexperimental de intervención con mujeres a partir de la semana 12 de gestación, asignadas aleatoriamente a un grupo de intervención (GI) para recibir cinco sesiones grupales y tres individuales sobre prácticas de alimentación y percepción materna del peso del hijo y de señales de hambre-saciedad; el grupo control (GC) recibió atención de rutina que incluía al menos tres consultas prenatales. Resultados: 30 mujeres conformaron cada grupo. Después de la intervención, las mujeres del GC practicaron menos lactancia materna exclusiva, fueron propensas a subestimar o sobrestimar el peso del hijo y percibieron con menor intensidad las señales de hambre-saciedad (p < 0.05). El 80 % de los lactantes del GI presentaron peso normal y 63 % de los niños del GC, una combinación de sobrepeso y obesidad (p < 0.05). Conclusiones: El programa de educación prenatal en mujeres embarazadas mostró un efecto significativo en el estado nutricional de los lactantes después de cuatro meses del nacimiento.


Abstract Introduction: During the first 1000 days of life is the basis for a child‘s future health established. Objective: To evaluate the impact of a prenatal educational intervention in pregnant women on the nutritional status of the child from birth to 4 months of age. Methods: Quasi-experimental intervention design in women with at least 12 weeks of gestation, who were randomly assigned to an intervention group (IG) to participate in five group and three individual sessions on feeding practices and maternal perception of the child’s weight and signals of hunger-satiety; the control group (CG) received routine care that included at least three prenatal consultations. Results: Thirty women were included in each group. After the intervention, women in the CG practiced less exclusive breastfeeding, were more likely to underestimate and overestimate the children’s weight, and perceived hunger-satiety signals with less intensity (p < 0.05). 80 % of the infants in the IG had normal weight, whereas 63 % of those in the CG had a combination of overweight and obesity (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The prenatal education program in pregnant women showed a significant effect on postnatal nutritional status of infants four months after birth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Adult , Prenatal Care , Nutritional Status , Pregnant Women/education , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Satiety Response/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Body Weight , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Hunger/physiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
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