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J. appl. oral sci ; 17(5): 436-439, Sept.-Oct. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-531393


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intrapulpal temperature variation after bleaching treatment with 35 percent hydrogen peroxide using different sources of activation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four human teeth were sectioned in the mesiodistal direction providing 48 specimens, and were divided into 4 groups (n=12): (G1) Control - Bleaching gel without light activation, (G2) Bleaching gel + halogen light, (G3) Bleaching gel + LED, (G4) Bleaching gel + Nd:YAG Laser. The temperatures were recorded using a digital thermometer at 4 time points: before bleaching gel application, 1 min after bleaching gel application, during activation of the bleaching gel, and after the bleaching agent turned from a dark-red into a clear gel. Data were analyzed statistically by the Dunnet's test, ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05). RESULTS: The mean intrapulpal temperature values (ºC) in the groups were: G1: 0.617 ± 0.41; G2: 1.800 ± 0.68; G3: 0.975 ± 0.51; and G4: 4.325 ± 1.09. The mean maximum temperature variation (MTV) values were: 1.5ºC (G1), 2.9ºC (G2), 1.7ºC (G3) and 6.9ºC (G4). When comparing the experimental groups to the control group, G3 was not statistically different from G1 (p>0.05), but G2 and G4 presented significantly higher (p<0.05) intrapulpal temperatures and MTV. The three experimental groups differed significantly (p<0.05) from each other. CONCLUSIONS: The Nd:YAG laser was the activation method that presented the highest values of intrapulpal temperature variation when compared with LED and halogen light. The group activated by LED light presented the lowest values of temperature variation, which were similar to that of the control group.

Humans , Body Temperature/drug effects , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Hydrogen Peroxide/therapeutic use , Light , Oxidants/therapeutic use , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Gels , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Hydrogen Peroxide/radiation effects , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Lighting/instrumentation , Materials Testing , Oxidants/administration & dosage , Oxidants/radiation effects , Thermometers , Time Factors
J. appl. oral sci ; 17(3): 254-261, May-June 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-514044


Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of 16% carbamide peroxide gel (CP16%), tetrahydrate sodium perborate (SP) and mixture (CP16% + SP), in walking bleaching of non-vital discolored teeth. Materials and methods: Sixty single-rooted human premolars with intact crowns were used and initial color was assessed using Vita shade guide and standardized photos. The teeth were stained using rabbit fresh blood for 18 days and photos of discolored teeth and color evaluation were performed. The teeth were divided into 4 groups (n= 15), according to bleaching agent used: G1) CP16% gel; G2) CP16% gel + SP; G3) SP + distilled water; G4: control.The bleaching agents were replaced twice at 7-day intervals for 21 days. All teeth were evaluated by two endodontists at days 0, 7, 14 and 21 and the color changes were assessed using Vita shade guide and standardized photos. The results were analyzed byKruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s tests (p=0.05). Results: The experimental groups presented statistically similar bleaching results (p>0.05) at the end of 7, 14 and 21 days. These groups presented significantly higher bleaching efficacy than control group (G4) (p<0.05). The mixture CP16% + SP promoted return of original color in 100% of teeth at the end of 21 days. Conclusion: It was concluded that three bleaching agents were effective in bleaching of stained teeth with blood products, especially at the end of 21 days.

Animals , Humans , Rabbits , Borates/administration & dosage , Oxidants/administration & dosage , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Tooth, Nonvital , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Tooth Discoloration/therapy , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Bicuspid , Blood Stains , Drug Combinations , Urea/administration & dosage
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2009 Feb; 46(1): 53-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-28834


Chronic exposure to psychological stress in humans and restraint stress in experimental animals results in increased oxidative stress and resultant tissue damage. To study the contribution of stress hormones towards stress-induced oxidative processes in the brain, we investigated the response of important free-radical scavenging enzymes toward chronic administration of two doses of corticosterone (low dose: 10 mg/kg/day, high dose: 40 mg/kg/day) in rodents. After a 21-day experimental period, a significant decline in both superoxide dismutase and catalase was observed in both stressed and stress hormone-treated animals. The brain levels of glutathione as well as the activities of glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase were also significantly decreased, while lipid peroxidation levels were significantly increased in comparison to controls. A direct pro-oxidant effect of stress hormones in the brain during physical and psychological stress was observed, indicating important implications for oxidative stress as a major pathological mechanism during chronic stress and a consequent target option for anti-stress therapeutic interventions.

Analysis of Variance , Animals , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Brain/metabolism , Catalase/metabolism , Corticosterone/administration & dosage , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Reductase/metabolism , Glutathione Transferase/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Oxidants/administration & dosage , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Random Allocation , Rats , Restraint, Physical , Stress, Psychological , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
Braz. oral res ; 23(supl.1): 64-70, 2009.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-528431


Tooth discoloration is commonly found in the dental clinic and tooth bleaching has been considered the preferred esthetic alternative, being more conservative, safe and with predictable results. Supervised home-use of 10 percent Carbamide Peroxide (CP) bleaching with custom-trays is the most common bleaching procedure dispensed by dentists to their patients. The good results obtained with this technique stimulated the flourishing of new products and techniques. Over-the-counter (OTC) bleaching products appeared as a low-cost alternative to bleach discolored teeth without dentist supervision. Different OTC products are available in supermarkets, drug stores or on the Internet, including rinses, paint-on brushes, toothpastes, chewing guns, dental floss, and whitening strips. There is lack of clinical evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of these products, being most of the studies supported by the manufacturers'. Basically, toothpastes, chewing gums, and dental floss are removal agents of superficial stains. Rinses and paint-on brushes with low levels of hydrogen peroxide have some whitening effect, but without clinical relevance. Strips present similar esthetic results and side-effects, compared to bleaching with 10 percent CP using trays; however, the studies have financial support from the manufacturers and were based on short term evaluations. Legislation varies widely in different countries regarding OTC dental bleaching. Concerns have appeared due to the potential abusive use of these self-medication agents, especially in young patients, with potential harmful results. Dentists should be acquainted with this kind of products to be able to inform their patients. In conclusion, there is a need for independent clinical trials to provide sufficient evidence regarding the use of OTC bleaching products.

Humans , Dental Devices, Home Care/standards , Nonprescription Drugs/administration & dosage , Oxidants/administration & dosage , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Tooth Bleaching/standards , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Chewing Gum , Clinical Trials as Topic , Dental Devices, Home Care/economics , Dentifrices/administration & dosage , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Nonprescription Drugs/adverse effects , Nonprescription Drugs/economics , Oxidants/adverse effects , Peroxides/adverse effects , Self Medication , Treatment Outcome , Toothpastes/administration & dosage , Urea/administration & dosage , Urea/adverse effects
Braz. oral res ; 21(2): 170-175, 2007. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-453198


Dental bleaching occurs due to an oxidation reaction between the bleaching agents and the macromolecules of pigments in the teeth. This reaction is unspecific and the peroxides can also affect the dental matrix causing mineral loss. On the other hand, recent studies have suggested that the thickener agent carbopol can also cause mineral loss. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of at-home dental bleaching on dental enamel microhardness after the use of bleaching agents with and without carbopol as a thickener agent. Bovine dental slabs with 3 x 3 x 3 mm were obtained, sequentially polished, and randomly divided into 4 groups according to the experimental treatment: G1: 2 percent carbopol; G2: 10 percent carbamide peroxide with carbopol; G3: carbowax; G4: 10 percent carbamide peroxide with poloxamer. Bleaching was performed daily for 4 weeks, immersed in artificial saliva. Enamel microhardness values were obtained before the treatment (T0) and 7 (T1), 14 (T2), 21 (T3), 28 (T4), and 42 (T5) days after the beginning of the treatment. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed statistically significant differences only for the factor Time (F = 5.48; p < 0.01). All bleaching and thickener agents caused no alterations on the enamel microhardness.

O clareamento dental ocorre devido a uma reação de oxidação entre o agente clareador e as macromoléculas de pigmentos presentes nos dentes. Esta reação é inespecífica e o peróxido pode agir na matriz dental causando perdas de mineral. Por outro lado, estudos recentes sugerem que o agente espessante carbopol também pode causar perda mineral. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar in vitro o efeito do clareamento caseiro sobre a microdureza do esmalte após o uso de agentes clareadores com e sem carbopol como espessante. Fragmentos de esmalte bovino de 3 x 3 x 3 mm foram obtidos, polidos seqüencialmente e aleatoriamente divididos em 4 grupos de acordo com o tratamento experimental: G1: carbopol a 2 por cento; G2: peróxido de carbamida a 10 por cento com carbopol; G3: carbowax; G4: peróxido de carbamida a 10 por cento com poloxamer. O clareamento foi realizado diariamente por 4 semanas em saliva artificial. A microdureza do esmalte foi avaliada antes (T0) e após 7 (T1), 14 (T2), 21 (T3), 28 (T4), e 42 (T5) dias do início do tratamento. A ANOVA e o teste de Tukey revelaram diferenças estatísticas significantes somente para o fator Tempo (F = 5,48; p < 0,01). Os agentes clareadores e espessantes não causaram alterações na microdureza do esmalte.

Animals , Cattle , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Oxidants/administration & dosage , Peroxides/administration & dosage , Polyvinyls/administration & dosage , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Dental Devices, Home Care , Drug Combinations , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Hardness Tests , Hardness/drug effects , Random Allocation , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Urea/administration & dosage
In. Vivaldi Cichero, Ennio; Hernández Poblete, Glenn. Síndrome de shock: aspectos históricos, hemodinámicos, bioquímicos y clínicos. Santiago de Chile, Universidad de Concepción. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, mar. 1995. p.107-43.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-173377