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1.
Estud. Interdiscip. Psicol ; 12(2): 99-128, maio-ago.2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355091

ABSTRACT

O artigo parte da problematização da noção de sujeito no exercício da escrita para fazer uma crítica ao sujeito da modernidade. Reflete sobre a emergência desse sujeito moderno nas filosofias de René Descartes, Immanuel Kant e na psicanálise de Sigmund Freud, em suas articulações com os mecanismos disciplinares e biopolíticos, demonstrando a emergência de um triplo enlace entre autoria, culpa e propriedade. Ressalta a articulação na modernidade de duas tecnologias de produção do sujeito: a culpa e o alterocídio, duas faces do ressentimento as quais são apresentadas por Friedrich Nietzsche e Achille Mbembe. Por fim, desde a perspectiva dos modos de subjetivação, busca-se traçar algumas linhas de uma autoria no avesso do ressentimento moderno-colonial: uma autoinvenção coletiva (AU).


The article starts from the problematization of the notion of subject in the exercise of writing to criticize the subject of modernity. Reflects on the emergence of this modern subject in the philosophies of René Descartes, Immanuel Kant and Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis, in its articulations with disciplinary and biopolitical mechanisms, demonstrating the emergence of a triple link between authorship, guilt and property. It emphasizes the articulation in modernity of two subject production technologies: guilt and alterocide, two faces of resentment presented by Friedrich Nietzsche and Achille Mbembe. Finally, from the perspective of the modes of subjectivation, we seek to trace some lines of authorship on the reverse side of modern-colonial resentment: a collective self-invention (AU)


El artículo parte de la problematización de la noción de sujeto en el ejercicio de la escritura para criticar el sujeto de la modernidad. Reflexiona sobre el surgimiento de este sujeto moderno en las filosofías de René Descartes, Immanuel Kant y en el psicoanálisis de Sigmund Freud, en sus articulaciones con mecanismos disciplinarios y biopolíticos, haciendo visible el surgimiento de un triple vínculo entre autoría, culpa y propiedad. Destaca la articulación en la modernidad de dos tecnologías para la producción del sujeto: la culpa y el alterocidio, dos caras del resentimiento presentadas por Friedrich Nietzsche y Achille Mbembe. Finalmente, desde la perspectiva de los modos de subjetivación, buscamos trazar algunas líneas de autoría en el reverso del resentimiento colonial moderno: una autoinvención colectiva (AU).


Subject(s)
Ownership , Psychoanalysis , Authorship , Guilt , Ego
2.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 40: e207501, jan.-maio 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1143548

ABSTRACT

Resumo Com base no pressuposto de que o direito à moradia é um princípio básico estabelecido em tratados internacionais e na própria Constituição brasileira, este ensaio tem três objetivos: situar historicamente a introdução deste princípio no contexto internacional e nacional; sua reelaboração a partir do conceito de adequação habitacional e a translação, no contexto brasileiro, da discussão sobre moradia adequada para moradia digna. Com este intuito, foram analisados documentos considerados centrais nesse debate, tendo como ponto de partida a Declaração de Direitos Humanos de 1948. Como método, a discussão está assentada na análise de documentos de domínio público e pautada na perspectiva da psicologia social discursiva. Como conclusão, consideramos que a translação de moradia adequada para moradia digna tem por base situar o direito à moradia como exercício de cidadania, com o uso de moradia digna para indicar que o que está em pauta é a possibilidade de ter uma vida digna.


Abstract Starting from the premise that the right to adequate housing is a basic principle established in international treaties as well as in the Brazilian Constitution, the aim of this essay is threefold: to trace the introduction of this principle in the international and national contexts; to follow its further elaboration in debates on adequate housing and to examine the translation of the term "adequate housing" into "dignified housing" in Brazilian Portuguese. National and international documents that are considered central to this debate were analyzed, taking as a starting point the United Nation's 1948 Declaration of Human Rights. Methodologically, the analysis is based on discursive social psychology discussion of the characteristics of public domain documents. We conclude that the translation of adequate housing to dignified housing, in Brazil, is the result of placing the right to a house as an exercise in citizenship, with the use of the expression dignified housing serving to indicate that what is at stake is the dignity of life itself.


Resumen Con base en el supuesto de que el derecho a la vivienda es un principio básico establecido por tratados internacionales y por la propia Constitución brasileña, este ensayo tiene tres objetivos: situar históricamente la introducción de este principio en el contexto internacional y nacional; su reelaboración a partir del concepto de adecuación habitacional y la traslación, en el contexto brasileño, de la discusión sobre vivienda adecuada para vivienda digna. Con este propósito, se analizaron documentos considerados centrales en ese debate, teniendo como punto de partida la Declaración de Derechos Humanos de 1948. La discusión está asentada en el análisis de documentos de dominio público y pautada en la perspectiva de la psicología social discursiva. Concluimos que la traslación de vivienda adecuada para vivienda digna tiene por base situar el derecho a la vivienda como ejercicio de la ciudadanía, con el uso de vivienda digna para indicar que lo que está en pauta es la posibilidad de tener una vida digna.


Subject(s)
Psychology, Social , Respect , Housing , Human Rights , Ownership , Psychology , Public Sector , Constitution and Bylaws , Community Participation , Life
3.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 40: 1-14, jan.-maio 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1140352

ABSTRACT

A problemática da linguagem é cara ao campo psicanalítico - a exploração do domínio desvelado pela psicanálise engendrou uma série discussões em torno deste tema. No entanto, a ênfase reside principalmente no papel da linguagem na constituição do psiquismo, distanciando-se do domínio da linguística ou da perspectiva representacional da linguagem, este artigo busca enfatizar o seu uso. Através de um diálogo entre autores da psicanálise e a fenomenologia de Merleau-Ponty, circunscreve-se a linguagem enquanto uma dimensão da experiência, o que pressupõe não fornecer um papel central para seu advento no psiquismo, bem como não a elevar como condição necessária da emergência do sentido. Para tal, recorre-se à definição de certa noção de experiência na psicanálise que enfatiza uma indissociação entre corporeidade, sentido, tempo e mundo. Nesse contexto, a linguagem enquanto uma dimensão da experiência está necessariamente articulada a estes elementos - questão que abre um campo de discussão importante para a clínica psicanalítica...(AU)


The matter of language is important to the psychoanalytic field - the exploration of such domain unveiled by psychoanalysis has generated a series of debates around this subject. However, the emphasis lies mainly on the role of language in the constitution of the psyche. While distancing itself from the domain of linguistics and the representational perspective of language, this paper approaches it emphasizing its use. Through a dialogue between authors of psychoanalysis and the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty, language is considered a dimension of experience, which presupposes it not to provide a central role for its advent in the psyche, as well as to not elevate it as a necessary condition to the emergence of meaning. The definition of a certain notion of experience emphasizes a lack of dissociation between corporeity, meaning, time and world. Language as a dimension of experience is necessarily articulated to these elements - a question that opens up an important field of discussion for psychoanalytic clinics...(AU)


La problemática del lenguaje es importante al campo psicoanalítico, puesto que la explotación del dominio desvelado por el psicoanálisis produjo una serie de discusiones en torno a este tema. Sin embargo, el énfasis reside principalmente en el papel del lenguaje en la constitución del psiquismo. Distanciándose del dominio de la lingüística o de la perspectiva representacional del lenguaje, este artículo busca enfatizar su uso. Con base en el diálogo entre autores del psicoanálisis y la fenomenología de Merleau-Ponty, se circunscribe el lenguaje a una dimensión de la experiencia, lo que presupone no establecer un papel central para su advenimiento en el psiquismo, así como no elevarla a la condición necesaria a la emergencia de sentido. La definición de cierta noción de experiencia enfatiza una indisociación entre corporeidad, sentido, tiempo y mundo. El lenguaje mientras una dimensión de la experiencia está necesariamente articulada a estos elementos, una cuestión que abre una importante discusión para la clínica psicoanalítica...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychoanalysis , Speech , Language , Linguistics , Ownership , Paper , Role , Time
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762182

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Data are lacking on the association between the allergic rhinitis (AR) phenotype and sensitization to specific allergens or bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in children. We here investigated risk factors and comorbidities, including sensitization to specific allergens and BHR, for the AR phenotype by AR and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) classification in a general population-based birth cohort study. METHODS: We enrolled 606 children aged 7 years from the Panel Study of Korean Children. The AR phenotype was assigned in accordance with the ARIA classification in children. Skin prick tests and Provocholine provocation test were performed. Risk factors and comorbidities for AR phenotypes were then analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of mild and moderate to severe AR in our study cohort was 37.2% and 8.8%, respectively. Recent use of analgesics or antipyretics and current cat ownership were associated with the risk of mild persistent AR. Sensitizations to Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus (Der p), Japanese hop and cat were associated with moderate to severe persistent AR. Children with moderate to severe AR had a higher risk of current asthma and BHR compared to mild AR cases (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–15.62). Moderate to severe AR with allergic sensitization was associated with the highest risk of BHR (aOR, 11.77; 95% CI, 3.40–40.74). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate to severe-persistent AR is more closely related to respiratory comorbidities and sensitizations than mild AR. Stratifying the AR phenotype by ARIA classification may assist in disease management.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Analgesics , Animals , Antipyretics , Asians , Asthma , Bronchial Hyperreactivity , Cats , Child , Classification , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Disease Management , Humans , Methacholine Chloride , Odds Ratio , Ownership , Parturition , Phenotype , Prevalence , Rhinitis, Allergic , Risk Factors , Skin
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762181

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Childhood asthma has a considerable social impact and economic burden, especially in severe asthma. This study aimed to identify the proportion of childhood asthma severity and to evaluate associated factors for greater asthma severity. METHODS: This study was performed on 667 children aged 5–15 years with asthma from the nationwide 19 hospitals in the Korean childhood Asthma Study (KAS). Asthma was classified as mild intermittent, mild persistent, and moderate/severe persistent groups according to the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program recommendations. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to identify the associated factors for greater asthma severity. RESULTS: Mild persistent asthma was most prevalent (39.0%), followed by mild intermittent (37.6%), moderate persistent (22.8%), and severe persistent asthma (0.6%). Onset later than 6 years of age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.69 for mild persistent asthma; aOR, 1.92 for moderate/severe persistent asthma) tended to increase asthma severity. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (aOR, 1.53 for mild persistent asthma; aOR, 1.85 for moderate/severe persistent asthma), and current dog ownership with sensitization to dog dander (aOR, 5.86 for mild persistent asthma; aOR, 6.90 for moderate/severe persistent asthma) showed increasing trends with greater asthma severity. Lower maternal education levels (aOR, 2.32) and no usage of an air purifier in exposure to high levels of outdoor air pollution (aOR, 1.76) were associated with moderate/severe persistent asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Modification of identified environmental factors associated with greater asthma severity might help better control childhood asthma, thereby reducing the disease burden due to childhood asthma.


Subject(s)
Air Filters , Air Pollution , Animals , Asthma , Child , Dander , Dogs , Education , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Ownership , Risk Factors , Smoke , Social Change , Tobacco
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39(2,n.esp): 87-99, ago.-nov. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1026107

ABSTRACT

Esse artigo tem por objetivo refletir sobre as possibilidades de contribuição da Psicologia a ações de enfrentamento a práticas violentas, e junto às lutas transversais travadas pelos grupos com os quais trabalhamos. Para tanto, partimos do conceito de lutas transversais de Michel Foucault, entendidas como lutas antiautoritárias e democratizantes que têm por alvo os mecanismos de dominação, exploração e submissão. Entendemos que os saberes psis, ao se colocarem a serviço das lutas transversais, podem servir como ferramentas de análise e enfrentamento a estes mecanismos. Nesse sentido, trazemos duas experiências de pesquisa e extensão realizadas em territórios que se encontravam em meio a processos de remoção, um deles na Comunidade Indiana, no bairro Tijuca, no Rio de Janeiro e o outro na Grande Cruzeiro, em Porto Alegre. Tais análises assumem o caráter de denúncia das violências decorrentes de gestões estatais, dando visibilidade às formas de submissão que operam pela produção do que chamaremos de uma "subjetividade culpada" e pela inscrição das populações alvo das remoções no lugar de não cidadãos, de sujeitos de um não direito. Buscaremos, ainda, evidenciar as articulações entre essas ferramentas de produção de subjetividade e as problemáticas materiais, decorrentes das desigualdades de acesso à moradia e à cidade. Por fim, afirmamos o caráter de resistência presente na compreensão de subjetividade como processo em constante construção e nas possibilidades de produzirmos rupturas nas práticas que encerram determinados modos de habitar e viver nas cidades como mais ou menos legítimos....(AU)


This article aims to reflect on the possibilities of contribution of Psychology to actions to confront violent practices, and the transversal struggles waged by the groups with which we work. To do so, we start from the concept of transverse struggles of Michel Foucault, understood as anti-authoritarian and democratizing struggles that aim at the mechanisms of domination, exploitation and submission. We understand that psis knowledge, when placed in the service of the transversal struggles waged by the groups with which we work, can serve as tools of analysis and coping with these mechanisms. In this sense, in this article, we bring two research and extension experiments carried out in territories that were in the midst of removal processes, one in the Indiana Community, in the Tijuca neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro, and the other in the region of Grande Cruzeiro in Porto Alegre. Such analyses assume the character of denunciation of the violence arising from state management, promoted through the removal processes of Indiana and part of the Grande Cruzeiro, giving visibility to the forms of submission that operate through the production of what we will call a "guilty subjectivity" and by the inscription of the target populations of the removals in the place of non-citizens, of subjects of a non-right, of illegitimate inhabitants of the city. We will also seek, with our analyses, to highlight the articulations between these tools of production of subjectivity and the concrete material problems arising from the inequalities of access to housing and the city. Finally, we affirm the character of resistance present in the understanding of subjectivity as a process in constant construction and in the possibilities of producing ruptures in practices that contain certain ways of living in cities as more or less legitimate....(AU)


Este artículo tiene como objetivo reflexionar sobre las posibilidades de la contribución de la Psicología para hacer frente a las prácticas violentas, y junto con las luchas transversales que libran los grupos con los que trabajamos. Con este fin, partimos del concepto de luchas transversales de Michel Foucault, entendido como luchas antiautoritarias y democratizadoras que apuntan a los mecanismos de dominación, explotación y sumisión. Entendemos que el conocimiento psis, al ponerse al servicio de las luchas transversales, puede servir como herramienta para el análisis y para hacer frente a estos mecanismos. En este sentido, traemos dos experiencias de investigación y extensión llevadas a cabo en territorios que se encontraban en medio de procesos de remoción, una en la Comunidad de Indiana, en el barrio de Tijuca, en Río de Janeiro y la otra en Grande Cruzeiro, en Porto Alegre. Dichos análisis asumen el carácter de denunciar la violencia resultante de la gestión estatal, dando visibilidad a las formas de sumisión que operan produciendo lo que llamaremos una "subjetividad culpable" y por la inscripción de las poblaciones objetivo de los retiros en el lugar de los no ciudadanos, de sujetos de un no derecho. También buscaremos resaltar las articulaciones entre estas herramientas de producción de subjetividad y los problemas materiales que surgen de las desigualdades en el acceso a la vivienda y la ciudad. Finalmente, afirmamos el carácter de resistencia presente en la comprensión de la subjetividad como un proceso en constante construcción y en las posibilidades de producir rupturas en las prácticas que incluyen ciertas formas de vivir y vivir en ciudades como más o menos legítimas....(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Ownership , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Violence , Dominance-Subordination , Social Problems , Housing , Psychology , Socioeconomic Factors
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739512

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: It is controversial whether indoor pet exposure is either a risk or protective factor developing sensitization to pet allergens or asthma. Therefore, we investigated whether indoor pet ownership entails a risk for the development of asthma and sensitization in childhood. METHODS: The Panel Study of Korean Children (PSKC) is a general-population-based birth cohort study that recruited 2,078 mother-baby dyads in Korea between April and July of 2008. Among 1,577 children who were followed up in 2015, 559 underwent skin prick tests, spirometry and bronchial provocation tests using Provocholine. Having a cat or a dog and the prevalence of asthma were evaluated by using self-reported questionnaires and physicians’ medical records. RESULTS: During infancy, the rate of dog ownership was 4.5% (71 of 1,574) and that of cat ownership was 0.5% (8 of 1,574). Of the subjects, 7.9% (n=109) currently had at least 1 dog and 2.5% (n=34) had at least 1 cat. Pet ownership during infancy was associated with sensitization to cats or dogs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29–13.98), wheezing within 12 months (aOR, 5.56; 95% CI, 1.65–18.75) and current asthma (wheezing episode in the last 12 months+diagnosed asthma by physicians) (aOR, 6.36; 95% CI, 1.54–26.28). In contrast, pet ownership during the last 12 months was not associated with sensitization to cats or dogs or current asthma. CONCLUSION: Indoor pet exposure during infancy can be critical for developing sensitization to cats or dogs and asthma in childhood. Avoidance of pet exposure in early life may reduce sensitization to cats or dogs and development of asthma.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Animals , Asthma , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Cats , Child , Cohort Studies , Dogs , Humans , Infant , Korea , Medical Records , Methacholine Chloride , Odds Ratio , Ownership , Parturition , Pets , Prevalence , Protective Factors , Respiratory Sounds , Risk Factors , Skin , Spirometry
8.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1258807

ABSTRACT

Background:The use of Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets(LLINs) in Africaincreasedmean birth weight by 55g, reduced the incidence of low birth weight by 23% and decreased miscarriages/stillbirths by 33%. However, the benefit of the LLINs may be limited by the rate of ownership and utilization by pregnant women.Objective:To determine and comparethe ownership and utilizationof LLINs among pregnant womenin urban and rural areas of Ogun State. Methods:A community-based comparative cross-sectional study on 72 and 74 pregnant womenliving in urban and rural areas, respectively of Ogun State was carried out. Using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique and apretested semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire,information on LLINs ownership and usewere obtained. Results:Ownership of LLINs was 81.1% in rural areas compared to 66.7% in urban areas. About 65%of participantsin rural versus 44.4% in urban areas slept under LLINs.The predictor ofownership of LLIN was age group15-24years [AOR 0.10 (95%CI 0.01 -0.56)]. The predictors of utilization of LLINs includedurban residence[AOR 0.29(95%CI 0.13 ­0.65)], age group15-24years[AOR 0.17 (95%CI 0.04 ­0.70)], registration of pregnancy for antenatal care [AOR 5.12 (95%CI 1.14 ­23.03)] and knowledge on prevention of malaria [AOR 4.94 (95%CI 1.51 ­16.17)].Conclusion:Pregnant womenshould visit ANCclinics regularly, and health education on malaria should focus more on the prevention ofmalaria as well as encouraging the consistent use of the nets, particularly in the urban areas


Subject(s)
Nigeria , Ownership , Pregnant Women , Rural Population , Urban Population
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children today are exposed to various media devices, and their usage of these is increasing. Prior studies have outlined forms of harm this can potentially cause. However, there has been little empirical research on the use of media devices among preschool children in Asia. The aim of this study was to examine and analyze longitudinal trends in media device use among Korean preschool children, focusing on the frequency of engagement, time spent with, and ownership of media devices, delineated by sex. METHODS: Four hundred parents of children aged 2–5 years were invited to enroll. The baseline assessment, Wave 1, was conducted between December 2015 and June 2016, and follow-up assessments, Wave 2 and Wave 3, were conducted annually for the following 2 years. Time of media use, frequency of media use, and ownership of media devices (TV, tablet PCs, and smartphones) were investigated. RESULTS: Ownership of tablet PCs increased significantly between Wave 1 and Wave 3 for boys and girls (corrected P < 0.001). Frequency of media use increased significantly between Wave 1 and Wave 3 only in boys' use of tablet PCs (mean difference 0.8 day/wk). Time of media use increased significantly between Wave 1 and Wave 3 for both sexes in all devices, measured by mean difference on weekdays and weekends (TV by 0.6 and 0.7 hr/day, tablet PCs by 0.6 and 0.8 hr/day, and smartphones by 0.4 and 0.4 hr/day). Children spent more time using media devices during weekends than on weekdays. CONCLUSION: This study observed an increase in the tendency of media device use among preschool children in Korea. The patterns of use indicate that paying attention to the types of devices children use is needed, as well as vigilance on weekends.


Subject(s)
Asia , Child , Child, Preschool , Empirical Research , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Ownership , Parents , Smartphone
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760013

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the innovative behavior of military hospital personnel. METHODS: The study involved the analysis of 146 structured questionnaires received from military hospital personnel in D city and S city. Data were collected from January 10 to February 9, 2019. The SPSS/WIN 24.0 program was used for data analysis, which included the t-test, ANOVA, Scheffé test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: The multiple regression analysis showed that factors affecting innovative behavior of military hospital staff were the natural reward strategies of self-leadership, behavior-focused strategies of self-leadership, and organization-based psychological ownership (R2=.30). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that to promote innovative behavior in military hospital staff, it is necessary to implement strategies that inspire self-leadership and psychological ownership.


Subject(s)
Hospitals, Military , Humans , Military Personnel , Ownership , Reward , Statistics as Topic
11.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e35-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epidemic thunderstorm asthma (ETSA) severely affected Melbourne, Australia in November 2016. There is scant literature on the natural history of individuals affected by ETSA. OBJECTIVE: A multicentre 12-month prospective observational study was conducted assessing symptomatology and behaviors of ETSA-affected individuals. METHODS: We used a structured phone questionnaire to assess asthma symptom frequency, inhaled preventer use, asthma action plan ownership and healthcare utilization over 12 months since the ETSA. Analysis of results included subgroup analyses of the “current,” “past,” “probable,“ and “no asthma” subgroups defined according to their original 2016 survey responses. RESULTS: Four hundred forty-two questionnaires were analyzed. Eighty percent of individuals reported ongoing asthma symptoms at follow-up, of which 28% were affected by asthma symptoms at least once a week. Risk of persistent asthma symptoms was significantly higher in those with prior asthma diagnosis, current asthma, and probable undiagnosed asthma (all p < 0.01). Of 442 respondents, 53% were prescribed inhaled preventers, of which 51% were adherent at least 5 days a week. Forty-two percent had a written asthma action plan and 16% had sought urgent medical attention for asthma in the preceding year. CONCLUSIONS: Following an episode of ETSA, patients experience a pivotal change in asthma trajectory with both loss of asthma control and persistence of de novo asthma. Suboptimal rates of inhaled preventer adherence and asthma action plan ownership may contribute to asthma exacerbation risk and susceptibility to future ETSA episodes. Longer-term follow-up is needed to determine the extent and severity of this apparent change.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Australia , Delivery of Health Care , Diagnosis , Environmental Exposure , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Natural History , Observational Study , Ownership , Prospective Studies , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Weather
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719265

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This pilot study aimed to provide an overview of the potential for blockchain technology in the healthcare system. The review covers technological topics from storing medical records in blockchains through patient personal data ownership and mobile apps for patient outreach. METHODS: We performed a preliminary survey to fill the gap that exists between purely technically focused manuscripts about blockchains, on the one hand, and the literature that is mostly concerned with marketing discussions about their expected economic impact on the other hand. RESULTS: The findings show that new digital platforms based on blockchains are emerging to enabling fast, simple, and seamless interaction between data providers, including patients themselves. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a conceptual understanding of the technical foundations of the potential for blockchain technology in healthcare, which is necessary to understand specific blockchain applications, evaluate business cases such as blockchain startups, or follow the discussion about its expected economic impacts.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Commerce , Delivery of Health Care , Foundations , Genomics , Hand , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , Marketing , Medical Records , Mobile Applications , Ownership , Pilot Projects , Telemedicine
13.
Psicol. rev. (Belo Horizonte) ; 24(3): 761-777, set.-dez. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040892

ABSTRACT

A atuação de organismos internacionais, como Banco Mundial, Fundo Monetário Internacional e Organização das Nações Unidas, sobre a administração política dos países tem sido cada vez mais presente, no cenário transnacional, desde sua criação, no século passado. Neste artigo, propomos problematizar a atuação do Fundo das Nações Unidas para a Infância (UNICEF), com base na análise do poder de Foucault e de outros autores das Ciências Sociais, como Weber e Bourdieu. Interessa-nos, neste texto, examinar os efeitos, na família brasileira das ações desse organismo. Vale assinalar que Michel Foucault (1979; 1995) nos lembrava da dimensão de soberania jurídica do poder e da esfera de dominação, tanto em O sujeito e o poder quanto em Soberania e disciplina. Nesse aspecto, pode-se tecer uma relação entre a analítica do poder, em Foucault, com a visão de poder de Weber e de Bourdieu.


The action of international organizations such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and the United Nations over the political administration of countries has been increasingly more present in the transnational scenario, since their creation last century. In this paper, we mean to question the actions of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), based on the analysis of power developed by Foucault and other Social Science authors, such as Weber and Bourdieu. In this article, our interest is to examine the effects of these institutions’ actions over the Brazilian family. It is worth outstanding that Michel Foucault (1979; 1995) reminded us of the size of the power legal sovereignty and the sphere of domination over both the subject and the power and Sovereignty and Discipline. In this context, it is possible to determine a link between the analytics of power in Foucault, and Weber’s and Bourdieu’s view of power.


El papel de las organizaciones internacionales como el Banco Mundial, el Fondo Monetario Internacional y las Naciones Unidas sobre la administración política del país, ha estado cada vez más presente en el entorno transnacional, desde su creación en el siglo pasado. En este artículo, nos proponemos analizar el papel del Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia (UNICEF), a partir del análisis del poder de Foucault y otros autores de las Ciencias Sociales, como Weber y Bourdieu. Lo que nos interesa en este texto examinar son los efectos, en la familia brasileña, de las acciones de este organismo. Vale la pena señalar que Michel Foucault (1979; 1995) nos recordó la dimensión de la soberanía jurídica de poder y de la esfera de dominación, tanto en El sujeto y el poder como en la Soberanía y disciplina. En este sentido, se puede tejer una relación entre los análisis del poder en Foucault, con la visión del poder de Weber y Bourdieu.


Subject(s)
Ownership , United Nations , Power, Psychological
14.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 35(2): 205-215, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953521

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to investigate distributive judgments in hypothetical situations involving productive activities. The participants should divide produced cupcakes between two story characters. One of the characters was the participant him/herself. Three factors were analyzed: (1) mode of production: cooperative with the help of one person or alone using someone else's means of production; (2) purpose of production: sale or picnic; and (3) participants' perspective: give the cupcakes to or take from the other character. Their confidence on each judgment and how easily they made their judgments were other aspects analyzed. The sample consisted of 156 university students. The results showed that the three factors influenced the participants' distributive judgment, and mode of production had the most significant influence. These results were discussed based on recent research on cooperative behavior and cognitive mechanisms that affect the decision-making process in situations involving distributive justice.


O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar julgamentos distributivos em situações hipotéticas envolvendo atividades produtivas. Os participantes deveriam dividir os bolinhos produzidos entre dois personagens, um dos quais identificado como o próprio participante. Foram analisados três fatores. (1) modo de produção: cooperativo com ajuda de uma pessoa ou sozinho, usando os meios de produção de outro; (2) finalidade da produção. venda ou piquenique; e (3) perspectiva do participante. dar os bolinhos para o outro ou pegar para si. Também foram medidas a facilidade e a confiança em cada julgamento. A amostra foi composta de 156 estudantes universitários. Os resultados indicaram que os três fatores influenciaram o julgamento distributivo dos participantes, sendo o modo de produção o mais relevante. Esses resultados foram discutidos à luz de pesquisas recentes sobre o comportamento cooperativo e os mecanismos cognitivos que influenciam o processo de tomada de decisão em questões envolvendo a justiça distributiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ownership , Decision Making
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718554

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the food insecurity status and dietary behavior and examine the association between the food insecurity status and consumption of processed beverage for secondary school students in Vientiane, capital city of Lao PDR. METHODS: The study subjects are 714 students (boys = 307 and girls = 407) in four secondary schools (Chao_Anouvong, Phiavat, Saysetha, and Chansavang) of Vientiane, Lao PDR. Data on study subject's demographic characteristics, dietary behavior, food insecurity, and Mini Dietary Assessment (MDA) index were collected. A “Self-Administered Food Security Survey Module for Children Aged 12 Years and Older” developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was used for the food insecurity assessment. RESULTS: As a result, 72.7% of the subjects were in a state of food insecurity, and food security was associated with higher socioeconomic status (higher life satisfaction, higher parent's education attainment, higher item ownership, fewer number of siblings, and having more lunches at the school restaurant than at home). Compared to the food insecurity group, the frequency of breakfast, self-rated diet, and the total score of MDA index were higher in the food security group. On the other hand, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ‘food security’ was also associated with a higher consumption of processed beverages (OR 1.544; 95% CI 1.078–2.213; p = 0.018). CONCLUSION: Improving the quality of the diet is essential for adolescents in both the food insecurity and food security groups in Lao PDR. Therefore, it is necessary to provide well organized nutrition education and establish adequate nutrition policy for adolescents in Lao PDR.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Beverages , Breakfast , Child , Diet , Education , Female , Food Supply , Hand , Humans , Logistic Models , Lunch , Nutrition Policy , Ownership , Restaurants , Siblings , Social Class , United States Department of Agriculture
17.
S. Afr. j. child health (Online) ; 12(3): 111-116, 2018. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1270332

ABSTRACT

Background. The timely completion of the childhood immunisation schedule for children under the age of 1 year by caregivers is key to reducing the high morbidity and mortality of vaccine-preventable diseases among infantsglobally.Objective. To determine the ownership of mobile phones among caregivers of children under the age of 1 year, their knowledge about immunisation service delivery and willingness to receive childhood immunisation schedule reminder messages in Ondo State, south-western Nigeria.Method. A descriptive cross-sectional study using semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaires was conducted with 615 caregivers of infants, who brought their children to clinics conducting immunisation in 24 health facilities in rural, semi-urban and urban settlements in Ondo State in December 2014.Results. The mean (standard deviation, SD) age of respondents was 28.49 (6.01) years, 76.7% were Yoruba, 91.4% were married and living with their spouses and 4.2% were single. Mobile phone ownership was 74.5% among rural-based respondents, and 95.8% among urbanbased.Forty-six percent of the respondents had good knowledge of immunisation, vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccination schedules,while 27.5% had poor knowledge. The majority of the respondents (99.7%) were willing to receive childhood immunisation reminder messages on their mobile phones. About 50% of the respondents preferred to receive reminder messages at any time, rather than specific times. The most preferred language for reminders was English (54.5%). Residing in an urban area and having post-secondary education were predictors of mobile phone ownership.Conclusion. The high mobile phone ownership level, and the willingness of caregivers of infants in this study area to receive immunisation schedule reminder messages, is encouraging, and should be optimised to improve routine immunisation uptake. However, caregivers of infants in rural areas need to be provided with mobile phone support, and trained in their usage in order to benefit from such an intervention in childhood immunisation


Subject(s)
Cell Phone , Consent Forms , Infant Health , Lakes , Nigeria , Ownership , Vaccination
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(12): e7558, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974253

ABSTRACT

The association between pet ownership and the development of allergic and respiratory diseases has been the aim of several studies, however, the effects of exposure in adults remain uncertain. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of asthma and lung function status among dog and cat owners. This cross-sectional study was performed at two universities with students and workers who were allocated into 3 groups according to pet ownership in the previous year: cat owners, dog owners, and no pets (control group). Subjects underwent spirometry, bronchial challenge test with mannitol, skin prick tests, and questionnaires about animal exposures and respiratory symptoms. Control group comprised 125 subjects; cat owner group, 51 subjects; and dog owner group, 140 subjects. Cat owners had increased asthma prevalence (defined by symptoms and positive bronchial challenge test), but no changes in lung function compared to the control group. The dog owner group had lower spirometry values (forced expiratory volume in one second and lower forced vital capacity), but similar asthma prevalence, compared to the control group. In the cat owner group, excess of asthma may have an immunological basis, since we found an association with atopy. Although we did not have endotoxin data from volunteers' households, we postulated that low values of lung function were associated to exposure to endotoxins present in environments exposed to dogs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Cats , Dogs , Young Adult , Ownership/statistics & numerical data , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Pets , Lung/physiopathology , Reference Values , Respiratory Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Asthma/physiopathology , Spirometry , Brazil/epidemiology , Allergens/adverse effects , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713200

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study evaluated dog and cat allergies and their association with allergen avoidance measures in Korean adults. METHODS: The study population consisted of 537 adults who currently kept dogs or cats and participated in a pet exhibition in Korea. The subjects were asked to complete questionnaires regarding pet ownership, allergen avoidance, and allergy symptoms, and underwent skin prick tests. They were considered to have a dog or cat allergy if they suffered from one or more of allergy symptoms during contact with their pets. RESULTS: In total, 103 of 407 dog owners (25.3%) and 45 of 130 cat owners (34.6%) had a dog or cat allergy, respectively. Dog owners kept 1.3±1.5 dogs; this number did not differ according to the presence of dog allergy. Dog owners with a dog allergy had owned their dogs longer than those without (88.0±72.0 vs 67.5±72.7 months, P < 0.05). Cat owners kept 2.1±3.6 cats; this number did not differ according to the presence of cat allergy, nor did the duration of cat ownership. Cat owners with a cat allergy had facial contact and slept with their cats less frequently (8.6±11.9 vs 18.3±27.0 times/day, P < 0.01; 71.1% vs 81.2%, P < 0.05); however, they had their cats shaved and beds cleaned less frequently than those without (1.8±3.3 vs 3.2±4.4 times/year, P < 0.05; 1.5±1.5 vs 3.9±6.0 times/month, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Cat owners with a cat allergy tried to minimize contact with their cats, but efforts to avoid indoor cat allergens were lower than those without. In comparison, dog owners with a dog allergy had kept their dogs for longer time than those without; however, current contact with their dogs and allergen avoidance measures did not differ between the 2 groups.


Subject(s)
Adult , Allergens , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Ownership , Skin
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug methacholine chloride (Provocholine®) was recently introduced to Korea where it is now widely used in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and cutoff value of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to Provocholine in 7-year-old children. METHODS: Six hundred and thirty-three children from the Panel Study on Korean Children who visited 16 regional hospitals were evaluated. Skin prick tests, spirometry and bronchial provocation tests for Provocholine as well as a detailed history and physical examinations were performed. The bronchial provocation test was reliably performed on 559 of these children. RESULTS: The prevalence of ever-diagnosed asthma via medical records was 7.7%, and that of current asthma (wheezy episode in the last 12 months + diagnosed asthma by physicians) was 3.2%. The prevalence of BHR to Provocholine was 17.2% and 25.8%, respectively, for a PC20 < 8 and < 16 mg/mL. The risk factors for BHR (PC20 < 16 mg/mL) were atopic dermatitis diagnosis and current dog ownership, whereas those for current asthma were allergy rhinitis diagnosis, a history of bronchiolitis before the age of 3, recent use of analgesics/antipyretics and maternal history of asthma. The BHR prevalence trend showed an increase along with the increased immunoglobulin E (IgE) quartile. The cutoff value of PC20 for the diagnosis of current asthma in children at age 7 was 5.8 mg/mL (sensitivity: 47.1%, specificity: 87.4%). CONCLUSIONS: BHR to Provocholine (PC20 < 8 mg/mL) was observed in 17.2% of 7-year-olds children from the general population and the cutoff value of PC20 for the diagnosis of current asthma was 5.8 mg/mL in this age group. The risk factors for BHR and current asthma showed discrepancies suggesting different underlying mechanisms. Bronchial provocation testing with Provocholine will be a useful clinical tool in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma , Bronchial Hyperreactivity , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Bronchiolitis , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic , Diagnosis , Dogs , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Korea , Medical Records , Methacholine Chloride , Ownership , Physical Examination , Prevalence , Rhinitis , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Skin , Spirometry , United States Food and Drug Administration
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