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1.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; feb. 26, 2021. 32 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151146

ABSTRACT

Este documento tiene como objetivo dar las facilitar recomendaciones para asegurar la capacidad de suministro de oxígeno para oxigenoterapia en los módulos asistenciales de los equipos médicos de emergencia (EMT) y en los sitios alternativos de atención médica (SAAM). El documento incluye conocimientos básicos sobre los diferentes tipos de instalaciones de oxigenoterapia, así como las orientaciones para que el personal de apoyo operacional del EMT pueda realizar una adaptación óptima de sus equipos para atender las necesidades clínicas de los pacientes COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Oxygen/supply & distribution , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hospital Rapid Response Team/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control
2.
Lima; IETSI; 9 jul. 2020.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1119643

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCIÓN La hipoxemia, (una disminución anormal de la presión parcial de oxígeno en la sangre arterial por debajo de 60 mmHg), es una condición presente en diversas condiciones clínicas, incluyendo COVID-19. Para el tratamiento de la hipoxemia, se requiere la administración de oxígeno medicinal (también denominado oxígeno suplementario), gas que forma parte de la lista modelo de medicamentos esenciales de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). El oxígeno medicinal no solo tiene el objetivo de revertir la hipoxia tisular (daño fisiológico causado por falta de oxígeno en un determinado tejido) sino que también aumenta las probabilidades de sobrevida en pacientes afectados con esta condición. Por ello, la OMS señala que es necesario que en los establecimientos de salud se cuente con un suministro seguro de oxígeno, siendo necesario que figure en los presupuestos de asistencia sanitaria y exista en los establecimientos de salud (OMS 2016). En Perú, el oxígeno medicinal está considerado en el grupo de medicamentos denominados gases medicinales. La Dirección General de Medicamentos Insumos y Drogas (DIGEMID), señala que el oxígeno medicinal debe tener una concentración de entre 99 a 100 % de O2 (MINSA 2018). Sin embargo, en el contexto de la pandemia de COVID-19, se ha autorizado el uso del oxígeno medicinal de concentración no menor al 93 % (Presidente de la República 2020). Cabe precisar que la definición de oxígeno medicinal al 93 % contempla al oxígeno extraído del aire mediante un proceso de tamizado molecular (U.S. Pharmacopeia 2018). TECNOLOGÍA DE INTERÉS: La OMS señala que los concentradores de oxígeno representan una opción adecuada y favorable para suministrar oxígeno para el tratamiento de pacientes en países en desarrollo, especialmente cuando los cilindros y otros sistemas convencionales son inapropiados o no estén disponibles. También señala que los concentradores de oxígeno pueden ser considerados como una fuente de este gas medicinal aun disponiéndose de suministro de oxígeno por los métodos convencionales cuando el acceso a este gas pueda verse reducido por la falta de accesorios, suministro eléctrico y la escasez de personal calificado (OMS 2016). METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura hasta el día 9 de julio de 2020 con respecto al uso de concentradores de oxígeno en el contexto de COVID-19. Para ello se emplearon las bases de datos bibliográficas: PubMed, Medline vía OVID y LILACS. Asimismo, se realizó una búsqueda manual avanzada en el motor de búsqueda Google, y en páginas web de sociedades o instituciones tales como: Organización Mundial de la Salud. RESULTADOS: Como resultado de la búsqueda, no se encontraron guías de práctica clínica, evaluaciones de tecnologías sanitarias, revisiones sistemáticas o estudios primarios que evalúen el uso de concentradores de oxígeno en el contexto de COVID-19. Tampoco se han publicado series que describan la experiencia de uso de este dispositivo médico en el contexto de la pandemia por COVID-19. A la fecha, se han publicado documentos técnicos de la OMS respecto al empleo de tecnologías sanitarias para suplir la necesidad de oxígeno en el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID-19 y una guía de la National Health Service del Reino Unido donde se describe al concentrador de oxígeno entre las alternativas de suministro de oxígeno para uso en pacientes con COVID-19 que requieren oxigenoterapia. CONCLUSIONES: En el contexto de la emergencia sanitaria nacional debido a la pandemia de COVID-19, la alta demanda de administración de oxígeno suplementario para la atención de un grupo rápidamente creciente de pacientes, impone la necesidad de explorar el uso de alternativas tecnológicas sanitarias que puedan servir como suministro de este gas en aras de resguardar la salud pública y la vida de la población. Así, se ha realizado el presente reporte breve el cual informa acerca del uso hospitalario de los concentradores de oxígeno, sus características tecnológicas y sus usos para oxigenoterapia, a la luz de la literatura técnica disponible al 9 de julio de 2020. De acuerdo con los documentos técnicos incluidos en el presente reporte breve, es razonable proponer que los concentradores de oxígeno constituyen una alternativa viable en entornos de escasos recursos o disponibilidad limitada de otras fuentes de oxígeno más avanzadas. Siendo que tienen una capacidad limitada de proveer flujos y concentraciones de oxígeno, la utilidad de este equipo médico estaría orientada principalmente para la oxigenoterapia de bajo flujo, la misma que debe ser prescrita por el equipo médico tratante de acuerdo con las necesidades del paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hypoxia/etiology , Health Evaluation , Efficacy
3.
Med. infant ; 26(4): 364-367, dic. 2019. ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047049

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Oxigenoterapia de Alto Flujo (OAF) es una técnica de soporte respiratorio no invasiva, que ofrece un flujo de aire y oxígeno, caliente y humidificado, por encima del flujo pico inspiratorio del paciente, a través de una cánula nasal. En este artículo se presenta la experiencia con OAF en una sala de pediatría de mediana y baja complejidad para el tratamiento de bronquiolitis/ infección respiratoria aguda baja (IRAB). Materiales y métodos: Se diseñó un protocolo para la implementación de OAF. Criterios de inclusión: Pacientes cursando bronquiolitis/ IRAB con: Score de Tal modificado ≥6, Sat O2 < 92% y/o mala mecánica ventilatoria, a pesar de recibir más de 2 lt/ min de O2 por cánula nasal ó FiO2 >40%. Criterios de exclusión, pCO2 ≥55 mmHg; pH: < 7,20; Apneas ≥20 segundos; Glasgow ≤10; Peso >15 kg. Inestabilidad hemodinámica; Alteraciones craneofaciales. Resultados: En el periodo 2017- 2018 se internaron 441 pacientes con infección respiratoria aguda baja. Se administró OAF a 54 pacientes (12%). La mediana de edad mediana 7,4 meses (r: 27 días-36 meses). Los pacientes ingresados no presentaban comorbilidades asociadas. El 22,2% (12/54) fueron trasladados a UTIP (2,7% del total de los internados). El 64.8% de los pacientes que permanecieron en sala de internación, mostró mejoría en FC y FR a las 4 hs. Por el contrario, en el 75% de los pacientes que requirieron UTIP no se evidenció mejoría en estos parámetros. Conclusiones: La OAF es una alternativa terapéutica que podría disminuir el ingreso a UTIP en pacientes con dificultad respiratoria moderada. En nuestra experiencia resultó fácil de implementar, sin efectos adversos graves (AU)


Introduction: High-flow oxygen (HFO) therapy is a non-invasive oxygen support technique that provides hot and humidified air and oxygen flow above the peak inspiratory flow of the patient through a nasal cannula. In this study we present our experience with HFO on a intermediate and low complexity ward for the treatment of bronchiolitis/acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). Material and methods: A protocol for the implementation of HFO was designed. Inclusion criteria: Patients with bronchiolitis/ALRI with: Modified Tal score ≥6, Sat O2 < 92%, and/or poor ventilatory mechanism, in spite of receiving more than 2 L/ min O2 by nasal cannula or FiO2 >40%. Exclusion criteria: pCO2 ≥55 mmHg; pH: < 7.20; Apnea ≥20 seconds; Glasgow score ≤10; Peso >15 kg. Hemodynamic instability; Craniofacial abnormalities. Results: During 2017- 2018, 441 patients were admitted with LRTI. HFO was administered to 54 patients (12%). Median age was 7.4 months (r: 27 days-36 months). The patients that were included in the study did not have associated morbidities. Overall, 22.2% (12/54) were transferred to the PICU (2.7% of all hospitalized patients). Of the patients who remained on the ward, 64.8% improved FC and FR after 4 hours. On the other hand, in 75% of the patients that required PICU admission these parameters did not improve. Conclusions: HFO is a therapeutic option to decrease PICU admission of patients with moderate respiratory difficulties. The protocol was easy to implement and was not associated with severe adverse effects (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Bronchiolitis/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Cannula
4.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(2): 156-163, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013763

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia e a segurança da oxigenoterapia com uso de cânula nasal de alto fluxo no tratamento da insuficiência respiratória hipercápnica moderada em pacientes que não conseguem tolerar ou têm contraindicações para ventilação mecânica não invasiva. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo observacional de 13 meses envolvendo participantes admitidos a uma unidade de terapia intensiva com insuficiência respiratória hipercápnica ou durante o processo de seu desenvolvimento. Os parâmetros clínicos e de troca gasosa foram registrados em intervalos regulares durante as primeiras 24 horas. Os parâmetros finais foram saturação de oxigênio entre 88 e 92%, juntamente da redução do esforço respiratório (frequência respiratória) e da normalização do pH (≥ 7,35). Os participantes foram considerados não responsivos em caso de necessidade de utilização de suporte ventilatório. Resultados: Trinta participantes foram tratados utilizando oxigenoterapia com cânula nasal de alto fluxo. Esta foi uma população mista com exacerbação de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, edema pulmonar cardiogênico agudo, e insuficiência respiratória aguda pós-operatória e pós-extubação. Observou-se melhora não significante na frequência respiratória (28,0 ± 0,9 versus 24,3 ± 1,5; p = 0,22), que foi aparente nas primeiras 4 horas do tratamento. Ocorreu melhora do pH, embora só se tenham obtido níveis normais após 24 horas de tratamento com cânula nasal de alto fluxo (7,28 ± 0,02 versus 7,37 ± 0,01; p = 0,02). A proporção de não responsivos foi de 13,3% (quatro participantes), dos quais um necessitou e aceitou ventilação mecânica não invasiva, e três necessitaram de intubação. A mortalidade na unidade de terapia intensiva foi de 3,3% (um participante), e um paciente morreu após a alta para a enfermaria (mortalidade hospitalar de 6,6%). Conclusão: O oxigenoterapia com cânula nasal de alto fluxo é eficaz para a insuficiência respiratória hipercápnica moderada e ajuda a normalizar os parâmetros clínicos e de troca gasosa, com taxa aceitável de não responsivos que necessitaram de suporte ventilatório.


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in treating moderate hypercapnic respiratory failure in patients who cannot tolerate or have contraindications to noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Methods: A prospective observational 13-month study involving subjects admitted to an intensive care unit with or developing moderate hypercapnic respiratory failure. Clinical and gas exchange parameters were recorded at regular intervals during the first 24 hours. The endpoints were a oxygen saturation between 88 and 92% along with a reduction in breathing effort (respiratory rate) and pH normalization (≥ 7.35). Subjects were considered nonresponders if they required ventilatory support. Results: Thirty subjects were treated with high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy. They consisted of a mixed population with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and postoperative and postextubation respiratory failure. A nonsignificant improvement was observed in respiratory rate (28.0 ± 0.9 versus 24.3 ± 1.5, p = 0.22), which was apparent in the first four hours of treatment. The pH improved, although normal levels were only reached after 24 hours on high-flow nasal cannula therapy (7.28 ± 0.02 versus 7.37 ± 0.01, p = 0.02). The rate of nonresponders was 13.3% (4 subjects), of whom one needed and accepted noninvasive mechanical ventilation and three required intubation. Intensive care unit mortality was 3.3% (1 subject), and a patient died after discharge to the ward (hospital mortality of 6.6%). Conclusion: High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy is effective for moderate hypercapnic respiratory failure as it helps normalize clinical and gas exchange levels with an acceptable rate of nonresponders who require ventilatory support.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Hypercapnia/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Oxygen/metabolism , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Pulmonary Gas Exchange , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Cannula , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(2): 117-121, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003575

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia de um protocolo de redução da saturação do oxigênio utilizado na suplementação dos recém-nascidos pré-termos (RNPT) internados em uma UTI neonatal para prevenir o aparecimento da Retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP). Métodos: Trata-se de estudo de coorte realizado em única UTI Neonatal. O primeiro grupo (pré-protocolo, n=30) fez uso de oxigênio com saturação de hemoglobina >95%. A partir da instituição de um novo protocolo de oxigenioterapia que manteve a saturação de hemoglobina entre 90% e 95% obteve-se o segundo grupo (pós-protocolo n=28). Todos os RNPT incluídos tinham idade gestacional de menor ou igual 32 semanas e/ou com peso de nascimento igual ou abaixo de 1500g, fizeram mapeamentos de retina a partir de 28 dias de vida e seguimento por até 45 semanas de idade gestacional corrigida. Resultados: Dos 58 casos estudados, excluindo-se os que foram a óbito (15/58; 26,8%) dos casos, ROP foi diagnosticado em 15/43 (34,9%) pacientes. A menor idade gestacional influenciou significativamente no aparecimento da ROP (p=0,002). Em relação ao número de casos de ROP e de óbitos não se observou diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos. O tempo de oxigenioterapia foi significativamente associado com a presença de ROP em ambos grupos. Meninos foram seis vezes mais acometidos por ROP que as meninas. Conclusão: A redução da saturação de oxigênio não se mostrou eficaz para redução de número de casos de ROP.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of an oxygen saturation reduction protocol used to supplement preterm newborns (PTNB) hospitalized in a neonatal ICU to prevent the onset of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods: This is a cohort study performed in a single Neonatal ICU. The first group (pre-protocol, n = 30) used oxygen with hemoglobin saturation > 95%. Since the institution of a new oxygen therapy protocol that maintained hemoglobin saturation between 90% and 95%, the second group was obtained (post-protocol n = 28). All included preterm infants had a gestational age of less than or equal to 32 weeks and / or birth weight of 1500 g or less, retinal mappings from 28 days of life and follow up for up to 45 weeks of corrected gestational age. Results: 58 cases were studied, excluding those who died (15/58; 26.8%), ROP was diagnosed in 15/43 patients (34.9%). The lower gestational age significantly influenced the appearance of ROP (p = 0.002). Regarding the number of ROP cases and deaths, no statistically significant difference was observed between groups. Oxygen therapy time was significantly associated with the presence of ROP in both groups. Boys were six times more affected by ROP than girls. Conclusion: Reduction of oxygen saturation was not effective in reducing the number of cases of ROP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Retinopathy of Prematurity/etiology , Retinopathy of Prematurity/prevention & control , Oximetry , Oxygen/blood , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Retinopathy of Prematurity/classification , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Cohort Studies , Gestational Age , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Premature Birth
7.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(4): 487-495, out.-dez. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977990

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia do cateter nasal de alto fluxo na prevenção de intubação e reintubação de pacientes críticos em comparação com oxigenoterapia convencional ou ventilação não invasiva. Métodos: Esta revisão sistemática foi realizada por meio de busca eletrônica em bancos de dados incluindo trabalhos publicados entre 1966 e abril de 2018. O desfecho primário foi a necessidade de intubação ou reintubação. Os desfechos secundários foram escalonamento de terapia, mortalidade no seguimento mais longo, mortalidade hospitalar e necessidade de ventilação não invasiva. Resultados: Dezessete estudos com 3.978 pacientes foram incluídos. Não houve redução na necessidade de intubação ou reintubação (OR 0,72; IC95% 0,52 - 1,01; p = 0,056). Não houve diferença no escalonamento de terapia (OR 0,80; IC95% 0,59 - 1,08; p = 0,144), na mortalidade no seguimento mais longo (OR 0,94; IC95% 0,70 - 1,25; p = 0,667), na mortalidade hospitalar (OR 0,84; IC95% 0,56 - 1,26; p = 0,391) ou na necessidade de ventilação não invasiva (OR 0,64; IC95% 0,39 - 1,05, p = 0,075). Na análise sequencial de ensaios, o número de eventos incluídos foi menor que o tamanho ótimo de informação, com erro tipo I global > 0,05. Conclusão: No presente estudo e no cenário avaliado, o cateter nasal de alto fluxo não foi associado com redução na necessidade de intubação ou reintubação em pacientes críticos.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of high-flow nasal cannula in the prevention of intubation and re-intubation in critically ill patients compared to conventional oxygen therapy or noninvasive ventilation. Methods: This systematic review was performed through an electronic database search of articles published from 1966 to April 2018. The primary outcome was the need for intubation or re-intubation. The secondary outcomes were therapy escalation, mortality at the longest follow-up, hospital mortality and the need for noninvasive ventilation. Results: Seventeen studies involving 3,978 patients were included. There was no reduction in the need for intubation or re-intubation with high-flow nasal cannula (OR 0.72; 95%CI 0.52 - 1.01; p = 0.056). There was no difference in the need for therapy escalation (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.59 - 1.08, p = 0.144), mortality at the longest follow-up (OR 0.94; 95%CI 0.70 - 1.25; p = 0.667), hospital mortality (OR 0.84; 95%CI 0.56 - 1.26; p = 0.391) or noninvasive ventilation (OR 0.64, 95%CI 0.39 - 1.05, p = 0.075). In the trial sequential analysis, the number of events included was lower than the optimal information size with a global type I error > 0.05. Conclusion: In the present study and setting, high-flow nasal cannula was not associated with a reduction of the need for intubation or re-intubation in critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Cannula , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality , Critical Illness , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods
8.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 33(3): 414-418, jul.-set. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-965621

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O pioderma gangrenoso (PG) corresponde a uma dermatose autoimune crônica e rara. Sua base etiológica ainda permanece pouco conhecida, sendo idiopático em 25 a 50% dos casos, nos demais está associado com doenças sistêmicas de fundo autoimune, tem uma incidência de 2 a 3 casos em 1 milhão de habitantes por ano. No Brasil, este índice é de 0,38 casos por 10.000 atendimentos, as mais acometidas são as mulheres entre a segunda e quinta década de vida. O quadro clínico é variável, sendo que a forma ulcerosa, que surge sobre uma cicatriz prévia, é a mais prevalente. Relato de Caso: Paciente do sexo feminino, 39 anos de idade, previamente hígida, foi submetida à mamoplastia redutora, evoluiu com úlcera necrótica em cicatriz vertical de mama esquerda. Realizado desbridamento de tecidos desvitalizados, prescrita antibioticoterapia, apresentando piora importante da lesão, sendo considerada a hipótese de PG. Iniciado tratamento com corticoterapia oral e tópica com remissão do quadro. Conclusões: O PG representa um desafio no diagnóstico e, geralmente, demonstra a dificuldade diagnóstica, podendo ser confundido com infecção do sítio cirúrgico.


Introduction: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a chronic and rare autoimmune dermatosis. Its etiology remains poorly understood, being idiopathic in 25 to 50% of cases; in others, it is associated with systemic diseases with autoimmune background and has an incidence of 2 to 3 cases per 1 million per year. In Brazil, the rate is 0.38 cases per 10,000 clinical visits, and women between the second and fifth decades of life are the most affected. The clinical presentation is variable, and the ulcerous form, which appears on a previous scar, is the most prevalent. Case Report: A 39-year-old, previously healthy female underwent reduction mammoplasty, and later developed a necrotic ulcer on a vertical left breast scar. Debridement of devitalized tissue was performed, with significant worsening despite antibiotic therapy. The appearance suggested PG. Treatment with oral and topical corticosteroids was then initiated with remission. Conclusions: PG represents a diagnostic challenge, and can be confused with surgical site infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/surgery , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Patients , Wounds and Injuries/drug therapy , Breast/surgery , Mammaplasty , Pyoderma Gangrenosum , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 13(3): 113-117, sept. 2018. graf, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-947620

ABSTRACT

Oxygen therapy is frequent in prematures to treat respiratory conditions typically associated with them. Long-term use is mainly due to Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD). However, the use of oxygen has been controversial in the last decade especially given the associated risk of hyperoxemia in these children. Pulse oximetry (SpO2) is a fundamental tool to guide oxygen therapy. Different trials have found that, in prematures born ≤28 weeks of gestational age who requires oxygen, a restrictive SpO2 target (85-89%) vs a liberal one (91-95%) may cause a higher mortality rate and enterocolitis, but less serious retinopathy. These targets are not normal SpO2 values. Studies on SpO2 reference values in preterm infants are scarce, heterogeneous and they do not necessarily use highly accurate and latest generation pulse oximeters. This contributes to the variation of oxygen therapy among different centers and reinforces the relevance of having SpO2 reference values in preterm infants to safely guide oxygen therapy.


La terapia con oxígeno es frecuente en prematuros para el tratamiento de patología respiratoria propia de su condición. En forma crónica la principal causa de su uso es Displasia Broncopulmonar (DBP). Sin embargo, el uso de oxígeno en prematuros ha sido motivo de debate en la última década fundamentalmente por los riesgos asociados a estados de hiperoxemia. La oximetría de pulso (SpO2) es una herramienta fundamental para guiar la oxigenoterapia. En prematuros que nacen ≤28 semanas de edad gestacional que requieren oxígeno, distintos estudios han demostrado que una meta de SpO2 restrictiva (85-89%) vs liberal (91-95%) tendría mayor mortalidad y enterocolitis, pero menor retinopatía grave. Estas metas no son valores normales de SpO2. Los estudios sobre valores de referencia de SpO2 en prematuros son limitados, heterogéneos y no necesariamente con oxímetros de última generación de mayor precisión. Esto contribuye a que la oxigenoterapia sea variable entre distintos centros y refuerza la relevancia de contar con valores de referencia de SpO2 en prematuros para guiar con seguridad el uso de oxígeno.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Infant, Premature , Oximetry/standards , Oxygen Consumption , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Reference Values , Monitoring, Physiologic
10.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(3): 266-269, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962727

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Mounier-Kuhn syndrome is a rare congenital condition with distinct dilatation and diverticulation of the tracheal wall. The symptoms may vary and the treatment usually consists of support. CASE REPORT: The patient was a 60-year-old male with recurrent hospital admission. He was admitted in this case due to dyspnea, cough and sputum production. An arterial blood sample revealed decompensated respiratory acidosis with moderate hypoxemia. A chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed dilatation of the trachea and bronchi, tracheal diverticula and bronchiectasis. Flexible bronchoscopy was performed, which revealed enlarged airways with expiratory collapse. Furthermore, orifices of tracheal diverticulosis were also detected. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) was added, along with long-term oxygen therapy. At control visits, the patient's clinical and laboratory findings were found to have improved. CONCLUSION: Flexible bronchoscopy can be advocated for establishing the diagnosis and non-invasive mechanical ventilation can be used with a high success rate, for clinical wellbeing in Mounier-Kuhn syndrome.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A síndrome de Mounier-Kuhn é uma condição congênita rara com dilatação e diverticulação distintas da parede traqueal. Os sintomas podem ser variáveis ​e o tratamento geralmente é de suporte. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, de 60 anos, com internação hospitalar recorrente, foi internado neste caso devido a dispneia, tosse e produção de expectoração. A amostra de sangue arterial revelou acidose respiratória descompensada, com hipoxemia moderada. A tomografia computadorizada de tórax mostrou dilatação da traqueia e brônquios, divertículos traqueais e bronquiectasias. Realizou-se broncoscopia flexível, que revelou aumento das vias aéreas com colapso expiratório. Além disso, também foram detectados orifícios de diverticulose traqueal. Foi adicionada ventilação com pressão positiva não invasiva (NPPV) juntamente com a oxigenoterapia a longo prazo. Foram verificadas melhoras dos resultados clínicos e laboratoriais do doente nas visitas de controle. CONCLUSÃO: A broncoscopia flexível pode ser defendida para estabelecer o diagnóstico, e a ventilação mecânica não invasiva pode ser utilizada com alta taxa de sucesso, para bem-estar clínico, na síndrome de Mounier-Kuhn.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bronchoscopy/methods , Tracheobronchomegaly/therapy , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Diverticulum/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tracheobronchomegaly/diagnostic imaging , Diverticulum/diagnostic imaging
11.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(1): 56-61, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894100

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the hypothesis that use of heliox would result in improvement of gas exchange when used with high flow nasal cannula in infants with RSV acute bronchiolitis. Methods: All patients that met the inclusion criteria were randomized to either heliox (70:30) or air-oxygen mixture 30% via high flow nasal cannula at 8 L/min for a continuous 24 h. Measurements were taken at baseline, after 2 h, and at the end of the 24 h. Results: This prospective study included 48 patients. After 2 h of treatment with heliox, the oxygen saturation and PaO2 significantly improved when compared with the air-oxygen group, 98.3% vs. 92.9%, 62.0 mmHg vs. 43.6 mmHg (p = 0.04 and 0.01), respectively. Furthermore, PaO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly higher in the heliox group when compared with the air-oxygen group, 206.7 vs. 145.3. Nevertheless, CO2 showed better elimination when heliox was used, without significance. MWCA score dropped significantly in the heliox group, 2.2 points vs. 4.0 points in air-oxygen (p = 0.04), 2 h after starting the therapy. Conclusion: Transient improvement of oxygenation in infants with RSV acute bronchiolitis during the initial phase of the therapy is associated with heliox when provided with HFNC, may provide a precious time for other therapeutic agents to work or for the disease to resolve naturally, avoiding other aggressive interventions.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a hipótese de que o uso da mistura heliox resultaria em melhoria da troca gasosa quando usado com cânula nasal de alto fluxo em crianças com bronquiolite aguda por VSR. Métodos: Todos os pacientes que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão foram randomizados para receber a mistura heliox (70:30) ou a mistura ar/oxigênio a 30% por meio da cânula nasal de alto fluxo a 8 L/min por 24 horas contínuas. As medições foram feitas no início, depois de duas horas e ao fim de 24 horas. Resultados: Fizemos um estudo prospectivo em que foram incluídos 48 pacientes. Após duas horas de tratamento com a mistura heliox, a saturação de oxigênio e a PaO2 apresentaram melhoria significativa em comparação com o grupo da mistura ar/oxigênio: 98,3% em comparação com 92,9%, 62,0 mmHg em comparação com 43,6 mmHg (p = 0,04 e 0,01), respectivamente. Além disso, a relação PaO2/FiO2 era significativamente mais alta no grupo da mistura heliox do que no grupo da mistura ar/oxigênio, 2.067 em comparação com 1.453. Contudo, o CO2 apresentou melhor eliminação quando a mistura heliox foi usada, sem relevância. O Escore MWCA caiu significativamente no grupo da mistura heliox, 2,2 pontos em comparação com 4,0 pontos da mistura ar/oxigênio (p = 0,04) duas horas após o início da terapia. Conclusão: A breve melhoria da oxigenação em crianças com bronquiolite aguda por VSR na fase inicial da terapia está associada à mistura heliox quando administrada pela CNAF e poderá fornecer um tempo precioso para outros agentes terapêuticos funcionarem ou para a própria doença se curar naturalmente e evitar outras intervenções agressivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Bronchiolitis, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/therapy , Cannula , Helium/administration & dosage , Bronchiolitis, Viral/virology , Acute Disease , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(4): eAO4199, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975102

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate if distress respiratory decreases after using helium-oxygen mixture in pediatric patients diagnosed with bronchospasm. Methods This is a retrospective, non-randomized study that included patients diagnosed with bronchospasm, who received a helium-oxygen mixture at three time points (30, 60, and 120 minutes) according to the organization protocol singular, and were admitted to the intensive care unit, from January 2012 to December 2013. This protocol includes patients with bronchospasm who sustained a modified Wood score of moderate to severe, even after one hour of conventional treatment. Results Twenty children were included in the study. The mean score of severity of the disease at the initial moment was 5.6 (SD:2.0), and at moment 120 minutes, it was 3.4 (SD: 2.0). The severity score showed a significant improvement as of 30 minutes (p<0.001). Conclusion The use of helium-oxygen mixture proved to be effective in diminishing the respiratory distress score for children with airway obstructions; it should be considered a supplementary therapeutic option, together with drug therapy, in specific clinical situations.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar se o desconforto diminui após o uso da mistura hélio-oxigênio em pacientes pediátricos com diagnóstico de broncoespasmo. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo, não randomizado, no qual foram incluídos pacientes com diagnóstico de broncoespasmo que utilizaram a mistura hélio-oxigênio em três momentos (30, 60 e 120 minutos), seguindo o protocolo institucional, internados em unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica de janeiro de 2012 a dezembro 2013. Este protocolo incluía pacientes com diagnóstico de broncoespasmo que mantivessem escore de Wood modificado de moderado a grave, mesmo após 1 hora de tratamento convencional. Resultados Foram incluídas 20 crianças neste estudo. A média do escore de gravidade da doença no momento zero foi de 5,6 (DP:2,0) e, no momento 120 minutos, 3,4 (DP: 2,0). O escore de gravidade apresentou melhora significante a partir dos 30 minutos (p<0,001). Conclusão A utilização da mistura hélio-oxigênio mostrou-se eficaz na redução do escore de desconforto respiratório de crianças com doenças obstrutivas e deve ser considerada recurso terapêutico complementar à terapia medicamentosa em situações clínicas específicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Bronchial Spasm/therapy , Helium/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
15.
Clinics ; 72(9): 562-567, Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890728

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy after extubation in patients with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: A single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled pilot trial was conducted between January 2013 and December 2014. Sixty enrolled patients were randomized immediately after extubation into either a high-flow nasal cannula group (n=30) or an air entrainment mask group (n=30) at a fixed inspired oxygen fraction (40%). The success rate of oxygen therapy, respiratory and hemodynamic parameters and subjective discomfort (using a visual analogue scale) were assessed at 24h after extubation. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable at extubation. A total of 46 patients were successfully treated including 27 patients in the high-flow nasal cannula group and 19 patients in the air entrainment mask group. Compared to the air entrainment mask group, the success rate of oxygen therapy and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen were significantly higher and the respiratory rate was lower in the high-flow nasal cannula group. In addition, less discomfort related to interface displacement and airway dryness was observed in the high-flow nasal cannula group than in the air entrainment mask group. CONCLUSIONS: At a fixed inspired oxygen fraction, the application of a high-flow nasal cannula after extubation achieves a higher success rate of oxygen therapy and less discomfort at 24h than an air entrainment mask in patients with acute respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , High-Frequency Ventilation/methods , Airway Extubation/methods , Cannula , Oxygen/metabolism , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Time Factors , High-Frequency Ventilation/instrumentation , Pilot Projects , Acute Disease , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Equipment Design , Hemodynamics , Intensive Care Units , Masks
16.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1258670

ABSTRACT

Introduction:In African countries, respiratory infections and severe sepsis are common causes of respiratory failure and mortality in children under five years of age. Mortality and morbidity in these children could be reduced with adequate respiratory support in the emergency care setting. The purpose of this review is to describe management priorities in the emergency care of critically ill children presenting with respiratory problems. Basic and advanced respiratory support measures are described for implementation according to available resources, work load and skill-levels.Methods:We did a focused search of respiratory support for critically ill children in resource-limited settings over the past ten years, using the search tools PubMed and Google Scholar, the latest WHO guidelines, international 'Advanced Paediatric Life Support' guidelines and paediatric critical care textbooks.Results:The implementation of triage and rapid recognition of respiratory distress and hypoxia with pulse oximetry is important to correctly identify critically ill children with increased risk of mortality in all health facilities in resource constrained settings. Basic, effective airway management and respiratory support are essential elements of emergency care. Correct provision of supplemental oxygen is safe and its application alone can significantly improve the outcome of critically ill children. Non-invasive ventilatory support is cost-effective and feasible, with the potential to improve emergency care packages for children with respiratory failure and other organ dysfunctions. Non-invasive ventilation is particularly important in severely under-resourced regions unable to provide intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation support. Malnutrition and HIV-infection are important co-morbid conditions,associated with increased mortality in children with respiratory dysfunction.Discussion:A multi-disciplinary approach is required to optimise emergency care for critically ill children in low-resource settings. In this context, it is important to consider aspects of training of staff, technical support and pragmatic research


Subject(s)
Africa South of the Sahara , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections
17.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 14(1): 13-25, 2017. img.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-968887

ABSTRACT

Cada año, cerca de 6 millones de niños mueren por enfermedades prevenibles o fácilmente tratadas. El 95% se produce en países subdesarrollados, siendo la neumonía la causa más prevalente muertes en menores de 5 años (18%). La hipoxemia es la causa de los decesos en estos individuos. La aplicación de O2 como medida terapéutica para tratar o prevenirla es una de las indicaciones más frecuente que debe realizar un clínico. Este escrito trata de integrar en forma muy resumida los conceptos básicos que involucran a la oxigeno terapia, cuándo aplicar O2, con que equipos y aditamentos más apropiados.


Around 6 million children died of preventable or easily treatable diseases each year. Ninety five per cent are produced in undeveloped countries, being pneumonia the leading cause of death of children of 5 years or less (18%) and hypoxemia is the cause of dead. Oxygen therapy to treat or prevent this, as a therapeutic measure, is one of the most commons indicationsthat must be performed by aclinician. The review summarized the basic concepts of oxygen administration, when and how, with which equipment, oxygen delivery devices, dangers and its precautions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Hypoxia/prevention & control , Oxygen/administration & dosage
18.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 93(supl.1): 36-45, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894087

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: To summarize the current literature describing high-flow nasal cannula use in children, the components and mechanisms of action of a high-flow nasal cannula system, the appropriate clinical applications, and its role in the pediatric emergency department. Sources: A computer-based search of PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar for literature on high-flow nasal cannula use in children was performed. Data summary: High-flow nasal cannula, a non-invasive respiratory support modality, provides heated and fully humidified gas mixtures to patients via a nasal cannula interface. High-flow nasal cannula likely supports respiration though reduced inspiratory resistance, washout of the nasopharyngeal dead space, reduced metabolic work related to gas conditioning, improved airway conductance and mucociliary clearance, and provision of low levels of positive airway pressure. Most data describing high-flow nasal cannula use in children focuses on those with bronchiolitis, although high-flow nasal cannula has been used in children with other respiratory diseases. Introduction of high-flow nasal cannula into clinical practice, including in the emergency department, has been associated with decreased rates of endotracheal intubation. Limited prospective interventional data suggest that high-flow nasal cannula may be similarly efficacious as continuous positive airway pressure and more efficacious than standard oxygen therapy for some patients. Patient characteristics, such as improved tachycardia and tachypnea, have been associated with a lack of progression to endotracheal intubation. Reported adverse effects are rare. Conclusions: High-flow nasal cannula should be considered for pediatric emergency department patients with respiratory distress not requiring immediate endotracheal intubation; prospective, pediatric emergency department-specific trials are needed to better determine responsive patient populations, ideal high-flow nasal cannula settings, and comparative efficacy vs. other respiratory support modalities.


Resumo Objetivos: Resumir a literatura atual que descreve o uso da cânula nasal de alto fluxo em crianças, os componentes e mecanismos de ação do sistema de cânula nasal de alto fluxo, as aplicações clínicas adequadas e o papel desse sistema no departamento de emergência pediátrico. Fontes: Fizemos uma pesquisa informatizada na PubMed/Medline e usamos o Google Acadêmico para encontrar literatura sobre o uso da cânula nasal de alto fluxo em crianças. Resumo dos dados: A cânula nasal de alto fluxo, modalidade de apoio respiratório não invasiva, fornece misturas de gases aquecidas e totalmente umidificadas para pacientes por meio de uma cânula nasal. A cânula nasal de alto fluxo provavelmente auxilia a respiração por meio da redução da resistência inspiratória, eliminação do espaço morto anatômico nasofaríngeo, redução do trabalho metabólico relacionado ao condicionamento de gás, melhoria da condutância das vias aéreas e transporte mucociliar e fornecimento de baixos níveis de pressão positiva nas vias aéreas. A maior parte dos dados que descrevem o uso da cânula nasal de alto fluxo em crianças é focada em crianças com bronquiolite, embora a cânula nasal de alto fluxo tenha sido usada em crianças com outras causas de doenças respiratórias. A introdução da cânula nasal de alto fluxo na prática clínica, inclusive o departamento de emergência, foi associada à redução dos índices de intubação endotraqueal. Dados intervencionistas prospectivos limitados sugerem que a cânula nasal de alto fluxo pode ser tão eficaz quanto a pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas e mais eficaz do que a oxigenoterapia-padrão em alguns pacientes. As características dos pacientes, como melhoria da taquicardia e taquipneia, foram associadas a uma ausência de progressão para intubação endotraqueal. Foram raros os efeitos adversos relatados. Conclusões: A cânula nasal de alto fluxo deve ser considerada para pacientes do departamento de emergência pediátrico com insuficiência respiratória que não precisam de intubação endotraqueal imediata. Contudo, são necessários ensaios clínicos prospectivos específicos para o departamento de emergência pediátrico para determinar melhor as populações de pacientes que respondem ao tratamento, as configurações ideais da cânula nasal de alto fluxo e a eficácia comparada a outras modalidades de apoio respiratório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/instrumentation , Emergency Service, Hospital , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Cannula
19.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 33(2): 91-98, 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899666

ABSTRACT

El oxígeno (O2) es una de las drogas más utilizadas en clínica, su uso no está exento de riesgos. Existen guias internacionales para su uso, pero en nuestro medio no sabemos si se aplican. Nuestro objetivo fue describir la forma en que se utiliza y controla la oxígenoterapia en los 3 hospitales de la red del Servicio de Salud Talcahuano. Aplicamos una encuesta un día de agosto de 2016 a los pacientes hospitalizados en las instituciones de la red que recibían O2 en ese momento. Se recolectaron datos sobre la prescripción, administración y seguimiento de la terapia de O2. De los 381 pacientes auditados, un 13,7% recibía oxígenoterapia. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes fueron de causa respiratoria (46,15%) y cardiológica (25%). La indicación la dio un médico en 88,5% de los casos y en un 3,8% no había registro. En un 17,3% de los pacientes no había fundamento para la indicación. Se indicó una dosis fija en el 75% con una meta de SaO2 en el 50%, siendo naricera y máscara de Venturi los métodos de administración más frecuentes monitorizándose con oximetría de pulso en los hospitales menos complejos y gasometría arterial en el hospital terciario. La duración media de la oxígenoterapia fue de 7,8 días. Habiendo un buen fundamento y control de la oxígenoterapia aún no se indican metas a obtener. No hay un buen registro de la indicación ni de los cambios realizados. Creemos útil la realización periódica de este tipo de control para optimizar su uso evitando los potenciales efectos adversos en los pacientes.


Abstract Oxygen is a commonly used drug in clinics and its use must be judicious. There are guidelines for oxygen therapy but we ignore if these are respected in our country. We conducted an audit of oxygen therapy by applying a survey to 381 patients in the three hospitals of Talcahuano Public Health Service. The day of the audit 13.7% of the hospitalized patients were on oxygen, most of them with respiratory (46.15%) or cardiovascular (25%) diseases. Indication of O2 administration was given by a physician in 88.5% and there was not registry in 3.8% of the cases. There was not foundation for supplying O2 in 13.3% of patients. A fixed dose was indicated in 75% of cases and 50% had an oximetry value as a target. Oxygen was administered in most of the cases by nasal prongs and Venturi masks. Monitoring was based on pulse oximetry in the less complex hospitals and on arterial blood gases in the tertiary hospital. 100% of patients at urgency ward were receiving a different dose from that indicated at their admission time and none of them had a registry of the new dose. Mean duration of therapy was 7.8 days. We believe our results might represent what is going on with oxygen therapy in our country; having a good foundation and monitoring, we still don t use targets and there is a bad system of registry. We think that it would be advisably to carry out audits on oxygen therapy at national level on regular basis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Clinical Audit/methods , Health Services , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Chile , Surveys and Questionnaires , Monitoring, Physiologic
20.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(3): 173-181, jun. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-760111

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La cánula nasal de alto flujo (CNAF) es un método de soporte respiratorio cada vez más utilizado en pediatría por sus resultados y seguridad. Objetivo: Determinar la efectividad de la CNAF, evaluar factores asociados a fracaso y complicaciones relacionadas con su uso en lactantes. Pacientes y método: Se analizaron los datos demográficos, clínicos, gasométricos, radiológicos y complicaciones de los pacientes conectados a CNAF en una unidad crítica entre junio de 2012 y septiembre de 2014. Se compararon los pacientes que fracasaron con los respondedores a CNAF, considerándose fracaso la necesidad de un mayor soporte respiratorio durante las primeras 48 h de conexión. Se utilizó test de Kolmogorov Smirnov, U de Mann-Whitney, Chi cuadrado, test exacto de Fisher, correlaciones y Modelo de regresión logística binaria para p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: Un total de 109 pacientes. Mediana de edad y peso: 1 mes (0,2-20 meses) y 3,7 kg (2-10 kg); percentil 95: 3,7 meses y 5,7 kg respectivamente. El diagnóstico y patrón radiológico más frecuente fue bronquiolitis (53,2%) e infiltrado intersticial (56%). Un 70,6% respondió. Hubo diferencia significativa entre fracaso y respuesta en el diagnóstico (p = 0,013), radiografía (p = 0,018), contexto de conexión (p < 0,0001), pCO2 (mediana 40,7 mm Hg [15,4-67 mm Hg] versus 47,3 mm Hg [28,6-71,3 mm Hg], p = 0,004) y horas de CNAF (mediana 60,75 h [5-621,5 h] versus 10,5 h [1-29 h], p < 0,0001). El OR de PCO2 ≥ 55 mm Hg para fracaso fue 2,97 (IC 95%: 1,08-8,17; p = 0,035). Ningún paciente falleció ni registró complicaciones. Conclusión: El porcentaje de éxito observado fue similar a lo publicado. En esta muestra el fracaso de CNAF solo se asoció a una pCO2 inicial ≥ 55 mm Hg. Su uso se consideró seguro al no reportarse complicaciones relacionadas a su utilización. Se requiere de un estudio multicéntrico, aleatorizado y controlado para contrastar estos resultados.


Introduction: The high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a method of respiratory support that is increasingly being used in paediatrics due to its results and safety. Objective: To determine the efficacy of HFNC, as well as to evaluate the factors related to its failure and complications associated with its use in infants. Patients and method: An analysis was performed on the demographic, clinical, blood gas, and radiological data, as well as the complications of patients connected to a HFNC in a critical care unit between June 2012 and September 2014. A comparison was made between the patients who failed and those who responded to HFNC. A failure was considered as the need for further respiratory support during the first 48 hours of connection. The Kolmogorov Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U, chi squared and the Exact Fisher test were used, as well as correlations and a binary logistic regression model for P ≤ .05. Results: The study included 109 patients, with a median age and weight: 1 month (0.2-20 months) and 3.7 kg (2-10 kg); 95 percentile: 3.7 months and 5.7 kg, respectively. The most frequent diagnosis and radiological pattern was bronchiolitis (53.2%) and interstitial infiltration (56%). Around 70.6% responded. There was a significant difference between failure and response in the diagnosis (P = .013), radiography (P = 018), connection context (P < .0001), pCO2 (median 40.7 mmHg [15.4-67 mmHg] versus 47.3 mmHg [28.6-71.3 mmHg], P = .004) and hours on HFNC (median 60.75 hrs [5-621.5 hrs] versus 10.5 hrs [1-29 hrs], P < .0001). The OR of the PCO2 ≥ 55 mmHg for failure was 2.97 (95% CI; 1.08-8.17; P = .035). No patient died and no complications were recorded. Conclusion: The percentage success observed was similar to that published. In this sample, the failure of HFNC was only associated with an initial pCO2 ≥ 55 mmHg. On there being no complications reported as regards it use, it is considered safe, although a randomised, controlled, multicentre study is required to compare and contrast these results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Catheterization/methods , Critical Care/methods , Lung Diseases/therapy , Blood Gas Analysis , Administration, Intranasal , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Bronchiolitis/therapy , Bronchiolitis/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome , Treatment Failure , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/epidemiology
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