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Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e077, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1278594


Abstract This study evaluated the physicochemical, biological, and antimicrobial properties of a new hydraulic calcium silicate-based modified material, and compared it with MTA Repair HP and MTA Angelus. The materials were assessed regarding color luminosity (L), color change, radiopacity, setting time, and ISO 6876:2012 linear flow. Volumetric filling and volume change were evaluated using microcomputed-tomography (µCT). Chemical characterization after 28 days in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and pH analysis were also assessed. Biological characterization of cytotoxicity and microbiological assessment were also undertaken. Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, Levene and post hoc analyses with Bonferroni correction were performed, adopting a 5% significance level (p <0.05). Bio-C Pulpo exhibited the highest L values after 90 days. All tested materials demonstrated color change during the analyses, and had radiopacity above 5 mm Al. MTA Repair HP set faster than Bio-C Pulpo, whereas the latter had the highest linear flow. MTA Repair HP had the highest volumetric filling in µCT analysis. Bio-C Pulpo showed the highest alkalinity during all tested periods, and the highest volumetric loss (above 9%), in comparison with MTA Repair HP and MTA Angelus. Bio-C Pulpo did not form calcium hydroxide after hydration. MTA Repair HP demonstrated the highest cytocompatibility, and Bio-C Pulpo, the highest cytotoxicity. No inhibition halos were observed for any material, and similar higher turbidity values were seen after direct contact. Composition additives used in Bio-C Pulpo modified its properties, and both the absence of calcium hydroxide deposition after hydration, and the related cytotoxicity of this material are of particular concern.

Root Canal Filling Materials/toxicity , Aluminum Compounds/toxicity , Oxides/toxicity , Materials Testing , Calcium , Silicates/toxicity , Calcium Compounds/toxicity , Drug Combinations
Braz. dent. j ; 28(1): 57-64, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839113


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of a calcium aluminate cement (EndoBinder) containing different radiopacifiers, Bi2O3, ZnO or ZrO2, compared with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). According to ISO 10993-12:2012 (E) recommendations, 0.2 g of each cement were applied in transwell inserts and placed in 24-well culture plates containing 1 mL of culture medium (DMEM). After 24 h of incubation, the extracts (DMEM containing components released from the cements) were applied to immortalized odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells. Cell viability (MTT test), alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), total protein production and cell morphology (Scanning Electron Microscopy - SEM) were evaluated. The volume of 50 µL of extract was used to determine the chemical elements released by the cements using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The following groups were established (n=6): NC - negative control (without treatment); EB - EndoBinder without radiopacifier; EBBO - EndoBinder+Bi2O3; EBZnO - EndoBinder+ZnO; EBZrO - EndoBinder+ZrO2 and WMTA - White MTA. Data were subjected to statistical analysis (Kruskal-Wallis test, level of significance=5%). Cells exposed to the different versions of EndoBinder presented small reduction in viability, total protein production and ALP activity, with values similar to the NC and WMTA groups (p>0.05). Different elements (C, O, Na, Al, P, Si, Cl, Bi, K) released by the cements were detected in the extracts. However, the cells had no significant changes in their morphology. EndoBinder and MTA did not affect negatively the metabolism of the odontoblastic-like cells, showing it to be cytocompatible, irrespective of the used radiopacifier.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou a citotoxicidade de um cimento de aluminato de cálcio (EndoBinder) contendo diferentes radiopacificadores, Bi2O3, ZnO ou ZrO2, comparativamente ao trióxido mineral agregado (MTA). Seguindo a norma ISO 10993-12:2012 (E), 0,2 g de cada cimento foi aplicada em insertos transwell, que foram colocados em placas de cultura de 24 wells contendo 1 mL de meio de cultura (DMEM). Após 24 h de incubação, os extratos (DMEM contendo componentes liberados dos cimentos) foram aplicados sobre células pulpares imortalizadas MDPC-23. Viabilidade celular (teste de MTT), atividade da fosfatase alcalina (ALP), produção de proteína total e a morfologia das células (Microscópio Eletrônico de Varredura - MEV) foram avaliadas. Um volume de 50 µL do extrato foi utilizado para determinar, através de Espectroscopia de Energia Dispersiva (EDS), os elementos químicos liberados pelos cimentos. Os seguintes grupos foram estabelecidos (n=6): NC - controle negativo (sem tratamento); EB - EndoBinder sem radiopacificador; EBBO - EndoBinder+Bi2O3; EBZnO - EndoBinder+ZnO; EBZrO - EndoBinder+ZrO2 e WMTA - MTA branco. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística (teste de Kruskal-Wallis, nível de significância=5%). Células expostas às diferentes versões de EndoBinder apresentaram pequena redução na viabilidade, produção de proteína total e atividade da ALP, com valores semelhantes aos grupos NC e WMTA (p>0,05). Diversos elementos (C, O, Na, Al, P, Si, Cl, Bi, K) liberados pelos cimentos foram detectados nos extratos. Entretanto, as células não apresentaram alterações significativas em sua morfologia. EndoBinder e MTA, não afetaram negativamente o metabolismo das células odontoblastóides, mostrando-se citocompatíveis, independente do radiopacificador utilizado.

Animals , Calcium Compounds/toxicity , Aluminum Compounds/toxicity , Dental Cements/toxicity , Oxides/toxicity , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Cell Line, Transformed , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cell Survival/drug effects , Silicates/toxicity , Drug Combinations
Bauru; s.n; 2017. 100 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-879723


The aim of this study was to analyze the radiopacity, setting time, flowability, pH, calcium ion release, solubility and cytotoxicity of bioceramic cements Totalfill BC Sealer and Totalfill BC RRM, and compare them with AH Plus, MTA Fillapex and MTA Angelus. The groups were divided and compared among them according to the filling and retro-filling cement functions. Totalfill BC Sealer was compared with AH Plus and MTA Fillapex; and Totalfill BC RRM retrofilling cement with MTA Angelus. For radiopacity analysis, specimens were placed in metal rings measuring 10x1 mm placed on occlusal film together with the aluminum scale. Digora 1.51 software was used to evaluate the digitized images and determine radiographic density. Setting time was tested in accordance with the American Society for Testing and Materials C266-08 standard specifications, but specimens were fabricated in accordance with the International Organization for Standardization 6876: 2001. Flow was tested in accordance with ANSI/ADA No.57/200 specifications. In total 30 acrylic teeth were filled with filling-cements and 20, with (retrograde cavity) retro-filling cements. All teeth were immersed in ultrapure water for pH and calcium ion release measurement (atomic absorption spectrophotometer) for time intervals of 1, 3, 24, 72, 168 and 360 hours. Solubility was tested by scanning and digitizing 50 acrylic teeth twice by Micro- CT, before and after immersion in ultrapure water for time intervals of 168, 360 and 720 hours. The images were reconstructed and volume (mm3) values of samples obtained by means of CTan software (CTan v1.11.10.0, SkyScan). The in vitro effects on cells were analyzed at concentrations of 100, 50, 10, 5, 1 mg/mL, and 0 mg / mLnegative control group and recorded in time intervals of 24, 48 and 72 hours by MTT reduction assay. The results were statistically analyzed by the ANOVA, Tukey, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (P<0.05). All radiopacity values according to ISO 6876/2001, AH Plus (7.86 mm Al) being the most radiopaque followed by Totalfill BC Sealer (4.84 mm Al), MTA Fillapex (3.41 mm Al), Totalfill BC RRM (6.8 mm Al), and MTA Angelus (6.7 mm Al). The following values were the initial and final setting time (in hours), respectively: AH Plus (8 and 15); Totalfill BC Sealer (11 and 24); MTA Fillapex (13 and 26); MTA Angelus (10 and 120 minutes) and Totalfill BC RRM (3 hours and 22 hours). In flow analysis, the cements behaved as follows: MTA Fillapex (47 mm), Totalfill BC Sealer (41.5 mm), Totalfill BC RRM (33.5 mm), AH Plus (33 mm) e MTA Angelus (17.5 mm) (p < 0.05). pH analysis showed in general the lowest values for AH Plus cement, followed by Totalfill BC RRM, MTA Angelus, MTA Fillapex and Totalfill BC Sealer. AH Plus showed the highest Ca2+ release in time interval 1 hour (1.38 mg/L); MTA Fillapex, in 360 hours (3.81 mg/L); MTA Angelus, 1 hour (1.38 mg/L); Totalfill BC Sealer, 360 hours (6.77 mg/L) and Totalfill BC RRM, 360 hours (3.81 mg/L). Almost all the sealers presented solubility lower than 3% in all periods, as recommended by ISO 6876/2001. Whereas, the MTA Fillapex solubility value was higher than 5% in all periods. Relative to cytotoxicity, all the cements were shown to be toxic at the concentration of 100 mg/mL, however, Totalfill BC Sealer and Totalfill BC RRM showed the best cell viability result compared with the other cements tested. We concluded that all root canal filling and root retro-filling complied with the requisites of radiopacity, setting time, flow, pH, calcium ion release, solubility and cytotoxicity. With the exception of the MTA Fillapex that not only fulfilled the requirement of solubility. Of the sealers, Totalfill BC Sealer was outstanding: it showed the highest pH and Ca2+ release, and lowest cytotoxicity. Among the retrofilling cements, Totalfill BC RRM maintained its high pH, higher Ca2+ release, and lower cytotoxicity. (AU)

O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a radiopacidade, tempo de presa, escoamento, pH, liberação de íons cálcio, solubilidade e citotoxicidade dos cimentos biocerâmicos Totalfill BC Sealer e Totalfill BC RRM e compará-los ao AH Plus, MTA Fillapex e MTA Angelus. Os grupos foram divididos e comparados entre si de acordo com as funções dos cimentos de obturação e retro-obturação. Comparamos o cimento obturador Totalfill BC Sealer com os cimentos AH Plus e MTA Filapex, e o cimento retrobturador Totalfill BC RRM com o cimento retrobturador MTA Angelus. Para análise da radiopacidade, os espécimes foram colocados em anéis metálicos medindo 10x1 mm, dispostos sobre um filme oclusal com uma escala de alumínio. O software Digora 1.51 foi utilizado para avaliar as imagens digitalizadas e determinar a densidade radiográfica. O tempo de presa foi realizado de acordo com as especificações da American Society for Testing and Materials C266-08 standard specifications, mas os espécimes foram feitos de acordo com a International Organization for Standardization 6876: 2001. O escoamento foi realizado de acordo com as especificações ANSI/ADA N0 57/2000. Trinta dentes acrílicos foram preenchidos com cimentos obturadores e vinte dentes de acrílico (com cavidade retrógrada) foram preenchidos com cimentos retro-obturadores e imersos em água ultrapura para mensuração do pH e liberação de íons cálcio (espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica) no período de 1, 3, 24, 72, 168 e 360 horas. Para o teste de solubilidade, foram escaneados 50 dentes acrílicos e digitalizados duas vezes pelo Micro-CT, antes e após a imersão em água ultrapura nos períodos de 168, 360 e 720 horas. As imagens foram reconstruídas e o volume (mm3) das amostras foi obtido usando o software CTan (CTan v1.11.10.0, SkyScan). Os efeitos celulares in vitro foram analisados nas concentrações de 100, 50, 10, 5, 1 mg/mL e 0 mg / mLgrupo controle negativo e registados nos períodos de 24, 48 e 72 horas através do ensaio de redução de MTT. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pelos testes ANOVA, Tukey, Kruskal-Wallis e Dunn (p < 0.05). Todos os valores de radiopacidade estavam de acordo com a norma ISO 6876/2001, sendo o AH Plus (7.86 mm Al) o mais radiopaco seguido dos demais cimentos; Totalfill BC Sealer (4.84 mm Al), MTA Filapex (3.41 mm Al), Totalfill BC RRM (6,8 mm Al), MTA Angelus (6,7 mm Al). Os valores obtidos para o tempo de presa inicial e final foram respectivamente, AH Plus (8 e 15 horas), Totalfill BC Sealer (11 e 24 horas), MTA Filapex (13 e 26 horas), Totalfill BC RRM (3 horas e 22 horas) e MTA Angelus (10 e 120 minutos). Na análise de escoamento os cimentos se comportaram da seguinte forma: AH Plus (33 mm), MTA Filapex (47 mm), Totalfill BC Sealer (41,5 mm), Totalfill BC RRM (33,5 mm), e MTA Angelus (17,5 mm) (p < 0.05). A análise do pH mostrou que o cimento AH Plus de um modo geral, foi o que apresentou os menores valores, seguido do Totalfill BC RRM, MTA Angelus, MTA Filapex e Totalfill BC Sealer. A maior liberação de Ca2+ do AH Plus foi no período de 1 hora (1.38 mg/L), MTA Filapex foi em 360 horas (3.81 mg/L), Totalfill BC Sealer 360 horas (6.77 mg/L), Totalfill BC RRM 360 horas (3.81 mg/L) e MTA Angelus em 1 hora (1.38 mg/L). Todos os cimentos apresentaram solubilidade menor que 3% em todos os períodos, como recomendado pela ISO 6876/2001. Entretanto, os valores de solubilidade do MTA Fillapex excedeu mais que 5% em todos os períodos. Com relação à citotoxicidade, todos os cimentos mostraram-se tóxicos na concentração de 100 mg/mL, porém o Totalfill BC Sealer e Totalfill BC RRM apresentaram melhor resultado de viabilidade celular comparado aos demais cimentos testados. Concluiu-se que os cimentos de obturação e retro-obturação cumpriram os requisitos de radiopacidade, tempo de presa, escomento, pH, liberação de íons cálcio, solubilidade e citotoxicidade. Com exceção do MTA Fillapex que não cumpriu somente o requisito de solubilidade. Dos cimentos obturadores, o que melhor se portou foi o Totalfill BC Sealer, apresentando maior pH e liberação de íons cálcio e menor citotoxicidade. Dentre os cimentos retro-obturadores, Totalfill BC RRM foi o que melhor se destacou, mantendo seu pH elevado, possuindo maior liberação de Ca2+ e menor citotoxicidade. (AU)

Animals , Mice , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Oxides/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Silicates/chemistry , Aluminum Compounds/toxicity , Calcium Compounds/toxicity , Cell Survival/drug effects , Epoxy Resins/toxicity , Materials Testing , NIH 3T3 Cells , Oxides/toxicity , Reproducibility of Results , Root Canal Filling Materials/toxicity , Silicates/toxicity , Solubility , Time Factors , X-Ray Microtomography
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(5): 481-486, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-797986


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic effects of Biodentine and MTA on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and to assess cell viability and adherence after material exposure to an acidic environment. Material and Methods: DPSCs were cultured either alone or in contact with either: Biodentine; MTA set for 1 hour; or MTA set for 24 hours. After 4 and 7 days, cell viability was measured using the MTT assay. Biodentine and MTA were also prepared and packed into standardized bovine dentin disks and divided into three groups according to the storage media (n=6/group): freshly mixed materials without storage medium (Group A); materials stored in saline (Group B); materials stored in citric acid buffered at pH 5.4 (Group C). After 24 hours, DPSCs were introduced in the wells and cell adherence, viability, and cellular morphology were observed via confocal microscopy after three days of culture. Cell viability was analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance test with Tukey's post hoc tests (α=0.05). Results: Biodentine expressed significantly higher cell viability compared with all other groups after 4 days, with no differences after 7 days. Notably, cell viability was significantly greater in 24-hour set MTA compared with 1-hour set MTA and control groups after 7 days. Material exposure to an acidic environment showed an increase in cell adherence and viability in both groups. Conclusions: Biodentine induced a significantly accelerated cell proliferation compared with MTA. Setting of these materials in the presence of citric acid enhanced DPSC viability and adherence.

Humans , Animals , Cattle , Oxides/toxicity , Stem Cells/drug effects , Silicates/toxicity , Calcium Compounds/toxicity , Aluminum Compounds/toxicity , Dental Pulp/cytology , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Root Canal Filling Materials/toxicity , Time Factors , Cell Adhesion/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Analysis of Variance , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Microscopy, Confocal , Citric Acid/chemistry , Culture Media/chemistry , Dentin/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Drug Combinations
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-13, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950847


BACKGROUND: Despite manifold benefits of nanoparticles (NPs), less information on the risks of NPs to human health and environment has been studied. Cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4-NPs) have been reported to cause toxicity in several organisms. In this study, we have investigated the role of Co3O4-NPs in inducing phytotoxicity, cellular DNA damage and apoptosis in eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cv. Violetta lunga 2). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on Co3O4-NPs showing phytotoxicity in eggplant. RESULTS: The data revealed that eggplant seeds treated with Co3O4-NPs for 2 h at a concentration of 1.0 mg/ml retarded root length by 81.5 % upon 7 days incubation in a moist chamber. Ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated the uptake and translocation of Co3O4-NPs into the cytoplasm. Intracellular presence of Co3O4-NPs triggered subcellular changes such as degeneration of mitochondrial cristae, abundance of peroxisomes and excessive vacuolization. Flow cytometric analysis of Co3O4-NPs (1.0 mg/ml) treated root protoplasts revealed 157, 282 and 178 % increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), membrane potential (APm) and nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Besides, the esterase activity in treated protoplasts was also found compromised. About 2.4-fold greater level of DNA damage, as compared to untreated control was observed in Comet assay, and 73.2 % of Co3O4-NPs treated cells appeared apoptotic in flow cytometry based cell cycle analysis. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrate the phytotoxic potential of Co3O4-NPs in terms of reduction in seed germination, root growth, greater level of DNA and mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress and cell death in eggplant. The data generated from this study will provide a strong background to draw attention on Co3O4-NPs environmental hazards to vegetable crops.

Oxides/toxicity , DNA Damage/drug effects , Cell Death/drug effects , Cobalt/toxicity , Solanum melongena/drug effects , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Mitochondrial Swelling/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Oxides/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Cobalt/metabolism , Comet Assay , Solanum melongena/metabolism , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanoparticles/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Mitochondrial Swelling/physiology
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e48, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952020


Abstract Several calcium silicate-based biomaterials have been developed in recent years, in addition to Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and apoptosis/necrosis in human osteoblast cells (SAOS-2) of pure calcium silicate-based cements (CSC) and modified formulations: modified calcium silicate-based cements (CSCM) and three resin-based calcium silicate cements (CSCR1) (CSCR 2) (CSCR3). The following tests were performed after 24 hours of cement extract exposure: methyl-thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT), apoptosis/necrosis assay and comet assay. The negative control (CT-) was performed with untreated cells, and the positive control (CT+) used hydrogen peroxide. The data for MTT and apoptosis were submitted to analysis of variance and Bonferroni's posttest (p < 0.05), and the data for the comet assay analysis, to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p < 0.05). The MTT test showed no significant difference among the materials in 2 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL concentrations. CSCR3 showed lower cell viability at 10 mg/mL. Only CSC showed lower cell viability at 50 mg/mL. CSCR1, CSCR2 and CSCR3 showed a higher percentage of initial apoptosis than the control in the apoptosis test, after 24 hours exposure. The same cements showed no genotoxicity in the concentration of 2 mg/mL, with the comet assay. CSC and CSCR2 were also not genotoxic at 10 mg/mL. All experimental materials showed viability with MTT. CSC and CSCR2 presented a better response to apoptosis and genotoxicity evaluation in the 10 mg/mL concentration, and demonstrated a considerable potential for use as reparative materials.

Humans , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Silicates/toxicity , Calcium Compounds/toxicity , Dental Cements/toxicity , Oxides/toxicity , Tetrazolium Salts , Biocompatible Materials/toxicity , Materials Testing , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Apoptosis/drug effects , Aluminum Compounds/toxicity , Comet Assay , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Drug Combinations , Formazans , Necrosis/chemically induced
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e28, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951998


Abstract The present study aimed at evaluating the cytotoxic effects of a novel cement called CER on periodontal fibroblast-like cells of mice (MDPL-20), in comparison with different formulations of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), by means of the cell viability test (MTT) and cell morphology analysis. Thirty-two round-shaped samples were fabricated with the following cements: white MTA, white and gray CER and experimental white MTA. The samples were immersed in serum-free culture medium for 24 hours or 7 days (n = 16). The extracts (culture medium + components released from the cements) were applied for 24 hours to previously cultured cells (40.000 cells/cm2) in the wells of 24-well plates. Cells seeded in complete culture medium were used as a negative control. Cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay. Two samples of each cement were used for cell morphology analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The extracts obtained at the 7-day period presented higher cytotoxicity compared with the 24-hour period (p < 0.05). The gray CER obtained at 24 hours presented the highest cytotoxic effect, whereas the experimental white MTA presented the lowest, similar to the control (p > 0.05). However, at the 7-day period, the experimental white MTA presented no significant difference in comparison with the other cements (p > 0.05). At the 7-day period, CER cement presented cytotoxic effects on fibroblast-like cells, similar to different MTA formulations. However, the immersion period in the culture medium influenced the cytotoxicity of the cements, which was greater for CER cement at 24 hours.

Animals , Mice , Oxides/toxicity , Root Canal Filling Materials/toxicity , Silicates/toxicity , Calcium Compounds/toxicity , Aluminum Compounds/toxicity , Dental Cements/toxicity , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Oxides/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Time Factors , Biocompatible Materials , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Silicates/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Cements/chemistry , Drug Combinations
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(4): 383-389, July-Aug. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-759364


AbstractObjective RetroMTA® is a new hydraulic bioceramic indicated for pulp capping, perforations or root resorption repair, apexification and apical surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the radiopacity, pH variation and cytotoxicity of this material to ProRoot® MTA.Material and Methods Mixed cements were exposed to a digital x-ray along with an aluminum stepwedge for the radiopacity assay. pH values were verified after incubation period of 3, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours. The cytotoxicity of each cement was tested on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts using a multiparametric assay. Data analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey’spost hoc in GraphPad Prism.Results ProRoot® MTA had higher radiopacity than RetroMTA®(p<0.001). No significant differences were observed for the pH of the materials throughout experimental periods (p>0.05) although pH levels of both materials reduced over time. Both ProRoot® MTA and RetroMTA® allowed for significantly higher cell viability when compared with the positive control (p<0.001). No statistical difference was observed between ProRoot® MTA and RetroMTA® cytotoxicity level in all test parameters, except for the ProRoot® MTA 48-hour extract media in the NR assay (p<0.05).Conclusion The current study provides new data about the physicochemical and biological properties of Retro® MTA concerning radiopacity, pH and cytotoxic effects on human periodontal ligaments cells. Based on our findings, RetroMTA® meets the radiopacity requirements standardized by ANSI/ADA number 572, and similar pH values and biocompatibility to ProRoot® MTA. Further studies should be performed to evaluate additional properties of this new material.

Humans , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Oxides/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Silicates/chemistry , Aluminum Compounds/toxicity , Analysis of Variance , Calcium Compounds/toxicity , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Ceramics/toxicity , Contrast Media , Drug Combinations , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Materials Testing , Oxides/toxicity , Periodontal Ligament/drug effects , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Root Canal Filling Materials/toxicity , Silicates/toxicity , Time Factors
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(1): 42-48, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-741586


Objective: To evaluate the response of rat subcutaneous tissue in implanted polyethylene tubes that were filled with GMTA Angelus and Portland cements containing different arsenic concentrations. Material and Methods: Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was utilized to obtain the values of the arsenic concentration in the materials. Thirty-six rats were divided into 3 groups of 12 animals for each experimental period. Each animal received two implants of polyethylene tubes filled with different test cements and the lateral of the tubes was used as a control group. After 15, 30 and 60 days of implantation, the animals were killed and the specimens were prepared for descriptive and morphometric analysis considering: inflammatory cells, collagen fibers, fibroblasts, blood vessels and other components. The results were analyzed utilizing the Kuskal-Wallis test and the Dunn's Multiple test for comparison (p<0.05). Results: The materials showed, according to atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the following doses of arsenic: GMTA Angelus: 5.01 mg/kg, WPC Irajazinho: 0.69 mg/kg, GPC Minetti: 18.46 mg/kg and GPC Votoran: 10.76 mg/kg. In a 60-day periods, all specimens displayed a neoformation of connective tissue with a structure of fibrocellular aspect (capsule). Control groups and MTA Angelus produced the lower amount of inflammatory reaction and GPC Minetti, the highest reaction. Conclusions: There was no direct relationship between the concentration of arsenic present in the composition of the materials and the intensity of the inflammatory reactions. Higher values, as 18.46 mg/kg of arsenic in the cement, produce characteristics of severe inflammation reaction at the 60-day period. The best results were found in MTA angelus. .

Animals , Male , Arsenic/toxicity , Bismuth/toxicity , Calcium Compounds/toxicity , Dental Cements/toxicity , Oxides/toxicity , Silicates/toxicity , Subcutaneous Tissue/drug effects , Arsenic/administration & dosage , Bismuth/chemistry , Blood Vessels/drug effects , Collagen/drug effects , Dental Cements/chemistry , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Materials Testing , Oxides/chemistry , Polyethylene/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Time Factors
J. appl. oral sci ; 22(6): 554-559, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-732588


Objective Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is composed of Portland Cement (PC) and bismuth oxide (BO). Replacing BO for niobium oxide (NbO) microparticles (Nbµ) or nanoparticles (Nbη) may improve radiopacity and bioactivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity and cytotoxicity of the materials: 1) PC; 2) White MTA; 3) PC+30% Nbµ; 4) PC+30% Nbη. Material and Methods For the radiopacity test, specimens of the different materials were radiographed along an aluminum step-wedge. For cell culture assays, Saos-2 osteoblastic-cells (ATCC HTB-85) were used. Cell viability was evaluated through MTT assay, and bioactivity was assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity assay. Results The results demonstrated higher radiopacity for MTA, followed by Nbµ and Nbη, which had similar values. Cell culture analysis showed that PC and PC+NbO associations promoted greater cell viability than MTA. Conclusions It was concluded that the combination of PC+NbO is a potential alternative for composition of MTA. .

Humans , Aluminum Compounds/toxicity , Calcium Compounds/toxicity , Dental Cements/toxicity , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Niobium/toxicity , Oxides/toxicity , Silicates/toxicity , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Biocompatible Materials/toxicity , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Dental Cements/chemistry , Drug Combinations , Formazans , Materials Testing , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Niobium/chemistry , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Oxides/chemistry , Silicates/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tetrazolium Salts , Time Factors
J. appl. oral sci ; 22(1): 61-67, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-699911


A calcium aluminate-based endodontic material, EndoBinder, has been developed in order to reduce MTA negative characteristics, preserving its biological properties and clinical applications. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, pH, solubility and water sorption of EndoBinder and to compare them with those of white MTA (WMTA). Material and Methods: Cytotoxicity was assessed through a multiparametric analysis employing 3T3 cells. Antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Staphylococcus aureus. (ATCC 25923) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10556) was determined by the agar diffusion method. pH was measured at periods of 3, 24, 72 and 168 hours. Solubility and water sorption evaluation were performed following ISO requirements. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey`s test with a significance level of 5%. Results: EndoBinder and WMTA were non-cytotoxic in all tested periods and with the different cell viability parameters. There was no statistical differences between both materials (P>.05). All tested materials were inhibitory by direct contact against all microbial strains tested. EndoBinder and WMTA presented alkaline pH in all tested times with higher values of pH for WMTA (P<.05). Both materials showed values complying with the solubility minimum requirements. However, EndoBinder showed lower solubility than WMTA (P<.05). No statistical differences were observed regarding water sorption (P>.05). Conclusion: Under these experimental conditions, we concluded that the calcium aluminate-based endodontic material EndoBinder demonstrated suitable biological and physicochemical properties, so it can be suggested as a material of choice in root resorption, perforations and root-end filling. .

Animals , Mice , Aluminum Compounds/toxicity , Calcium Compounds/toxicity , Oxides/toxicity , Root Canal Filling Materials/toxicity , Silicates/toxicity , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Drug Combinations , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Materials Testing , Oxides/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Silicates/chemistry , Solubility , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Water/chemistry
J. appl. oral sci ; 21(4): 351-357, Jul-Aug/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-684567


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effects of endodontic cements on human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs). MTA Fillapex, a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based, salicylate resin containing root canal sealer, was compared with iRoot SP, a bioceramic sealer, and AH Plus Jet, an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To evaluate cytotoxicity, all materials were packed into Teflon rings (4 mmµ3 mm) and co-cultured with hTGSCs with the aid of 24-well Transwell permeable supports, which had a pore size of 0.4 µm. Coverslips were coated with MTA Fillapex, iRoot SP and AH Plus Jet and each coverslip was placed onto the bottom of one well of a six-well plate for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Before the cytotoxicity and SEM analysis, all samples were stored at 37ºC and at 95% humidity and 5% CO2 for 24 hours to set. The cellular viability was analyzed using MTS test (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxy-methoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium). The cytotoxic effects and SEM visualization of the tested materials were analyzed at 24-hour, 72-hour, one-week and two-week periods. RESULTS: On the 1st day, only MTA Fillapex caused cytotoxicity compared to negative control (NC) group (p<0.008). No significant difference was observed between the other tested materials at this period (p>0.05). After 14 days of incubation with the test materials, MTA Fillapex exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity compared with iRoot SP, AH Plus Jet and the NC group (P<0.008). In the SEM analysis, the highest levels of cell attachment were observed for iRoot SP and the control group. After 24 hours, MTA Fillapex reduced the number of cells attached to the surface. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, sealers exerted different cytotoxic effects on hTGSCs. Although all materials ...

Humans , Calcium Compounds/toxicity , Dental Cements/toxicity , Silicates/toxicity , Stem Cells/drug effects , Tooth Germ/cytology , Aluminum Compounds/toxicity , Biocompatible Materials/toxicity , Cells, Cultured , Cell Survival/drug effects , Drug Combinations , Epoxy Resins/toxicity , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Oxides/toxicity , Root Canal Filling Materials/toxicity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors
Braz. dent. j ; 24(2): 111-116, Mar-Apr/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675663


The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro cytotoxicity of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement (PC) on human cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Periodontal ligament fibroblast culture was established and the cells were used for cytotoxic tests after the fourth passage. Cell density was set at 1.25 X10 4 cells/well in 96-well plates. Endodontic material extracts were prepared by placing sealer/cement specimens (5X3mm) in 1mL of culture medium for 72 h. The extracts were then serially two-fold diluted and inserted into the cell-seeded wells for 24, 48 and 72 h. MTT assay was employed for analysis of cell viability. Cell supernatants were tested for nitric oxide using the Griess reagent system. MTA presented cytotoxic effect in undiluted extracts at 24 and 72 h. MTA Fillapex® presented the highest cytotoxic levels with important cell viability reduction for pure extracts and at ½ and » dilutions. In this study, PC did not induce alterations in fibroblast viability. Nitric oxide was detected in extract-treated cell supernatants and also in the extracts only, suggesting presence of nitrite in the soluble content of the tested materials. In the present study, MTA Fillapex displayed the highest cytotoxic effect on periodontal ligament fibroblasts followed by white MTA and PC.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a citotoxicidade in vitro de agregado trióxido mineral (MTA) branco, MTA Fillapex® e cimento Portland (PC) em cultura de fibroblastos de ligamento periodontal humano. A cultura de fibroblastos de ligamento periodontal foi estabelecida e as células foram utilizadas para os testes citotóxicos após a quarta passagem. A densidade celular foi ajustada em 1,25X10 4 células/poço em placas de 96 poços. Extratos dos materiais endodônticos foram preparados por meio da inserção de corpos de prova dos cimentos (5 X 3 mm) em 1 mL de meio de cultura durante 72 h. Os extratos foram diluídos serialmente na razão de ½ e inseridos aos poços contendo as células por 24, 48 e 72 h. Ensaio de MTT foi realizado para a avaliação da viabilidade celular. O sobrenadante das células foi testado em relação à presença de óxido nítrico utilizando o sistema de reagentes de Griess. O MTA apresentou efeito citotóxico quando o extrato era aplicado sem diluição durante 24 e 72 h. O MTA Fillapex apresentou os maiores níveis de citotoxicidade com importante redução da viabilidade celular quando o extrato foi aplicado puro e em diluições de ½ e ». Neste estudo, PC não induziu alterações na viabilidade de fibroblastos. Óxido nítrico foi detectado no sobrenadante de células tratadas com os extratos e ainda nos extratos somente, o que sugere a presença de nitrito no conteúdo solúvel dos materiais testados. No presente estudo, MTA Fillapex foi o material que demonstrou o maior efeito citotóxico sobre fibroblastos de ligamento periodontal seguido do MTA branco e do PC. .

Humans , Aluminum Compounds/toxicity , Calcium Compounds/toxicity , Dental Cements/toxicity , Oxides/toxicity , Periodontal Ligament/drug effects , Root Canal Filling Materials/toxicity , Silicates/toxicity , Cell Count , Cell Culture Techniques , Cells, Cultured , Cell Survival/drug effects , Coloring Agents , Drug Combinations , Ferric Compounds/toxicity , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Materials Testing , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Nitrites/toxicity , Periodontal Ligament/cytology , Time Factors , Tetrazolium Salts , Thiazoles
Braz. dent. j ; 24(1): 10-14, 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671352


The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of rat subcutaneous tissue to MTA Fillapex® (Angelus), an experimental root canal filling material based on Portland cement and propylene glycol (PCPG), and a zinc oxide, eugenol and iodoform (ZOEI) paste. These materials were placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted into the dorsal connective tissue of Wistar rats for 7 and 15 days. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated regarding inflammatory reaction parameters by optical microscopy. The intensity of inflammatory response against the sealers was analyzed by two blinded and previously calibrated examiners for all experimental periods (kappa=0.96). The histological evaluation showed that all materials caused a moderate inflammatory reaction at 7 days, which subsided with time. A greater inflammatory reaction was observed at 7 days in the tubes filled with ZOEI paste. Tubes filled with MTA Fillapex presented some giant cells, macrophages and lymphocytes after 7 days. At 15 days, the presence of fibroblasts and collagen fibers was observed indicating normal tissue healing. The tubes filled with PCPG showed similar results to those observed in MTA Fillapex. At 15 days, the inflammatory reaction was almost absent at the tissue, with several collagen fibers indicating normal tissue healing. Data were analyzed by the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05). Statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was found only between PCPG at 15 days and ZOEI at 7 days groups. No significant differences were observed among the other groups/periods (p>0.05). MTA Fillapex and Portland cement added with propylene glycol had greater tissue compatibility than the PCPG paste.

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a resposta do tecido subcutâneo de rato ao MTA Fillapex® (Angelus), a um cimento endodôntico experimental à base de cimento Portland e propilenoglicol, e à pasta de óxido de zinco e eugenol com iodofórmio. Estes materiais foram colocados em tubos de polietileno e implantados no tecido conjuntivo do dorso de ratos Wistar, por 7 e 15 dias. Os espécimes foram corados com hematoxilina e eosina e os parâmetros de reação inflamatória foram avaliados em microscópio óptico. A intensidade da resposta inflamatória provocada pelos cimentos foi analisada em todos os períodos por dois observadores previamente calibrados (kappa 0,96) e sem conhecimento dos grupos experimentais. O exame histológico mostrou que todos os materiais provocaram reação inflamatória moderada aos 7 dias que regrediu com o tempo. A maior resposta inflamatória do tecido foi observada aos 7 dias, nos tubos preenchidos com pasta de Óxido de Zinco e Eugenol com Iodofórmio. Os tubos com MTA Fillapex apresentaram algumas células gigantes, macrófagos e linfócitos após 7 dias. Aos 15 dias, a presença de fibroblastos e fibras de colágenas foi observada, indicando processo de cicatrização do tecido. Os tubos com o cimento Portland mostraram resultados semelhantes aos observados no grupo MTA Fillapex. Aos 15 dias, a reação inflamatória apresentada foi praticamente ausente, com muitas fibras colágenas, indicando cicatrização normal do tecido. A análise estatística mostrou diferença estatisticamente significante entre o grupo de cimento Portland (15 dias) e óxido de zinco eugenol com Iodofórmio (7 dias) (p<0,05). Nos outros grupos não houve diferença estatística significante. MTA Fillapex e cimento Portland são mais biocompatíveis do que os outros cimentos testados.

Animals , Male , Rats , Aluminum Compounds/toxicity , Calcium Compounds/toxicity , Dental Cements/toxicity , Oxides/toxicity , Root Canal Filling Materials/toxicity , Silicates/toxicity , Subcutaneous Tissue/drug effects , Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement/toxicity , Connective Tissue/drug effects , Drug Combinations , Hydrocarbons, Iodinated/toxicity , Materials Testing , Propylene Glycol , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry
Int. j. morphol ; 30(2): 769-776, jun. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-651865


En las áreas costeras del norte de Chile es común encontrar en el agua para consumo humano niveles medios o altos de arsénico. La exposición al arsénico puede ir asociada a efectos agudos o crónicos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el daño histológico que provoca el trióxido de arsénico a nivel de los compartimentos del timo de ratas Sprague-Dawley. Se utilizaron 24 ratas de ambos sexos de 55 días de vida. Las ratas fueron pesadas y divididas en 3 grupos (4 hembras y 4 machos). A los grupos tratados se les aplicó 5 mg y 10 mg de As2O3 respectivamente, en dosis única diaria vía intraperitoneal por 15 días. Al grupo control se le aplicó agua destilada sin arsénico. Después del tratamiento los animales fueron sacrificados y retirado el timo de ellos, los cuales fueron lavados, pesados y seccionados en dos, luego se fijaron en formol tamponado al 10 por ciento. Mediante técnica histológica convencional se obtuvieron 4 muestras seriadas de cada timo, de 5 um de espesor y separadas por 100 um entre si, luego fueron teñidas con H-E. Se analizaron 30 campos (120 campos por órgano). Los resultados muestran que el As2O3 provoca la pérdida de celularidad en ambos compartimentos del timo, tanto en la corteza como en la médula, viéndose más afectado el compartimento medular (junto a la unión corticomedular). Se observó una reducción significativa del tamaño de la zona medular en ambos grupos tratados (5 y 10 mg de As2O3 respectivamente), siendo probablemente la disminución de este tejido el responsable de la atrofia del timo. Además se observó un aumento del tamaño de la corteza en las ratas hembras tratadas con 10 mg de As2O3. La unión corticomedular de las ratas tratadas se observó difusa o difícil de distinguir.

In coastal areas of northern Chile medium or high levels of arsenic are commonly found in drinking water. Arsenic exposure may be associated with acute or chronic effects. The objective of this investigation was to determine the histological damage caused by arsenic trioxide level of the compartments of the thymus of Sprague-Dawley rats. We used 24 rats of both sexes of 55 days of life. The rats were weighed and divided into 3 groups (4 females and 4 males). In the treated groups were administered 5 mg and 10 mg of As2O3 respectively, in a single daily dose for 15 days intraperitoneally. The control group was administered distilled water without arsenic. After treatment the animals were sacrificed and the thymus removed, washed, weighed and divided into two, then fixed in 10 percent buffered formalin. By conventional histology samples were obtained serially every 4 thymus, 5 microns thick and separated by 100 microns each, then were stained with HE. We analyzed 30 fields (120 fields per organ). The results showed that As2O3 causes loss of cellularity in both compartments of the thymus, both in the cortex and in the bone, medullary compartment was more affected (near the corticomedullary junction). There was a significant reduction in the size of the medulla in both groups (5 and 10 mg As2O3 respectively), probably the decrease of the tissue responsible for thymic atrophy. We observed an increase in the size of the cortex in female rats treated with 10 mg of As2O3. The corticomedullary junction of the treated rats showed diffuse or difficult to distinguish.

Animals , Female , Rats , Arsenic/toxicity , Thymus Gland , Thymus Gland/pathology , Atrophy , Arsenic/administration & dosage , Arsenic Poisoning/pathology , Oxides/toxicity , Body Weight , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Braz. dent. j ; 23(4): 344-350, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-658008


This aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and biological properties of novel experimental cements (Hybrid, Paste and Resin) based on synergistic combinations of existing materials, including pH, diametral tensile strength (DTS) and cytotoxicity comparing them with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA - Angelus®) and a glass ionomer cement (GIC) developed at our laboratory. For the physicochemical and biological tests, specimens with standard dimensions were produced. pH measurements were performed with digital pH meter at the following time intervals: 3, 24, 48 and 72 h. For the DTS test, cylindrical specimens were subjected to compressive load until fracture. The MTT assay was performed for cytotoxicity evaluation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Paste group showed pH values similar to MTA, and Hybrid group presented pH values similar to GIC (p>0.05). The tested materials showed pH values ranging from alkaline to near neutrality at the evaluated times. MTA and GIC showed similar DTS values. The lowest and highest DTS values were seen in the Paste and Resin groups, respectively (p<0.05). Cell viability for MTA and experimental Hybrid, Paste and Resin groups was 49%, 93%, 90% and 86%, respectively, when compared with the control group. The photo-cured experimental resin cement showed similar or superior performance compared with the current commercial or other tested experimental materials.

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar propriedades físico-químicas e biológicas de novos cimentos experimentais (Híbrido, Pasta e Resinoso) baseado na combinação sinérgica de materiais existentes, incluindo pH, resistência à tração diametral (RTD) e citotoxidade, comparando-os ao MTA (Angelus®) e a um cimento de ionômero de vidro (CIV) desenvolvido em nosso laboratório. Para a realização dos testes físico-mecânico e biológico, foram confeccionados espécimes com dimensões padrão. O teste de pH foi realizado por meio de pH-metro digital nos tempos: 3, 24, 48 e 72 h. Para o teste de RTD, espécimes cilíndricos foram submetidos a carga compressiva até sua fratura. Para avaliação da citotoxidade, utilizou-se o teste MTT. Os dados foram analisados utilizando ANOVA e teste de Tukey (α=0,05). O grupo Pasta apresentou valores de pH semelhantes ao MTA, assim como o grupo Híbrido seguiu os parâmetros do CIV (p>0,05). Todos os materiais apresentaram valores de pH alcalinos ou próximosà neutralidade nos tempos avaliados. MTA e CIV apresentaram valores de RTD similares. Os menores e maiores valores observados foram do grupo Pasta e Resinoso, respectivamente (p<0,05). A viabilidade celular para os grupos MTA, Híbrido, Pasta, Resinoso, quando comparados ao grupo controle foi de: 49, 93, 90 e 86%, respectivamente. O cimento experimental Resinoso apresentou desempenho similar ou superior aos materiais comerciais e experimentais avaliados.

Animals , Mice , Dental Cements/chemistry , Pulp Capping and Pulpectomy Agents/chemistry , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Aluminum Compounds/toxicity , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Bismuth/chemistry , Bismuth/toxicity , Chemical Phenomena , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/toxicity , Cell Survival/drug effects , Composite Resins/chemistry , Composite Resins/toxicity , Drug Combinations , Dental Cements/toxicity , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Glass Ionomer Cements/toxicity , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives , Materials Testing , Methacrylates/chemistry , Methacrylates/toxicity , Oxides/chemistry , Oxides/toxicity , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols/toxicity , Polymethacrylic Acids/chemistry , Polymethacrylic Acids/toxicity , Polyurethanes/chemistry , Polyurethanes/toxicity , Pulp Capping and Pulpectomy Agents/toxicity , Resin Cements/chemistry , Resin Cements/toxicity , Self-Curing of Dental Resins , Stress, Mechanical , Silicates/chemistry , Silicates/toxicity , Tensile Strength , Time Factors
Braz. dent. j ; 21(1): 24-31, Jan. 2010. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-552351


This study evaluated the cytotoxic effects of 2 mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cements - White-MTA-Angelus and a new formulation, MTA-Bio - on odontoblast-like cell (MDPC-23) cultures. Twenty-four disc-shaped (2 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) specimens were fabricated from each material and immersed individually in wells containing 1 mL of DMEM culture medium for either 24 h or 7 days to obtain extracts, giving rise to 4 groups of 12 specimens each: G1 - White-MTA/24 h; G2 - White-MTA/7 days; G3 - MTA-Bio/24 h; and G4 - MTA-Bio/7 days. Plain culture medium (DMEM) was used as a negative control (G5). Cells at 30,000 cells/cm² concentration were seeded in the wells of 24-well plates and incubated in a humidified incubator with 5 percent CO2 and 95 percent air at 37ºC for 72 h. After this period, the culture medium of each well was replaced by 1 mL of extract (or plain DMEM in the control group) and the cells were incubated for additional 2 h. Cell metabolism was evaluated by the MTT assay and the data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Cell morphology and the surface of representative MTA specimens of each group were examined by scanning electron microscopy. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between G1 and G2 or between G3 and G4. No significant difference (p>0.05) was found between the experimental and control groups either. Similar cell organization and morphology were observed in all groups, regardless of the storage periods. However, the number of cells observed in the experimental groups decreased compared to the control group. MTA-Bio presented irregular surface with more porosities than White-MTA. In conclusion, White-MTA and MTA-Bio presented low cytotoxic effects on odontoblast-like cell (MDPC-23) cultures.

Este estudo avaliou o efeito citotóxico de dois cimentos MTA - MTA Branco-Angelus e uma nova formulação, MTA-Bio - sobre células odontoblastóides (MDPC-23) mantidas em cultura. Vinte e quatro espécimes padronizados (2 mm diâmetro x 2 mm largura) foram confeccionados de cada material e imersos individualmente em compartimentos contendo 1 mL de meio de cultura DMEM por 24 h ou 7 dias para obtenção dos extratos, formando 4 grupos de 12 espécimes cada: G1 - MTA-Branco/24 h; G2 - MTA-Branco/7 dias; G3 - MTA-Bio/24 h; e G4 - MTA-Bio/7 dias. Meio de cultura puro (DMEM) foi utilizado como controle negativo (G5). Células na concentração de 30.000 células/cm² foram semeadas nas placas de 24 compartimentos e incubadas em incubadora com 5 por cento CO2 e 95 por cento ar a 37ºC por 72 h. Após esse período, o meio de cultura de cada compartimento foi substituído por 1 mL do extrato (ou DMEM puro no grupo controle) e as células foram incubadas pelo período adicional de 2 h. O metabolismo celular foi avaliado pelo teste do MTT e os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste de ANOVA e Tukey (α=0,05). A morfologia celular e da superfície dos espécimes de MTA representativos de cada grupo foram avaliados em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante (p>0,05) entre os gurpos G1 e G2 ou entre G3 e G4. Não foi encontrada diferença estatística (p>0,05) entre os grupos experimentais e controle. Morfologia e organização celular semelhante foram observadas em todos os grupos, independente do período de extração. Entretanto, o número de células observado nos grupos experimentais diminui quando comparado ao grupo controle. MTA-Bio apresentou uma superfície irregular com mais porosidades que o MTA-Branco. Pode-se concluir que os cimentos MTA-Branco e MTA-Bio apresentaram reduzido efeito citotóxico sobre células odontoblastóides (MDPC-23) mantidas em cultura.

Humans , Aluminum Compounds/toxicity , Calcium Compounds/toxicity , Dental Cements/toxicity , Odontoblasts/drug effects , Oxides/toxicity , Root Canal Filling Materials/toxicity , Silicates/toxicity , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Cell Count , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Line , Culture Media , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Cell Shape/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Coloring Agents , Drug Combinations , Dental Cements/chemistry , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Oxides/chemistry , Porosity , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Spectrophotometry , Surface Properties , Silicates/chemistry , Succinate Dehydrogenase/analysis , Temperature , Time Factors , Tetrazolium Salts , Thiazoles
Braz. dent. j ; 20(2): 112-117, 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-524517


The purpose of this study was compare the biocompatibility of modified Portland cement (CPM) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in a subcutaneous rat model. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were used. Three silicon tubes were placed on the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of each animal: one tube contained MTA, one tube contained CPM and the other was an empty tube. The rats were sacrificed in 3 groups of 8 animals at 7, 14 and 30 postoperative days, respectively. Tissue samples were fixed in 10 percent buffered formalin, embedded in paraffin, and serial sections were cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson Trichrome and Luna's stain. At day 7, the empty tubes displayed a mild inflammatory infiltrate. In the CPM group, an inflammatory infiltrate was observed with some eosinophils and immature connective tissue. The MTA group showed a similar infiltrate without eosinophils and presence of abundant necrotic tissue and numerous multinucleate foreign body giant cells. At day 14, the chronic infiltrate with eosinophils persisted when in contact with CPM. In the MTA group, necrosis and distant giant cells could still be seen. At day 30, all 3 groups showed mature fibrous collagenous tissue. These findings indicate a different response to the materials evaluated in this study. Although, MTA and CPM induced a chronic inflammatory infiltrate, necrosis and multinucleated foreign body giant cells predominated in the MTA group, while in the CPM group numerous eosinophils were seen at all the observational periods.

O propósito deste estudo foi comparar a biocompatibilidade do cimento Portland modificado (CPM) com agregado de trióxido mineral (MTA) no subcutâneo de um modelo murino. Foram usados 24 ratos Wistar macho. No tecido subcutâneo dorsal de cada animal se colocaram 3 tubos de silicone. Um contendo MTA, outro CPM e o último vazio. Os animais foram sacrificados em 3 grupos de 8 aos 7, 14 e 30 dias. As amostras se fixaram em formol e se coloriram com hematoxilina - eosina, Masson e Luna. No dia 7 os tubos vazios mostraram uma leve infiltração de células inflamatórias. No grupo CPM, se observou um infiltrado inflamatório com alguns eosinófilos e tecido conectivo imaturo. O grupo MTA mostrou um infiltrado similar sem eosinófilos e abundante necrose de tecido e numerosas células gigantes multinucleadas do tipo corpo estranho. Ao dia 14, o infiltrado crônico com eosinófilos persistiu em contato com CPM. No grupo MTA, a necrose e células multinucleadas afastadas ainda se podiam observar. Ao dia 30, os 3 grupos mostraram tecido fibroso maduro. Estes resultados mostram uma resposta diferente aos materiais avaliados no presente estudo. Apesar do que MTA e CPM causaram um infiltrado crônico, no grupo MTA predominou a necrose e as células gigantes, enquanto isso, no grupo CPM se observaram grandes quantidades de eosinófilos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Aluminum Compounds/toxicity , Calcium Compounds/toxicity , Dental Cements/toxicity , Oxides/toxicity , Root Canal Filling Materials/toxicity , Silicates/toxicity , Drug Combinations , Eosinophilia/chemically induced , Foreign-Body Reaction/chemically induced , Materials Testing , Necrosis , Rats, Wistar , Subcutaneous Tissue/drug effects
Braz. dent. j ; 20(1): 22-26, 2009. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-513909


This study compared the cytotoxicity of an experimental epoxy-resin and calcium hydroxide-based cement (MBPc), gray mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) using the agar overlay method with neutral red dye. L929 cells were seeded into 6-well culture plates where 48-h set test materials were placed on the agar overlay, in triplicate. Teflon and natural rubber served as negative and positive controls. After an incubation period of 24 h at 37ºC in a humidified atmosphere of 5 percent CO2 in air, a discolored area around the samples and the positive controls could be observed and measured per quadrant. The mean values were compared and converted into grades to classify the results according to the table of cytotoxicity grades according to the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil. The nonviable cell areas and the morphological changes in the cells were observed with an inverted microscope. The results showed grade 1 (slight) for the two types of MTA (p>0.05) and grade 2 (mild) for the MBPc (p<0.001). All samples met the requirements of the test as none of the cultures showed reactivity higher than grade 2.

O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a citotoxicidade de um cimento experimental à base de resina epóxica e hidróxido de cálcio (MBPc), do agregado trióxido mineral (MTA) cinza e do MTA branco, utilizando o ensaio de difusão em agar com o corante vermelho neutro. Células L929 foram semeadas em placas de 6 poços e sobre elas a camada de agar, onde foram colocados os materiais endurecidos por 48 h, em triplicata, além de teflon como controle negativo e látex como controle positivo. Após 24 h em estufa umidificada a 37ºC com 5 por cento CO2, um halo claro se formou ao redor das amostras e dos controles positivos. As medidas foram tomadas, por quadrante, e as médias foram comparadas e convertidas em graus para qualificar os resultados, de acordo com a tabela de grau de citotoxicidade do POP/FIOCRUZ. As zonas de inibição e as alterações da morfologia celular foram avaliadas sob microscópio invertido. Os resultados revelaram grau 1 (leve) para os dois tipos de MTA (p>0,05) e grau 2 (branda) para o MBPc (p<0,001). Todas as amostras foram consideradas satisfatórias, pois nenhuma cultura exposta aos cimentos revelou toxicidade superior ao grau 2.

Animals , Mice , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Resin Cements/toxicity , Root Canal Filling Materials/toxicity , Tooth Injuries/therapy , Tooth Root/injuries , Aluminum Compounds/toxicity , Calcium Compounds/toxicity , Calcium Hydroxide/toxicity , Cell Survival/drug effects , Drug Combinations , Dental Instruments/adverse effects , Epoxy Resins/toxicity , L Cells , Oxides/toxicity , Resin Cements/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/adverse effects , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Silicates/toxicity
IEJ-Iranian Endodontic Journal. 2009; 4 (3): 106-111
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110622


Biocompatibility is a desirable feature for root-end filling materials. In this study we aimed to compare a new material called cold ceramic [CC] with intermediate restorative material [IRM] and mineral trioxide aggregate [MTA] using Methyl-tetrazolium bromide [MTT] assay. The materials were tested in fresh and set states: [n=108]. The cytotoxicity was compared using L929 fibroblasts as an indicator; tested materials were eluted with culture medium according to ISO: 109935 standard. Distilled water and culture medium served as positive and negative controls, respectively [n=36]. The results were evaluated at 1, 24 hours and 7 days. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA for each time interval and material status and t-tests. The cytotoxicity of the tested materials were statistically different at the various time intervals [P<0.001]. IRM was the most cytotoxic root-end filling material [P<0.001], MTA demonstrated the least cytotoxicity followed by CC. Despite displaying the greatest cytotoxicity, IRM is approved by the American Food and Drug Administration [PDA]. Cold ceramic had significantly lower cytotoxicity compared to IRM, in all but one subgroup. Further investigations are required to assess the clinical applicability of this novel material

Ceramics/toxicity , Dental Restoration, Permanent , Oxides/toxicity , Fibroblasts , Aluminum Compounds , Calcium Compounds , Silicates , Drug Combinations