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Biol. Res ; 55: 19-19, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383921


BACKGROUND: Acidophilic microorganisms like Leptospirillum sp. CF 1 thrive in environments with extremely low pH and high concentrations of dissolved heavy metals that can induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several hypothetical genes and proteins from Leptospirillum sp. CF 1 are known to be up regulated under oxidative stress conditions. RESULTS: In the present work, the function of hypothetical gene ABH19_09590 from Leptospirillum sp. CF 1 was studied. Heterologous expression of this gene in Escherichia coli led to an increase in the ability to grow under oxidant conditions with 5 mM K2CrO4 or 5 mM H2O2. Similarly, a significant reduction in ROS production in E. coli transformed with a plasmid carrying ABH19_09590 was observed after exposure to these oxidative stress elicitors for 30 min, compared to a strain complemented with the empty vector. A co transcriptional study using RT PCR showed that ABH19_09590 is contained in an operon, here named the "och" operon, that also contains ABH19_09585, ABH19_09595 and ABH19_09600 genes. The expression of the och operon was significantly up regulated in Leptospirillum sp. CF 1 exposed to 5 mM K2CrO4 for 15 and 30 min. Genes of this operon potentially encode a NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, a CXXC motif containing protein likely involved in thiol/disulfide exchange, a hypothetical protein, and a di hydroxy acid dehydratase. A comparative genomic analysis revealed that the och operon is a characteristic genetic determinant of the Leptospirillum genus that is not present in other acidophiles. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, these results suggest that the och operon plays a protective role against chromate and hydrogen peroxide and is an important mechanism required to face polyextremophilic conditions in acid environments.

Chromates/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Operon , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Escherichia coli
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 34-34, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880352


BACKGROUND@#Arsenic is a developmental neurotoxicant. It means that its neurotoxic effect could occur in offspring by maternal arsenic exposure. Our previous study showed that developmental arsenic exposure impaired social behavior and serotonergic system in C3H adult male mice. These effects might affect the next generation with no direct exposure to arsenic. This study aimed to detect the social behavior and related gene expression changes in F2 male mice born to gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 mice.@*METHODS@#Pregnant C3H/HeN mice (F0) were given free access to tap water (control mice) or tap water containing 85 ppm sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation. Arsenite was not given to F1 or F2 mice. The F2 mice were generated by mating among control F1 males and females, and arsenite-F1 males and females at the age of 10 weeks. At 41 weeks and 74 weeks of age respectively, F2 males were used for the assessment of social behavior by a three-chamber social behavior apparatus. Histological features of the prefrontal cortex were studied by ordinary light microscope. Social behavior-related gene expressions were determined in the prefrontal cortex by real time RT-PCR method.@*RESULTS@#The arsenite-F2 male mice showed significantly poor sociability and social novelty preference in both 41-week-old group and 74-week-old group. There was no significant histological difference between the control mice and the arsenite-F2 mice. Regarding gene expression, serotonin receptor 5B (5-HT 5B) mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the arsenite-F2 male mice compared to the control F2 male mice in both groups. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) gene expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the arsenite-F2 male mice of the 74-week-old group. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the arsenite-F2 male mice of both groups, but plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression were not significantly different. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression was significantly increased only in 41-week-old arsenite-F2 mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that maternal arsenic exposure affects social behavior in F2 male mice via serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, COX-2 were not increased although oxidative stress marker (HO-1) was increased significantly in arsnite-F2 male mice.

Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenites/toxicity , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genetic Markers , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Mice, Inbred C3H , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serotonin/metabolism , Social Behavior , Sodium Compounds/toxicity
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 314-319, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130868


Abstract Background: Although not fully understood, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of different autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress can induce mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and variations in mtDNA copy number (mtDNAcn). Objective: The aim of this study was to explore mtDNAcn and oxidative DNA damage byproducts in peripheral blood of patients with systemic sclerosis and healthy controls. Methods: Forty six patients with systemic sclerosis and forty nine healthy subjects were studied. Quantitative real-time PCR used to measure the relative mtDNAcn and the oxidative damage (oxidized purines) of each sample. Results: The mean mtDNAcn was lower in patients with systemic sclerosis than in healthy controls whereas the degree of mtDNA damage was significantly higher in cases as compared to controls. Moreover, there was a negative correlation between mtDNAcn and oxidative DNA damage. Study limitations: The lack of simultaneous analysis and quantification of DNA oxidative damage markers in serum or urine of patients with systemic sclerosis and healthy controls. Conclusion: These data suggest that alteration in mtDNAcn and increased oxidative DNA damage may be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Scleroderma, Systemic/genetics , Scleroderma, Systemic/blood , DNA Damage , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/blood , Oxidative Stress/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Reference Values , Case-Control Studies , Reactive Oxygen Species/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Middle Aged
Acta cir. bras ; 35(4): e202000404, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130634


Abstract Purpose To analyze the effect of calcitriol treatment on acute colitis in an experimental rat model. Methods A total of 24 adult Sprague Dawley albino rats were randomly separated into 3 equal groups: control group (n:8), colitis group (n:8), calcitriol administered group (n:8). A single dose of acetic acid (1 ml of 4% solution) was administered intrarectally to induce colitis. Group 1 was given 1 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl intraperitoneally; rats belonging to Group 2 were administered calcitriol 1 µg/kg for 5 days. Results Plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha, Pentraxin 3, and malondialdehyde levels were significantly lower in the calcitriol administered colitis group than in the standard colitis group (p<0.01). In the Calcitriol group, there was a significant histological improvement in hyperemia, hemorrhage and necrotic areas in the epithelium compared to the placebo group (p <0.000). Conclusion The findings suggest that calcitriol may be an agent that could be used in acute colitis treatment.

Animals , Male , Calcitriol/therapeutic use , Colitis/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Reference Values , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Serum Amyloid P-Component/analysis , Lipid Peroxidation , Random Allocation , Acute Disease , Reproducibility of Results , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Colitis/blood , Colitis/pathology , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Malondialdehyde/blood
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(3): 268-277, set. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041836


Phytophthora parasitica is an important oomycete that causes disease in a variety of plants, dimethomorph fungicides being specific for oomycetes. The aim of this study was to use RNA-seq to rapidly discover the mechanism by which dimethomorph acts in the treatment of P. parasitica. We found that the expression of 832 genes changed significantly after the dimethomorph treatment, including 365 up-regulated genes and 467 down-regulated genes. According to the Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, pathway enrichment and verification test results, the following conclusions are obtained: (i) the treatment of P. parasitica with dimethomorph causes changes in the expression levels of genes associated with the cell wall and cell wall synthesis; (ii) dimethomorph treatment results in reduced permeability of the cell membrane and changes in the expression of certain transport-related proteins; (iii) dimethomorph treatment increased reactive oxygen species and reduced the expression of genes related to the control of oxidative stress.

Phytophthora parasitica es un importante oomiceto que origina enfermedades en una variedad de plantas; el fungicida dimetomorf es específico contra oomicetos. El objetivo de este estudio fue utilizar la tecnología de RNA-seq para descubrir rápidamente el mecanismo por el que el dimetomorf actúa en el tratamiento de P. parasitica. Descubrimos que la expresión de 832 genes se modificaba significativamente tras el tratamiento con dimetomorf, incluyendo 365 genes que son sobrerregulados y 467 genes que son subrregulados. El análisis de enriquecimiento de ontología de genes (GO), análisis de enriquecimiento de las vías y pruebas de verificación permitieron extraer las conclusiones siguientes: 1) el tratamiento de P. parasitica con dimetomorf origina cambios en los niveles de expresión de los genes relacionados con la pared celular y su síntesis; 2) el tratamiento con dimetomorf origina una reducción de la permeabilidad de la membrana celular, así como cambios en la expresión de ciertas proteínas relacionadas con el transporte, y 3) el tratamiento con dimetomorf incrementó las especies reactivas del oxígeno y redujo la expresión de los genes relacionados con el control del estrés oxidativo.

Phytophthora/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , Morpholines/pharmacology , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , RNA-Seq , Phytophthora/genetics , Plant Diseases/parasitology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Carrier Proteins/biosynthesis , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Cell Membrane Permeability/drug effects , Cell Membrane Permeability/genetics , Cell Wall/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Sequence Alignment , Reactive Oxygen Species , Oxidative Stress/genetics , beta-Glucans/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gene Ontology
Acta cir. bras ; 33(5): 462-471, May 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949341


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) on the expression of the genes antioxidant glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) and lactoperoxidase (Lpo) in the lung of mice subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IIR). Methods: Control group (CG) in which were subjected to anesthesia, laparotomy and observation for 120 minutes; an ischemia and reperfusion group (IRG) subjected to anesthesia, laparotomy, small bowel ischemia for 60 minutes and reperfusion for 60 minutes; and three groups treated with HBO during ischemia (HBOG + I), during reperfusion (HBOG + R) and during ischemia and reperfusion (HBOG + IR). Studied 84 genes of oxidative stress by the method (RT-qPCR). Genes with expression levels three times below or above the threshold cycle were considered significantly hypoexpressed or hyperexpressed, respectively (Student's t-test p<0.05). Results: Gpx4 and Lpo were hiperexpressed on IRG, showing a correlation with these genes with lung oxidative stress. Treated with HBO, there was a significant reduction on genic expression on HBOG+I. Conclusion: Hyperbaric oxygenation showed to be associated with decreased expression of these antioxidant genes, suggesting a beneficial effect on the mechanism of pulmonary oxidative stress whenever applied during the ischemia.

Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/methods , Lactoperoxidase/genetics , Lung/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Intestines/blood supply , Ischemia/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Acta cir. bras ; 32(11): 913-923, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886181


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) on intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury, we evaluated the expression of 84 genes related to oxidative stress and the antioxidant response in mouse hearts. Methods: Four groups were subjected to 60 minutes of intestinal ischemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion: IRG, ischemia and reperfusion group without HBO; HBO-IG, which received HBO during ischemia; HBO-RG, which received HBO during reperfusion; and HBO-IRG, which received HBO during ischemia and reperfusion. The control group (CG) underwent anesthesia and laparotomy and was observed for 120 minutes. The (RT-qPCR) method was applied. Genes with expression levels three times below or above the threshold cycle were considered significantly hypoexpressed or hyperexpressed, respectively (Student's t-test p<0.05). Results: Eight genes (9.52%) were hyperexpressed in the IRG. When the HBO groups were compared to the IRG, we found a decrease in the expression of eight genes in the HBO-IG, five genes in the HBO-RG, and seven genes in the HBO-IRG. Conclusion: The reduction in the expression of genes related to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense following HBO in mouse hearts resulting from intestinal IR injury was more favorable during the ischemic period than during the reperfusion period.

Animals , Male , Mice , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Gene Expression , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/methods , Intestines/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , NADPH Oxidases/metabolism , Coronary Vessels/enzymology , Disease Models, Animal , Heart , Heart Diseases , Ischemia/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Ann. hepatol ; 16(1): 77-85, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838089


Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. We have previously shown that hepatic reticuloendothelial system (RES) iron deposition is associated with an advanced degree of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in humans. In this study, we aimed to determine differentially expressed genes related to iron overload, inflammation and oxidative stress pathways, with the goal of identifying factors associated with NASH progression. Seventy five patients with NAFLD were evaluated for their biochemical parameters and their liver tissue analyzed for NASH histological characteristics. Gene expression analysis of pathways related to iron homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress was performed using real-time PCR. Gene expression was compared between subjects based on disease status and presence of hepatic iron staining. We observed increased gene expression of hepcidin (HAMP) (2.3 fold, p = 0.027), transmembrane serine proteinase 6 (TMPRSS6) (8.4 fold, p = 0.003), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) (5.5 fold, p = 0.004), proinflammatory cytokines; IL-1β (2.7 fold, p = 0.046) and TNF-α (3.8 fold, p = 0.001) in patients with NASH. TMPRSS6, a negative regulator of HAMP, is overexpressed in patients with NASH and HIF1α (hypoxia inducible factor-1) is downregulated. NAFLD patients with hepatic iron deposition exhibited higher hepcidin expression (3.1 fold, p = 0.04) but lower expression of cytokines. In conclusion, we observed elevated hepatic HAMP expression in patients with NASH and in NAFLD patients who had hepatic iron deposition, while proinflammatory cytokines displayed elevated expression only in patients with NASH, suggesting a regulatory role for hepcidin in NAFL to NASH transition and in mitigating inflammatory responses.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Iron Overload/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Iron/analysis , Liver/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Iron Overload/diagnosis , Iron Overload/blood , STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hepcidins/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/blood , Liver/pathology , Membrane Proteins/genetics
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 25(S5): S30-S34, out. 2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-771277


Introdução: a fisiopatologia da esquizofrenia é ainda pouco esclarecida. Vários estudos descrevem o importante papel da inflamação e do estresse oxidativo nessa explicação. Esquizofrênicos parecem ter seus mecanismos de defesa alterados e resposta distinta dos controles ao estresse oxidativo, que é lesivo a várias estruturas celulares, entre elas a matriz extracelular (MEC). Uma MEC íntegra e estruturada é essencialpara a boa condução sináptica. Objetivo: avaliar a resposta de genes que codificam proteínas da MEC ao estresse oxidativo em esquizofrênicos crônicos e controles. Metodologia: foi feita cultura de fibroblastos a partir de biópsias de pele de esquizofrênicos e controles. Estas foram tratadas com TBHQ, um pró-oxidante, ou DMSO, o veículo, e então se quantificou a expressão dos genes MMP16, GALNT6, SULF1, ADAMTS1 e ACSL1pelo método de PCR em tempo real e dos seus produtos por western blot. Resultados: existe resposta de ambos os grupos ao estresse oxidativo, no entanto, essa resposta é distinta entre pacientes e controles, com esquizofrênicos expressando menos o gene GALNT6 e sua proteína. Conclusão: o gene GALNT6 codifica uma enzima responsável por glicosilar componentes da MEC. Pode-se hipotetizar que a resposta de esquizofrê-nicos ao estresse oxidativo torna essa MEC mais suscetível aos seus efeitos deletérios, colaborando com a fisiopatologia da doença.

Introduction: The pathophysiology of schizophrenia is still poorly understood. Several studies suggest an important role of inflammation and oxidative stress in this explanation. Schizophrenics seem to have altered defense mechanisms and a distinct response to oxidative stress than that of controls. Oxidative stress is harmful to various cellular structures,among them the extracellular matrix (ECM). A intact and structured ECM is essential for proper synaptic signaling. Objective: To evaluate the response of genes encoding ECM proteins to oxidative stress in chronic schizophrenics and controls. Methodology: Fibroblasts were cultivated from schizophrenic and controls? skin biopsies. They were treatedwith TBHQ, a pro-oxidant, or DMSO (the vehicle), and then had the expression of MMP16, GALNT6, SULF1, ADAMTS1 and ACSL1 genes quantified by the method of real time PCR and their products by the method of Western blot. Results: There was response from both groups to oxidative stress, however, this response was different between patients and controls, with schizophrenics expressing less the GALNT6 gene and its protein. Conclusion: GALNT6 gene encodes an enzyme responsible for glycosylating ECM components. We can hypothesize that the schizophrenic?s response to oxidative stress renders the ECM moresusceptible to its harmful effects, contributing to the pathophysiology of the disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Schizophrenia/physiopathology , Gene Expression Regulation , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Extracellular Matrix/enzymology , Gene Expression , Inflammation , Mental Disorders
Clinics ; 70(10): 670-674, Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762956


OBJECTIVES:Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airflow obstruction. Genetic and oxidative stress factors, in addition to pulmonary and systemic inflammatory processes, play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The products of the multidrug resistance-1 gene protect lung tissue from oxidative stress. Here, we aimed to evaluate the association between the multidrug resistance-1 gene C>T polymorphism and asthma with regard to oxidative stress-related parameters of asthmatic patients.METHODS:Forty-five patients with asthma and 27 healthy age-matched controls were included in this study. Blood samples were collected in tubes with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. DNA was extracted from the blood samples. The multidrug resistance-1 gene polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction and a subsequent enzyme digestion technique. The serum levels of total oxidant status and total antioxidant status were determined by the colorimetric measurement method.RESULTS:The heterozygous polymorphic genotype was the most frequent in both groups. A significant difference in the multidrug resistance-1 genotype frequencies between groups indicated an association of asthma with the TT genotype. A significant difference between groups was found for wild type homozygous participants and carriers of polymorphic allele participants. The frequency of the T allele was significantly higher in asthmatic patients. The increase in the oxidative stress index parameter was significant in the asthma group compared with the control group.CONCLUSIONS:The multidrug resistance-1 gene C/T polymorphism may be an underlying genetic risk factor for the development of asthma via oxidant-antioxidant imbalance, leading to increased oxidative stress.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Asthma/genetics , Genes, MDR/genetics , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Case-Control Studies , Heterozygote , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Statistics, Nonparametric
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(1): 79-88, Jan-Mar/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745885


Objective To establish whether the mutation in the Immp2L gene induces renal fibrosis and whether aging exacerbates renal morphology in mice. Methods Female mutant mice with mutation in the inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase 2-like protein at 3 and 18 months of age were used. Renal fibrosis was analyzed using classic fibrosis score, Masson’s trichrome staining, and analysis of profibrotic markers using real time polymerase chain reaction (superoxide dismutase 1, metalloproteinase-9, erythropoietin, transforming growth factor beta), and immunostaining (fibroblasts and Type IV collagen). Oxidative stress markers were determined by immunohistochemistry. The number of renal apoptotic cells was determined. Renal function was estimated by serum creatinine. Results Young mutant mice had significantly more glomerulosclerosis than age-matched mice (p=0.034). Mutant mice had more tubular casts (p=0.025), collagen deposition (p=0.019), and collagen type IV expression (p<0.001). Superoxide dismutase 1 expression was significantly higher in young mutants (p=0.038). Old mutants exhibited significantly higher expression of the fibroblast marker and macrophage marker (p=0.007 and p=0.012, respectively). The real time polymerase chain reaction of metalloproteinase-9 and erythropoietin were enhanced 2.5- and 6-fold, respectively, in old mutants. Serum creatinine was significantly higher in old mutants (p<0.001). Conclusion This mutation altered renal architecture by increasing the deposition of extracellular matrix, oxidative stress, and inflammation, suggesting a protective role of Immp2L against renal fibrosis. .

Objetivo Estabelecer se a mutação no gene Immp2L induz à fibrose renal e se o envelhecimento exacerba a morfologia renal em camundongos. Métodos Foram usadas fêmeas de camundongos mutantes para proteína semelhante à peptidase 2 da camada interna da mitocôndria, com 3 e 18 meses de idade. Para analisar a fibrose renal, foram usados o escore clássico de fibrose, a coloração com tricrômio de Masson, e a análise de marcadores profibróticos, por meio da reação em cadeia de polimerase em tempo real (superóxido dismutase 1, metalonoproteinase-9, eritropoietina e fator transformador de crescimento beta), e a imunocoloração (fibroblastos e colágeno IV). Marcadores de estresse oxidativo foram determinados por imuno-histoquímica. O número de células apoptóticas renais foi analisado. A função renal foi estimada por creatinina sérica. Resultados Camundongos mutantes jovens apresentaram glomeruloesclerose em quantidade significativamente maior que animais da mesma idade (p=0,034). Os mutantes mostraram maior formação de cilindros tubulares (p=0,025), deposição de colágeno (p=0,019) e maior expressão de colágeno do tipo IV (p<0,001). A expressão de superóxido dismutase 1 foi maior em mutantes jovens (p=0,038). Mutantes idosas exibiram maior expressão dos marcadores de fibroblastos e macrófagos (p=0,007 e p=0,012, respectivamente). As reações da cadeia de polimerase em tempo real da metalanoproteinase-9 e da eritropoietina estavam aumentadas em 2,5 e 6 vezes, respectivamente, em mutantes idosas. A creatinina sérica foi significantemente maior em animais idosos mutantes (p<0,001). Conclusão Essa mutação alterou a arquitetura renal pelo aumento da deposição de matriz extracelular, estresse oxidativo e inflamação, sugerindo papel de proteção de Immp2L contra a fibrose renal. .

Animals , Female , Mice , Disease Models, Animal , Endopeptidases/genetics , Endopeptidases/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Mutation/physiology , Superoxides/metabolism , Apoptosis/genetics , Apoptosis/physiology , Collagen/analysis , Creatinine/blood , Erythropoietin/analysis , Fibrosis/genetics , Fibrosis/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/analysis , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/genetics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Superoxides/analysis , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2015. 55 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-847363


As dietas intermitentes (IF) compreendem ciclos alternados de 24 horas de jejum e alimentação. Como os efeitos de IF sobre o balanço redox não são bem conhecidos, esse trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos desta dieta sobre o estado redox de diferentes tecidos de ratos. Após um mês de tratamento, os fígados dos ratos em IF apresentaram um aumento de capacidade respiratória mitocondrial juntamente com níveis elevados de proteínas carboniladas. Verificou-se ainda um aumento em danos oxidativos no cérebro destes animais. IF promoveu significativa proteção contra danos oxidativos no coração, enquanto que não houve alterações no estado redox do músculo esquelético. Os efeitos metabólicos de IF também foram investigados com o intuito de compreender os mecanismos envolvidos com o menor peso e a hiperfagia promovidos por esta intervenção. Observou-se que o menor peso dos ratos submetidos à IF é consequência de um aumento em taxas metabólicas em dias de alimentação somado à oxidação lipídica aumentada durante o jejum. A hiperfagia, por sua vez, é consequencia de elevação nos níveis de neurotransmissores orexigênicos hipotalâmicos, mesmo quando estes animais estão alimentados. Os níveis do neutransmissor TRH também foram modulados por esta dieta, o que pode estar relacionado com as alterações de taxas metabólicas observadas no modelo. Concluímos, portanto, que as dietas intermitentes promovem modificações funcionais no hipotálamo que estão associadas com diferenças no peso corpóreo e no apetite. Além disso, IF afeta o balanço redox de forma tecido específica, levando a um desbalanço oxidativo no fígado e no cérebro e à proteção contra danos oxidativos no coração

Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary intervention that comprises 24 hour cycles alternating ad libitum feeding and fasting. We address here the effects of IF on redox state in different tissues, which are still poorly understood. After one month on the diet, IF rats livers presented increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity along with increased levels of protein carbonyls. Surprisingly, IF animals also presented an increase in oxidative damage in the brain. Conversely, IF promoted a substantial protection against oxidative damage in the heart. No difference in redox homeostasis was observed in the skeletal muscle. We also assessed metabolic effects of IF to uncover the mechanisms involved in the lower body mass and loss of feeding control in IF rats. As measured calorimetrically, IF animals presented high metabolic rates during feeding days and increased lipid oxidation on fasting days, which explains the lower body weight. IF-induced overeating was a consequence of increased expression of hypothalamic orexigenic neurotransmitters, even on feeding days. THR levels also were changed, in parallel with the feeding-dependent alterations on metabolic rates. Overall, we find that intermittent fasting promotes functional hypothalamic alterations associated with differences in body weight and appetite. In addition, IF affects redox balance in a tissue-specific manner, leading to redox imbalance in the liver and brain, as well as protection against oxidative damage in the heart

Rats , Diet/methods , Oxidation-Reduction/radiation effects , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress/genetics
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(5): 549-554, oct. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-730271


Introduction: During malaria infection, both parasite and host are under the effects of oxidative stress due to the increased production of reactive oxygen species, which can induce DNA damage by its genotoxic effects. Objective: To evaluate genotoxic effects in human lymphocytes in a cohort of patients with malaria from Medellin and Quibdó. Methods: We performed an observational cross sectional study in 100 individuals with malaria and 100 healthy controls. Patients infected with Plasmodium consulting the Institute Colombiano of Medicina Tropical of Medellin and the Hospital Ismael Roldán Valencia of Quibdó were included. Genotoxic effects (genetic damage) was analysed by electrophoresis using alkaline single cell gel (Commet assay). Results: The average of tail length of malaria samples (26.9 ± 9.8) was significantly higher than of controls (14.8 ± 3.2) (p < 0.01). Conclusion: In our study population, malaria infection was associated with increased genotoxicity, while other variables such as smoking, antimalarial treatment, and occupation were not.

Introducción: Durante la infección de la malaria, tanto el parásito como el hospedero están bajo los efectos de estrés oxidativo, dado que se aumenta la producción de especies reactivas del oxígeno, las cuales pueden inducir daños en el ADN debido a su gran efecto genotóxico. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto genotóxico en linfocitos humanos en una cohorte de pacientes con malaria de Medellín y Quibdó. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional transversal en 100 personas con malaria y 100 controles sanos. Se incluyeron pacientes infectados con Plasmodium, que consultaron en el Instituto Colombiano de Medicina Tropical de Medellín y el Hospital Ismael Roldán Valencia de Quibdó. Se realizó una valoración transversal del efecto (daño genético) mediante electro-foresis en gel de células individuales (ensayo Cometa). Resultados: El promedio de longitud de la cola de los pacientes (26,9 ± 9,8) fue significativamente mayor que la media de los controles sanos (14,8 ± 3,2) (p < 0,01). Conclusión: Se evidenció en la población de estudio que la infección por malaria generó genotoxicidad, no así variables como tabaquismo, tratamiento antimalárico y ocupación.

Female , Humans , Male , DNA Damage/genetics , Lymphocytes/parasitology , Malaria, Falciparum/genetics , Malaria, Vivax/genetics , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Colombia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Risk Factors , Smoking
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 102(2): 165-174, 03/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-704607


FUNDAMENTO: O fenômeno da isquemia e reperfusão intestinal é um evento frequente na clínica e está associado a repercussões deletérias em órgãos a distância, em especial ao coração. OBJETIVO: Investigar a expressão gênica do estresse oxidativo e defesa antioxidante no coração de camundongos isogênicos, submetidos a isquemia e reperfusão intestinal (IR). MÉTODOS: Doze camundongos (C57BL/6) foram distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo IR (GIR) com 60 min de oclusão da artéria mesentérica superior, seguidos de 60 min de reperfusão. Grupo Controle (GC) submetidos a anestesia e a laparotomia sem o procedimento de IR observados por 120 min. As amostras de intestino e coração foram processadas pelo método (RT-qPCR / Reverse transcriptase - quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction) para determinar a expressão gênica de 84 genes relacionados ao estresse oxidativo ("t" de Student, p < 0,05). RESULTADOS: Observou-se no tecido intestinal (GIR) uma expressão significantemente aumentada em 65 (74,71%) genes em relação ao tecido normal (GC), e 37 (44,04%) genes estiveram hiperexpressos (maior que três vezes o limiar permitido pelo algoritmo). No tocante aos efeitos da I/R intestinal a distância no tecido cardíaco verificou-se a expressão significantemente aumentada de 28 genes (33,33%), mas somente oito genes (9,52%) se hiperexpressaram três vezes acima do limiar. Quatro (7,14%) desses oito genes se expressaram simultaneamente nos tecidos intestinal e cardíaco. No GIR notaram-se cardiomiócitos com núcleos de menor tamanho, picnóticos, ricos em heterocromatina e raros nucléolos, indicando sofrimento cardíaco. CONCLUSÃO: A I/R intestinal promoveu a hiperexpressão estatisticamente significante de oito genes associados ao ...

BACKGROUND: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion is a frequent clinical event associated to injury in distant organs, especially the heart. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the gene expression of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the heart of inbred mice subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR). METHODS: Twelve mice (C57BL / 6) were assigned to: IR Group (GIR) with 60 minutes of superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion; Control Group (CG) which underwent anesthesia and laparotomy without IR procedure and was observed for 120 minutes. Intestine and heart samples were processed using the RT-qPCR / Reverse transcriptase-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction method for the gene expression of 84 genes related to oxidative stress and oxidative defense (Student's "t" test, p < 0.05). RESULTS: The intestinal tissue (GIR) was noted to have an up-regulation of 65 genes (74.71%) in comparison to normal tissue (CG), and 37 genes (44.04%) were hyper-expressed (greater than three times the threshold allowed by the algorithm). Regarding the remote effects of intestinal I/R in cardiac tissue an up-regulation of 28 genes (33.33%) was seen, but only eight genes (9.52%) were hyper-expressed three times above threshold. Four (7.14%) of these eight genes were expressed in both intestinal and cardiac tissues. Cardiomyocytes with smaller and pyknotic nuclei, rich in heterochromatin with rare nucleoli, indicating cardiac distress, were observed in the GIR. CONCLUSION: Intestinal I/R caused a statistically significant over expression of 8 genes associated with oxidative stress in remote myocardial tissue. .

Animals , Male , Gene Expression/genetics , Intestine, Small/blood supply , Myocardium/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Ischemia/genetics , Ischemia/metabolism , Random Allocation , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reperfusion Injury/genetics , Time Factors , Up-Regulation/genetics
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2014 Jan-Mar ;20 (1): 10-19
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156628


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), by definition is a heterogeneous, multifactorial, polygenic syndrome which results from insulin receptor (IR) dysfunction. It is an outcome of oxidative stress caused by interactions of reactive metabolites (RMs) with lipids, proteins and other molecules of the human body. Production of RMs mainly superoxides (•O2 −) has been found in a variety of predominating cellular enzyme systems including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, xanthine oxidase, cyclooxygenase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and myeloperoxidase. The four main RM related molecular mechanisms are: increased polyol pathway flux; increased advanced glycation end‑product formation; activation of protein kinase C isoforms and increased hexosamine pathway flux which have been implicated in glucose‑mediated vascular damage. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione‑S‑transferase and NOS are antioxidant enzymes involved in scavenging RMs in normal individuals. Functional polymorphisms of these antioxidant enzymes have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM. The low levels of antioxidant enzymes or their non‑functionality results in excessive RMs which initiates stress related pathways thereby leading to IR and T2DM. An attempt has been made to review the role of RMs and antioxidant enzymes in oxidative stress resulting in T2DM.

Activation, Metabolic/genetics , Antioxidants , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences [AJVS]. 2014; 40: 29-42
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-160053


This study was designed to investigate the possibility of cadmium [Cd] to induce oxidative stress and biochemical perturbations in Nile tilapia liver and gills and the role of Vitamin C [Vit. C] in alleviating its toxic effects. Nile tilapia fish were randomly divided into four groups of thirteen each, group one served as control without any treatment, group two exposed to Cd [5mg/liter water], group three supplemented with vitamin C [Vit.C] [500mg/kg diet], and group four exposed to Cd plus Vit. C. The exposure to Cd caused increase in Liver aminotransferases [AST and ALT], elevation in lipid peroxidation [LPO], activity of catalase [CAT] enzyme, and the activity of glutathione S-transferase [GST]. The urea and creatinine levels were not affected. However, reduction in the activity of glutathione peroxidase [GPx] was observed. An increase in reduced glutathione [GSH] content was also observed and in gills there were no significant changes in LPO, antioxidant enzymes activity and GSH level. Vit.C supplementation in Cd-induced oxidative stress of Nile tilapia maintained Liver AST and ALT near normal level and modulated LPO, CAT, GST, GPx and GSH level in liver. It is concluded that Vit.C scavenges reactive oxygen species and render a protective effect against Cd toxicity

Animals , Cadmium/toxicity , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Biomarkers
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2014. 272 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847100


As espécies reativas são associadas a processos toxicológicos e fisiopatológicos, agindo como importantes mediadores, por exemplo, na sinalização celular. Diversas classes de compostos têm sido utilizadas como possíveis biomarcadores de estresse redox, destacando-se os aldeídos α,ß-insaturados, capazes de alquilar biomoléculas como o DNA. Para evitar efeitos deletérios, estes aldeídos são detoxificados por glutationilação e posterior metabolização a derivados mercaptúricos. Contudo, avaliar o estado redox em sistemas biológicos ainda é tarefa bastante complexa, sendo a dificuldade em quantificar de forma prática e acurada os efeitos de sinalização e/ou dano molecular o maior problema dos estudos redox. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver métodos acurados e sensíveis de análise de potenciais biomarcadores de estresse redox, isto é: nucleosídeos modificados, aldeídos endógenos e exógenos, glutationa e produtos de glutationilação, e avaliá-los em sistemas modelos, celular e animal, e em humanos. A avaliação dos níveis urinários de três nucleosídeos modificados por metodologia de HPLC-MS/MS desenvolvida pelo grupo em moradores da cidade de São Paulo - região com poluição atmosférica - demonstrou aumento significativo de 1,N2-propanodGuo comparado aos moradores de região não poluída. Ademais, comprova-se pela primeira vez que células deficientes em reparo de ligações cruzadas apresentam níveis basais elevados de 1,N2-propanodGuo, em duas linhagens independentes, colocando este aduto como potencial mediador de carcinogênese em pacientes portadores de Anemia de Fanconi. Utilizando cérebro de ratos SOD1G93A (modelo de Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica - ELA), verificou-se aumento de 50% nos níveis de 1,N2-propanodGuo e de 100% nos de 1,N6-εdAdo em fase sintomática, sugerindo influência do conteúdo lipídico cerebral, levando a comprometimento do metabolismo neuronal e morte celular. O perfil de aldeídos determinado em cérebro de ratos SOD1G93A demonstrou aumento de trans-hexa-2-enal e trans,trans-hexa-2,4-dienal em fase assintomática e de trans,trans-deca-2,4-dienal em fase sintomática, não sendo observada nenhuma alteração na medula. Conhecer estas variações permite direcionar estudos de modificações em biomoléculas, além de a metodologia per se corroborar com as áreas de análises lipidômicas. Técnicas distintas e o preparo de amostras refletiram nos níveis de glutationa reduzida (GSH) e oxidada (GSSG) relatados. A técnica de espectrometria de massas mostrou-se mais precisa que a detecção eletroquímica; e a alquilação do grupo tiol minimizou interferências de matriz. Por análise de HPLC-UV/Vis-ESI-MS/MS, a quantificação de trans-4-hidroxi-2-nonenal (HNE) e crotonaldeido conjugados com GSH demonstrou não haver alterações em cérebro e medula de ratos SOD1G93A. Contudo, há formação esteroespecífica dos adutos de HNE in vivo. Ressalta-se que a metodologia desenvolvida é extremamente sensível e específica e permite análise simultânea de GSH, GSSG, cisteína, cistina e dos adutos supracitados, servindo para análise de outros adutos de glutationilação de aldeídos que possam ser importantes em doenças associadas a estresse redox

Free radicais and oxidant species are associated with toxicological and pathophysiological processes. It has been demonstrated that production of reactive oxygen species may be involved in cell signaling and regulation. Several biomarkers of redox processes have been used, including adducts formed through the reaction of α,ß-unsaturated aldehydes with biomolecules such as DNA. In order to avoid these deleterious effects, aldehydes are detoxified through glutathionylation and further metabolized to mercapturic derivatives. However, assessing the redox status in biological systems is still a very complex task, and the difficulty in practical and accurate quantification of signaling effects and/or molecular damage is a major problem in redox studies. The objective of this work was to develop accurate and sensitive methods for analysis of potential biomarkers of redox stress, i.e., modified nucleosides, endogenous and exogenous aldehydes, glutathione and glutathionylation products, and their evaluation in cell, animal model and humans. Evaluation of urinary levels of 1,N2-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N2-propanodGuo), 1,N2-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in residents of São Paulo City - polluted region - showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in 1,N2-propanodGuo levels compared to residents of an unpolluted region by a HPLC-MS/MS methodology developed by the group. Moreover, it was proven, for the first time, that repair deficient cells have basal levels of 1,N2-propanodGuo higher than proficient cells in two independent strains, placing 1,N2-propanodGuo as a potential mediator of carcinogenesis in Fanconi Anemia patients. In an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) animal model (SOD1G93A rat) , a 50% increase in the levels of 1,N2-propanodGuo and 100% in the 1,N6-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine in brain tissue in the symptomatic phase was observed, suggesting that the high brain lipid content may play a role, leading to impairment of cell metabolism and neuronal cell death. There is an increase of trans-hex-2-enal and trans,trans-hexa-2,4-dienal in asymptomatic SOD1G93A rats brain and of trans,trans-deca-2,4-dienal in symptomatic ones. However, no alteration was observed in spinal cord. Our approach contributes to a better understanding of the aldehyde status in vivo and allows us to predict biomolecule modifications. The developed methodology can contribute to lipidomic studies. The use of different techniques and sample preparation reflected in the reported levels of reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The mass spectrometry technique proved to be more accurate than the electrochemical one, and the use of thiol alkylating agent minimizes matrix interference. No changes were observed in the levels of the GSH conjugates of trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and crotonaldehyde in brain and spinal cord of SOD1G93A rats quantified by HPLC-UV/Vis-ESI-MS/MS compared to controls. However, it was observed stereospecific HNE adducts formation in vivo. Note that this methodology is extremely sensitive and specific and allows simultaneous analysis of GSH, GSSG, Cys, cystine and the aforementioned adducts, serving for analysis of other aldehyde-glutathionylation adducts that may be important in pathologies associated with stress redox

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Aldehydes , Biomarkers/analysis , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/complications , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/instrumentation , DNA Adducts/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Oxidative Stress/genetics
Acta cir. bras ; 28(12): 848-855, Dec. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-695969


PURPOSE: To determine the gene expressions profile related to the oxidative stress and the antioxidant response in the kidneys of mice subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Twelve inbred mice (C57BL/6) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the control group (CG) underwent anesthesia and was observed for 120 min and the ischemia/reperfusion group (IRG), animals were anesthetized and subjected to laparotomy and ischemia for 60 minutes followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. The expressions of 84 genes from the kidney were determined by the Reverse Transcription qualitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). All genes that were up regulated by more than threefold using the algorithm [2(ΔΔCt)] were considered statically significant (p<0.05). RESULTS: In the IRG group 29 (34.52%) of 84 genes, were up regulated by more than threefold. The genes that were differentially up regulated in the glutathione peroxidase cluster (10 genes): were Gpx2 and Gpx7. The genes that were up regulated in the peroxidase cluster (16 genes) were following: Duox1, Epx, Lpo, Mpo, Ptgs2, Rag2, Serpinb1b, Tmod1 and Tpo. The genes that up regulated in the reactive oxygen species cluster (16 genes): Il19, Il22, Nos2, Nox1, Noxa1, Noxo1, Recql4 and Sod2. The genes that were up regulated in the oxidative stress cluster (22 genes) were: Mpp4, Nudt15, Upc3 and Xpa. The genes that were up regulated in the oxygen carriers cluster (12 genes) were: Hbq1, Mb, Ngb, Slc38a1 and Xirp1. The peroxiredoxins genes (10) showed no consistent differential regulation. CONCLUSION: The genes related to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense showed increased expression in renal tissue trigged intestinal ischemia and reperfusion.

Animals , Male , Mice , Gene Expression/genetics , Intestine, Small , Kidney , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Reperfusion Injury/genetics , Antioxidants/metabolism , Down-Regulation/genetics , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Intestine, Small/physiopathology , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Time Factors , Up-Regulation/genetics
Acta toxicol. argent ; 21(1): 33-49, jun. 2013. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-694583


El cadmio (Cd) es un metal que se encuentra principalmente en la corteza terrestre y siempre se presenta en combinación con el zinc. Es ampliamente utilizado en la industria. Se considera un contaminante y es liberado al ambiente como subproducto de la extracción de cobre, hierro y zinc. La exposición al Cd puede producir una variedad de efectos adversos tanto en el humano como en los animales. Una vez absorbido se acumula en el organismo por tiempos largos. Dependiendo de la dosis, fuente y tipo de exposición puede dañar varios órganos como el hígado, riñón, pulmón, hueso, testículos y placenta. Los seres humanos están expuestos al Cd principalmente a través de la ingesta de alimentos, del humo del cigarro, así como del agua y aire contaminados con el metal. La entrada de Cd a las células no es uniforme en todos los sistemas y puede ser mediada por transporte pasivo o activo, o por canales de calcio. Se considera que uno de los mecanismos de toxicidad de este metal es debido, en parte, a las especies reactivas de oxígeno, las cuales pueden actuar como segundos mensajeros y por tanto alterar diferentes vías de señalización. Por todo lo expuesto el objetivo de esta revisión es analizar los efectos del Cd sobre la salud, así como sobre la respuesta celular y molecular.

Cadmium (Cd) is a metal found in the earth´s crust, always as part of several, mainly zinc-rich, ores. Cd is considered as an environmental pollutant, it is widely used in the industry. It coexists with other metals and its release into the environment is carried out in parallel with the release of copper, iron and zinc. Cd is known to have numerous undesirable effects on health in both humans and animals. Once absorbed, it is effciently retained in the body, where it accumulates throughout life. Depending on the dose, source and type of exposure it could damage several organs as the liver, kidney, lung, bones, testes and placenta. Impor-tant sources of human intoxication are food, cigarette smoke as well as contaminated water and air. Cd cell uptake is not uniform across all systems. This could be mediated by passive or active transport, or via calcium channels. It is known that the toxicity produced by this metal is due, in part to reactive oxygen species, which could act as second messengers that may alter different signaling cascades. The aim of this review is to analyze the effects of Cd on health, as well as on cellular and molecular response.

Cadmium Poisoning/genetics , Cadmium/metabolism , Cadmium/toxicity , Metallothionein , Oxidative Stress/genetics
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(5): 417-425, maio 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675669


We evaluated changes in levels by comparing serum proteins in senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice at 2, 6, 12, and 15 months of age (SAMP8-2 m, -6 m, -12 m, -15 m) to age-matched SAM-resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice. Mice were sacrificed, and blood was analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry. Five protein spots were present in all SAMP8 serum samples, but only appeared in SAMR1 samples at 15 months of age except for spot 3, which also showed a slight expression in SAMR1-12 m sera. Two proteins decreased in the sera from SAMP8-2 m, -6 m, and -12 m mice, and divided into 2 spots each in SAMP8-15 m sera. Thus, the total number of altered spots in SAMP8 sera was 7; of these, 4 were identified as Ig kappa chain V region (M-T413), chain A of an activity suppressing Fab fragment to cytochrome P450 aromatase (32C2_A), alpha-fetoprotein, and apolipoprotein A-II. M-T413 is a monoclonal CD4 antibody, which inhibits T cell proliferation. We found that M-T413 RNA level was significantly enhanced in splenocytes from SAMP8-2 m mice. This agreed with serum M-T413 protein alterations and a strikingly lower blood CD4+ T cell count in SAMP8 mice when compared to the age-matched SAMR1 mice, with the latter negatively correlating with serum M-T413 protein volume. Age-related changes in serum proteins favored an increase in autoantibodies and alpha-fetoprotein and a decrease of apolipoprotein A-II, which occurred in SAMP8 mice at 2 months of age and onwards. These proteins may serve as candidate biomarkers for early aging.

Animals , Male , Mice , Aging/blood , Apolipoprotein A-II/blood , Autoantibodies/blood , Oxidative Stress/genetics , alpha-Fetoproteins/metabolism , Aging/genetics , Apolipoprotein A-II/genetics , Autoantibodies/genetics , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Proteomics , Spleen/cytology , alpha-Fetoproteins/genetics