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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(4): 432-437, July-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341175

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Sound experimental data suggest that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tendinopathies. However, this hypothesis in humans remains speculative given that clinical data are lacking to confirm it. Recently, a new methodology has allowed to quantify the oxidative stress in vivo by measuring the concentration of hydroperoxides of organic compounds, which have been utilized as an oxidative stressrelated marker in several pathologic and physiologic conditions. Given the reliability of this test and the lack of information in subjects with tendinopathies, the aim of the present study was to assess the oxidative stress status in elite professional soccer players with and without ultrasonographic features of tendon damage. Methods In 73 elite players, blood metabolic parameters were evaluated and oxidative stress was measured by means of a specific test (expressed as U-Carr units). Therefore, an ultrasonographic evaluation of the Achilles and patellar tendons was performed. Results No significant relationships were observed between metabolic parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers. The Achilles and patellar tendons showed a normal echographic pattern in 58 athletes, and sonographic abnormalities in 15. The athletes with ultrasonographic alterations, compared to those with normal US picture, showed significantly higher U-Carr levels (p = 0.000), body mass index (BMI) values (p = 0.03) and were older (p = 0.005). The difference in U-Carr values among the subjects remained significant also after adjustment for age and BMI. Conclusion The results of the present study support the hypothesis that oxidative substances, also increasedat systemicand notonlyat local level, mayfavor tendon damage. Level of Evidence IV (pilot study).


Resumo Objetivo Dados experimentais ultrassonográficos sugerem que o estresse oxidativo desempenha um papel importante na patogênese das tendinopatias. No entanto, essa hipótese permanece especulativa em humanos, dado que faltam dados clínicos para comprová-la. Recentemente, uma nova metodologia permitiu quantificar o estresse oxidativo in vivo medindo a concentração de hidroperóxidos de compostos orgânicos, que tem sido utilizada como um marcador relacionado ao estresse oxidativo em várias condições patológicas e fisiológicas. Dada a confiabilidade desse teste e a falta de informação em sujeitos com tendinopatias, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o status de estresse oxidativo em jogadores profissionais de elite com e sem características ultrassonográficas de dano tendinoso. Métodos Em 73 jogadores de elite foram avaliados parâmetros metabólicos e o estresse oxidativo foi medido por meio de um teste específico (expresso como unidades U-Carr). Por isso, foi realizada uma avaliação ultrassonográfica dos tendões de Aquiles e patelar. Resultados Não foram observadas relações significativas entre parâmetros metabólicos e biomarcadores de estresse oxidativo. Os tendões de Aquiles e patelar mostraram um padrão ecográfico normal em 58 atletas, e anormalidades ultrassonográficas em 15. Os atletas com alterações, em comparação com aqueles com quadro normal, apresentaram níveis significativamente mais elevados de U-Carr (p = 0,000), índice de massa corporal (IMC) (p = 0,03) e eram mais velhos (p = 0,005). A diferença nos valores de U-Carr entre os sujeitos permaneceu significativa também após ajuste por idade e IMC. Conclusão Os resultados deste estudo corroboram a hipótese de que as substâncias oxidativas, também aumentadas a nível sistêmico e não apenas a nível local, podem favorecer danos no tendão. Nível de Evidência IV (estudo piloto).


Subject(s)
Humans , Achilles Tendon/injuries , Achilles Tendon/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Patellar Ligament/diagnostic imaging , Oxidative Stress , Athletes , Football
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 339-350, jul. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349507

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to explore the comparative efficacy of cinnamon bark extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced oxidative stress. Cinnamon bark extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol were utilized or in-vivo analysis. From the results of in-vitro screening tests, cinnamon ethanolic extract was selected for in-vivo study in mouse model. For this, Balb/c albino mice were treated with cinnamon ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg), cinnamaldehyde (10 mg/kg) and kaempferol (10 mg/kg) orally for 14 days followed by single intraperitoneal administration of APAP during 8 hours. Blood and organ samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis. The results showed that cinnamon bark ethanolic extract, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol ameliorated APAP-induced oxidative stress and organ toxicity in mice. In conclusion, cinnamaldehyde and kaempferol possess comparable antioxidant potential even at 20-times less dose as compared to cinnamon bark ethanolic extract suggesting therapeutic potential in oxidative stress-related disorders.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo explorar la eficacia comparativa del extracto de corteza de canela, cinamaldehído y kaempferol contra el estrés oxidativo inducido por acetaminofén (APAP). Se utilizaron extracto de corteza de canela, cinamaldehído y kaempferol para el análisis in vivo. De los resultados de las pruebas de detección in vitro, se seleccionó el extracto etanólico de canela para estudio in vivo en modelo de ratón. Para ello, los ratones albinos Balb/c fueron tratados con extracto etanólico de canela (200 mg/kg), cinamaldehído (10 mg/kg) y kaempferol (10 mg/kg) por vía oral durante 14 días, seguido de la administración intraperitoneal única de APAP durante 8 horas. Se recogieron muestras de sangre y órganos para análisis bioquímicos e histopatológicos. Los resultados mostraron que el extracto etanólico de la corteza de canela, el cinamaldehído y el kaempferol mejoraron el estrés oxidativo inducido por APAP y la toxicidad orgánica en ratones. En conclusión, el cinamaldehído y el kaempferol poseen un potencial antioxidante comparable, incluso a una dosis 20 veces menor en comparación con el extracto etanólico de la corteza de canela, lo que sugiere un potencial terapéutico en los trastornos relacionados con el estrés oxidativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acrolein/analogs & derivatives , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Kaempferols/chemistry , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Acrolein/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Disease Models, Animal , Phytochemicals , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Mice, Inbred BALB C
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 13-20, July. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In fish farming, the plant extracts containing antioxidant compounds have been added to the diet for enhancing pathogen resistance. In vitro studies evaluating the antioxidant effect of herbal extracts on fish cell models have focused on ROS production and the respiratory burst mechanism. However, the effects on enzymatic antioxidant defense on salmon leukocytes have not been evaluated. This study aims to evaluate the enzymatic antioxidant defense and ROS-induced cell damage in Salmon Head Kidney-1 (SHK-1) cell line exposed to polyphenol-enriched extract from Sambucus nigra flowers. RESULTS: Firstly, the Total Reactive Antioxidant Power (TRAP) assay of elderflower polyphenol (EP) was evaluated, showing 459 and 489 times more active than gallic acid and butyl hydroxy toluene (BHT), respectively. The toxic effect of EP on salmon cells was not significant at concentrations below 120 mg/ mL and no hemolysis activity was observed between 20 and 400 mg/mL. The treatment of SHK-1 cell line with EP decreased both the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation induced by H2O2, which could be associated with decreasing oxidative stress in the SHK-1 cells since the GSH/GSSG ratio increased when only EP was added. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that plant extracts enriched with polyphenols could improve the enzymatic antioxidant defense of salmon leukocytes and protect the cells against ROS-induced cell damage


Subject(s)
Salmon , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Sambucus nigra/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation , Free Radical Scavengers , Reactive Oxygen Species , Aquaculture , Oxidative Stress , Salmo salar , Disease Resistance , Leukocytes , Antioxidants
4.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 138-141, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280072

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: High intensity interval training (HIIT) is a method that is widely used today. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of HIIT on markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage in rats. Methods: The sample consisted of 60-day-old Wistar rats, divided into two groups: a control group (n=8) and an HIIT group (n=8). The training consisted of fourteen 20-second swimming sessions (loaded with weights equivalent to 14% of their body weight) with 10-second intervals between each session, performed for 12 consecutive days. Results: HIIT induced a reduction (−17.75%) in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (an oxidative stress marker) in hepatic tissue (p=0.0482). There was also a reduction (−31.80%) in the HIIT group in the level of superoxide dismutase enzyme activity in the liver (p=0.0375). However, there were no differences between the groups in catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, the total content of SH sulfhydryls, hydroperoxides, or carbonylated proteins in the hepatic tissue. No significant differences were found in any of these markers in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle damage markers creatinine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were also similar between the groups in the gastrocnemius. Conclusion: The conclusion was that that short-term HIIT does not cause oxidative stress or muscle damage. Level of evidence I; High-quality randomized clinical trial with or without statistically significant difference, but with narrow confidence intervals.


RESUMEN Introducción: El entrenamiento en intervalos de alta intensidad (HIIT) es un método muy utilizado actualmente. Objetivo: El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los efectos del HIIT en corto plazo sobre marcadores de estrés oxidativo y daño muscular en ratones. Métodos: La muestra consistió en ratones Wistar con 60 días de edad, divididos en dos grupos: grupo control (n = 8) y grupo HIIT (n = 8). El entrenamiento consistió en catorce sesiones de natación de 20 segundos (con cargas equivalentes a 14% del peso corporal) con intervalos de 10 segundos entre cada sesión, realizadas durante 12 días consecutivos. Resultados: El HIIT indujo una reducción (-17,75%) de las sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico (un marcador de estrés oxidativo) en el tejido hepático (p = 0,0482). También hubo reducción (~31,80%) en el grupo HIIT en el nivel de enzima superóxido dismutasa en el hígado (p=0,0375). Sin embargo, no hubo diferencias entre los grupos con relación a catalasa, glutatión peroxidasa, glutatión reductasa, tenor total de sulfhidrilos SH, hidroperóxidos o proteínas carboniladas en el tejido hepático. No fue encontrada ninguna diferencia significativa en ninguno de esos marcadores en el músculo gastrocnemio. Los marcadores de lesión muscular, creatinina quinasa y lactato deshidrogenasa también fueron similares entre los grupos en el gastrocnemio. Conclusión: Fue posible concluir que el HIIT de corta duración no causa estrés oxidativo o daño muscular. Nivel de evidencia I; Estudio clínico aleatorizado de alta calidad con o sin diferencia estadísticamente significativa, pero con intervalos de información estrechos.


RESUMO Introdução: O treinamento intervalado de alta intensidade (HIIT) é um método muito utilizado atualmente. Objetivo: O presente estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos do HIIT em curto prazo sobre marcadores de estresse oxidativo e dano muscular em ratos. Métodos: A amostra consistiu em ratos Wistar com 60 dias de idade, divididos em dois grupos: grupo controle (n = 8) e grupo HIIT (n = 8). O treinamento consistiu em quatorze sessões de natação de 20 segundos (com cargas equivalentes a 14% do peso corporal) com intervalos de 10 segundos entre cada sessão, realizadas por 12 dias consecutivos. Resultados: O HIIT induziu uma redução (-17,75%) das substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (um marcador de estresse oxidativo) no tecido hepático (p = 0,0482). Houve também redução (-31,80%) no grupo HIIT no nível de enzima superóxido dismutase no fígado (p = 0,0375). No entanto, não houve diferenças entre os grupos com relação a catalase, glutationa peroxidase, glutationa redutase, teor total de sulfidrilas SH, hidroperóxidos ou proteínas carboniladas no tecido hepático. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada em qualquer um desses mascadores no músculo gastrocnêmio. Os marcadores de lesão muscular, creatinina quinase e lactato desidrogenase, também foram semelhantes entre os grupos no gastrocnêmio. Conclusão: Foi possível concluir que o HIIT de curta duração não causa estresse oxidativo ou dano muscular. Nível de evidência I; Estudo clínico randomizado de alta qualidade com ou sem diferença estatisticamente significante, mas com intervalos de informação estreitos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Oxidative Stress/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training , Swimming , Biomarkers , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Liver/physiology , Muscles/physiology
5.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(2): 131-137, 20210630. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348668

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Diversos alvos farmacológicos têm sido estudados com o objetivo de minimizar as consequências da infecção causada pelo vírus da COVID-19. A hiperinflamação pulmonar foi associada ao estresse oxidativo embasando a administração de antioxidantes, especialmente N-acetilcisteína, que vem sendo proposta como terapia de suporte e investigada em estudos clínicos. Objetivo: Realizar uma análise crítica do uso da N-acetilcísteina em pacientes com COVID-19 com base em suas propriedades fármaco-toxicológicas. Material e métodos: Análise crítica a partir de revisão bibliográfica de artigos originais e de revisão de dados epidemiológico, clínicos e estudos de caso. Os dados farmacológicose toxicológicos foram comparados para avaliar potenciais riscos e benefícios da adoção desta terapia. Resultado: A fisiopatologia da COVID-19 está associada à hiperinflamação causada pela liberação de citocinas e quimiocinas, denominada tempestade de citocinas que agrava a infecção respiratória, podendo levar ao quadro de Síndrome de Angústia Respiratória Aguda (SARA). Esse conjunto de fatores pode ser responsável pelo aumento do estresse oxidativo que está relacionado com a gravidade da infecção. A N-acetilcisteína parece atenuar o quadro inflamatório pela atividade antioxidante e anti-inflamatória e apresenta baixa toxicidade, sendo bem tolerada em doses de até 500 mg/kg. Conclusão: A N-acetilcisteína possui potencial no tratamento de pacientes com COVID-19 em estágios iniciais da doença para diminuir o estresse oxidativo.


Introduction: Focusing the efforts to minimizing the injury caused by COVID-19 virus, many pharmacological targets have been studied. The lung hyper inflammation was referred as a consequence of the oxidative stress and supports the antioxidant therapy, especially the N-acetylcysteine administration that has been proposed in some clinical studies. Aims: In order to make a critical analysis of COVID-19 clinical management with N-acetylcysteine, the physiopathology of the infection was compared with the pharmacological and toxicological properties of the N-acetylcsteine. Methodology: A literature review was made and the peer-reviewed articles, epidemiologic data, clinical studies and case reports were consulted. The pharmacological and toxicological data were compared to evaluate the potential risks and benefits of the N-acetylcysteine therapy. Results: The COVID-19 physiopathology is based on the hyper inflammation that is a consequence of the cytokines storm (release of a large amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines). The hyper inflammation can result in the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The cytokines storm was associated with the oxidative stress and the severity of the infection. N-acetylcysteine seems to improve the inflammation by its antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties. Furthermore, N-acetylcysteine shows high tolerability hate in doses until 500 mg/kg. Conclusion: N-acetylcysteine shows high therapeutic potential to decrease the oxidative stress in early stages of the infection in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine , Oxidative Stress , COVID-19 , Antioxidants
7.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(2): 138-144, June 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286992

ABSTRACT

Abstract Due to the ethnopharmacological use of Campsiandra laurifolia (Fabaceae), popularly known as Acapurana, to treat wounds and ulcers, associated with the lack of alternative treatments for intestinal inflammations such as ulcerative colitis (UC), the present work sought to characterize its phytochemical and antioxidant activities, and to evaluate remedial action in experimental colitis with acetic acid. Phytochemical analyzes were performed through qualitative and quantitative colorimetric tests of the main secondary metabolites. In the colitismodel, 24male Wistar rats aged±60 days oldwere used, divided into 4 groups: Control (CO) control+aqueous extract of C. laurifolia 50mg/kg (CO+A50); Colitis (CL); and Colitis+aqueous extract of C. laurifolia 50 mg/kg (CL+ A50).Measurement of sphincter anal pressure and histological tests of the large intestine, lipoperoxidation (LPO), enzymeactivity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and levels of glutathione (GSH)were performed. For statistical analysis, the oxidative stress (OS) results were expressed as means±standard error, adopting a significance level of p < 0.05. The screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, saponins and tannins in the extract, with high levels of phenolic


Resumo Devido ao uso etnofarmacológico de Campsiandra laurifolia (Fabaceae), popularmente conhecida comoAcapurana, para tratar feridas e úlceras, associado à falta dealternativas de tratamentos para as inflamações intestinais como a retocolite ulcerativa (RCU), o presente trabalho buscou caracterizar sua constituição fitoquímica, sua atividade antioxidante, e avaliar sua ação reparadora na colite experimental com ácido acético. As análises fitoquímicas foram realizadas por meio de ensaios colorimétricos qualitativos e quantitativos dos principaismetabólitos secundários.Nomodelo de colite, foramutilizados 24 ratos machos Wistar de±60 dias de idade, divididos em 4 grupos: Controle (CO), controle+ extrato aquoso de C. laurifolia 50mg/kg (CO+A50); Colite (CL); e Colite+extrato aquoso de C. laurifolia (CL+ A50). Foram realizadas aferições da pressão anal esfincteriana e avaliações histológicas do intestino grosso, lipoperoxidação (LPO), atividade da enzima superóxido dismutase (SOD) e níveis da glutationa (GSH). Para a análise estatística, resultados do estresse oxidativo (EO) foram expressos em médias±erro padrão, adotando um nível de significância de p < 0,05. O screening indicou no extrato a presença de flavonoides, saponinas e taninos com altos teores de compostos fenólicos e taninos, relacionando-os a uma elevada capacidade antioxidante. Na análise histológica, o grupo CL apresentou perda das criptas, do edema e do infiltrado inflamatório. O uso do extrato de C. laurifolia reestruturou as criptas, diminuiu o edema e aumentou a pressão anal esfincteriana, com diminuição da LPO, da SOD, e aumento da GSH. Sugere-se que o uso do extrato de C. laurifolia diminui o EO por seu poder antioxidante, conferido pelos compostos fenólicos presentes no extrato.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Colitis/chemically induced , Antioxidants , Tannins , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Acetic Acid , Phenolic Compounds , Fabaceae
8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 303-314, may. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343478

ABSTRACT

In this study, against streptozotocin (STZ) induced diapetic nephropathy (DN); it is aimed to investigate the use of thymoquinone (TQ) and ß-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) and to compare the effects of these agents. With random selection of 35 male rats, five groups (seven rats in each group) were constituted as follows: Control, STZ, STZ + TQ, STZ + BAIBA, STZ + TQ + BAIBA. In the STZ group; body weight, glutathione (GSH) and insulin levels decreased, relative kidney weight, malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) levels were increased. Also, in kidney tissue; histopathological changes (such as thickening of the capsular, glomerular and tubular basement membranes, increased mesangial matrix amount, increased cytoplasmic vacuolization in some of the tubular epithelial cells, increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression, and inflammatory cell infiltrations in interstitial tissue) were detected. It was observed that these changes occurring after diabetes mellitus (DM) reversed significantly in TQ, BAIBA and TQ + BAIBA groups.


En este estudio, contra la nefropatía diapética (ND) inducida por estreptozotocina (STZ); tiene como objetivo investigar el uso de timoquinona (TQ) y ácido ß-aminoisobutírico (BAIBA) y comparar los efectos de estos agentes. Con la selección aleatoria de 35 ratas macho, se constituyeron cinco grupos (siete ratas en cada grupo) como sigue: Control, STZ, STZ + TQ, STZ + BAIBA, STZ + TQ + BAIBA. En el grupo STZ; el peso corporal, los niveles de glutatión (GSH) y de insulina disminuyeron, el peso relativo de los riñones, el malondialdehído (MDA), la glucosa, el nitrógeno ureico en sangre (BUN) y los niveles de creatinina (Cr) aumentaron. Además, en tejido renal; se detectaron cambios histopatológicos (como engrosamiento de las membranas basales capsular, glomerular y tubular, aumento de la cantidad de matriz mesangial, aumento de la vacuolización citoplasmática en algunas de las células epiteliales tubulares, aumento de la expresión del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α) e infiltraciones de células inflamatorias en tejido intersticial). Se observó que estos cambios que ocurren después de la diabetes mellitus (DM) se revirtieron significativamente en los grupos TQ, BAIBA y TQ + BAIBA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Benzoquinones/administration & dosage , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Aminoisobutyric Acids/administration & dosage , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Body Weight , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress , Creatinine/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Glucose/analysis , Glutathione/analysis , Kidney/drug effects
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(2): 275-283, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154474

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Sperm DNA fragmentation is a major cellular mechanism underlying varicocele-related male infertility. However, the type of DNA fragmentation - whether oxidative or of another nature - remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate single- and double-stranded sperm DNA fragmentation, and oxidative-induced sperm DNA damage in men with varicocele. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed, including 94 normozoospermic adults, of which 39 men without varicocele (controls) and 55 men with varicocele grades II or III, uni- or bilaterally. All men collected semen by masturbation. After semen analysis, the remaining volume was used for evaluation of three types of sperm DNA damage: (i) total DNA fragmentation, using an alkaline comet assay, (ii) double-stranded DNA fragmentation, using a neutral comet assay, and (iii) oxidative DNA damage, using an alkaline comet assay associated with the DNA glycosylase formamidopyrimidine enzyme. In each assay, percentage of sperm with any degree of DNA fragmentation, and with high DNA fragmentation were compared between the groups using an unpaired Student's t test or a Mann-Whitney test. Results: The varicocele group presented a higher rate of sperm with fragmented DNA (both any and high DNA fragmentation), considering single-stranded DNA fragmentation, double-stranded DNA fragmentation, or a combination of both, as well as oxidative- induced DNA fragmentation. Conclusions: Patients with varicocele have an increase in sperm DNA fragmentation levels, particularly in oxidative stress-induced sperm DNA damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Varicocele/genetics , Infertility, Male/genetics , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa , Cross-Sectional Studies , Oxidative Stress , DNA Fragmentation
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): e18-e25, feb. 2021. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147188

ABSTRACT

La hiperbilirrubinemia es el motivo más frecuente de consulta e internación en el período neonatal. Requiere la instauración oportuna de un tratamiento eficiente, ya que los recién nacidos son especialmente vulnerables a los daños que la bilirrubina puede causar en el sistema nervioso central, debido a características propias de esta etapa de la vida.La bilirrubina en altas concentraciones produce neurotoxicidad y estrés oxidativo. Sin embargo, estudios de biología molecular demuestran que la misma molécula se comporta como un potente antioxidante.El objetivo de esta actualización es revisar cuáles son los procesos por los que la bilirrubina genera daño celular y cuáles son sus efectos antioxidantes beneficiosos. Conocer estos mecanismos facilitaría una indicación más precisa de luminoterapia individualizada, eficaz y oportuna. Hasta nuevos avances científicos, la prescripción de este tratamiento debe ser orientada por consenso de expertos


Hyperbilirubinemia is the most common reason for consultation and hospitalization in the neonatal period. It requires a timely initiation of an effective treatment because newborn infants are especially vulnerable to damage caused by bilirubin in the central nervous system due to the characteristics typical of this stage of life.High bilirubin levels result in neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. However, molecular biology studies have demonstrated that bilirubin itself acts as a potent antioxidant.The objective of this update is to review the processes whereby bilirubin causes cell damage and determine its beneficial antioxidant effects. Knowing these mechanisms may facilitate a more accurate indication of a customized, effective, and timely phototherapy. Until new scientific advances are made, phototherapy should be prescribed based on expert consensus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Bilirubin , Oxidative Stress , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Antioxidants
12.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200171, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1279405

ABSTRACT

Background Solitary wasp venoms may be a rich source of neuroactive substances, since their venoms are used for paralyzing preys. We have been exploring bioactive constituents of solitary wasp venoms and, in this study, the component profile of the venom from a solitary scoliid wasp, Scolia decorata ventralis, was investigated through a comprehensive analysis using LC-MS. Two peptides were synthesized, and their neuroprotective properties were evaluated. Methods A reverse-phase HPLC connected to ESI-MS was used for LC-MS analyses. Online mass fingerprinting was performed from TIC, and data-dependent tandem mass spectrometry gave the MS/MS spectra. The sequences of two major peptide components were determined by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis, confirmed by solid phase synthesis. Using the synthetic peptides, biological activities were assessed. Cell integrity tests and neuroprotection analyzes using H2O2 as an oxidative stress inducer were performed for both peptides. Results Online mass fingerprinting revealed that the venom contains 123 components, and the MS/MS analysis resulted in 33 full sequences of peptide components. The two main peptides, α-scoliidine (DYVTVKGFSPLR) and β-scoliidine (DYVTVKGFSPLRKA), present homology with the bradykinin C-terminal. Despite this, both peptides did not behave as substrates or inhibitors of ACE, indicating that they do not interact with this metallopeptidase. In further studies, β-scoliidine, but not α -scoliidine, showed protective effects against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells through integrity and metabolism cell assays. Interestingly, β-scoliidine has the extension of the KA dipeptide at the C-terminal in comparison with α-scoliidine. Conclusion Comprehensive LC-MS and MS/MS analyses from the Scolia decorata ventralis venom displayed the component profile of this venom. β-scoliidine showed an effective cytoprotective effect, probably due to the observed increase in the number of cells. This is the first report of solitary wasp venom peptides showing neuroprotective activity.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peptides/classification , Wasp Venoms , Wasps/metabolism , Neuroprotection , Oxidative Stress , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06742, 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1287511

ABSTRACT

The result of the reaction of free radicals with biomolecules is the formation of substances with the potential of inducing oxidative damage, a condition known as oxidative stress. There are voluminous literature data reporting the association, both as a cause and as a consequence, between different diseases and oxidative stress. In this study, 144 female dogs with mammary neoplasia were analyzed. The animals were submitted to clinical evaluation for disease staging, hematological evaluation, serum biochemistry (renal and hepatic function tests), and dosage of the oxidative damage biomarker, malondialdehyde (MDA), at the time of its approach and 30 days after treatment. A control group of 100 healthy animals was also submitted to determination of serum MDA levels. The mean age of the animals affected by mammary neoplasms was 9.88±2.95 (4 to 14) years, while in healthy animals it was 2.31±1.90 years (1 to 6). Of the 144 animals, 113 (78.9%) had malignant neoplasms, and 15, 21, 46, 17 and 14 animals were in clinical stage I, II, III, IV and V respectively and the carcinoma in a mixed tumor was the most frequent histological pattern in this group (26%). Thirty-one animals were diagnosed with benign neoplasms and mammary adenoma was the most frequent histological pattern in 15 animals (51.61%). Hematological changes in the preoperative period were observed in 44 (38.9%) and 12 (38.7%) animals with malignant and benign neoplasias, respectively, and there was a positive correlation between anemia and higher levels of MDA (P=0.0008) for animals with malignant tumors. Regarding serum biochemical parameters, the most frequent alterations in animals with malignant neoplasms were elevated ALT levels in 12 animals (10.6%), creatinine in 10 animals (8.84%) and urea in eight animals (7.07%). Females with benign neoplasms presented less occurrence of changes in these parameters. In the group of healthy animals (control), the mean serum MDA values were 12.08±4.18, whereas in the pre-treatment group, mean MDA was 24.80±5.74 for bitches with benign neoplasms and 32.27±10.24 for bitches with malignant tumors. A significant increase (P<0.001) in MDA levels was observed in animals with malignant mammary neoplasms when compared to healthy animals and with benign tumors. In addition, a significant reduction (P<0.001) was observed 30 days after treatment in MDA levels (27.37±7.86) in animals with malignant tumors. In conclusion, our results indicate an association between MDA seric levels and mammary neoplasms in dogs. The results suggest that this factor can be used as a biomarker of oxidative stress with a potential impact in the prognostic of mammary tumors, since significantly higher levels of MDA were detected especially in dogs carrying malignant tumors and presenting anemia.(AU)


O resultado da reação de radicais livres com biomoléculas é a formação de substâncias que podem ser utilizadas como marcadores de dano oxidativo, condição mais conhecida como estresse oxidativo. Evidências científicas comprovam a relação, quer como causa, quer como consequência, entre muitas doenças e o estresse oxidativo. Neste estudo, 144 cadelas portadoras de neoplasia de mama, foram submetidas à avaliação clínica para estadiamento da doença, avaliação hematológica, testes de função renal e hepática e dosagem do biomarcador de dano oxidativo, malondialdeído (MDA), no momento de sua abordagem e 30 dias após realização de tratamento. Um grupo controle de 100 cadelas saudáveis foi submetido também à determinação dos níveis séricos de MDA. A idade média dos animais acometidos por neoplasias mamárias foi de 9,88±2,95 (4 a 14) anos, enquanto que nos animais saudáveis foi de 2,31±1,90 anos (1 a 6). Dos 144 animais, 113 (78, 9%) apresentavam neoplasias malignas, sendo que 15, 21, 46, 17 e 14 animais encontravam-se em estadiamento clínico I, II, III, IV e V respectivamente, e o carcinoma em tumor misto foi o padrão histológico mais frequente neste grupo (26%). Trinta e um animais tiveram diagnóstico de neoplasias benignas, sendo que 7 estavam no estádio I, 16 no estádio II e 8 no estádio III e o adenoma mamário foi o padrão histológico mais frequente em 15 animais (51,61%). Alterações hematológicas no período pré-operatório foram observadas em 44 (38,9%) e 12 (38,7%) animais portadores de neoplasias malignas e benignas, respectivamente, sendo que houve correlação positiva entre anemia e níveis mais elevados de MDA (P=0,0008), para os animais com tumores malignos. Em relação aos parâmetros bioquímicos séricos, as alterações mais frequentes nos animais com neoplasias malignas foram a elevação dos níveis de ALT em 12 animais (10,6%), de creatinina em 10 animais (8,84%) e de ureia em oito animais (7,07%) Cadelas portadoras de neoplasias benignas apresentaram menor ocorrência de alterações nesses parâmetros. No grupo controle, a média dos valores séricos de MDA foi 12,08±4,18, enquanto que no grupo pré-tratamento, a média de MDA foi de 24,80±5,74 para as cadelas com neoplasia benigna e 32,27±10,24 para as neoplasias malignas. Verificou-se aumento significativo do valor sérico de MDA em cadelas portadoras de neoplasias malignas em comparação com os animais hígidos ou com neoplasias benignas (P<0,001). Ainda, 30 dias após o tratamento observou-se uma diminuição significativa (P<0,001) no valor médio de MDA (27,37±7,86) nos animais com neoplasias malignas. Em conclusão, os resultados deste estudo evidenciam uma associação entre níveis séricos aumentados de MDA e presença de neoplasias mamárias em cadelas. Os resultados sugerem que este fator pode ser utilizado como biomarcador de estresse oxidativo em cães, com provável impacto no prognóstico dos tumores mamários, uma vez que níveis significativamente mais altos de MDA foram detectados especialmente nas cadelas portadoras de tumores malignos e apresentando anemia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Biochemistry , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal , Oxidative Stress , Dogs , Free Radicals , Malondialdehyde
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879096

ABSTRACT

Prunella vulgaris(PV) is an edible and traditional medicinal herb which has a wide range application in fighting inflammation and oxidative stress, and protecting liver. Now it has been used to treat various types of liver diseases and has significant clinical efficacy. This study aims to investigate the effects of PV on ethanol-induced oxidative stress injury in rats and its metabolic mechanism. The rats were divided into control group, model group, PV group, and VC group. The liver protection of PV was identified by measuring pharmacological indexes such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The metabolic mechanism of long-term ethanol exposure and the metabolic regulation mechanism of PV treatment were studied by LS-MS metabonomics. The pharmacological investigation indicated that ethanol could significantly decrease the contents of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and other antioxidant enzymes in liver and increase the content of MDA. At the same time, PV could significantly reduce the contents of inflammatory factors(TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) and liver function markers(ALT, AST, ALP) in serum. What's more, long-term ethanol exposure could significantly cause liver injury, while PV could protect liver. Metabolomics based on multiple statistical analyses showed that long-term ethanol exposure could cause significant metabolic disorder, and fatty acids, phospholipids, carnitines and sterols were the main biomarkers. Meanwhile, pathway analysis and enrichment analysis showed that the β oxidation of branched fatty acids was the main influencing pathway. Also, PV could improve metabolic disorder of liver injury induced by ethanol, and amino acids, fatty acids, and phospholi-pids were the main biomarkers in PV treatment. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that PV mainly regulated metabolic disorder of ethanol-induced liver injury through phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthetic pathways. This study could provide a new perspective on the hepatoprotective effect of natural medicines, such as PV.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Ethanol/toxicity , Liver/metabolism , Metabolomics , Oxidative Stress , Prunella , Rats
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879086

ABSTRACT

Methotrexate(MTX) is a commonly used antimetabolite, which can be used in the treatment of a variety of diseases. However, hepatotoxicity in the use of MTX severely limits its clinical use. Therefore, how to prevent and treat hepatotoxicity of MTX has become an urgent clinical problem. This paper summarizes and analyzes relevant literatures on the prevention and treatment of hepa-totoxicity caused by MTX with traditional Chinese medicines and natural medicines in recent years. MTX-induced hepatotoxicity mechanisms include folate pathway, oxidative stress damage and adenosine pathway, of which oxidative stress theory is the main research direction. A total of 14 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine and natural medicine extracts including white peony root, and 21 kinds of natural monomer compounds, including berberine, play an anti-MTX-induced hepatotoxic effect by resisting oxidative stress, inhibiting inflammation and regulating signal pathways. According to current studies on the prevention and treatment of hepatotoxicity induced by MTX with traditional Chinese medicines and natural medicines, there are insufficiencies, such as partial and superficial mechanism studies, inadequate combination of experimental research and clinical practice, non-standard experimental design and lack of application of advanced technologies and methods. This paper systematically reviewed the effects and mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicines and natural medicines against hepatotoxicity induced by MTX and defined current studies and deficiencies, in the expectation of proposing new study strategies and directions and providing scientific basis for rational clinical use of MTX and development of new drugs against MTX hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methotrexate/toxicity , Oxidative Stress
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878906

ABSTRACT

Nrf2 is the key transcription factor mainly for regulating oxidative homeostasis and cytoprotective responses against oxidative stress. Nrf2/Keap1 pathway is one of the most important cellular defense mechanisms against endogenous or exogenous oxidative stress. With its activation, a wide range of stress-related genes is transactivated to restore the cellular homeostasis. Recent studies revealed that the aberrant activation of Nrf2 is related to the malignant progression, chemotherapeutic drug resistance and poor prognosis. Nrf2 plays a crucial role in cancer malignancy and chemotherapeutic resistance by controlling the intracellular redox homeostasis through the activation of cytoprotective antioxidant genes. Nrf2 inhibitor containing many natural products has been deemed as a novel therapeutic strategy for human malignancies. This article reviews the progress of studies of the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway, and its biological impact in solid malignancies and molecular mechanisms for causing Nrf2 hyperactivation in cancer cells. In conclusion, we summarized the deve-lopment of Nrf2 inhibitors in recent years, in the expectation of providing reference for further drug development and clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Neoplasms/genetics , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878338

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Exposure to microgravity results in postflight cardiovascular deconditioning in astronauts. Vascular oxidative stress injury and mitochondrial dysfunction have been reported during this process. To elucidate the mechanism for this condition, we investigated whether mitochondrial oxidative stress regulates calcium homeostasis and vasoconstriction in hindlimb unweighted (HU) rat cerebral arteries.@*Methods@#Three-week HU was used to simulate microgravity in rats. The contractile responses to vasoconstrictors, mitochondrial fission/fusion, Ca @*Results@#An increase of cytoplasmic Ca @*Conclusion@#The present results suggest that mitochondrial oxidative stress enhances cerebral vasoconstriction by regulating calcium homeostasis during simulated microgravity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Cerebral Arteries , Homeostasis , Male , Mitochondria/physiology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/physiology , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Weightlessness Simulation
18.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 26-34, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878232

ABSTRACT

Intermittent hypoxia (IH) could induce cognitive impairment through oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the degree of cell damage is closely related to the IH stimulus frequency. IH stimulation with different frequencies also induces opposite results on neuronal cell lines. Therefore, this study was aimed to compare the effects of IH stimulation with three different frequencies on murine hippocampal neuronal HT22 cell activity, and to explore the molecular mechanism of the IH stimulus frequency-related neuron injury. HT22 cells were cultured and divided into control group and three IH stimulation groups with different frequencies. Oxygen concentration in the chamber was circulated between 21% and 1% (IH1 group, 6 cycles/h; IH2 group, 2 cycles/h; IH3 group, 0.6 cycle/h). Cell morphology was observed at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of IH treatment. Cell viability was determined by the CCK-8 kit, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content in cell supernatant was determined by LDH kit, oxidative stress level was detected by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) probe, and protein expression levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) and phosphorylated nuclear factor κB (p-NF-κB) were detected by Western blot. The results showed that, compared with control group, cell number and activity in the three IH groups were decreased, LDH content and ROS levels were increased with the prolongation of IH stimulation time, and the changes were most obvious in the IH1 group among those of the three IH groups. Hif-1α expression and the p-NF-κB/NF-κB ratio were also up-regulated with the prolongation of IH stimulation time, and the changes of IH1 group were the most significant. These results suggest that IH stimulation induces oxidative stress injury in HT22 cells, which is related to increased Hif-1α expression and NF-κB phosphorylation. Moreover, the higher frequency of IH stimulation induces more serious cell injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Survival , Hypoxia , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877673

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment on hippocampal oxidative stress in aged mice with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and explore the relevant mechanism of EA pretreatment on the improvement of learning and memory in POCD aged mice.@*METHODS@#A total of 72 healthy male aged mice were randomized into a blank group, a model group, a medication group and an EA group, 18 mice in each one. In each group, 1-day, 3-day and 7-day subgroups were divided separately, 6 mice in each subgroup. In the EA group, "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Dazhui" (GV 14) were selected and stimulated with EA, using continuous wave (15 Hz, 1 mA), continuously for 30 min, once a day, for 5 days consecutively. In the medication group, 10% minocycline was injected intraperitoneally, 40 mg/kg, once a day, consecutively for 5 days. In the blank and the control group, intraperitoneal injection of 0.9% sodium chloride solution was given with equal dosage. Except the blank group, at the end of intervention, partial hepatectomy was conducted to establish POCD model in the rest groups. Morris water maze test was adopted to evaluate the learning and memory ability of the aged mice. ELISA was used to determine the contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the hippocampal tissue. Western blot method was applied to detect the protein expressions of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD 1) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD 2) in the hippocampal tissue.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the blank group, the percentage of platform quadrant residence time was obviously reduced in the mice in the model group (@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture pretreatment at "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Dazhui" (GV 14) may increase the learning and memory ability of POCD aged mice, which is probably related to the decrease of oxidative stress and the strengthening of hippocampal antioxidant capacity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electroacupuncture , Hippocampus , Male , Memory , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Postoperative Cognitive Complications
20.
São Paulo; s.n; HSPM; 2021.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SMS-SP, HSPM-Producao, SMS-SP | ID: biblio-1348460

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Atualmente, sabe-se que o sono é um estado ativo de regeneração e essencial para as funções fisiológicas do ser humano. Existem vários distúrbios do sono e um dos mais prevalentes é a Síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS) definida por episódios recorrentes de hipopneia ou apneia durante o sono, seguidas por esforço respiratório, em consequência da obstrução de vias aéreas superiores. Esses eventos geram alterações abruptas na pressão arterial, hipóxia intermitente, aumento das citocinas inflamatórias, estresse oxidativo, alterações endoteliais e desregulação do metabolismo lipídico, favorecendo a concepção de um ambiente aterogênico e ao aumento do risco cardiovascular, o que justifica a investigação de dislipidemia nesses pacientes. A terceira edição da Classificação Internacional dos Transtornos do Sono classifica a SAOS em leve, moderada e grave a depender do número de eventos respiratórios por hora de sono durante a polissonografia. Um dos objetivos desse trabalho é investigar se há uma associação diretamente proporcional entre a gravidade da SAOS e o risco de dislipidemia através da análise do prontuário de pacientes apneicos atendidos entre julho de 2014 a junho de 2019 no ambulatório de sono do HSPM, orientando a prática assistencial desenvolvida na instituição. A amostra foi constituída por 74 pacientes com SAOS. Desses, 64 pacientes (86,5%) eram dislipidêmicos, mas apenas 27 (42,2%) realizavam tratamento hipolipemiante no período da primeira consulta. Os pacientes com distúrbio do metabolismo lipídico foram subdivididos em grupos segundo a gravidade da SAOS e aplicou-se testes estatísticos para analisar as proporções de ocorrência de dislipidemia e sua associação com o nível de apneia. A chance de dislipidemia em pacientes com SAOS grave foi 3.22 vezes maior em comparação ao grupo com apneia moderada. Calculouse um p-valor de 0,18 (maior que 0,05), que não descarta a hipótese de associação entre SAOS e dislipidemia, mas sugere que a sua prevalência não é proporcional ao nível de gravidade da apneia. A desregulação do metabolismo lipídico constitui um dos pilares da base patogênica da aterosclerose. Diante dos dados obtidos neste estudo e da revisão da literatura, sugere-se a prática de alta suspeição na identificação de indivíduos com SAOS, o diagnóstico precoce de dislipidemia e ações que aumentem a adesão do paciente ao tratamento hipolipemiante, prática crucial para correta definição das metas terapêuticas individuais e prevenção das complicações cardiovasculares. Palavras-chave: Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono; Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos; Hipóxia; Estresse Oxidativo; Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sleep Wake Disorders , Oxidative Stress , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Lipids
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