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1.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(6): 480-486, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341135

ABSTRACT

Abstract The process of ovulation involves multiple and iterrelated genetic, biochemical, and morphological events: cessation of the proliferation of granulosa cells, resumption of oocyte meiosis, expansion of cumulus cell-oocyte complexes, digestion of the follicle wall, and extrusion of the metaphase-II oocyte. The present narrative review examines these interrelated steps in detail. The combined or isolated roles of the folliclestimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are highlighted. Genes indiced by the FSH genes are relevant in the cumulus expansion, and LH-induced genes are critical for the resumption ofmeiosis and digestion of the follicle wall. A nonhuman model for follicle-wall digestion and oocyte release was provided.


Resumo O processo de ovulação envolve modificações genéticas, bioquímicas e morfológicas múltiplas e interrelacionadas: suspensão da proliferação das células da granulosa, reinício da meiose do oócito, expansão das células do complexo cumulus-oócito, digestão da parede folicular, e extrusão do oócito. Esta revisão narrativa examina em detalhes cada um desses eventos e os principais genes e proteínas envolvidos. Mais importante, a ação combinada ou isolada do hormônio folículo-estimulante (HFE) e do hormônio luteinizante (HL) é destacada. Detalha-se o papel do HFE na expansão do cumulus e do HL na digestão da parede folicular, permitindo a extrusão do oócito na superfície ovariana. Proveu-se um modelo não humano para explicar a digestão da parede folicular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Ovulation/physiology , Luteinizing Hormone/physiology , Oocytes/growth & development , Ovulation/genetics , Luteinizing Hormone/genetics , Signal Transduction , Models, Animal , Cumulus Cells/physiology , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/physiology , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/genetics , Ovarian Follicle/growth & development , Granulosa Cells/physiology , Meiosis/physiology , Meiosis/genetics
2.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 27(2): 88-92, abr./jun. 2020. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1378302

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do estudo foi comparar o efeito das técnicas hormonais e de luz artificial nas éguas receptoras de embrião acíclicas avaliando as taxas de gestação aos 14 e 28 dias durante a fase de transição de primavera. Os 48 animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente nos grupos: controle (CONT, n=16), éguas cíclicas na fase ovulatória; luz artificial (LUZ, n=16), éguas acíclicas submetidas ao tratamento de luz artificial; e hormônio (HORM, n= 16), éguas acíclicas submetidas ao protocolo hormonal na fase de transição. As éguas do grupo LUZ foram estimuladas por 60 dias com luz artificial durante cinco horas por dia. Nos grupos CONT e LUZ, quando observada a presença de folículo ≥ 35 mm de diâmetro e edema uterino ≥ grau II, foram administrados 1,5 mg de acetato de deslorelina e 1500 UI de hCG para induzir a ovulação. As éguas do grupo HORM foram tratadas com três doses de 1,5 mg de benzoato de estradiol e seguiram os mesmos protocolos dos Grupos CONT e LUZ. Foi avaliada a taxa de gestação por ultrassonografia aos 14 dias e confirmação aos 28 em todos os grupos experimentais. Foi realizada análise descritiva e teste Qui-quadrado (significância de 5%). Taxas de gestação aos 14 e 28 dias foram semelhantes (p>0,05) entre todos os grupos. Os tratamentos HORM e LUZ durante o período de transição inverno-primavera mostraram-se eficazes para atender ao programa de transferência de embrião. Por ser um método mais natural, o protocolo LUZ tem potencial como mais uma ferramenta biotecnológica na reprodução de equinos.


The aim of this study was to compare the effect of hormonal and artificial light techniques on acyclic embryo recipient mares by assessing pregnancy rates at 14 and 28 days during the spring transition period. The 48 animals were randomly assigned to the groups: control (CONT, n = 16), cyclic mares in the ovulatory phase; artificial light (LIGHT, n = 16), acyclic mares subjected to artificial light treatment; and hormone (HORM, n = 16), acyclic mares submitted to hormonal protocol in transition phase. In the LIGHT group, mares were stimulated with artificial light for five hours a day, for 60 days. In CONT and LIGHT groups, when a follicle ≥ 35 mm in diameter and uterine edema ≥ grade II were observed, 1.5 mg of deslorelin acetate and 1500 IU hCG were administered to induce ovulation. In the HORM group, mares were treated with three doses of 1.5 mg of estradiol benzoate and followed the same protocols as the CONT and LIGHT groups. Pregnancy rate was assessed by ultrasound at 14 days and confirmation at 28 days in all experimental groups. Descriptive analysis and chi-square test (5% significance) were performed. Pregnancy rates at 14 and 28 days were similar (p> 0.05) among all groups. The HORM and LIGHT treatments during the winter-spring transition period proved to be effective during the embryo transfer programs. As it is a more natural method, the LIGHT protocol has the potential to be one more biotechnological tool in equine reproduction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ovulation/physiology , Pregnancy, Animal/physiology , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/veterinary , Embryo, Mammalian , Embryo Transfer/veterinary , Fertility , Horses/embryology , Phototherapy/veterinary , Seasons , Anestrus
3.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(3): 183-190, Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003542

ABSTRACT

Abstract Considering that myths and misconceptions regarding natural procreation spread rapidly in the era of easy access to information and to social networks, adequate counseling about natural fertility and spontaneous conception should be encouraged in any kind of health assistance. Despite the fact that there is no strong-powered evidence about any of the aspects related to natural fertility, literature on how to increase the chances of a spontaneous pregnancy is available. In the present article, the Brazilian Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Associations (FEBRASGO, in the Portuguese acronym) Committee on Endocrine Gynecology provides suggestions to optimize counseling for non-infertile people attempting spontaneous conception.


Resumo Uma vez que mitos e equívocos sobre a procriação natural se espalham rapidamente na era do fácil acesso à informação e às redes sociais, o aconselhamento adequado sobre a fertilidade natural e a concepção espontânea deve ser encorajado em qualquer tipo de assistência à saúde. Apesar do fato de não haver evidências fortes sobre qualquer dos aspectos relacionados à fertilidade natural, existe literatura sobre como aumentar as chances de uma gravidez espontânea. No presente artigo, a Comissão Nacional de Ginecologia Endócrina da Federação Brasileira das Associações de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia (FEBRASGO) oferece sugestões para otimizar o aconselhamento a pessoas que tentam a concepção espontânea, na ausência do diagnóstico de infertilidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Preconception Care , Fertilization/physiology , Ovulation/physiology , Posture , Brazil , Attitude to Health , Smoking/adverse effects , Age Factors , Maternal Age , Paternal Age , Coitus/psychology , Sex Determination Processes/physiology , Counseling , Diet , Lubricants/administration & dosage , Fertility/physiology , Infertility, Female/diagnosis , Middle Aged
4.
Rev. Fac. Med. Univ. Nac. Nordeste ; 36(3): 102-103, 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348680
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 65(6): 1585-1592, Dec. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696835

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of two doses of PGF associated or not to hCG on the associated reproductive parameters in dairy goats. A total of 29 goats received two doses of 30µg d-cloprostenol latero-vulvar at a 10 day intervals (Day 1 and Day 10). The does were allocated according to body weight and body condition score into two treatments, to receive hCG (250IU) or saline at estrus onset. After the second dose of PGF, estrus was monitored and ultrasound exams were performed twice daily. All does were inseminated 16h after estrus onset. Blood collection was performed every day for progesterone assay. The use of hCG at estrus onset did not affect any studied parameter and therefore the data were pooled. Estrous response rate was similar (P>0.05) after the first (75.9%, 22/29) and the second dose of PGF (79.3%, 23/29). The interval between the administration of PGF and estrus onset was greater (P<0.05) after Day 1 (75.8±53.9h) than Day 10 (47.7±10.1 h). Estrus duration was superior (P < 0.05) after Day 1 (35.4±15.9h) to Day 10 (26.8±15.0h). Ovulation rate was 79.3% (23/29) after the second dose of PGF. No differences (P>0.05) between both experimental groups were detected in the following parameters, averaging: the interval from the second dose administration to the ovulation (86.6±11.4h), interval from estrus to ovulation (39.9±12.3 h), diameter of largest follicle (7.2±1.4) and number of ovulations (1.8±0.6). At Day 1, 52.4% (11/21) of does presented progesterone concentrations <1ng/mL. At Day 10, 100% of the animals presented concentrations >1ng/mL. The results of the present study indicate that estrus can be efficiently synchronized in dairy goats with the use of two doses of PGF at a 10 day interval. Further research should be done evaluating hCG use in different doses or moments of administration.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficiência do uso de duas doses de PGF associadas ou não à administração de hCG no início do estro sobre os parâmetros reprodutivos de cabras leiteiras. Um total de 29 cabras receberam duas doses de 30 µg d-cloprostenol pela via latero-vulvar com 10 dias de intervalo (Dia 1 e Dia 10). As cabras foram alocadas para receberem o hCG (250 IU) ou salina i.m. no momento em que o estro foi detectado. Depois da realização da segunda dose de PGF, o estro foi monitorado e exames ultrassonográficos foram realizados duas vezes ao dia. Todas as fêmeas foram inseminadas 16 h após o inicio do estro. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas diariamente para determinação das concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona. O uso do hCG no momento do início do estro não afetou os parâmetros estudados e, portanto, os dados serão apresentados agrupados. A taxa de manifestação de estro foi similar (P > 0,05) na primeira (75,9% - 22/29) ou na segunda dose de PGF (79,3% - 23/29). O intervalo entre a administração de PGF e o início do estro foi maior (P < 0,05) no Dia 1 (75,8±53,9 h) que no Dia 10 (47,7±10,1 h). Duração do estro também diferiu (P < 0,05) 35,4±15,9 (Dia 1) vs 26,8±15, 0 h (Dia 10). A taxa de ovulação foi 79,3% (23/29) após a segunda dose PGF. Não foi encontrada diferença (P>0,05) entre os grupos experimentais quanto aos parâmetros reprodutivos: intervalo entre a aplicação da segunda dose e a ovulação (86,6±11,4h), intervalo do estro a ocorrência da ovulação (39,9±12,3h), diâmetro do maior folículo (7,2±1,4) e número de ovulações (1,8±0,6). No Dia 1, 52,4% (11/21) apresentavam concentrações de progesterona < 1 ng/mL. No Dia 10, 100% dos animais apresentavam concentrações >1ng/mL. O presente estudo permite concluir que o estro pode ser eficientemente sincronizado em cabras leiteiras com duas doses de PGF intervaladas em 10 dias. Novas pesquisas devem se realizadas para avaliar diferentes doses e momentos de utilização do hCG.


Subject(s)
Animals , Insemination, Artificial , Ovulation/physiology , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Estrus Synchronization/physiology , Goats
6.
J. bras. med ; 101(4): 25-32, jul.-ago. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-699661

ABSTRACT

A infertilidade é um problema que afeta cerca de 10%-20% da população, com incidência variável em todo o mundo. A avaliação do casal infértil é geralmente indicada depois de um ano, tempo em que a maioria dos casais normais teria sido bem sucedida na tentativa de concepção. Algumas investigações são controversas, e, na presença de múltiplos métodos, o custo, a segurança e a conveniência deveriam ajudar a decidir o mais apropriado.


Infertility is a problem affecting approximately 10%-20% of the population with variable incidences across the world. Evaluation of a couple is generally indicated after one year, by which time most normal couples attemptiong conception would have been successful. Some of the investigations are controversial and in the presence of multiple methods of investigating one aspect, the cost, safety, convenience and evidence-base should help in deciding on the appropriate method.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Fallopian Tube Diseases/pathology , Infertility/epidemiology , Infertility/etiology , Infertility/physiopathology , Alcoholism/complications , Smoking/adverse effects , Hysterosalpingography/methods , Laparoscopy/methods , Cervix Mucus/physiology , Obesity/complications , Ovulation/physiology , Semen Analysis , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Uterus/abnormalities
7.
Assiut University Bulletin for Environmental Researches. 2013; 16 (1): 13-39
in English, Arabic | IMEMR | ID: emr-150554

ABSTRACT

To evaluate effects of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-rho-dioxin [TCDD] exposure on the reproductive function in female rat offspring, before and after puberty. The pregnant Sprague Dawely rat administered 0, or 1.0 rag TCDD/kg on Gestation Day [GD] 8 and 15. Female offspring were examined at the post-weanling before puberty on posnatal day [PND] 21 and in young adult stage of development on PND42. Ovulation assessment, radioimmunoassay for serum gonadotropins, steroids and histo-morphmetric analysis to the ovaries were evaluated. The analysis included a count, measurement and classification of preantral and antral follicles throughout the entire ovary on PND 21. The results indicate that TCDD treatment significantly reduced the ovulation rate, serum gonadotropins, steroids levels and the number of antral and preantral follicles of certain size classes. The histopathological examination revealed small preovulatory follicles displaying an atretic morphologic difference among the ovaries of rats exposed to TCDD treatments. These data support the hypothesis that TCDD results in adverse effects on female reproductive function. However, the age of animals before or after puberty play an important role in the difference between results. Moreover, TCDD exposure on the GD 8 or 15 has a great concern in the results observed


Subject(s)
Reproduction , Rats , Female , Maternal Exposure , Ovulation/physiology , Luteinizing Hormone/methods , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/methods , Estradiol , Progesterone/blood , Radioimmunoassay/methods
8.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(4): 1857-1871, Dec. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-662253

ABSTRACT

En el sureste de México A. tropicus es una especie de gran importancia ecológica, económica, cultural y para acuicultura, sin embargo, sus poblaciones silvestres han disminuido a causa de diversas actividades antropogénicas, por lo que se caracterizó el ciclo reproductor de A. tropicus, a partir de los cambios en los elementos germinales y somáticos durante la ovogénesis y la estructura de toda la gónada, información valiosa para el mejor manejo y aprovechamiento de la especie. Mensualmente se capturaron con redes de arrastres, seis hembras sexualmente maduras (N=72), durante un ciclo anual (octubre 2003-septiembre 2004), en poblaciones silvestres de la laguna de Pomposu del municipio de Jalpa de Méndez; Tabasco, México. Las hembras fueron sacrificadas por decapitación y los ovarios se procesaron por métodos histológicos convencionales, se determinó el diámetro entre 10-20 ovocitos en los diferentes estadios de desarrollo al azar. Se determinó mensualmente el índice gonadosomático (IGS), volumen gonadal (gV) y el diámetro del folículo (fD). Además, se identificaron ocho estadios de desarrollo de la ovogénesis: I: cromatina nucléolo, II: perinucléolo temprano, III: perinucléolo avanzado, IV: alvéolos corticales, V: vitelogénesis temprana, VI: vitelogénesis media, VII: vitelogénesis avanzada, VIII: maduración final. El ciclo reproductor la constituye cuatro clases: I.-Proliferativa, II.-Maduración inicial, III.-Maduración tardía, IV.-Regresión-proliferación. El análisis de la información obtenida de los valores encontrados del IGS, gV, fD, estadios de la ovogénesis y clases reproductivas, indican que en diciembre se reinicia el crecimiento de los folículos (previtelogenesis), de mar-zo-julio se presenta la captación del vitelo (vitelogenesis) y en agosto-noviembre se presenta la máxima actividad reproductora, al contrastar este patrón con los factores ambientales (temperatura, precipitación) se sugiere que estos pueden funcionar como un gatillo ambiental, en el desarrollo de la ovogénesis y el desove.


In Southeast Mexico, A. tropicus is a species with great ecological, economic, cultural and aquaculture value, however wild populations have diminished due to diverse anthropological causes. The objective of this study was to characterize the reproductive cycle of A. tropicus, with a description of complete gonad structure and the changes in germinal and somatic elements during oogenesis, for better management and use of this species. Six sexually mature females (N=72) were captured monthly with drag nets during one year cycle (October 2003-October 2004) in wild populations of Pomposu lagoon, municipality of Jalpa de Mendez, Tabasco, Mexico. Females were sacrificed by decapitation and the ovaries were processed by standard histological methods; the diameter of 10-20 oocytes taken at random was determined in different stages of development. Gonadosmatic index (GSI), gonadal volume (gV) and follicule diameter (fD) were determined monthly. Among results we could determine eight oogenesis developmental stages: I: chromatin nucleolus stage, II: early perinucleolus stage, III: mid perinucleolus stage, IV: advanced perinucleolus stage, V: early vitellogenesis stage, VI: mid vitellogenesis stage, VII) advanced vitellogenesis stage and VIII: final maturation stage. The reproductive cycle could be divided in four phases: I: proliferative phase, II: initial maturation phase, III: late maturation phase, IV: regressing phase. Analysis of the data obtained from the IGS, gV and fD values, oogenesis stages and reproductive phases, indicate that in December previtellogenesis phase restarts, from March through July yolk deposition (vitellogenesis) occurs, and from August to November the maximum reproductive activity takes place. Contrasting this pattern with local environmental factors such as temperature and precipitation, we suggested that these may serve as an environmental activator in the development of oogenesis and spawning of this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (4): 1857-1871. Epub 2012 December 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Fishes/physiology , Ovary/growth & development , Reproduction/physiology , Sexual Maturation/physiology , Fishes/classification , Mexico , Oogenesis/physiology , Ovulation/physiology , Seasons
9.
Asunción; Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción; 2012. f1:i50 p. ilus, graf.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-915385

ABSTRACT

El presente material fue elaborado con la intención de ofrecer a los estudiantes e medicina y profesionales de la salud un material de lectura con las nociones básicas del método, que pueda ser utilizado por los mismos como material de apoyo para la atención primaria en salud (APS) con que cuenta la Carrera de Medicina de la Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción. Introducción al método de la ovulación, fue redactado en forma sencilla, por lo que podrá también ser utilizado como fuente de información para las pacientes que deseen conocer el método. En honor a su título, este material de ninguna manera pretende lograr expertos en el tema, pero si proporcionar a los estudiantes y profesionales de la salud, el entrenamiento básico que les permita apoyar y asesorar a las pacientes que desean seguir el método de ovulación. (AU)


Subject(s)
Female , Ovulation/physiology , Natural Family Planning Methods , Natural Family Planning Methods/methods , Contraception , Contraceptive Effectiveness/statistics & numerical data
10.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 48(4): 332-335, ago. 2011.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-642205

ABSTRACT

The effect of age, follicular diameter and month of the breeding season (September to January) on the hCG induction of ovulation was evaluated using 123 Criollo mares. Age varied between two and 24 years and the animals were examined daily by rectal palpation and ultrasonography with a 5 MHz linear transducer. When ovarian follicles reached a diameter of 30 to 35 mm, ovulation was induced with an i.v. injection of 1000 IU (n = 39); 1500 IU (n = 41) or 2000 IU (n = 43) of hCG. The mares were bred the next day and examined daily until ovulation was detected. The percentage of mares ovulating before 24 h of hCG injection was 10.3%, 7.3% and 4.7%; until 48 h after injection 92.3%, 85.3% and 86.0% of the mares treated with 1000, 1500 and 2000 IU of hCG, respectively, ovulated. The month of the breeding season, age of the mares and follicular diameter had no influence on ovulatory response. The three hCG doses used in Criollo mares (P > 0.05) result in the induction of ovulation within 48 h after injection when a pre-ovulatory follicle with a 30 to 35 mm diameter was identified. A single dose of 1000 IU of hCG is efficient to induce ovulation in Criollo mares.


O efeito da idade, diâmetro folicular e mês da estação de monta (setembro a janeiro) na indução da ovulação com hCG foi avaliado em 123 éguas Crioulas. A idade das éguas variou entre dois e 24 anos e os animais foram examinados diariamente por palpação retal e ultrassonografia com transdutor linear de 5 MHz. Quando os folículos ovarianos atingiram diâmetro de 30 a 35 milímetros aplicou-se uma injeção intravenosa com 1000 UI (n = 39); 1500 UI (n = 41) ou 2000 UI (n = 43) de hCG. As éguas foram cobertas no dia seguinte e examinadas diariamente até a detecção da ovulação. O percentual de éguas que ovularam antes de 24 h da injeção de hCG foi de 10,3%, 7,3% e 4,7%, até 48h após a injeção foi de 92,3%, 85,3% e 86,0%, nos grupos com 1000, 1500 e 2000 UI de hCG, respectivamente. O mês da estação de monta, a idade das éguas ou o diâmetro folicular não influenciaram a resposta ovulatória. As três doses de hCG utilizadas em éguas Crioulas (P > 0,05) resultaram na indução da ovulação dentro de 48h após a aplicação, quando foi identificado um folículo pré-ovulatório de 30 a 35 mm de diâmetro. Uma única dose de 1000 UI de hCG é eficiente para induzir a ovulação em éguas Crioulas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Horses/classification , Ovulation/physiology , Biometry/instrumentation , Chorionic Gonadotropin
11.
Rev. biol. trop ; 59(1): 29-35, mar. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-638043

ABSTRACT

Plasma concentration of progesterone and 17β-estradiol of black-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha) during the estrous cycle. The agouti is a game animal that have been raised in captivity for conservation and sustainability purposes. However, the management of wild animals in an intensive breeding system requires an assertive knowledge of its reproductive parameters, one of the most important features for production improvement. Besides, little information is available regarding changes in reproductive hormone profiles in agouti. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hormonal profile of progesterone and 17β-estradiol during the estrous cycle of the agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha). The hormones were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Blood samples were collected without sedation twice a week. The concentrations of progesterone were as follows: proestrus 0.78+0.39ng/ml, estrus 2.83+2.34ng/ml, metestrus 1.49+1.24ng/ml, diestrus 3.71+1.48ng/ml. In the estrous phase, an increase in the progesterone level was observed during a period of 24h. The average 17 β-estradiol levels were as follows: proestrus 2 030.98+961.00pg/ml, estrus 1 910.56+650.54pg/ml, metestrus 1 724.83+767.28pg/ml, diestrus 1 939.94+725.29pg/ml. The current results suggest that the progesterone plasma concentration during the estrous cycle in the agouti has a similar increasing, stabilizing and decreasing pattern, as in domestic mammals. Agoutis have two phases of follicular development, as two periods of 17β-estradiol peaks were observed, the first one in the metestrus and the second during the proestrus. Spontaneous ovulation seems to occur after the progesterone peak, possibly indicating that this hormone is associated with the ovulatory process. A more detailed investigation is needed for better understanding of how progesterone influences ovulation. Studies on the involvement of progesterone in follicular rupture can be carried out, using steroid biosynthesis inhibitors and observing the effect of this hormone on ovarian activity of proteolytic enzymes in the follicular wall. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1): 29-35. Epub 2011 March 01.


El conocimiento de los procesos reproductivos de especies de importancia económica local son indispensables para apoyar su producción en cautiverio y garantizar su manejo sostenible. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar los niveles hormonales de progesterona y 17β-estradiol durante el ciclo estral en agutí (Dasyprocta prymnolopha). La recolección de sangre se realizó dos veces por semana, sin sedación. Las hormonas fueron analizadas por radioinmunoanálisis. Los niveles de progesterona fueron los siguientes: proestro 0.78+0.39ng/ml, estro 2.83+2.34ng/ml, metaestro 1.49+1.24ng/ml y diestro 3.71+1.48ng/ml. En el estro se observó un aumento de los niveles de progesterona durante un periodo de 24h. Los niveles de 17 β-estradiol fueron los siguientes: proestro 2 030.98+961.00pg/ml, estro 1 910.56+650.54pg/ml, metaesto 1 724.83+767.28pg/ml y diestro 1 939.94+725.29pg/ ml. Los resultados encontrados sugieren que los niveles plasmáticos de progesterona durante el ciclo estral en agutí siguen un patrón de aumento, estabilización y diminución, tal como en los mamíferos domésticos. Agutí tienen dos etapas de desarrollo folicular, puesto que se observaron dos altos valores de 17β-estradiol, el primero en el metaestro y el segundo durante el proestro. La ovulación espontánea ocurre posiblemente después del aumento de la progesterona, indicando que esta hormona posiblemente está asociada con el proceso ovulatorio. Es necesario desarrollar un estudio más detallado para mejorar la comprensión del papel de la progesterona en la ovulación. Algunos estudios de la participación de la progesterona en la ruptura folicular se pueden realizar utilizando inhibidores de la biosíntesis de esteroides y observar el efecto de esta hormona sobre la actividad de las enzimas proteolíticas en la pared folicular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Estradiol/blood , Estrous Cycle/blood , Ovulation/blood , Progesterone/blood , Rodentia/blood , Ovulation/physiology , Radioimmunoassay , Rodentia/physiology
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 28(3): 697-701, Sept. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-577173

ABSTRACT

Ovogenesis and foliculogenesis in the mare differ from other farm animals and therefore, gamete manipulation, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer have been very difficult. The histologic traits of ovaries from 12 mares, in estrus and diestrus were studied. Number and size of follicules and corpora lutea were recorded. The ovarian stroma was evaluated using the pricosirius technique for collagen. A simple morphometric analysis was done using computerized scanner programs. During late estrus, one dominant follicle (46 +/- 4mm) is seen. The surrounding stroma contains collagen I and III. By the end of the estrus, one hemorrhagic follicle is seen, plus one or two small follicle (2 mm in size). In early diestrus there is a corpus luteum (43-60 mm) and some antral follicles (6 +/- 1). Collagen I forms strands inside the corpus luteum and predominates in the perifollicular ovarian stroma. Modifications of the extracellular matrix may change cell function by way of integrines, the matrix being in turn modified by hormones and other tissular factors. Estrogens can be related to collagen III predominance in ovarian stroma whereas progesterone is associated with increased collagen I. Therefore, follicular-stromal interactions are important in ovarian histophysiology.


La ovogénesis y foliculogénesis en la yegua, difiere de otros animales de granja, y por lo tanto, la manipulación de gametos, fertilización in vitro y transferencia de embriones ha sido muy dificultoso. Se estudiaron las características histológicas de ovarios de 12 yeguas durante el estro y el diestro. Se registró el número y tamaño de los folículos y cuerpos lúteos. Se evaluó el estroma ovárico usando la técnica picrosirius para colágeno. Se realizó un análisis morfométrico simple utilizando un programa escáner computarizado. Durante el estro tardío, se observó un folículo dominante (46 +/- 4 mm). El estroma circundante contiene colágeno I y III. Para el final de este período, se aprecia un folículo hemorrágico, más uno o dos pequeños folículos (2 mm de tamaño). En diestro temprano, hay un cuerpo lúteo (43 - 60 mm) y algunos folículos antrales (6 +/- 1). El colágeno I forma filamentos dentro del cuerpo lúteo y predomina en el estroma ovárico perifolicular. Modificaciones en la matriz extracelular pueden cambiar la función celular vía integrinas, la matriz está a su vez modificada por las hormonas y otros factores tisulares. Los estrógenos se pueden asociar a la predominancia de colágeno III en el estroma ovárico, mientras que la progesterona se asocia con un aumento de colágeno I. Por lo tanto, las interacciones estroma-folículo son importantes en la histofisiología del ovario.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Horses/anatomy & histology , Horses/physiology , Ovary/anatomy & histology , Ovary/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Seasons , Ovarian Follicle/anatomy & histology , Ovarian Follicle/physiology , Ovulation/physiology , Stromal Cells
13.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 4(2): 149-159, dic. 2009. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-561808

ABSTRACT

El objetivo fue asociar la atención sostenida medida con la Prueba de Ejecución Continua con los niveles hormonales de LH, FSH, progesterona, estrona y estradiol en 10 mujeres en la posmenopausia y 10 en la premenopausia. Este último grupo fue evaluado en la fase menstrual, con bajos niveles hormonales y en la fase ovulatoria, con altos niveles hormonales. Se analizó el número de aciertos, errores, omisiones y tiempo de reacción en dos niveles de dificultad de la prueba. El número de aciertos en el segundo nivel de dificultad de la prueba de las mujeres premenopáusicas, en fase ovulatoria, fue mayor (p=0.019) y cometieron menos errores (p=0.019) comparadas con las mujeres en la posmenopausia. En la posmenopausia, el número de aciertos se asoció positivamente con la progesterona (p<0.0001), FSH (p<0.001) y estrona (p<0.0001) y negativamente con LH (p<0.03). En la premenopausia, en fase menstrual, los aciertos se asociaron negativamente con progesterona (p<0.0001), LH (p<0.0001) y estrona (p<0.0001). En la fase ovulatoria, los aciertos se asociaron positivamente con FSH (p<0.0001), progesterona (p<0.0001) y estrona (p<0.0001) y negativamente con LH (p<0.0001). Estos resultados sugieren que las hormonas sexuales pueden influir en la atención sostenida en mujeres en la transición hacia la menopausia.


The aim was to associate the sustained attention, measured by means of the Continuous Performance Test with hormonal levels of FSH, LH, progesterone, estradiol and estrone, in ten posmenopausal women and ten premenopausal women. This last group was evaluated in menstrual phase, with low hormonal levels, and during the ovulatory phase, with high hormonal levels. The number of correct responses, errors, omissions and reaction time during two levels of difficult of the test were obtained. The number of correct responses made by the premenopausal women in the ovulatory phase was high (p=0.019),and they committed less errors (p=0.019) during the second level of difficult of test compared with posmenopausal women. In the posmenopause, the number of correct responses was positively associated with progesterone (p<0.0001), FSH(p<0.001), and estrone (p<0.0001), and negatively associated with LH (p<0.03). In the premenopause, in menstrual phase, the correct responses were negatively associated with progesterone (p<0.0001), LH (p<0.0001) and estrone (p<0.0001). In the ovulatory phase, the correct responses were positively correlated with FSH (p<0.0001), progesterone (p<0.0001) and estrone (p<0.0001), and negatively with LH (p<0.0001). These findings suggest that the sex hormones may influence on sustained attention in women in transition to menopause.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Attention/physiology , Menopause/physiology , Menopause/psychology , Premenopause/physiology , Premenopause/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hormones/blood , Neuropsychological Tests , Ovulation/physiology , Ovulation/psychology , Regression Analysis
14.
Rev. centroam. obstet. ginecol ; 14(1): 19-23, ene.-mar. 2009.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-644064

ABSTRACT

La mujer por naturaleza, ha desarrollado fisiológicamente limitaciones en la fertilidad. Lo anterior se demuestra por la cantidad de días fértiles, como consecuencia de la ovulación, proceso que va desde la menarca hasta la menopausia, así como el período de lactancia, la infertilidad de la pareja etc; sin embargo debemos reconocer que las técnicas como el uso de hierbas, soluciones con fines contraceptivos u objetos aplicados por diferentes vías han sido utilizados por diferentes culturas alrededor del mundo.


Subject(s)
Female , Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Endometrium/anatomy & histology , Ovulation/physiology
15.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 10(1): 56-67, jan.-jun. 2007.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-508412

ABSTRACT

Sob o ponto de vista fisiológico, a puberdade em novilhas Bos taurus e Bos indicus caracteriza-se por um aumento na concentração e freqüência pulsátil de LH e um decréscimo na sensibilidade do hipotálamo aos esteróides gonadais, com participação ou não de neurotransmissores com capacidade de estimular ou inibir a secreção de LH, o que resultará na primeira ovulação. Os eventos fisiológicos relacionados à primeira ovulação são similares, tanto nas novilhas Bos taurus, quanto nas novilhas Bos indicus, ocorrendo mais tardiamente nesta última. O sistema extensivo de criação do Zebu, adotado na maioria dos países sul-americanos, contribui para que a puberdade aconteça mais tardiamente, refletindo na idade ao primeiro parto. A idade à primeira ovulação é uma característica de alta herdabilidade, sendo a seleção genética, através da precocidade sexual, uma ferramenta para reduzir a idade ao primeiro parto e melhorar a eficiência reprodutiva do sistema de produção. Aliado à seleção genética, o uso de técnicas de manejo melhorando a qualidade nutricional e a oferta de alimentos, o cruzamento entre raças, a exposição das novilhas a touros e o uso de biotecnologias que permitam manipular a primeira ovulação, podem contribuir para o aumento da produtividade. Esta revisão tem como objetivo abordar aspectos fisiológicos relacionados à puberdade de novilhas Bos taurus e Bos indicus.


Under a physiological perspective, puberty in both Bos taurus and Bos indicus heifers is characterized by an increase in the LH concentration, frequency pulses, and decreasing of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis sensibility to gonadal steroid, with, or without, the participation of the neurotransmitters capable of either stimulating or to inhibiting the LH secretion, which will result in the first ovulation. The physiological events related to the first ovulation are similar for both Bos taurus and Bos indicus, occurring later for Bos indicus. The extensive Zebu management carried out in the majority of the South American countries contributes for puberty to occur later influencing the age of the first calving. Regarding the first ovulation, age is a characteristic of high heritability, as the genetic selection, through sexual precocity, is a tool for first¬calving age reduction; and the improvement of the nutritional quality and feeding supply, crossbreeding, heifer exposition to bulls and the use o biotechnologies which ensure the manipulation of the first ovulation might contribute for the productivity increasing. This review aims at approaching physiological aspects related to the puberty of both Bos taurus and Bos indicus heifers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Luteinizing Hormone/physiology , Neurotransmitter Agents/analysis , Neurotransmitter Agents/physiology , Ovulation/physiology , Ovulation/genetics , Puberty/physiology
16.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 44(supl): 38-45, 2007. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-508419

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a liberação de LH durante osprotocolos de sincronização da ovulação em bubalinos. Para tanto, quinze búfalas multíparas receberam 25 mg de Lecirelina no Dia 0, e150 mg de D-Cloprostenol no Dia 7. No Dia 8, foi aplicado benzoato de estradiol nas búfalas do Grupo 1 (0,5 mg, n = 5) e do Grupo 2 (1,0mg, n = 5). No Dia 9, os animais receberam 25mg de Lecirelina(Controle, n = 5). Para mensuração das concentrações plasmáticas de LH foram colhidas amostras de sangue da veia jugular no Dia 7, e em seguida em intervalos de 3 horas até completar 72 horas após a aplicação de PGF2a. Para avaliação da liberação de LH foram comparados os momentos de ocorrência do pico LH em relação à PGF2a, as durações, as amplitudes e a área sob o pico de pré-ovulatório de LH. As búfalasdos Grupos Controle, 1 e 2 apresentaram picos pré-ovulatórios deLH em 51 + 0,0 horas, 47,3 + 2,7 horas e 47,0 + 3,8 horas após a aplicação da PGF2a, respectivamente (P>0,05). A duração do pico deLH foi menor no Controle (7,8 + 1,5 horas) do que nos Grupos 1 e2 (10,5 + 1,5 horas vs. 10,8 + 2,4 horas, respectivamente; P < 0,05). Aamplitude média dos picos pré-ovulatórios de LH foram de 4,5 + 0,4ng/mL, 4,0 + 0,4 ng/mL e 4,3 + 0,8 ng/mL para os Grupos Controle,1 e 2, respectivamente (P > 0,05). A área sob o pico de LH no Controle(4,8 ± 0,7) foi menor do que as áreas dos Grupos 1 e 2 (8,8 ± 2,5 vs.8,7 ± 2,2, respectivamente; P < 0,05). Em resumo, a aplicação debenzoato de estradiol proporcionou maior duração e área do picopré-ovulatório de LH do que a administração de GnRH em protocolos Ovsynch em bubalinos.


The objective of this study was to evaluate the LH surge after lasthormonal injection of synchronization of ovulation protocols inbuffalo. Fifteen multiparous buffaloes received 25 mg of Lecirelin inDay 0, and 150 mg of D-Cloprostenol on Day 7. On Day 8, estradiolbenzoate was injected in Group 1 (0.5 mg, n = 5) and Group 2 (1.0mg, n = 5). On Day 9, five buffaloes received 25 mg of Lecirelin(Control). Blood samples were collected for measure the LHconcentrations on Day 7 and then every 3 hours until 72 hours afterthe PGF2a injection. For evaluation of LH surge were compared theinterval between PGF2a injection to LH surge, duration, amplitudeand area under the LH peak. The LH surge occurred 51.0 + 0.0 hours,47.3 + 2.7 hours and 47.0 + 3.8 hours after PGF2a injection for Control,Group 1 and Group 2, respectively (P > 0.05). The duration of LHpeak in Control (7.8 + 1.5 hours) was shorter than Groups 1 and 2(10.5 + 1.5 hours vs. 10.8 + 2.4 hours, respectively; P < 0.05). Theamplitudes of LH peak were 4.5 + 0.4 ng/mL, 4.0 + 0.4 ng/mL and4.3 + 0.8 ng/mL for Control, Group 1 and Group 2, respectively (P> 0.05). The area under LH peak for Control (4.8 ± 0.7) was smallerthan the areas of the Groups 1 and 2 (8.8 ± 2.5 vs. 8.7 2.2, respectively;P < 0.05). In summary, the estradiol benzoate injection providedhigher duration and area of LH peak than GnRH injection in Ovsynchprotocol in buffalo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Buffaloes , Luteinizing Hormone/analysis , Ovulation/physiology , Estrus Synchronization/methods
17.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 44(1): 56-62, 2007. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-491101

ABSTRACT

O objetivo foi avaliar a eficiência do controle da ovulação utilizando os hormônios PMSG, GnRH, Benzoato de Estradiol e PGF2 α junto ao protocolo Crestar®, para IA em tempo fixo. Foram utilizadas 348 vacas, cruzadas Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) X Charolês (Bos taurus taurus), divididas em dois grupos: 179 vacas paridas com 90 a 120 dias pós-parto e 169 vacas solteiras. Estes animais foram submetidos a cinco tratamentos: todas as vacas receberam o protocolo Crestar® como agente sincronizador do crescimento folicular. (implante subcutâneo com 3mg de norgestomet e injeção 3mg de norgestomet + 5mg de valerato de estradiol - i.m.). Após a remoção do implante (10 dias), as vacas foram submetidas aos cinco tratamentos de controle da ovulação: T1 - (n=70): injeção de solução fisiológica 48h após a retirada do implante (D 12); T2 - (n=68): 0,75mg de benzoato de estradiol 24h após a retirada do implante (D 11); T3 - (n=70): aplicação de 150µg de PGF2 α, no dia da retirada (D 10) e 0,75mg de benzoato de estradiol 24h após a retirada do implante (D 11); T4 - (n=70): 500 UI de PMSG na retirada do implante (D 10) e T5 - (n=70): 500µg de GnRH 48h após a retirada dos implante (D 12). Todos os animais foram inseminados 54-56h após a retirada do implante. As taxas de prenhez foram analisadas estatisticamente por regressão logística. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos (p>0,05) onde: 35,7, 31,4, 22,0, 37,0 e 42,8% para T1, T2, T3, T4 e T5 respectivamente.


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ovulationusing PMSG, GnRH, Estradiol Benzoate and PGF2α in combination with Crestar® protocol and AI at fixed time. Three hundred forty eight multiparous cows, crossbreed Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) X Charolais (Bos taurus taurus) were divided in two groups: 179 suckling cows and 169 non-suckling cows. Those cows received a Crestar® protocol for follicular growth synchronization consisting of a subcutaneous implant with 3mg of norgestomet and 3mg of norgestomet plus 5mg of estradiol valerate injection (day of implant insert). The implant was removed after nine days. Cows were submitted to five treatments for pharmacological control of ovulation and were artificially inseminated at fixed time: T1 - (n=70): injection of physiological solution 48h after implant removal (D 12); T2 - (n=68): 0.75mg of estradiol benzoate 24h after implant removal (D 11); T3 - (n=70): 150µg of PGF2α at same day of implant removal (D 9) and 0.75mg of estradiol benzoate 24h after implant removal (D 11); T4 - (n=70): the cows received 500 UI of PMSG at implant removal (D 10) and T5 - (n=70): cows received 500µg of GnRH 48h after implant removal (D 12). Those cows were artificially inseminated 54-56h after implant removal. Pregnancy rate was analyzed by logistical regression program. There were no differences among treatments (P>0.05) 35.7, 31.4, 22.0, 37.0 and 42.8% for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Estrous Cycle/physiology , Insemination, Artificial/methods , Ovulation/physiology , Estrus Synchronization/methods
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 58(4): 537-543, ago. 2006. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese, English | LILACS | ID: lil-438722

ABSTRACT

Verificou-se a influência do momento da cobrição, em relação à ovulação, na fertilidade e na ocorrência de morte embrionária precoce (MEP) em 405 éguas da raça Puro Sangue Inglês, acompanhadas por 629 ciclos estrais. As éguas foram divididas em cinco grupos, de acordo com o momento da cobrição: grupo I, composto por 79 éguas cobertas entre 48 e 36 horas antes da ovulação; grupo II, com 102 éguas cobertas 36 a 24 horas antes da ovulação; grupo III, com 166 éguas cobertas 24 a 12 horas antes da ovulação; grupo IV, com 185 éguas cobertas até 12 horas antes da ovulação; e grupo V, formado por 97 éguas cobertas até 12 horas após a ovulação. As ovulações foram determinadas por palpação retal e ultra-sonografia, realizadas a cada 12 horas. O diagnóstico de gestação foi feito 14 dias após a cobrição com auxílio de ultra-sonografia. Novo exame foi realizado aos 60 dias para verificar ocorrência de MEP. Maiores índices de prenhez foram observados nos grupos III e IV (P<0,06). Verificou-se comportamento quadrático da taxa de prenhez em função do momento da cobrição aos 14 dias (R²= 91,0 por cento; P<0,05) e aos 60 dias de prenhez (R²= 89,2 por cento; P<0,05). Não foi observada diferença entre os grupos para MEP pelo qui-quadrado, mas a análise de regressão revelou comportamento quadrático da variável (R²= 92,4 por cento; P<0,05). O melhor momento para cobrição foram as 24 horas que antecederam a ovulação.


The effect of time of mating (with respect to time of ovulation) on fertility and early embryonic death (EED) in the equine was quantified. Thoroughbred mares (n= 405) were observed during 629 estrous cycles. The mares were divided into five groups: I- 79 mares that were mated between 48 and 36 hours prior to ovulation; II- 102 mares that were mated between 36 and 24 hours prior to ovulation; III- 166 mares that were mated between 24 and 12 hours prior to ovulation; IV- 185 mares that were mated between 12 hours prior to ovulation and the time of ovulation; and V- 97 mares that were mated during the interval from ovulation to 12 hours after ovulation. The occurrence of an ovulation was determined by rectal palpation and ultrasonography, performed every 12 hours. The diagnosis of conception was done 14 days after mating with the help of ultrasonography. Ultrasonography examination to detect EED was done on the 60th day post-mating. Conception rates were highest in groups III and IV (P<0.06). The regression analysis verified a quadratic model for successful pregnancy 14 days (R² = 91.0 percent; P<0.05) and 60 days (R² = 89.2 percent; P<0.05) post-mating. Although groups did not differ significantly in EED, regression analysis verified a quadratic model (R² = 92.4 percent; P<0.05). Results suggest that the optimum time for mating is the interval from 24 hours prior to ovulation up to the time of ovulation.


Subject(s)
Fertility/physiology , Horses , Ovulation/physiology , Embryo Loss/epidemiology
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 39(5): 647-658, May 2006. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-425782

ABSTRACT

Dominance status among female marmosets is reflected in agonistic behavior and ovarian function. Socially dominant females receive submissive behavior from subordinates, while exhibiting normal ovulatory function. Subordinate females, however, receive agonistic behavior from dominants, while exhibiting reduced or absent ovulatory function. Such disparity in female fertility is not absolute, and groups with two breeding females have been described. The data reported here were obtained from 8 female-female pairs of captive female marmosets, each housed with a single unrelated male. Pairs were classified into two groups: "uncontested" dominance (UD) and "contested" dominance (CD), with 4 pairs each. Dominant females in UD pairs showed significantly higher frequencies (4.1) of agonism (piloerection, attack and chasing) than their subordinates (0.36), and agonistic behaviors were overall more frequently displayed by CD than by UD pairs. Subordinates in CD pairs exhibited more agonistic behavior (2.9) than subordinates in UD pairs (0.36), which displayed significantly more submissive (6.97) behaviors than their dominants (0.35). The data suggest that there is more than one kind of dominance relationship between female common marmosets. Assessment of progesterone levels showed that while subordinates in UD pairs appeared to be anovulatory, the degree of ovulatory disruption in subordinates of CD pairs was more varied and less complete. We suggest that such variation in female-female social dominance relationships and the associated variation in the degree and reliability of fertility suppression may explain variations of the reproductive condition of free-living groups of common marmosets.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Agonistic Behavior/physiology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Callithrix/physiology , Dominance-Subordination , Ovulation/physiology , Feces/chemistry , Progesterone/analysis
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-1304

ABSTRACT

Women may experience anovular menstruation due to some pathophysiological causes which can be detected either by invasive histological examination as well as noninvasive serial ultrasound test. The women who are regularly menstruating without ovulation in each cycle were identified in this study. In a tertiary level infertility care centre of Bangladesh in Dhaka infertile population was the subject of the study. The serial ultrasound noninvasive procedure is used for diagnosis of anovular menstruation and found very much helpful.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Infertility, Female/physiopathology , Luteinization , Luteinizing Hormone , Menstruation/physiology , Ovarian Follicle , Ovulation/physiology , Time Factors
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