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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879944

ABSTRACT

The metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells is characterized by increased uptake of various nutrients including glutamine. Glutamine metabolism provides the required substances for glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation and affects the homeostasis of carbohydrate,fat and protein metabolism to induce the chemoresistance of tumor cells. Combination of chemotherapeutic agents with inhibitors specific to different components of glutamine metabolic pathway has obtained favorable clinical results on various tumors. Glutamine metabolic pathway plays a role in drug resistance of tumor cells in various ways. Firstly,the dynamic change of glutamine transporters can directly affect intracellular glutamine content thereby causing drug resistance; secondly,tumor stromal cells including adipocyte,fibroblast and metabolite from tumor microenvironment would give rise to immune-mediated drug resistance; thirdly,the expression and activity of key enzymes in glutamine metabolism also has a critical role in drug resistance of tumors. This article reviews the effects of glutamine metabolic pathway in the development of tumor chemoresistance,in terms of transporters,tumor microenvironment and metabolic enzymes,to provide insight for improving the therapeutic efficacy for drug-resistant tumors.


Subject(s)
Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Glutamine/metabolism , Glycolysis , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Tumor Microenvironment
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785338

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The roles of gut microbiota on the natural course of atopic dermatitis (AD) are not yet fully understood. We investigated whether the composition and function of gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) at 6 months of age could affect the natural course of AD up to 24 months in early childhood.METHODS: Fecal samples from 132 infants were analyzed using pyrosequencing, including 84 healthy controls, 22 transient AD and 26 persistent AD subjects from the Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and Allergic Diseases (COCOA) birth cohort. The functional profile of the gut microbiome was analyzed by whole-metagenome sequencing. SCFAs were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.RESULTS: Low levels of Streptococcus and high amounts of Akkermansia were evident in transient AD cases, and low Clostridium, Akkermansia and high Streptococcus were found in children with persistent AD. The relative abundance of Streptococcus positively correlated with scoring of AD (SCORAD) score, whereas that of Clostridium negatively correlated with SCORAD score. The persistent AD group showed decreased gut microbial functional genes related to oxidative phosphorylation compared with healthy controls. Butyrate and valerate levels were lower in transient AD infants compared with healthy and persistent AD infants.CONCLUSIONS: Compositions, functions and metabolites of the early gut microbiome are related to natural courses of AD in infants.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Butyrates , Child , Clostridium , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Infant , Metabolomics , Metagenome , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Parturition , Streptococcus
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) may be a valuable source for cardiovascular tissue engineering and cell therapy. The aim of this study is to verify angiotensin II and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) as potential cardiomyogenic differentiation inducers of AF-MSCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: AF-MSCs were obtained from amniocentesis samples from second-trimester pregnant women, isolated and characterized by the expression of cell surface markers (CD44, CD90, CD105 positive; CD34 negative) and pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, REX1). Cardiomyogenic differentiation was induced using different concentrations of angiotensin II and TGF-β1. Successful initiation of differentiation was confirmed by alterations in cell morphology, upregulation of cardiac genes-markers NKX2-5, TBX5, GATA4, MYH6, TNNT2, DES and main cardiac ion channels genes (sodium, calcium, potassium) as determined by RT-qPCR. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis revealed the increased expression of Connexin43, the main component of gap junctions, and Nkx2.5, the early cardiac transcription factor. Induced AF-MSCs switched their phenotype towards more energetic and started utilizing oxidative phosphorylation more than glycolysis for energy production as assessed using Agilent Seahorse XF analyzer. The immune analysis of chromatin-modifying enzymes DNMT1, HDAC1/2 and Polycomb repressive complex 1 and 2 (PRC1/2) proteins BMI1, EZH2 and SUZ12 as well as of modified histones H3 and H4 indicated global chromatin remodeling during the induced differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Angiotensin II and TGF-β1 are efficient cardiomyogenic inducers of human AF-MSCs; they initiate alterations at the gene and protein expression, metabolic and epigenetic levels in stem cells leading towards cardiomyocyte-like phenotype formation.


Subject(s)
Amniocentesis , Amniotic Fluid , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Blotting, Western , Calcium , Cell Differentiation , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Chromatin , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Connexin 43 , Epigenomics , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gap Junctions , Glycolysis , Histones , Humans , Ion Channels , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Muscle Cells , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Phenotype , Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 , Pregnant Women , Smegmamorpha , Stem Cells , Tissue Engineering , Transcription Factors , Up-Regulation
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763792

ABSTRACT

Athletic performance is a complex multifactorial trait involving genetic and environmental factors. The heritability of an athlete status was reported to be about 70% in a twin study, and at least 155 genetic markers are known to be related with athlete status. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes essential proteins for oxidative phosphorylation, which is related to aerobic capacity. Thus, mtDNA is a candidate marker for determining physical performance. Recent studies have suggested that polymorphisms of mtDNA are associated with athlete status and/or physical performance in various populations. Therefore, we analyzed mtDNA haplogroups to assess their association with the physical performance of Korean population. The 20 mtDNA haplogroups were determined using the SNaPshot assay. Our result showed a significant association of the haplogroup F with athlete status (odds ratio, 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.094 to 8.464; p = 0.012). Athletes with haplogroup F (60.64 ± 3.04) also demonstrated a higher Sargent jump than athletes with other haplogroups (54.28 ± 1.23) (p = 0.041). Thus, our data imply that haplogroup F may play a crucial role in the physical performance of Korean athletes. Functional studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to further substantiate these findings.


Subject(s)
Athletes , Athletic Performance , DNA, Mitochondrial , Genetic Markers , Humans , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Sample Size
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763691

ABSTRACT

Obesity results in an inflammatory microenvironment in adipose tissue, leading to the deterioration of tissue protective mechanisms. Although recent studies suggested the importance of type 2 immunity in an anti-inflammatory microenvironment in adipose tissue, the regulatory effects of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines on systemic metabolic regulation are not fully understood. Recently, we identified the roles of the Th2 cytokine (interleukin 4 [IL-4] and IL-13)-induced adipokine, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), in adipose tissue in regulating systemic glucose metabolism via signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) activation. Moreover, we showed that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is required to maintain these macrophage-regulating autocrine and paracrine signaling pathways via Th2 cytokine-induced secretion of GDF15. In this review, we discuss how the type 2 immune response and Th2 cytokines regulate metabolism in adipose tissue. Specifically, we review the systemic regulatory roles of Th2 cytokines in metabolic disease and the role of mitochondria in maintenance of type 2 responses in adipose tissue homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Adipokines , Adipose Tissue , Cytokines , Glucose , Growth Differentiation Factor 15 , Homeostasis , Metabolic Diseases , Metabolism , Mitochondria , Obesity , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Paracrine Communication , STAT6 Transcription Factor
6.
Immune Network ; : e11-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740217

ABSTRACT

During virus infection, T cells must be adapted to activation and lineage differentiation states via metabolic reprogramming. Whereas effector CD8⁺ T cells preferentially use glycolysis for their rapid proliferation, memory CD8⁺ T cells utilize oxidative phosphorylation for their homeostatic maintenance. Particularly, enhanced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity promotes the memory T cell response through different pathways. However, the level of AMPK activation required for optimal memory T cell differentiation remains unclear. A new metformin derivative, IM156, formerly known as HL156A, has been reported to ameliorate various types of fibrosis and inhibit in vitro and in vivo tumors by inducing AMPK activation more potently than metformin. Here, we evaluated the in vivo effects of IM156 on antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells during their effector and memory differentiation after acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Unexpectedly, our results showed that in vivo treatment of IM156 exacerbated the memory differentiation of virus-specific CD8⁺ T cells, resulting in an increase in short-lived effector cells but decrease in memory precursor effector cells. Thus, IM156 treatment impaired the function of virus-specific memory CD8⁺ T cells, indicating that excessive AMPK activation weakens memory T cell differentiation, thereby suppressing recall immune responses. This study suggests that metabolic reprogramming of antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells by regulating the AMPK pathway should be carefully performed and managed to improve the efficacy of T cell vaccine.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Cell Differentiation , Fibrosis , Glycolysis , Immunologic Memory , In Vitro Techniques , Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus , Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis , Memory , Metformin , Oxidative Phosphorylation , T-Lymphocytes
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727855

ABSTRACT

Myoblast fusion depends on mitochondrial integrity and intracellular Ca²⁺ signaling regulated by various ion channels. In this study, we investigated the ionic currents associated with [Ca²⁺]i regulation in normal and mitochondrial DNA-depleted (ρ0) L6 myoblasts. The ρ0 myoblasts showed impaired myotube formation. The inwardly rectifying K⁺ current (I(Kir)) was largely decreased with reduced expression of KIR2.1, whereas the voltage-operated Ca²⁺ channel and Ca²⁺-activated K⁺ channel currents were intact. Sustained inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport by antimycin A treatment (24 h) also decreased the I(Kir). The ρ0 myoblasts showed depolarized resting membrane potential and higher basal [Ca²⁺]ᵢ. Our results demonstrated the specific downregulation of I(Kir) by dysfunctional mitochondria. The resultant depolarization and altered Ca²⁺ signaling might be associated with impaired myoblast fusion in ρ0 myoblasts.


Subject(s)
Antimycin A , Down-Regulation , Electron Transport , Ion Channels , Membrane Potentials , Mitochondria , Muscle Development , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Myoblasts , Oxidative Phosphorylation
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716320

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancers. Dysfunction occurs in part because of altered regulation of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), which acts as a central metabolic node that mediates pyruvate oxidation after glycolysis and fuels the Krebs cycle to meet energy demands. Fine-tuning of PDC activity has been mainly attributed to post-translational modifications of its subunits, including the extensively studied phosphorylation and de-phosphorylation of the E1α subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), modulated by kinases (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase [PDK] 1-4) and phosphatases (pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase [PDP] 1-2), respectively. In addition to phosphorylation, other covalent modifications, including acetylation and succinylation, and changes in metabolite levels via metabolic pathways linked to utilization of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, have been identified. In this review, we will summarize the roles of PDC in diverse tissues and how regulation of its activity is affected in various metabolic disorders.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Amino Acids , Citric Acid Cycle , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fatty Acids , Glucose , Glycolysis , Metabolic Diseases , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Metabolism , Mitochondria , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Obesity , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Oxidoreductases , Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex , Pyruvic Acid
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739648

ABSTRACT

During cancer progression, cancer cells are repeatedly exposed to metabolic stress conditions in a resource-limited environment which they must escape. Increasing evidence indicates the importance of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) homeostasis in the survival of cancer cells under metabolic stress conditions, such as metabolic resource limitation and therapeutic intervention. NADPH is essential for scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mainly derived from oxidative phosphorylation required for ATP generation. Thus, metabolic reprogramming of NADPH homeostasis is an important step in cancer progression as well as in combinational therapeutic approaches. In mammalian, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and one-carbon metabolism are major sources of NADPH production. In this review, we focus on the importance of glucose flux control towards PPP regulated by oncogenic pathways and the potential therein for metabolic targeting as a cancer therapy. We also summarize the role of Snail (Snai1), an important regulator of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), in controlling glucose flux towards PPP and thus potentiating cancer cell survival under oxidative and metabolic stress.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Cell Survival , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Glucose , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase , Homeostasis , Metabolism , NADP , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Pentose Phosphate Pathway , Reactive Oxygen Species , Snails , Stress, Physiological , United Nations
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739647

ABSTRACT

In 1923, Dr. Warburg had observed that tumors acidified the Ringer solution when 13 mM glucose was added, which was identified as being due to lactate. When glucose is the only source of nutrient, it can serve for both biosynthesis and energy production. However, a series of studies revealed that the cancer cell consumes glucose for biosynthesis through fermentation, not for energy supply, under physiological conditions. Recently, a new observation was made that there is a metabolic symbiosis in which glycolytic and oxidative tumor cells mutually regulate their energy metabolism. Hypoxic cancer cells use glucose for glycolytic metabolism and release lactate which is used by oxygenated cancer cells. This study challenged the Warburg effect, because Warburg claimed that fermentation by irreversible damaging of mitochondria is a fundamental cause of cancer. However, recent studies revealed that mitochondria in cancer cell show active function of oxidative phosphorylation although TCA cycle is stalled. It was also shown that blocking cytosolic NADH production by aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition, combined with oxidative phosphorylation inhibition, resulted in up to 80% decrease of ATP production, which resulted in a significant regression of tumor growth in the NSCLC model. This suggests a new theory that NADH production in the cytosol plays a key role of ATP production through the mitochondrial electron transport chain in cancer cells, while NADH production is mostly occupied inside mitochondria in normal cells.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase , Cytosol , Electron Transport , Energy Metabolism , Fermentation , Glucose , Lactic Acid , Metabolism , Mitochondria , NAD , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Oxygen , Symbiosis
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that sphingolipids may be involved in type 2 diabetes. However, the exact signaling defect through which disordered sphingolipid metabolism induces β-cell dysfunction remains unknown. The current study demonstrated that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), the product of sphingosine kinase (SphK), is an essential factor for maintaining β-cell function and survival via regulation of mitochondrial action, as mediated by prohibitin (PHB). METHODS: We examined β-cell function and viability, as measured by mitochondrial function, in mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells in response to manipulation of cellular S1P and PHB levels. RESULTS: Lack of S1P induced by sphingosine kinase inhibitor (SphKi) treatment caused β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis, with repression of mitochondrial function shown by decreases in cellular adenosine triphosphate content, the oxygen consumption rate, the expression of oxidative phosphorylation complexes, the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the expression of key regulators of mitochondrial dynamics (mitochondrial dynamin-like GTPase [OPA1] and mitofusin 1 [MFN1]). Supplementation of S1P led to the recovery of mitochondrial function and greatly improved β-cell function and viability. Knockdown of SphK2 using small interfering RNA induced mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), and reduced the expression of PHB, an essential regulator of mitochondrial metabolism. PHB deficiency significantly reduced GSIS and induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and co-treatment with S1P did not reverse these trends. CONCLUSION: Altogether, these data suggest that S1P is an essential factor in the maintenance of β-cell function and survival through its regulation of mitochondrial action and PHB expression.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Animals , Apoptosis , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Insulin , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Insulinoma , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Metabolism , Mice , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Oxygen Consumption , Phosphotransferases , Repression, Psychology , RNA, Small Interfering , Sphingolipids , Sphingosine
12.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 295-306, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18843

ABSTRACT

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of brain tumors. GBMs, like other tumors, rely relatively less on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and utilize more aerobic glycolysis, and this metabolic shift becomes augmented under hypoxia. In the present study, we investigated the physiological significance of altered glucose metabolism and hypoxic adaptation in the GBM cell line U251 and two newly established primary GBMs (GBM28 and GBM37). We found that these three GBMs exhibited differential growth rates under hypoxia compared to those under normoxia. Under normoxia, the basal expressions of HIF1α and the glycolysis-associated genes, PDK1, PDK3, and GLUT1, were relatively low in U251 and GBM28, while their basal expressions were high in GBM37. Under hypoxia, the expressions of these genes were enhanced further in all three GBMs. Treatment with dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), induced cell death in GBM28 and GBM37 maintained under normoxia, whereas DCA effects disappeared under hypoxia, suggesting that hypoxic adaptation dominated DCA effects in these GBMs. In contrast, the inhibition of HIF1α with chrysin suppressed the expression of PDK1, PDK3, and GLUT1 and markedly promoted cell death of all GBMs under both normoxia and hypoxia. Interestingly, however, GBMs treated with chrysin under hypoxia still sustained higher viability than those under normoxia, and chrysin and DCA co-treatment was unable to eliminate this hypoxia-dependent resistance. Together, these results suggest that hypoxic adaptation is critical for maintaining viability of GBMs, and targeting hypoxic adaptation can be an important treatment option for GBMs.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Brain Neoplasms , Cell Death , Cell Line , Dichloroacetic Acid , Glioblastoma , Glucose , Glycolysis , Metabolism , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Oxidoreductases , Phosphotransferases , Pyruvic Acid
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728755

ABSTRACT

Obesity is known to induce inhibition of glucose uptake, reduction of lipid metabolism, and progressive loss of skeletal muscle function, which are all associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that regulate cellular metabolism and bioenergetics, including ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation. Due to these critical roles of mitochondria, mitochondrial dysfunction results in various diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is associated with impairment of mitochondrial function (e.g., decrease in O₂ respiration and increase in oxidative stress) in skeletal muscle. The balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission is critical to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis in skeletal muscle. Obesity impairs mitochondrial dynamics, leading to an unbalance between fusion and fission by favorably shifting fission or reducing fusion proteins. Mitophagy is the catabolic process of damaged or unnecessary mitochondria. Obesity reduces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and increases accumulation of dysfunctional cellular organelles, suggesting that mitophagy does not work properly in obesity. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are reported to trigger apoptosis, and mitochondrial apoptosis is induced by obesity in skeletal muscle. It is well known that exercise is the most effective intervention to protect against obesity. Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which exercise protects against obesity-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle are not clearly elucidated, exercise training attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction, allows mitochondria to maintain the balance between mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy, and reduces apoptotic signaling in obese skeletal muscle.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Apoptosis , Energy Metabolism , Glucose , Homeostasis , Lipid Metabolism , Metabolism , Mitochondria , Mitophagy , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Muscle, Skeletal , Obesity , Organelle Biogenesis , Organelles , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Oxidative Stress , Respiration
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85457

ABSTRACT

Malignant progression is greatly affected by dynamic cross-talk between stromal and cancer cells. Exosomes are secreted nanovesicles that have key roles in cell–cell communication by transferring nucleic acids and proteins to target cells and tissues. Recently, MicroRNAs (miRs) and their delivery in exosomes have been implicated in physiological and pathological processes. Tumor-delivered miRs, interacting with stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment, modulate tumor progression, angiogenesis, metastasis and immune escape. Altered cell metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer. A number of different types of tumor rely on mitochondrial metabolism by triggering adaptive mechanisms to optimize their oxidative phosphorylation in relation to their substrate supply and energy demands. Exogenous exosomes can induce metabolic reprogramming by restoring the respiration of cancer cells and supress tumor growth. The exosomal miRs involved in the modulation of cancer metabolism may be potentially utilized for better diagnostics and therapy.


Subject(s)
Exosomes , Metabolism , MicroRNAs , Neoplasm Metastasis , Nucleic Acids , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Pathologic Processes , Respiration , Stromal Cells , Tumor Microenvironment , United Nations
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16103

ABSTRACT

Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-17 (COXPD-17) is very rare and is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the ELAC2 gene on chromosome 17p12. The ELAC2 gene functions as a mitochondrial tRNA processing gene, and only 4 different pathogenic mutations have been reported in ELAC2-associated mitochondrial dysfunction involving oxidative phosphorylation. Affected patients show various clinical symptoms and prognosis, depending on the genotype. We report a novel mutation in the ELAC2 gene (c.95C>G [p.Pro32Arg], het), in an infant with COXPD-17 who presented with encephalopathy including central apnea and intractable epilepsy, and growth and developmental retardation. During hospitalization, consistently elevated serum lactic acid levels were noted, indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction. The patient suddenly died of shock of unknown cause at 5 months of age. This is the first case report of COXPD-17 in Korea and was diagnosed based on clinical characteristics and genetic analysis.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Genotype , Growth and Development , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperlactatemia , Infant , Korea , Lactic Acid , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Prognosis , RNA, Transfer , Shock , Sleep Apnea, Central
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129010

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria play essential role in eukaryotic cells including in the oxidative phosphorylation and generation of adenosine triphosphate via the electron-transport chain. Therefore, defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can result in mitochondrial dysfunction which leads to various mitochondrial disorders that may present with various neurologic and non-neurologic manifestations. Mutations in the nuclear gene polymerase gamma (POLG) are associated with mtDNA depletions, and Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome is one of the most severe manifestations of POLG mutation characterized by the clinical triad of intractable seizures, psychomotor regression, and liver failure. The hepatic manifestation usually occurs late in the disease's course, but in some references, hepatitis was reportedly the first manifestation. Liver transplantation was considered contraindicated in Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome due to its poor prognosis. We acknowledged a patient with the first manifestation of the disease being hepatic failure who eventually underwent liver transplantation, and whose neurological outcome improved after cocktail therapy.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Diffuse Cerebral Sclerosis of Schilder , DNA, Mitochondrial , Eukaryotic Cells , Hepatitis , Humans , Liver Failure , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Diseases , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Prognosis , Seizures
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128994

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria play essential role in eukaryotic cells including in the oxidative phosphorylation and generation of adenosine triphosphate via the electron-transport chain. Therefore, defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can result in mitochondrial dysfunction which leads to various mitochondrial disorders that may present with various neurologic and non-neurologic manifestations. Mutations in the nuclear gene polymerase gamma (POLG) are associated with mtDNA depletions, and Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome is one of the most severe manifestations of POLG mutation characterized by the clinical triad of intractable seizures, psychomotor regression, and liver failure. The hepatic manifestation usually occurs late in the disease's course, but in some references, hepatitis was reportedly the first manifestation. Liver transplantation was considered contraindicated in Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome due to its poor prognosis. We acknowledged a patient with the first manifestation of the disease being hepatic failure who eventually underwent liver transplantation, and whose neurological outcome improved after cocktail therapy.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Diffuse Cerebral Sclerosis of Schilder , DNA, Mitochondrial , Eukaryotic Cells , Hepatitis , Humans , Liver Failure , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Diseases , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Prognosis , Seizures
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78628

ABSTRACT

Obesity resulting from the delivery of an excess amount of energy to adipose tissue from glucose or free fatty acids is associated with insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated as contributors to both the onset and the progression of insulin resistance. ROS can be generated by overloading the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system, and also by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NOX) produced by either adipocytes, which only produce NOX4, or by macrophages, which produce mainly NOX2. The source of the ROS might differ in the early, intermediate and late stages of obesity, switching from NOX4-dependence in the early phases to NOX2-dependence, in the intermediate phase, and transiting to mitochondria-dependence later in the time course of obesity. Thus, depending on the stage of obesity, ROS can be generated by three distinct mechanisms: i.e., NOX4, NOX2, and mitochondria. In this review, we will discuss whether NOX4-, NOX2-, and/or mitochondria-derived ROS is/are causal in the onset of adipocyte insulin resistance as obesity progresses. Moreover, we will review the pathophysiological roles of NOX4, NOX2, and mitochondria-derived ROS on adipose tissue inflammation.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipose Tissue , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Glucose , Inflammation , Insulin Resistance , Insulin , Macrophages , Mitochondria , NADP , NADPH Oxidases , Obesity , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Oxidoreductases , Reactive Oxygen Species
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728534

ABSTRACT

Although the antioxidant and cardioprotective effects of NecroX-5 on various in vitro and in vivo models have been demonstrated, the action of this compound on the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system remains unclear. Here we verify the role of NecroX-5 in protecting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity during hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR). Necrox-5 treatment (10 microM) and non-treatment were employed on isolated rat hearts during hypoxia/reoxygenation treatment using an ex vivo Langendorff system. Proteomic analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and non-labeling peptide count protein quantification. Real-time PCR, western blot, citrate synthases and mitochondrial complex activity assays were then performed to assess heart function. Treatment with NecroX-5 during hypoxia significantly preserved electron transport chain proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation and metabolic functions. NecroX-5 also improved mitochondrial complex I, II, and V function. Additionally, markedly higher peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC1alpha) expression levels were observed in NecroX-5-treated rat hearts. These novel results provide convincing evidence for the role of NecroX-5 in protecting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity and in preserving PGC1alpha during cardiac HR injuries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia , Blotting, Western , Citric Acid , Electron Transport , Heart , Mitochondria , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Peroxisomes , Rats , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spectrum Analysis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149848

ABSTRACT

A small proportion of cancer cells have stem-cell-like properties, are resistant to standard therapy and are associated with a poor prognosis. The metabolism of such drug-resistant cells differs from that of nearby non-resistant cells. In this study, the metabolism of drug-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells was investigated. The expression of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondrial membrane was negatively correlated with the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. Because the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reflects the functional status of mitochondria and metastasis is the principal cause of death due to cancer, the relationship between MMP and metastasis was evaluated. Cells with a higher MMP exhibited greater migration and invasion than those with a lower MMP. Cells that survived treatment with cisplatin, a standard chemotherapeutic drug for lung adenocarcinoma, exhibited increased MMP and enhanced migration and invasion compared with parental cells. Consistent with these findings, inhibition of mitochondrial activity significantly impeded the migration and invasion of cisplatin-resistant cells. RNA-sequencing analysis indicated that the expression of mitochondrial complex genes was upregulated in cisplatin-resistant cells. These results suggested that drug-resistant cells have a greater MMP and that inhibition of mitochondrial activity could be used to prevent metastasis of drug-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Cause of Death , Cisplatin , Humans , Lung , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Metabolism , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Membranes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Parents , Prognosis
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