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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200046, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Fluctuations in climate have been associated with variations in mosquito abundance. OBJECTIVES To analyse the influence of precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and humidity on the oviposition dynamics of Aedes aegypti in three distinct environmental areas (Brasília Teimosa, Morro da Conceição/Alto José do Pinho and Dois Irmãos/Pintos) of the city of Recife and the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago northeastern Brazil. METHODS Time series study using a database of studies previously carried out in the areas. The eggs were collected using spatially distributed geo-referenced sentinel ovitraps (S-OVTs). Meteorological satellite data were obtained from the IRI climate data library. The association between meteorological variables and egg abundance was analysed using autoregressive models. FINDINGS Precipitation was positively associated with egg abundance in three of the four study areas with a lag of one month. Higher humidity (β = 45.7; 95% CI: 26.3 - 65.0) and lower wind speed (β = −125.2; 95% CI: −198.8 - −51.6) were associated with the average number of eggs in the hill area. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The effect of climate variables on oviposition varied according to local environmental conditions. Precipitation was a main predictor of egg abundance in the study settings.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oviposition/physiology , Aedes/physiology , Population , Seasons , Brazil , Population Dynamics , Cities , Mosquito Vectors/physiology
2.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 29, jan. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-991645

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether sites with large amount of potential breeding sites for immature forms of Aedes aegypti, called strategic points, influence in the active vector's dispersion into properties in their surroundings. METHODS: We selected four areas in the municipality of Campinas, three of them with strategic points classified as high, moderate, and low risk according to infestation and a control area, without strategic points. Between October 2015 and September 2016, we monthly installed oviposition traps and evaluated the infestation by Ae. aegypti in all properties of each selected area. To verify if there was vector dispersion from each strategic point, based on its location, we investigated the formation of clusters with excess of eggs or larvae or pupae containers, using the Gi spatial statistics. RESULTS: The amount of eggs collected in the ovitraps and the number of positive containers for Ae. aegypti did not show clusters of high values concerning its distance from the strategic point. Both presented random distribution not spatially associated with the positioning of strategic points in the area. CONCLUSIONS: Strategic points are not confirmed as responsible for the vector's dispersion for properties in their surroundings. We highlight the importance of reviewing the current strategy of the vector control program in Brazil, seeking a balance from the technical, operational, and economic point of view, without disregarding the role of strategic points as major producers of mosquitoes and their importance in the dissemination of arboviruses in periods of transmission.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar se locais com grande quantidade de potenciais criadouros de formas imaturas de Aedes aegypti, denominados pontos estratégicos, influenciam a dispersão ativa do vetor aos imóveis no seu entorno. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas quatro áreas no município de Campinas, três delas com pontos estratégicos classificados como alto, médio e baixo risco segundo a infestação e uma área controle, sem ponto estratégico. Entre outubro de 2015 e setembro de 2016, instalaram-se mensalmente armadilhas de oviposição e avaliou-se a infestação por Ae. aegypti em todos os imóveis de cada área selecionada. Para verificar se houve dispersão do vetor a partir de cada ponto estratégico, com base em sua localização, investigou-se a formação de aglomerados com excesso de ovos ou de recipientes com larvas ou pupas, utilizando a estatística espacial Gi. RESULTADOS: o número de ovos coletados nas ovitrampas e o número de recipientes positivos para Ae. aegypti não apresentaram aglomerados de altos valores relativos à sua distância do ponto estratégico. Ambos apresentaram distribuição aleatória não associada espacialmente com o posicionamento dos pontos estratégicos na área. CONCLUSÕES: Pontos estratégicos não se confirmaram como responsáveis pela dispersão do vetor para os imóveis no seu entorno. Destaca-se a importância de rever a estratégia atual do programa de controle de vetores do Brasil, buscando um equilíbrio do ponto de vista técnico, operacional e econômico, sem desconsiderar o papel dos pontos estratégicos como grandes produtores de mosquitos e sua importância na disseminação de arboviroses em momentos de transmissão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oviposition/physiology , Pupa/growth & development , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/growth & development , Dengue/prevention & control , Mosquito Vectors/growth & development , Urban Population , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Mosquito Control/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Aedes/virology , Dengue/transmission , Spatial Analysis , Animal Distribution/physiology , Mosquito Vectors/virology
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 457-463, Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951582

ABSTRACT

Abstract Carabids are recognized worldwide as biological control agents of agricultural pests. The objective was to compare the life cycle of Abaris basistriata Chaudoir (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on three substrates: soil, fine vermiculite, or paper napkins. The biological cycle of A. basistriata presented different durations in soil and paper. The viability of eggs and larvae survival of the first and second instars were similar on all three substrates, while the third instar and pupa in the soil presented higher survival when compared with vermiculite and paper. The soil substrate was more favorable for the longevity of the carabid beetle. Abaris basistriata showed a shorter pre-oviposition period and a higher oviposition and post-oviposition period in the soil. Fecundity and fertility were higher when A. basistriata was reared on soil. The soil was most favorable substrate for rearing of A. basistriata in the laboratory. This information may make this species useful for the biological control.


Resumo Os carabídeos são reconhecidos mundialmente como agentes de controle biológico de pragas agrícolas. O objetivo foi comparar o ciclo de vida de Abaris basistriata Chaudoir (Coleoptera: Carabidae) em três substratos: solo, vermiculita fina, ou guardanapos de papel. O ciclo biológico de A. basistriata apresentou diferentes durações no solo e no papel. A viabilidade dos ovos e a sobrevivência das larvas do primeiro e segundo instares foram semelhantes nos três substratos, enquanto que o terceiro instar e a pupa apresentaram maior sobrevivência no solo quando comparados com vermiculita e papel. O substrato solo foi mais favorável à longevidade do carabídeo. Abaris basistriata mostrou menor período de pré-oviposição e maior período de oviposição e pós-oviposição no solo. A fecundidade e a fertilidade foram maiores quando A. basistriata foi criado no solo. O solo foi o substrato mais favorável para a criação de A. basistriata no laboratório. Estas informações são importantes e podem tornar essa espécie útil para o controlo biológico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oviposition/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Soil/parasitology , Coleoptera/growth & development , Larva/growth & development , Life Cycle Stages/physiology , Coleoptera/physiology , Ecosystem , Agriculture , Longevity
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 443-448, Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951564

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) represent a threat to fruit growing worldwide, mainly the citrus culture, however, biological studies show that fruit flies are not perfectly adapted to this host. This study investigated oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) and its relation with the pericarp of citrus fruits. We evaluated the relationship between depth of oviposition of A. fraterculus and C. capitata and epicarp thickness of orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck)] 'Navelina' and tangerine [C. reticulata (L.)] 'Clemenules' and the influence of fruit mesocarp of tangerine 'Clemenules' on oviposition of these species. The study was conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2 °C), relative humidity (70 ± 10% RH) and photophase (12 h). A. fraterculus and C. capitata laid their eggs in the flavedo region of orange 'Navelina' and between the albedo and flavedo of tangerine 'Clemenules'. When fruits with mesocarp exposed were offered, there was no oviposition by both fruit fly species. The results show that epicarp thickness of citrus fruits did not influence oviposition of A. fraterculus and C. capitata as oviposition did not occur only in the presence of the mesocarp, suggesting that other factors are involved in oviposition of these species.


Resumo As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) representam um risco à fruticultura mundial, especialmente na cultura dos citros, entretanto estudos biológicos demonstram que as moscas-das-frutas não estão perfeitamente adaptadas à estes hospedeiros. Este estudo investigou a oviposição de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) e Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) e sua relação com o pericarpo de frutos cítricos. Foi avaliada a relação entre a profundidade de oviposição de A. fraterculus e de C. capitata e a espessura do epicarpo dos frutos de laranjeira [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck)] 'Navelina' e tangerineira [C. reticulata (L.)] 'Clemenules' e a influência do mesocarpo de frutos de tangerineira 'Clemenules' na oviposição destas espécies. O estudo foi conduzido em condições controladas de temperatura (25 ± 2 °C), umidade relativa (70 ± 10%) e fotofase (12 horas). A. fraterculus e C. capitata depositaram ovos no flavedo de frutos de laranjeira 'Navelina' e entre o flavedo e o albedo de frutos de tangerineira 'Clemenules'. Quando oferecido frutos com mesocarpo exposto, não houve oviposição por ambas as espécies de mosca. Os resultados demonstram que a espessura do epicarpo de frutos cítricos não influenciou a oviposição de A. fraterculus e de C. capitata, a qual não ocorreu na presença apenas do mesocarpo, sugerindo que outros fatores estão envolvidos na oviposição por estas espécies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oviposition/physiology , Citrus/parasitology , Carica/parasitology , Tephritidae/growth & development , Mangifera/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Ovum/physiology , Pupa/physiology , Citrus/physiology , Carica/physiology , Mangifera/physiology
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 636-643, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951591

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, we report the first records and morphological characterization of galls in a Cerrado area in western Bahia, Brazil. The data were collected monthly over two hours between March and September 2015. Fifteen gall morphotypes were found in twelve plant species distributed among seven families. The plant family with the greatest richness of galls was Fabaceae (n = 8). The following gall morphologies were found: globoid, lenticular, marginal leaf roll, conical, cylindrical, fusiform, spherical and pocket shaped. Cecidomyiidae induced globoid, lenticular, conical, fusiform, spherical and cylindrical morphotypes. In addition, species of microhymenoptera belonging to the Eulophidae, Eurytomidae and Encyrtidae families were found. Marginal leaf roll and pocket-shaped galls induced by Thysanoptera were also verified. Springtails were also identified as a successor. Undescribed species of Schizomyia and Lopesia were recorded in B. cupulata and Andira humilis, respectively.


Resumo Nesse trabalho são apresentadas informações sobre a ocorrência e a caracterização morfológica de galhas induzidas por insetos em uma área de Cerrado do Oeste da Bahia, Brasil. Os materiais foram coletados mensalmente durante duas horas entre Março e Setembro de 2015. Foram encontrados quinze morfotipos de galhas em doze espécies vegetais, distribuídas em sete famílias. A família de planta com maior riqueza de galhas foi Fabaceae (n = 8). Com relação à morfologia externa, foram encontradas galhas com forma globoide, lenticular, enrolamento marginal, cônica, cilíndrica, fusiforme, esférica e bolso. Quanto à fauna associada às galhas, os morfotipos globoide, cônico, lenticular, fusiforme, esférico e cilíndrico foram induzidos por Cecidomyiidae. Além disso, espécies de microhimenópteros pertencentes às famílias Eulophidae, Eurytomidae e Encyrtidae foram encontrados. A indução de galhas por Thysanoptera, nos morfotipos enrolamento marginal e formato de bolso, também foi detectada. Espécies de colembôlos foram identificadas como sucessoras. Espécies não descritas de Schizomyia e Lopesia foram registradas em Bauhinia cupulata e Andira humilis, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Tumors/parasitology , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Insecta/physiology , Oviposition/physiology , Brazil , Insecta/classification
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 211-216, May-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888854

ABSTRACT

Abstract The predator Brumoides foudrasii (Mulsant) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has been naturally found in plants infested by mealybugs. In this study, the striped mealybug Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae) and Anagasta kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) eggs were evaluated as diets for the development and reproduction of B. foudrasii. Brumoides foudrasii immatures developed faster when fed with A. kuehniella eggs than when fed with F. dasylirii. However, the survival and longevity of B. foudrasii adults were not affected by the diets. Oviposition was more frequent when B. foudrasii females were fed with F. dasylirii (95%) than those fed with A. kuehniella eggs (65%). Brumoides foudrasii females fed with F. dasylirii were 2.5 times more fecund than those fed with A. kuehniella eggs. Although both diets may be considered proper for B. foudrasii, A. kuehniella eggs were more suitable for immature development, while F. darsyrili provided more nutritious resources for adult biological parameters as oviposition period, egg viability and fecundity. These results suggests that this predator can play an important role in regulating populations of the stripped mealybug F. dasylirii in the field.


Resumo O predador Brumoides foudrasii (Mulsant) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) tem sido encontrado naturalmente sobre plantas infestadas por cochonilhas. Neste estudo, a cochonilha listrada Ferrisia dasyliri (Cockerell) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae) e ovos de Anagasta kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) foram avaliados como dietas para o desenvolvimento e reprodução de B. foudrasii. Formas amaturos de B. foudrasii desenvolveram-se mais rapidamente quando alimentados com ovos de A. kuehniella do que quando alimentados com F. dasyliri. No entanto, a sobrevivência e longevidade de adultos de B. foudrasii não foram afetadas pelas dietas. A oviposição foi mais freqüente em B. foudrasii alimentadas com F. dasylirii (95%) do que aqueles alimentados com ovos de A. kuehniella (65%). Fêmeas de B. foudrasii alimentadas com F. dasylirii foram 2,5 vezes mais fecundas do que aquelas alimentados com ovos de A. kuehniella. Embora ambas as dietas possam ser consideradas apropriadas para B. foudrasii, ovos de A. kuehniella foram mais adequadas para o desenvolvimento de imaturos, enquanto F. dasylirii proporcionou mais recursos nutritivos para os parâmetros biológicos do adulto, tais como período de oviposição, viabilidade de ovos e fecundidade. Estes resultados sugerem que este predador pode ser potencialmente eficiente na regulação populacional da cochonilha F. dasylirii em campo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Coleoptera/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Oviposition/physiology , Diet , Hemiptera , Lepidoptera , Longevity
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 885-893, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886718

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Allobates subfolionidificans is a vulnerable and endemic leaf-litter frog from the state of Acre, Brazilian Amazonia. We monitored a population of A. subfolionidificans through regular censuses and mark-recapture of 181 individuals during an entire breeding season to characterize its reproductive behavior. The space use of A. subfolionidificans individuals differed between sexes, with males using smaller and more segregated spaces. Males defended territories and were aggressive against same-sex individuals, which was not the case in females. The daily cycle of calling activity showed peaks in the morning and in the afternoon, and the occurrence of reproductive events was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. The breeding behavior comprised vocal and tactile interactions, although the species lacked reproductive amplexus. Egg and larvae attendance, as well as tadpole transport to water environments was performed mostly by males but occasionally by females, probably in cases of desertion by the father. This species is characterized by performing courtship, mating, oviposition, as well as egg and larvae attendance exclusively on the under surface of leaves, a unique behavior among members of the superfamily Dendrobatoidea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Anura/physiology , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Breeding , Oviposition/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Seasons , Time Factors , Brazil , Sex Factors , Sex Distribution , Body Size
8.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 1-8, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897520

ABSTRACT

AbstractThe gordiids are freshwater representatives of the parasite phylum Nematomorpha that function as a link between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In recent years, different ecotoxicologic studies have been made with the South-American gordiid species, Chordodes nobilii, that have demonstrated the capacity of this group to act as a bioindicator of contamination. Despite the Gordiida's ecologic relevance, further studies are still needed to elucidate different aspects of the biology of the class, and among those, the infective capacity, a parameter that can be evaluated by the infection index mean abundance (IIMA). A knowledge of the intrinsic variability in the infective capacity of C. nobilii would warrant priority in order to establish, the range of acceptable responses for normal or standard conditions in the laboratory, and, to compare the criteria among different assays. The objective of this study was to establish a baseline value for the infective capacity for C. nobilii larvae, under controlled laboratory conditions, by employing the IIMA as the evaluation parameter. To that end, we analyzed the infective capacity of C. nobilii larvae that had hatched from different strings of eggs laid in the laboratory by a total of 12 females. The C. nobilii adults were collected from streams within the Argentina Sauce Grande basin, between 2006 and 2009. Once in the laboratory, after mating, the females were placed in individual containers for oviposition. The egg strings obtained from each female were cut in 3 mm long segments; and when free larvae were observed, the segments (N= 90) were placed together with 30 Aedes aegypti larvae for evaluation of the gordiids' infective capacity. After 72 h, the mosquito larvae were observed by microscopy in order to quantify the C. nobilii larvae in body cavities. The IIMAs were calculated as the total number of C. nobilii larvae present divided by total number of A. aegypti larvae examined. For analysis of the IIMAs obtained, the data were grouped according to the female who made the original ovoposition. Our results enabled the corroboration of an ample range of responses in the infective capacity of this species, a characteristic that would normally be linked to the progenitors originating the hatch. Because this relationship prevents the establishment of a baseline for making comparisons among assays with gordiids, through the IIMA as a response parameter, we recommend expressing the IIMA values in each assay relative to their respective controls. These findings also provide evidence for the greater success in infections by certain members of the progeny over others. Finally, on the basis of the results obtained from this study, we stress the relevance of the use of the IIMA as a decisive aspect to be considered in different studies on the biology of Gordiida. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 1-8. Epub 2017 March 01.


ResumenLos gordiidos son representantes dulceacuícolas del Phylum parásito Nematomorpha que actúan como un enlace entre ecosistemas acuáticos y terrestres. En años recientes, diferentes estudios ecotoxicológicos se han desarrollado con una especie sudamericana de gordiido, C. nobilii, que ha demostrado la capacidad de este grupo de actuar como bioindicador de contaminación. A pesar de su evidente importancia ecológica, aún se necesitan realizar estudios para dilucidar distintos aspectos de su biología, entre estos, la capacidad infectiva, un parámetro que puede evaluarse utilizando el Índice de Infección Abundancia Media (IIMA). El conocimiento de la variabilidad intrínseca en la capacidad infectiva de C. nobilii merece prioridad con el objeto de establecer el ámbito de respuesta aceptable para condiciones normales o estándar en el laboratorio, y que permita comparar los resultados entre distintos ensayos. El objetivo de este estudio es establecer la línea de base de la capacidad infectiva del gordiido C. nobilii en condiciones controladas de laboratorio, empleando el IIMA como parámetro de evaluación. Con este fin, se analizó la capacidad infectiva de larvas de C. nobilii que eclosionaron de diferentes cordones de huevos depositados por un total de 12 hembras, mantenidas en laboratorio. Los adultos de C. nobilii fueron recolectados de arroyos de la cuenca argentina Sauce Grande, entre 2006 y 2009. Una vez en el laboratorio, después de la cópula, las hembras se ubicaron en recipientes individuales a la espera de la oviposición. Los cordones de huevos obtenidos de cada hembra se cortaron en segmentos de 3 mm de longitud; y cuando las larvas libres fueron observadas al microscopio, los segmentos (N= 90) fueron ubicados junto con 30 larvas de Aedes aegypti para evaluar la capacidad infectiva del gordiido. Después de 72 h, las larvas del mosquito fueron observadas al microscopio para contabilizar las larvas de C. nobilii en las cavidades corporales. El IIMA fue calculado como el número total de larvas de C. nobilii presentes dividido entre el número total de larvas de A. aegypti examinadas. Para el análisis de los IIMAs obtenidos, los datos fueron agrupados de acuerdo a la hembra que hizo la oviposición. Nuestros resultados permiten corroborar un amplio rango de respuesta en la capacidad infectiva de esta especie, que estaría vinculada al origen de la camada. Debido a que no se pudo establecer una línea de base para realizar comparaciones entre estudios en los gordiidos utilizando el IIMA como parámetro de respuesta, se aconseja relativizar los valores de los IIMAs a sus respectivos controles. Estos resultados también pusieron en evidencia la ventaja en el éxito de infección de algunas progenies sobre las restantes. Finalmente, con base en los resultados obtenidos a partir de este estudio se plantea la importancia del uso del IIMA como punto final a considerar en distintos estudios sobre la biología de los gordiida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasite Load/methods , Helminths/pathogenicity , Larva/pathogenicity , Oviposition/physiology , Reference Standards , Sex Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Aedes/parasitology , Fresh Water/parasitology
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(1): 170-175, Jan-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839167

ABSTRACT

Abstract A new species of gall midge that induces stem galls on Aeschynomene denticulata (Fabaceae) is described based on material collected in Pantanal (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). This species is unique among the Brazilian congeners in having spatula with three convex teeth, cruciate, with defined anterolateral extensions, four lateral papillae on each side of the spatula, and three pairs of terminal papillae (larva), four-segmented palpi (adult), 17 flagellomeres (female), ovipositor about 11 times length of seventh tergite.


Resumo Uma nova espécie de Cecidomyiidae que induz galhas caulinares em Aeschynomene denticulata (Fabaceae) é descrita com base em material coletado no Pantanal (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil). Esta espécie é única entre as congenéricas brasileiras por possuir espátula com três dentes convexos, com extensões anterolaterais cruzadas e bem definidas, quatro papilas laterais de cada lado da espátula e três pares papilas terminais (larva), palpos com quatro segmentos (adulto), 17 flagelômeres (fêmeas), ovipositor cerca de 11 vezes mais longo que o sétimo tergito.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Diptera/classification , Fabaceae , Oviposition/physiology , Plant Diseases/etiology , Brazil , Chironomidae , Diptera/physiology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Larva/classification , Larva/physiology
10.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2515-2523, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886806

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Genetic parameters for reproductive traits in female Nile tilapia were estimated in this study using Bayesian inference method. The data set presented information from 451 Nile tilapia females that were evaluated at two different places in Maringá - Paraná - Brazil (hapas of 1 and 10 m³) and at one location in Alfenas - Minas Gerais - Brazil. A spawning examination was conducted once a week from October 2012 to March 2013 for a total of 23 weeks of evaluation. Single-trait analyses for spawning success, multiple spawning, spawning frequency, and volume of eggs/female were performed by using the software MTGSAM Threshold. The heritability estimates were 0.14, 0.16, 0.53, and 0.08 for spawning success, multiple spawning, spawning frequency and volume of eggs/female, respectively, indicating it is possible to achieve a substantial genetic gain using these reproductive traits as selection criteria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oviposition/genetics , Reproduction/genetics , Quantitative Trait, Heritable , Cichlids/genetics , Genitalia, Female , Oviposition/physiology , Phenotype , Reproduction/physiology , Bayes Theorem , Cichlids/anatomy & histology , Cichlids/physiology
11.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(4): 1643-1650, oct.-dic. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-958240

ABSTRACT

Resumen:Pomacea flagellata es una especie de caracol de agua dulce nativo en el sureste de México. Sobre esta especie existen pocos estudios y en ninguno se han abordado aspectos de su reproducción. Este caracol ha sido explotado durante años en la laguna Bacalar y sus poblaciones han decrecido considerablemente, conllevando a la veda de su captura. Este trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar las variaciones temporales de la frecuencia de cópulas y la abundancia de masas de huevos de P. flagellata en la laguna de Bacalar, así como sus relaciones con la abundancia de los caracoles y con variables ambientales. Los muestreos fueron realizados durante tres temporadas: Lluvias (julio, agosto y septiembre 2012), Nortes (diciembre 2012, enero y febrero 2013) y Secas (marzo, abril y mayo 2013) en 12 estaciones a lo largo de la laguna de Bacalar. En cada estación, se recorrió un transecto de 100 m paralelo a la orilla y se contó el número de huevas frescas (color rosado) puestas sobre la vegetación, troncos, rocas o estructuras artificiales. En el agua se hicieron tres transectos de 50 x 2 m y en cada uno se contaron los caracoles y se registró el número de cópulas. La densidad de caracoles mostró variaciones significativas entre temporadas, disminuyendo desde la temporada de Lluvias hasta la temporada de Secas. Entre los meses dentro de temporadas no se presentaron diferencias significativas (ANOVA, p>0.05). Durante toda la temporada de Lluvias se registraron cópulas con una frecuencia significativamente mayor que en Nortes, mientras en Secas no se registraron cópulas (Kruskal-Wallis, p˂0.05). La puesta de masas de huevos se extendió de julio a marzo. La densidad de huevas no presentó diferencias entre la temporadas de Lluvias y Nortes (2.72 masas/m y 2.93 masas/m, respectivamente), pero en Secas fue significativamente menor con un valor de 0.1 masas/m (H, p˂0.05). La frecuencia de cópulas se relacionó significativamente con la abundancia de caracoles (rs= 0.26; p<0.05) y con la temperatura del agua (rs= 0.34; p<0.05). La abundancia de masas de huevos se relaciona significativamente con la abundancia de individuos (rs= 0.46; p<0.05). De forma general se observó que la actividad reproductiva de P. flagellata en la laguna de Bacalar, está asociada a los meses más cálidos y con mayor precipitación. Este hallazgo es relevante para apoyar la gestión de este recurso en la región, de tal forma que para implementar alguna medida de manejo para esta especie, es necesario tener en cuenta que al menos se debe mantener una veda temporal durante la etapa reproductiva.


Abstract:The freshwater snail Pomacea flagellata is native from Southeastern Mexico. Studies about this species are scarce and none has treated their reproduction. This snail has been exploited at Bacalar lagoon for many years, leading to a significant decrease in their abundance and currently, a permanent ban was proposed by the government. This work aimed to assess the temporal variations of mating frequency and the abundance of egg clutches of P. flagellata at Bacalar lagoon, as well as their relation with snails density and environmental variables. Sampling was done during the three climatic seasons: Rainy (July, August and September/2012), North or Cold fronts (December/2012 and January and February/2013) and Dry (March, April and May/2013) in 12 sampling stations located along the Bacalar lagoon. On each station a transect of 100 m length was set parallel to the edge, and the number of fresh egg clutches (pink color) laid over vegetation, rocks or manmade structures, were counted. In the water, three 50 x 2 m transects were set and the number of snails were counted as well as the mating frequency. Density of snails varied significantly among seasons, decreasing from the rainy to the dry season. There were no significant differences of snail abundance among months, nested in climatic seasons (ANOVA, p>0.05). During the rainy season the mating frequency was significantly higher than in the Norths, meanwhile in the dry season no mating were registered (Kruskal-Wallis, p˂0.05). Eggs clutches appeared from July to March. Density of egg clutches presented no differences between the Rainy and the North seasons (2.72 and 2.93 clutches/m, respectively), nonetheless during the dry season abundance of egg masses was significantly lower (0.1 clutches/m) (H, p˂0.05). Mating frequency was related with snail abundance (rs= 0.26; p<0.05) and water temperature (rs= 0.34; p<0.05) and the abundance of egg masses is related with snail abundance (rs= 0.46; p<0.05). In general, we observed that reproductive activity of P. flagellata at Bacalar lagoon is related with the warmer months and with higher rainfall. This finding is relevant to support the management of this resource in the region, so that to implement any management arrangement they must be aware that a temporal ban is necessary during the reproductive season at least. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (4): 1643-1650. Epub 2016 December 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails/physiology , Oviposition/physiology , Rain , Reproduction/physiology , Seasons , Temperature , Time Factors , Analysis of Variance , Population Density , Climate , Statistics, Nonparametric , Fresh Water , Mexico
12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 547-557, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843297

ABSTRACT

AbstractThe genus Leucothyreus has been linked to some commercial plant crop pests. Eventhough several species have been described for this genus, information about this group is still scarce. This study investigated some biological aspects and mating behavior in Leucothyreus albopilosus. Studies were conducted at the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in the municipalities of Aquidauana and Cassilândia, MS, Brazil. For biological studies, adults were collected with light traps from February 2011 to February 2012, and for behavior analyses from September to December 2014. Biological studies were undertaken every three days and included the eggs inspection, and the separation of the newly hatched larvae to observe and describe their developmental stages; to monitor larval growth and differentiate larval instars, we measured the larvae cephalic capsule. Life cycle was determined starting from the newly laid eggs until adult death. For mating behavior studies, adults obtained with light traps were taken to the laboratory. As soon as they started flying in the evening, couples were formed and copulation steps were recorded. in the field, we observed that adults were mostly collected during warmer and wetter periods (from August to March). Our results showed that the embryonic period of L. albopilosus lasted 20.5 days, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars lasted 31.0, 33.1 and 85.6 days, respectively. The pupal stage lasted 20 days, and the egg to adult period was completed in 185.5 days; these results suggest that L.albopilosus can be characterized as a univoltine species. Observations of mating behavior in the laboratory showed that, after the sunset, adults projected a small portion of clypeus near the soil surface and flew off seeking a female to mate. The female could accept or reject the male for mating. When the female accepted the male, copulation occurred from 19:00 to 23:00 hours, and lasted 19.45 minutes on average. Sometimes females refused to mate, probably because the male or female were not sexually mature to perform copulation, and there might be a chemical communication between the adults. Adults were observed feeding on ripe bananas (Musa sp., Musaceae) and on mangaba flowers (Hancornia speciosa, Apocynaceae) in the laboratory. With this work we contributed with the description of mating behavior in the genus Leucothyreus and concluded that the biological cycle was completed in less than 200 days. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 547-557. Epub 2016 June 01.


ResumenEn el género Leucothyreus se describen varias especies, sin embargo, hay poca información sobre este grupo. El presente trabajo tuvo por objetivo estudiar los aspectos biológicos y el comportamiento de copula de Leucothyreus albopilosus. Los estudios se realizaron en la Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, en los municipios de Aquidauana y Cassilândia, MS, Brasil. Fueron recolectados adultos con trampa de luz desde febrero 2011 hasta febrero 2012 para realizar estudios biológicos y desde septiembre hasta diciembre de 2014 para estudios de comportamiento. Para los estudios biológicos, se inspeccionaron los huevos cada tres días, y cuando las larvas eclosionaban, eran separadas para monitorear su desarrollo. Para supervisar el desarrollo y diferenciar las etapas larvarias fueron medidas las cápsulas cefálicas de las mismas. El ciclo de vida se determinó a partir de la ovoposición hasta la muerte de los adultos. Para realizar los estudios del comportamiento de la cópula, los adultos obtenidos con trampas de luz fueron llevados al laboratorio, y al atardecer cuando iniciaron el vuelo, se formaron parejas, permitiendo observar y registrar los pasos que involucran este comportamiento. En campo, se observó que los adultos fueron recolectados principalmente en los períodos más calientes y húmedos entre los meses de agosto y marzo. El período embrionario de L. albopilosus duró 20.5 días. La primera, segunda y tercera etapa duraron 31.0, 33.1 y 85.6 días, respectivamente. La etapa de pupa duró 20 días y el período desde huevo hasta adulto fue completado en 185.5 días. Estos resultados sugieren que L. albopilosus puede ser caracterizado como una especie univoltina. Con respecto al comportamiento de copula en el laboratorio, al iniciar la noche, los adultos primeramente proyectan una pequeña porción del clípeo próximo a la superficie del suelo, en seguida realizan el vuelo buscando una hembra para iniciar la cópula. La hembra puede aceptar o no al macho para realizar la cópula. Cuando la hembra aceptó al macho para la copula, esta ocurrió desde 19:00 hasta las 23:00 horas durando 19.45 minutos en promedio. Cuando la hembra rechazó al macho para la copula, se debió probablemente a que ella o el no estaban maduros sexualmente, ocurriendo un reconocimiento químico entre ellos. Se observó en el laboratorio que los adultos se alimentaban de plátanos maduros (Musa sp., Musaceae) y flores de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa, Apocynaceae). En este trabajo se concluye que el ciclo biológico se completa en menos de un año y se describen las primeras etapas del comportamiento de copula del género Leucothyreus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Coleoptera/physiology , Oviposition/physiology , Seasons , Coleoptera/classification
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(5): 669-676, Aug. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755905

ABSTRACT

Despite the importance of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in the transmission of arboviruses, such as yellow fever, Chikungunya fever and dengue fever, some aspects of their behaviour remain unknown. In the present study, the oviposition behaviour of Ae. aegypti females that were exposed to different densities of breeding sites (2, 4, 8 and 16) was evaluated in laboratory and semi-field conditions. The number of breeding sites that were used was proportional to the number available, but tended towards stabilisation. Females used four-six breeding sites on average, with a maximum of 11. A high percentage of eggs was observed in the water, along with the presence of a breeding site termed “favourite”, which received at least 40% of the eggs. The results are discussed in ecological, evolutionary and epidemiological approaches.

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Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Aedes/anatomy & histology , Breeding , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Oviposition/physiology
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(2): 146-155, Mar-Apr/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746519

ABSTRACT

Urban heat islands are characterized by high land surface temperature, low humidity, and poor vegetation, and considered to favor the transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue fever that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. We analyzed the recorded dengue incidence in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, in 2010-2011, in terms of multiple environmental and socioeconomic variables. Geographical information systems, thermal remote sensing images, and census data were used to classify city areas according to land surface temper- ature, vegetation cover, population density, socioeconomic status, and housing standards. Of the 7415 dengue cases, a majority (93.1%) mapped to areas with land surface temperature >28 ◦ C. The dengue incidence rate (cases per 100,000 inhabitants) was low (3.2 cases) in high vegetation cover areas, but high (72.3 cases) in low vegetation cover areas where the land surface temperature was 29 ± 2 ◦ C. Interestingly, a multiple cluster analysis phenogram showed more dengue cases clustered in areas of land surface temperature >32 ◦ C, than in areas characterized as low socioeconomic zones, high population density areas, or slum-like areas. In laboratory experiments, A. aegypti mosquito larval development, blood feeding, and oviposition associated positively with temperatures of 28-32 ◦ C, indicating these temperatures to be favorable for dengue transmission. Thus, among all the variables studied, dengue incidence was most affected by the temperature.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Aedes/physiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Hot Temperature , Insect Vectors/physiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Cities/epidemiology , Dengue/transmission , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Geographic Information Systems , Incidence , Oviposition/physiology , Remote Sensing Technology , Seasons , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population
15.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 13(1): 221-228, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744507

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study provides the first results on the reproductive biology of the anchovy, Anchoa marinii, in a nearby-coastal area of Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon, 37º32'00"S 57º19'00"W, Argentina. To perform this, we employed mainly female gonads, at both microscopic and macroscopic levels. The oocyte diameter distribution and the microscopy analysis of oocytes, showed different batches of growing oocytes, suggesting that the anchovy is a multiple spawner, with constant oocytes recruitment all over the reproductive season. The batch fecundity ranged between 749 and 3,207 oocytes for females, and the relative fecundity ranged from 127 to 422 yolked oocytes per female gram (ovary free). The fecundity estimation has been made with yolked oocytes. No correlation between the fecundity estimation and female size and total weight (without ovary) has been found. The estimated L50 values were 74.13 and 73.76 mm TL for females and males, respectively. Shoals of females in advanced maturity phase were recorded, between December to April in the study area. During this period a significant increase of species abundance was correlated with water temperature increase (above 16°C). This fact, together with the detection of post-ovulatory follicles, indicated the existence of reproductive events in the nearby-coastal area of Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon.


El objetivo del presente trabajo es avanzar en la comprensión del ciclo de vida de la anchoa, Anchoa marinii, en relación a la franja submareal frente a la laguna costera Mar Chiquita, 37º32'00"S 57º19'00"W, Argentina. Para llevarlo a cabo se utilizaron gónadas, principalmente hembras, y se estudiaron a nivel macro y microscópico. El análisis microscópico de los ovarios evidenció la presencia de diferentes camadas de ovocitos, con un reclutamiento constante de ovocitos inmaduros durante la época reproductiva, relacionado con un patrón de puestas parciales. La fecundidad parcial arrojo valores entre 749 y 3207 ovocitos, y la fecundidad relativa estuvo comprendida entre 127 y 422 ovocitos por peso total libre de ovarios. Las estimaciones se realizaron a partir de ovarios con ovocitos vitelados. No se encontraron relaciones significativas entre las estimaciones de fecundidad y la talla o peso de las hembras. La talla de primera madurez se estimó en 74,13 mm para las hembras y 73,76 mm para los machos, en el área muestreada. La presencia de hembras en estadio de maduración avanzada fue muy abundante entre diciembre y abril, correlacionándose con elevada temperatura del agua (por encima de 16°C). Este hecho sumado a la detección de hembras con folículos post-ovulatorios indicarían que la anchoa, Anchoa marinii, presenta actividad reproductiva durante la temporada estival, en el submareal frente a la Laguna costera Mar Chiquita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fertility/physiology , Oocytes/growth & development , Fishes/physiology , Oviposition/physiology
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(6): 723-727, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732973

ABSTRACT

Introduction Eratyrus mucronatus Stål, 1859 is a wild triatomine vector of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909. However, little is known regarding the biology and ecoepidemiology of this triatomine in the Brazilian Amazon. The present study describes the biology of E. mucronatus grown under laboratory conditions and the epidemiological aspects of its natural breeding sites. Methods Five colonies were monitored in the field for 3 years. Temperature and humidity measurements were taken in the mornings and afternoons at the natural breeding sites, and the behavior and distribution of the nymphs and adults were observed in the wild colony. We also monitored the life cycle under controlled laboratory conditions. Results Some factors that were considered decisive for the establishment of these colonies were present at all of the colonies studied in the field. These factors included an active termite nest, a vertebrate for repast, and dry and shaded substrates with temperatures of 24-28°C and with humidity of 80-90%. A generation was developed in 274 days under these microclimatic conditions in the laboratory. Conclusions The climatic variables described in the field indicate that these environmental parameters have a limiting effect on the dispersal and colonization of E. mucronatus to new environments. ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Insect Vectors/physiology , Triatominae/physiology , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , Defecation/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/classification , Life Cycle Stages , Oviposition/physiology , Triatominae/classification
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(supl.2): 53-68, abr. 2014. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753756

ABSTRACT

Phenotypic variability of the shell in Neritinidae (Gastropoda: Neritimorpha) in Puerto Rican rivers. Gastropods of the Neritinidae family exhibit an amphidromous life cycle and an impressive variability in shell coloration in Puerto Rican streams and rivers. Various nominal species have been described, but Neritina virginea [Linné 1758], N. punctulata [Lamarck 1816] and N. reclivata [Say 1822] are the only broadly reported. However, recent studies have shown that these three species are sympatric at the river scale and that species determination might be difficult due to the presence of intermediate color morphs. Individuals (8 751) were collected from ten rivers across Puerto Rico, and from various segments and habitats in Mameyes River (the most pristine island-wide) during three years (2000-2003), and they were assigned to one of seven phenotypes corresponding to nominal species and morphs (non-nominal species). The “axial lines and dots” morph corresponding to N. reclivata was the most frequent island-wide, while the patelliform N. punctulata was scant, but the only found in headwater reaches. The “yellowish large tongues” phenotype, typical of N. virginea s.s. was the most frequent in the river mouth. The frequency of secondary phenotypes varied broadly among rivers, along the rivers, and among habitats, seemly influenced by salinity and predation gradients. The occurrence of individuals with coloration shifts after predation injuries, suggests phenotypic plasticity in the three nominal species, and urges for the use of molecular markers to unravel the possible occurrence of a species complex, and to understand the genetic basis of polymorphism. The longitudinal distribution of individual sizes, population density and egg capsules suggested the adaptive value of upstream migration, possibly to avoid marine predators. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 2): 53-68. Epub 2014 April 01.


Los gasterópodos Neritinidae de Puerto Rico presentan un ciclo de vida anfídromo y exhiben polimorfismo en los patrones de coloración de la concha. Se identificó que la oviposición aumenta río arriba conforme los individuos alcanzan mayores tamaños, a pesar de que la densidad poblacional disminuye. La frecuencia de siete fenotipos previamente establecidos se analizó en diez ríos de la isla durante dos años (n=8 751 individuos). Debido a que el río Mameyes es el más conservado, se tomó como modelo para estudiar la variación a lo largo del río y entre hábitats durante tres años. El fenotipo de líneas axiales y puntos (N. virginea) fue el predominante en toda la isla y el fenotipo pateloide (N. punctulata) fue el menos frecuente. Se observaron diferencias significativas de las frecuencias de los fenotipos (principalmente en los secundarios) entre ríos, a lo largo de ellos y entre hábitats. Esta variabilidad espacial puede responder a gradientes de salinidad y depredación. Se observó plasticidad fenotípica en algunos individuos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Animal Migration/physiology , Ecosystem , Gastropoda/genetics , Oviposition/physiology , Polymorphism, Genetic , Gastropoda/anatomy & histology , Gastropoda/classification , Gastropoda/physiology , Oviposition/genetics , Phenotype , Population Density , Puerto Rico , Rivers
18.
Rev. saúde pública ; 47(3): 579-587, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-690827

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analisar o efeito da qualidade da água de reservatórios domésticos de abastecimento público na resposta oviposicional de fêmeas de Aedes aegypti. MÉTODOS: Estudo conduzido em laboratório a partir de imaturos de Ae. aegypti, coletados em caixas d'água do município de Potim, SP, 2009. Foram disponibilizados simultaneamente três tipos de água por gaiola para a deposição dos ovos: ovipositor (A) com água coletada em caixa d'água de Taubaté, SP; ovipositor (B) com água destilada (controle); e ovipositor (C) com água coletada em caixa d'água de Potim. Foram analisados parâmetros fisicoquímicos. O teste de Kruskall-Wallis foi utilizado para analisar a média de ovos nas diferentes amostras de água e nas comparações posteriores, o teste Dwass-Steel-Chritchlow-Flingner. O índice de atividade de oviposição foi adotado para avaliar a resposta oviposicional. RESULTADOS: Foi observada diferença significativa no número de ovos entre as soluções líquidas testadas (H = 45; p < 0,0001). O número de ovos na água de caixas d'água de abastecimento público de captação em poços profundos (C) foi estatisticamente superior a amostras de água de caixas d'água de abastecimento público de superfície (A) (p < 0,0001) e do Controle (B) (p < 0,0001). Não houve diferença significante entre o número de ovos do Controle (B) e água de superfície (A). A primeira postura foi a mais produtiva em todas as soluções testadas nas três gaiolas. A amostra de água (C) produziu índice positivo (0,54), i.e., atrativo para oviposição. CONCLUSÕES: A qualidade da água influiu na oviposição de Ae. aegypti. As elevadas concentrações de nitrogênio ...


OBJETIVO: Analizar el efecto de la calidad de agua de reservatorios domésticos de abastecimiento público en la respuesta de oviposición por hembras de Aedes aegypti. MÉTODOS: Estudio conducido en laboratorio a partir de inmaduros de Ae. aegypti, colectados en tanques de agua del municipio de Potim, SP, Brasil, 2009. Se disponibilizaron simultáneamente tres tipos de agua por jaula para la deposición de los huevos: ovipositor (A) con agua colectada en tanque de agua de Taubaté, SP (Brasil), ovipositor (B) agua destilada (control) y ovipositor (C) con agua colectada en el tanque de agua de Potim. Se analizaron parámetros fisicoquímicos. La prueba de Kruskall-Wallis fue usada para analizar el promedio de huevos en las diferentes muestras de agua y en las comparaciones posteriores, la prueba de Dwass-Steel-Chritchlow-Flingner. El índice de actividad de oviposición fue adoptado para evaluar la respuesta en las diferentes muestras. RESULTADOS: Se observó diferencia significativa en el número de huevos entre las soluciones líquidas evaluadas (H= 45; p˂0,0001). El número de huevos en el agua de los tanques para abastecimiento público, de captación en pozos profundos (C) fue estadísticamente superior a las muestras de tanques para abastecimiento público de superficie (A) (p˂0,0001) y del Control (B) (p˂0,0001). No hubo diferencia significativa entre el número de huevos del Control (B) y el agua de superficie (A). La primera postura fue la más productiva en todas las soluciones evaluadas en las tres jaulas. La muestra de agua (C) produjo índice positivo (0,54), es decir, atractivo para oviposición. CONCLUSIONES: La calidad de agua influyó en la oviposición de Ae. aegypti. Las elevadas concentraciones de nitrógeno amoniacal en el agua de abastecimiento público sugieren que dicho componente ...


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the quality of publicly supplied water in domestic water tanks on egg laying by female Aedes aegypti. METHODS: Laboratory study on immature Ae. aegypti, collected from water-tanks in the municipality of Potim, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Each cage contained three types of water in which eggs could be laid: Three choice per test were simultaneously used to deposit the eggs, ovipositor (A) with water collected from a water tank in Taubaté, ovipositor (B) with distilled water (control) and ovipositor (C) water collected from a water tank in the municipality of Potim. Physiochemical parameters were analyzed. The Kruskall-Wallis test was used to analyze the mean number of eggs in each water sample and the Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner test was used in making comparisons. To evaluate egg laying, an ovipositional activity index was adopted. RESULTS: A significant difference in the number of eggs was found between the liquid solutions tested (H = 45; p < 0.0001). The number of eggs found in water tank samples originating from deep wells (C), was statistically superior to water samples from water tanks originating from superficial wells (A) (p < 0.0001) and from the Control (C) p < 0.0001. There was no significant difference between the number of eggs in Control (B) and the surface water (A). In all three tests, the first position was the most productive in all tested solutions. Only water sample (C) produced a positive index (0.54), i.e., attractive to egg laying. CONCLUSIONS: Water quality influences egg laying by Aedes aegypti. The high concentrations of ammonium nitrate in public water supplies suggest that this chemical component was responsible for attracting pregnant female Aedes aegypti to lay eggs in these environments. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Aedes/anatomy & histology , Drinking Water/analysis , Mosquito Control/methods , Oviposition/physiology , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Quality , Water Supply/analysis , Drinking Water/parasitology , Household Articles , Insect Vectors/growth & development , Larva/growth & development
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(1): 39-57, Mar. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674061

ABSTRACT

The palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum shows an unusually large geographic range (ca. 4 000km across) living in coastal, estuarine, and limnic inland habitats of the upper Amazon, Orinoco, and La Plata basins. This raises doubts whether allopatric, ecologically diverse populations belong to the same species. While shrimps from estuarine and Amazonian habitats have been studied in great detail, very little is known about hololimnetic inland populations. In the present study, biological traits related to growth (maximum body size, fresh weight, morphometric relationships) and reproduction (sex ratio; occurrence of male morphotypes; minimum sexable size; minimum size of ovigerous females; fecundity; egg size), were studied in M. amazonicum collected from a pond culture and two natural freshwater habitats (Rio Miranda; Lagoa Baiazinha) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In total, 2 270 shrimps were examined (603 males; 1 667 females, 157 of these ovigerous). Sex ratio (males:females) was at all sampling sites strongly female-biased, ranging from 0.2-0.6. Maximum body size was larger in natural habitats compared to the pond culture, suggesting reduced growth or a shorter life span under artificial mass rearing conditions. Maximum fecundity observed in our material was 676 eggs, reached by the largest female (TL=65mm; Lagoa Baiazinha). A significant difference between slope parameters of linear regressions describing fecundity, either in terms of numbers of eggs laid or of larvae released, in relation to female fresh weight, indicates egg losses. This may be due in part to a 2.4-fold increase in egg volume occurring during the course of embryonic development, while the available space under the abdomen remains limited. Size-weight relationships differed significantly between males and females, indicating sexspecific morphometric differences. Males appear to have a more slender body shape than females, reaching thus lower weight at equal TL. When reproductive and morphometric traits are compared with literature data from estuarine and inland populations living in the Amazon and Orinoco plains, shrimps from the Pantanal show conspicuous peculiarities differing from other populations: (1) maximum body size is far smaller, suggesting shorter longevity; (2) females are consistently larger than males; (3) different male morphotypes are absent; (4) minimum sexable size and (5) minimum size of ovigerous females are smaller. These traits suggest a heterochronic shift (predisplacement) of sexual maturation and r-selection. In summary, our data show biologically relevant differences in life-history traits of shrimps from the Pantanal compared to M. amazonicum populations in other regions. All these differences persist also in long-term cultures maintained under constant conditions. Altogether, our data support the hypothesis that M. amazonicum in the Paraná-Paraguay drainage basin has phylogenetically diverged from allopatric populations that are hydrologically separated by continental watersheds, implying an at least incipient vicariant speciation.


El camarón palaemónido Macrobrachium amazonicum muestra una distribución geográfica inusualmente grande (aprox. 4 000km de diámetro), vive en las zonas costeras, estuarios y hábitats interiores límnicos del alto Amazonas, Orinoco y las cuencas de La Plata. Esto plantea dudas sobre sí poblaciones alopátricas y ecológicamente diversas pertenecen a la misma especie. Mientras que los camarones de estuarios y de hábitats Amazónicos se han estudiado con gran detalle, se sabe muy poco acerca de las poblaciones holo-limnéticas del interior. En el presente estudio, los rasgos biológicos relacionados con el crecimiento (tamaño máximo del cuerpo, peso fresco, relaciones morfométricas) y la reproducción (proporción de sexos; ocurrencia de morfotipos masculinos; tamaño mínimo sexable; tamaño mínimo de las hembras ovígeras; fecundidad; tamaño del huevo), fueron estudiados en M. amazonicum recolectados en un estanque de cultivo y dos hábitats naturales de agua dulce (Río Miranda; Baiazinha Lagoa) en el Pantanal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. En total, 2 270 camarones fueron examinados (603 machos, 1 667 hembras, 157 de estas ovígeras). La proporción de sexos (machos:hembras) fue en todos los sitios de muestreo fuertemente sesgada por hembras, desde 0.2 hasta 0.6. El tamaño corporal máximo fue mayor en los hábitats naturales comparado con el estanque de cultivo, sugeriendo un crecimiento reducido o un lapso de vida más corto en condiciones artificiales de crianza masiva. La fecundidad máxima observada en nuestro material fue 676 huevos, alcanzado por la hembra de mayor tamaño (largo total, LT=65mm). Una diferencia significativa entre los parámetros de pendiente de regresiones lineales que describen la fecundidad, comparando el número de huevos puestos o de larvas liberadas, en relación con el peso de la hembra, indican pérdida de huevos. Esto puede ser debido a un aumento de 2.4 veces en el volumen del huevo que ocurre durante el desarrollo embrionario, mientras que el espacio disponible bajo el abdomen sigue siendo limitado. Relaciones de tamaño-peso diferían significativamente entre machos y hembras, lo que indica diferencias morfométricas sexoespecíficas. Los machos parecen tener una forma de cuerpo más delgado que las hembras, alcanzando por lo tanto el peso más bajo en la igualdad de LT. Cuando los rasgos reproductivos y morfométricos son comparados con datos de la literatura de poblaciones estuarinas y poblaciones del interior que viven en el Amazonas y en los llanos del Orinoco, los camarones del Pantanal muestran peculiaridades diferentes: (1) el tamaño máximo del cuerpo es mucho más pequeño, lo que sugiere menor longevidad; (2) las hembras son más grandes que los machos; (3) diferentes morfotipos masculinos están ausentes; (4) el tamaño mínimo sexable y (5) el tamaño mínimo de hembras ovígeras son más pequeños. Estas características sugieren un cambio heterocrónico (pre-desplazamiento) de la maduración sexual y la selección-r. En resumen, nuestros datos muestran diferencias biológicamente relevantes en los rasgos de la historia de vida de los camarones del Pantanal comparados con M. amazonicum en otras regiones. Todas estas diferencias persisten también en cultivos a largo plazo mantenidos bajo condiciones constantes. En conjunto, nuestros datos apoyan la hipótesis que M. amazonicum en la desembocadura de la cuenca Paraná-Paraguay ha divergido filogenéticamente de poblaciones alopátricas que están hidrológicamente separadas por cuencas continentales, lo que implica al menos una incipiente especiación vicariante.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Palaemonidae/physiology , Body Size , Brazil , Fertility/physiology , Oviposition/physiology , Palaemonidae/anatomy & histology , Palaemonidae/growth & development , Reproduction/physiology , Sex Ratio
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 73(1): 179-184, Feb. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671377

ABSTRACT

The larvae of the southern beet webworm Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794) damage the leaves of species in the plant genus Rubus. The present study investigated the biology of H. bipunctalis and developed a protocol for raising H. bipunctalis under laboratory conditions. On the basis of the biological data, we devised a life table. In order to develop the rearing procedures, we determined which oviposition substrate and blackberry cultivar were the most appropriate for larval development. The mean durations of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were 5.59 days, 26.37 days, and 13.37 days, respectively, and the corresponding survival rates were 80.83%, 49.07%, and 83.23%. The mean pupal weight was 0.0491 g for males and 0.0536 g for females. The mean life cycle (egg-to-adult) period was 45.33 days, and overall survival to adulthood was 33.01%. H. bipunctalis females laid a mean of 252.63 eggs over a mean of 13.60 days of oviposition; the mean pre-oviposition period was 2.67 days. Mean female and male life spans were 17.51 and 19.25 days, respectively, and the sex ratio was 0.51. The life-table data indicated that H. bipunctalis can reproduce 57.9 times per generation. Each cage contained one blackberry leaf placed on a paper towel. This method allowed us to obtain the greatest number of eggs. The larval stage was shorter for insects reared on leaves of the Guarani cultivar than for those reared on leaves of the Xavante cultivar (22.63 vs. 26.37 days). These basic data can aid in establishing strategies for the management of H. bipunctalis on blackberry farms.


Lagartas de Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794) causam danos nas folhas da amoreira-preta (Rubus spp.). O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar sua biologia e desenvolver uma técnica de criação, em condições de laboratório. Com os dados de biologia, foi elaborada uma tabela de vida de fertilidade. Para o estudo da técnica de criação, foram determinados o substrato para obtenção de ovos e a cultivar de amoreira-preta mais adequada para o desenvolvimento larval. A duração dos estágios de ovo, lagarta e pupa foram de 5,59, 26,37 e 13,37 dias, com sobrevivência de 80,83, 49,07 e 83,23%, respectivamente. O peso das pupas foi 0,0491 g para machos e 0,0536 g para fêmeas. O ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto) foi de 45,33 dias, com sobrevivência total de 33,01%. As fêmeas colocaram, em média, 252,63 ovos durante 13,60 dias, com um período de pré-oviposição de 2,67 dias. A longevidade média de fêmeas e machos foi de 17,51 e 19,25 dias, respectivamente, e a razão sexual, de 0,51. Por meio da tabela de vida de fertilidade, determinou-se uma capacidade de aumento de 57,9 vezes a cada geração. Gaiolas revestidas com papel toalha e com a presença de folhas de amoreira-preta propiciaram a obtenção de uma maior quantidade de ovos. A duração do estágio larval para os insetos alimentados com folhas de amoreira-preta cv. Guarani (22,63 dias) foi menor do que aqueles alimentados com folhas da cv. Xavante (26,37 dias). Estas informações são básicas e auxiliarão em futuros estudos, visando ao estabelecimento de estratégias de manejo de H. bipunctalis em amoreira-preta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Lepidoptera/growth & development , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Rosaceae/parasitology , Lepidoptera/physiology , Life Cycle Stages/physiology , Oviposition/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Sex Ratio
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