Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 371
Filter
1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10465, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153508

ABSTRACT

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is related to a higher risk of neonatal mortality, minor cognitive deficit, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In previous studies, genetic variants in the FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) and PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) genes have been associated with metabolic disease, body mass index, and obesity among other outcomes. We studied the association of selected FTO (rs1421085, rs55682395, rs17817449, rs8043757, rs9926289, and rs9939609) and PPARγ (rs10865710, rs17036263, rs35206526, rs1801282, rs28763894, rs41516544, rs62243567, rs3856806, and rs1805151) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with IUGR, through a case-control study in a cohort of live births that occurred from June 1978 to May 1979 in a Brazilian city. We selected 280 IUGR cases and 256 controls for analysis. Logistic regression was used to jointly analyze the SNPs as well as factors such as maternal smoking, age, and schooling. We found that the PPARγ rs41516544 increased the risk of IUGR for male offspring (OR 27.83, 95%CI 3.65-212.32) as well as for female offspring (OR=8.94, 95%CI: 1.96-40.88). The FTO rs9939609 TA genotype resulted in a reduced susceptibility to IUGR for male offspring only (OR=0.47, 95%CI: 0.26-0.86). In conclusion, we demonstrated that PPARγ SNP had a positive effect and FTO SNP had a negative effect on IUGR occurrence, and these effects were gender-specific.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , PPAR gamma/genetics , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Fetal Growth Retardation/genetics , Genotype
2.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1412-1426, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922631

ABSTRACT

Endogenously eliminating the hematoma is a favorable strategy in addressing intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study sought to determine the role of retinoid X receptor-α (RXR-α) in the context of hematoma absorption after ICH. Our results showed that pharmacologically activating RXR-α with bexarotene significantly accelerated hematoma clearance and alleviated neurological dysfunction after ICH. RXR-α was expressed in microglia/macrophages, neurons, and astrocytes. Mechanistically, bexarotene promoted the nuclear translocation of RXR-α and PPAR-γ, as well as reducing neuroinflammation by modulating microglia/macrophage reprograming from the M1 into the M2 phenotype. Furthermore, all the beneficial effects of RXR-α in ICH were reversed by the PPAR-γ inhibitor GW9662. In conclusion, the pharmacological activation of RXR-α confers robust neuroprotection against ICH by accelerating hematoma clearance and repolarizing microglia/macrophages towards the M2 phenotype through PPAR-γ-related mechanisms. Our data support the notion that RXR-α might be a promising therapeutic target for ICH.


Subject(s)
Anilides/pharmacology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hematoma/drug therapy , Humans , Macrophages , Microglia , Neuroprotection , PPAR gamma , Retinoid X Receptor alpha
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921368

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) on liver injury induced by periodontitis in rats.@*METHODS@#Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group and periodontitis group, twelve per group. In periodontitis group, the periodontitis models were established for the maxillary first molars in rats by means of "wire ligation+vaccinationwith @*RESULTS@#The probing depth, tooth mobility and sulcus bleeding index in periodontitis group were significantly higher than that in control group. HE staining showed in periodontitis group, hepatic cords ranged disorderly and there were vacuoles in cells and inflammatory cells infiltrated in liver tissues of rats, and there was no obvious abnormality in control group. The qRT-PCR results showed that the mRNA expression levels of @*CONCLUSIONS@#PGC-1α may be involved in the process of periodontitis-induced liver injury in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Liver/injuries , Male , PPAR gamma , Periodontitis/pathology , Rats , Rats, Wistar
4.
Actual. osteol ; 16(2): [95]-[103], mayo.-ago. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129692

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Diabetes is a chronic disease associated with important comorbidities. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with a three times increased risk of hip fracture but reports describing potential associations with vertebral fractures (VF) are contradictory. Our objective was to evaluate the factors involved in the prevalent VF in women with and without T2DM. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional design was used and the relationship between morphometric VF and T2DM in adult women was evaluated. The cases were adult women with morphometric VF and the controls were adult women without VF. Thoracic and spinal radiographs in lateral and antero-posterior projections were obtained. Bone mineral density (BMD) values of the lumbar spine (L-BMD) were measured by DXA. Results. A greater number of women with T2DM were found in the VF group (61% vs 31.5%). Non-T2DM women with VF were significantly older and with lower L-BMD than non-T2DM without VF. We observed a negative correlation between age and L-BMD (r=-0.463) in non-T2DM women, but not in the T2DM with FV group. T2DM was a risk factor for prevalent VF with OR of 3.540 (IC95% 1.750-7.160). Conclusion. Our study showed a higher prevalence of T2DM in the VF group. T2DM women with VF were younger and had higher L-BMD than non-T2DM women, L-BMD did not correlate with age and VF were not distributed according to BMD-L and age. (AU)


Introducción. La diabetes es una enfermedad crónica asociada con comorbilidades importantes. La diabetes tipo 2 (DM2) se asocia con un riesgo tres veces mayor de fractura de cadera pero la asociación con fracturas vertebrales (FV) es contradictoria. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar los factores involucrados en las FV prevalentes en mujeres adultas con y sin DM2. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un diseño transversal y se evaluó la relación entre FV morfométrica y DM2 en mujeres adultas. Los casos fueron mujeres adultas con FV morfométricas y los controles fueron mujeres adultas sin FV. Se obtuvieron radiografías torácicas y espinales en proyecciones lateral y anteroposterior. Los valores de densidad mineral ósea (DMO) de la columna lumbar (DMO-L) se midieron por DXA. Resultados. Se observó un mayor número de mujeres con DM2 en el grupo de FV (61% frente a 31.5%). Las mujeres sin DM2 con FV eran significativamente mayores y con una DMO-L más baja que las mujeres sin DM2 sin FV. Observamos una correlación negativa entre la edad y la DMO-L (r= -0.463) en mujeres sin DM2 y FV, pero no en DM2 con FV. La DM2 fue un factor de riesgo para FV prevalente con un OR 3.540 (IC95% 1.750-7.160). Conclusión. Nuestro estudio demostró una mayor prevalencia de DM2 en el grupo de FV. Las mujeres con DM2 y FV eran más jóvenes y tenían mayor DMO-L que las mujeres sin DM2, la DMO-L no correlacionó con la edad y las FV no se distribuyeron de acuerdo a la DMO-L y edad. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Spinal Fractures/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Osteoporosis/complications , Vitamin D/blood , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Spinal Fractures/chemically induced , Spinal Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Age Factors , Thiazolidinediones/therapeutic use , PPAR gamma/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Rosiglitazone/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pioglitazone/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 130-140, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is recognized as a common inflammatory skin disease and frequently occurred in Asian and Black individuals.OBJECTIVE: Since the limitation of dataset associated with human severe AD, this study aimed to screen potential novel biomarkers involved in mild AD.METHODS: Expression profile data (GSE75890) were obtained from the database of Gene Expression Omnibus. Using limma package, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between samples from AD and healthy control were selected. Furthermore, function analysis was conducted. Meanwhile, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and transcription factor (TF)-miRNA-target regulatory network were constructed. And quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the expressions patterns of key genes.RESULTS: In total, 285 DEGs including 214 upregulated and 71 downregulated genes were identified between samples from two groups. The upregulated DEGs were mainly involved in nine pathways, such as hematopoietic cell lineage, pertussis, p53 signaling pathway, staphylococcus aureus infection, and cell cycle, while tight junction was the only pathway enriched by the downregulated DEGs. Cyclin B (CCNB)1, CCNB2, cyclin A (CCNA)2, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL)10, and CXCL9 were key nodes in PPI network. The TF-miRNA-target gene regulatory network focused on miRNAs such as miR-106b, miR-106a, and miR-17, TFs such as nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1, RELA proto-oncogene, Sp1 transcription factor, and genes such as matrix metallopeptidase 9, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma , and serpin family E member 1. Moreover, the upregulation of these genes, including CCNB1, CCNB2, CCNA2, CXCL10, and CXCL9 were confirmed by qRT-PCR.CONCLUSION: CCNB1, CCNB2, CCNA2, and CXCL9 might be novel markers of mild AD. miR-106b and miR-17 may involve in regulation of immune response in AD patients.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Biomarkers , Cell Cycle , Cell Lineage , Computational Biology , Cyclin A , Cyclin B , Dataset , Dermatitis , Dermatitis, Atopic , Gene Expression , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , MicroRNAs , NF-kappa B , PPAR gamma , Proto-Oncogenes , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Skin Diseases , Sp1 Transcription Factor , Staphylococcus aureus , Tight Junctions , Transcription Factors , Up-Regulation , Whooping Cough
6.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 15-24, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775480

ABSTRACT

Fenofibrate, an agonist for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α), lowers blood pressure, but whether this action is mediated via baroreflex afferents has not been elucidated. In this study, the distribution of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ was assessed in the nodose ganglion (NG) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Hypertension induced by drinking high fructose (HFD) was reduced, along with complete restoration of impaired baroreceptor sensitivity, by chronic treatment with fenofibrate. The molecular data also showed that both PPAR-α and PPAR-γ were dramatically up-regulated in the NG and NTS of the HFD group. Expression of the downstream signaling molecule of PPAR-α, the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), was up-regulated in the baroreflex afferent pathway under similar experimental conditions, along with amelioration of reduced superoxide dismutase activity and increased superoxide in HFD rats. These results suggest that chronic treatment with fenofibrate plays a crucial role in the neural control of blood pressure by improving baroreflex afferent function due at least partially to PPAR-mediated up-regulation of UCP2 expression and reduction of oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Afferent Pathways , Animals , Antihypertensive Agents , Pharmacology , Baroreflex , Blood Pressure , Fenofibrate , Pharmacology , Male , Oxidative Stress , PPAR gamma , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Transcriptional Activation , Uncoupling Protein 2 , Metabolism , Up-Regulation
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776791

ABSTRACT

Congenital lipodystrophic diabetes (CLD) is a rare genetic disease characterized by generalized or topical subcutaneous fat loss combined with various metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance. Recent studies have discovered genes underlying the disease. Mutations of such genes are associated with adipogenic anomaly, especially regulational function of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (γPPAR) for lipid. This paper has provided a review for the main clinical symptoms, classification, pathogenic genes, molecular mechanism and the relationship between PPARγ and fat loss.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Diabetes Mellitus , Genetics , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized , Genetics , PPAR gamma , Genetics , Transcription Factors
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758888

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to examine effects of spontaneous adipocyte generation on osteogenic differentiation of porcine skin-derived stem cells (pSSCs). Correlation between osteogenic differentiation and adipocyte differentiation induced by osteocyte induction culture was determined using different cell lines. Osteogenic differentiation efficiency of pSSCs was then analyzed by controlling the expression of adipocyte-specific transcription factors during osteogenic induction culture. Among four cell lines, pSSCs-II had the lowest lipid droplet level but the highest calcium content (p < 0.05). It also expressed significantly low levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARγ2) and adipocyte protein 2 (aP2) mRNAs but very high levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNAs as osteogenic makers (p < 0.05). Oil red O extraction was increased by 0.1 µM troglitazone (TGZ) treatment but decreased by 50 µM bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) (p < 0.05). Calcium content was drastically increased after BADGE treatment compared to that in osteogenic induction control and TGZ-treated pSSCs (p < 0.05). Relative expression levels of PPARγ2 and aP2 mRNAs were increased by TGZ but decreased by BADGE. Expression levels of Rucx2 and ALP mRNAs, osteoblast-specific marker genes, were significantly increased by BADGE treatment (p < 0.05). The expression level of BCL2 like 1 was significantly higher in BADGE-treated pSSCs than that in TGZ-treated ones (p < 0.05). The results demonstrate that spontaneous adipocyte generation does not adversely affect osteogenic differentiation. However, reducing spontaneous adipocyte generation by inhibiting PPARγ2 mRNA expression can enhance in vitro osteogenic differentiation of pSSCs.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Alkaline Phosphatase , Calcium , Cell Line , Ether , In Vitro Techniques , Lipid Droplets , Osteocytes , Osteogenesis , PPAR gamma , RNA, Messenger , Stem Cells , Transcription Factors
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1187-1194, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762065

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Adipogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) is critical to many disease-related disorders, such as obesity and diabetes. Studies have demonstrated that miRNA-138 (miR-138) is closely involved in adipogenesis. However, the mechanisms affected by miR-138 remain unclear. This work aimed to investigate interactions between miR-138 and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), a key lipogenic enzyme, in AMSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human AMSCs (hAMSCs) isolated from human abdomen tissue were subjected to adipogenic differentiation medium. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assay were applied to measure the expressions of miR-138, LPL, and the two adipogenic transcription factors cytidine-cytidine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The relationship between miR-138 and LPL was predicted utilizing the miRTarBase database and validated by dual luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: Showing increases in C/EBPα and PPARγ expression levels, hAMSCs were induced into adipogenic differentiation. During adipogenesis of hAMSCs, miR-138 expression was significantly downregulated. Overexpression of miR-138 by transfection inhibited hAMSCs adipogenic differentiation in vitro. Mechanically, LPL was a target of miR-138. LPL expression was upregulated during adipogenesis of hAMSCs, and this upregulation was reversed by miR-138 overexpression. Functionally, silencing of LPL by transfection exerted similar inhibition of the expressions of C/EBPα and PPARγ. Meanwhile, LPL ectopic expression was able to partly abolish the suppressive effect of miR-138 overexpression on adipogenic differentiation of hAMSCs. CONCLUSION: Upregulation of miR-138 inhibits adipogenic differentiation of hAMSCs by directly downregulating LPL.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Adipogenesis , Blotting, Western , Carrier Proteins , Ectopic Gene Expression , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Lipoprotein Lipase , Lipoproteins , Luciferases , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Obesity , PPAR gamma , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transcription Factors , Transfection , Up-Regulation
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1063-1070, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Visual-spatial neglect (VSN) is a neuropsychological syndrome, and right-hemisphere stroke is the most common cause. The pathogenetic mechanism of VSN remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) changes in patients with or without VSN after right-hemisphere stroke.@*METHODS@#Eleven patients with VSN with right-hemisphere stroke (VSN group) and 11 patients with non-VSN with right-hemisphere stroke (non-VSN group) were recruited along with one control group of 11 age- and gender-matched healthy participants. The visual-spatial function was evaluated using behavioral tests, and ERP examinations were performed.@*RESULTS@#The response times in the VSN and non-VSN groups were both prolonged compared with those of normal controls (P  0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Visual-spatial attention function is impaired after right-hemisphere stroke, and clinicians should be aware of the subclinical VSN. Our findings provide neuroelectrophysiological evidence for the lateralization of VSN.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cerebral Infarction , Electrophysiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Genetics , PPAR gamma , Genetics , Perceptual Disorders , Genetics , Metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetics , Reaction Time , Genetics , Physiology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Stroke , Genetics , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase , Genetics
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772126

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the protective effect of enhanced peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) pathway against apoptosis of long-term cultured primary nerve cells.@*METHODS@#A natural aging model was established in primary rat nerve cells by long-term culture for 22 days. The cells were divided into control group, 0.1, 1.0, 5.0, and 10 μmol/L GW9662 intervention groups, and 0.1, 1.0, 5.0, and 10 μmol/L pioglitazone intervention groups. The cell viability was assessed using MTT assay and the cell morphological changes were observed after the treatments to determine the optimal concentrations of GW9662 and pioglitazone. Double immunofluorescence labeling and flow cytometry were used to observe the changes in the number of viable cells and cell apoptosis following the treatments; immunocytochemical staining was used to assess the changes in the anti-oxidation ability of the treated cells.@*RESULTS@#The optimal concentrations of GW9662 and pioglitazone determined based on the cell viability and morphological changes were both 1 μmol/L. Compared with the control group, GW9662 treatment significantly lowered while pioglitazone significantly increased the total cell number and nerve cell counts ( < 0.05), and nerve cells in the cell cultures maintained a constant ratio at about 80% in all the groups ( > 0.05). GW9662 significantly enhanced while pioglitazone significantly lowered the cell apoptosis rates compared with the control group ( < 0.05). GW9662 obviously lowered SOD activity and GSH content in G group ( < 0.05) and increased MDA content in the cells ( < 0.05), and pioglitazone resulted in reverse changes in SOD, GSH and MDA contents in the cells ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Activation of PPARγ pathway protects long-term cultured primary nerve cells by enhancing cellular anti-oxidant capacity and reducing cell apoptosis, suggesting a potential strategy for anti-aging treatment of the nervous system through intervention of the PPARγ pathway.


Subject(s)
Anilides , Pharmacology , Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Cellular Senescence , Physiology , Neurons , Cell Biology , PPAR gamma , Metabolism , Pioglitazone , Pharmacology , Rats
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772043

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the inhibitory effect of genistein on activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the role of the autophagy pathway regulated by PPAR-γ in mediating this effect.@*METHODS@#Cultured HSC-T6 cells were exposed to different concentrations of genistein for 48 h, and HSC activation was verified by detecting the expressions of -SMA and 1(I) collagen; autophagy activation in the cells was determined by detecting the expressions of LC3-II and p62 using Western blotting. The autophagy inhibitor 3-MA was used to confirm the role of autophagy in genistein-induced inhibition of HSC activation. A PPAR-γ inhibitor was used to explore the role of PPAR-γ in activating autophagy in the HSCs.@*RESULTS@#Genistein at concentrations of 5 and 50 μmol/L significantly inhibited the expressions of -SMA and 1(I) collagen ( < 0.05), markedly upregulated the expressions of PPAR-γ and the autophagy-related protein LC3-II ( < 0.05) and significantly down-regulated the expression of the ubiqutin-binding protein p62 ( < 0.05) in HSC-T6 cells. The cells pretreated with 3-MA prior to genistein treatment showed significantly increased protein expressions of -SMA and 1(I) collagen compared with the cells treated with genistein only ( < 0.05). Treatment with the PPAR-γ inhibitor obviously lowered the expression of LC3-II and enhanced the expression p62 in genistein-treated HSC-T6 cells, suggesting the activation of the autophagy pathway.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PPAR-γ- regulated autophagy plays an important role in mediating genistein-induced inhibition of HSC activation .


Subject(s)
Anticarcinogenic Agents , Pharmacology , Autophagy , Collagen Type I , Genistein , Pharmacology , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Humans , PPAR gamma , Physiology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728017

ABSTRACT

Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipids and have several pharmacological efficacies. MELs also show skin-moisturizing efficacy through a yet-unknown underlying mechanism. Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is a membrane protein that contributes to the water homeostasis of the epidermis, and decreased AQP3 expression following ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation of the skin is associated with reduced skin moisture. No previous study has examined whether the skin-moisturizing effect of MELs might act through the modulation of AQP3 expression. Here, we report for the first time that MELs ameliorate the UVA-induced downregulation of AQP3 in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT keratinocytes). Our results revealed that UVA irradiation decreases AQP3 expression at the protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, but that MEL treatment significantly ameliorated these effects. Our mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor analysis revealed that phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase or p38, mediates UVA-induced AQP3 downregulation, and that MEL treatment significantly suppressed the UVA-induced phosphorylation of JNK. To explore a possible mechanism, we tested whether MELs could regulate the expression of peroxidase proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), which acts as a potent transcription factor for AQP3 expression. Interestingly, UVA irradiation significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of PPAR-γ in HaCaT keratinocytes, whereas a JNK inhibitor and MELs significantly rescued this effect. Taken together, these findings suggest that MELs ameliorate UVA-induced AQP3 downregulation in HaCaT keratinocytes by suppressing JNK activation to block the decrease of PPAR-γ. Collectively, our findings suggest that MELs can be used as a potential ingredient that modulates AQP3 expression to improve skin moisturization following UVA irradiation-induced damage.


Subject(s)
Down-Regulation , Epidermis , Glycolipids , Homeostasis , Humans , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Keratinocytes , Membrane Proteins , Peroxidase , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , PPAR gamma , Protein Kinases , RNA, Messenger , Skin , Transcription Factors , Water
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17596, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974416

ABSTRACT

Citral is a small molecule present in various citrus species, with reported anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-inflammation effects. Here, the effect of intraperitoneal (IP) administration of citral is evaluated in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatosis. Male NMRI mice were divided into the following groups (n = 12): normal control group (NC) receiving a normal diet; high-fat emulsion group (HF) receiving high fat diet for four weeks; positive control group (C+) receiving HF diet for four weeks and then shifted to normal diet with IP-administered silymarin (80 mg/kg) for four weeks; sham group receiving HF diet for four weeks and then shifted to normal diet for four weeks; and EC1, EC2, and EC3 groups receiving HF diet for four weeks and then shifted to normal diet with IP-administered citral doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, respectively. HF diet resulted in steatohepatitis with impaired lipid profile, high glucose levels and insulin resistance, impaired liver enzymes, antioxidants, adiponectin and leptin levels, decreased PPARα level, and fibrosis in the liver tissue. Upon treatment with citral, improvement in condition was observed in a dose-dependent manner-both at histological level and in the serum of treated animals. and the PPARα level was also increased.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Gene Expression/physiology , PPAR gamma/analysis , End Stage Liver Disease/diagnosis , Silymarin/pharmacology , Citrus , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e7238, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889106

ABSTRACT

Ulomoides dermestoides is a beetle traditionally consumed to treat diabetes. In this study, we performed a composition analysis of U. dermestoides to obtain the principal fractions, which were used to assess the effect on glycemia, liver and pancreatic architecture, and PPARγ and GLUT4 expression. Normal mice and alloxan-induced diabetic mice were administered fractions of chitin, protein or fat, and the acute hypoglycemic effect was evaluated. A subacute study involving daily administration of these fractions to diabetic mice was also performed over 30 days, after which the liver and pancreas were processed by conventional histological techniques and stained with hematoxylin and eosin to evaluate morphological changes. The most active fraction, the fat fraction, was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and PPARγ and GLUT4 mRNA expressions were determined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The protein and fat fractions exhibited hypoglycemic effects in the acute as well as in the 30-day study. Only the fat fraction led to elevated insulin levels and reduced glycemia, as well as lower intake of water and food. In the liver, we observed recovery of close hepatic cords in the central lobule vein following treatment with the fat fraction, while in the pancreas there was an increased density and percentage of islets and number of cells per islet, suggesting cellular regeneration. The GC-MS analysis of fat revealed three fatty acids as the major components. Finally, increased expression of PPARγ and GLUT4 was observed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, indicating an antidiabetic effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pancreas/drug effects , Tissue Extracts/therapeutic use , Coleoptera/chemistry , Fat Body/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Liver/drug effects , Pancreas/metabolism , Pancreas/pathology , Tissue Extracts/isolation & purification , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , PPAR gamma/drug effects , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Glucose Transporter Type 4/drug effects , Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism , Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713700

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is involved in the pathology of numerous diseases including atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a significant role in tissue remodeling related to various processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, tissue repair, invasion, and metastasis. We investigated the effects of PPARγ on MMP expression and invasion in breast cancer cells. METHODS: MCF-7 cells were cultured and then cell viability was monitored in an MTT assay. Western blotting, gelatin zymography, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and luciferase assays were performed to investigate the effect of the synthetic PPARγ ligand troglitazone on MMP expression. Transcription factor DNA binding was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. A Matrigel invasion assay was used to assess the effects of troglitazone on MCF-7 cells. RESULTS: Troglitazone did not affect MCF-7 cell viability. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced MMP-9 expression and invasion in MCF-7 cell. However, these effects were decreased by troglitazone. TPA increased nuclear factor κB and activator protein-1 DNA binding, while troglitazone inhibited these effects. The selective PPARγ antagonist GW9662 reversed MMP-9 inhibition by troglitazone in TPA-treated MCF-7 cells. CONCLUSION: Troglitazone inhibited nuclear factor κB and activator protein-1-mediated MMP-9 expression and invasion of MCF-7 cells through a PPARγ-dependent mechanism.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cell Survival , DNA , Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay , Gelatin , Luciferases , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Matrix Metalloproteinases , MCF-7 Cells , Morphogenesis , Neoplasm Metastasis , NF-kappa B , Obesity , Pathology , Peroxisomes , PPAR gamma , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transcription Factors
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1096-1106, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718030

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the sixth most common cause of death in the United States. MicroRNAs have been identified as vital players in neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. microRNA-128 (miR-128) has been shown to be dysregulated in AD. This study aimed to explore the roles and molecular mechanisms of miR-128 in AD progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression patterns of miR-128 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) messenger RNA in clinical samples and cells were measured using RT-qPCR assay. PPAR-γ protein levels were determined by Western blot assay. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Cell apoptotic rate was detected by flow cytometry via double-staining of Annexin V-FITC/PI. Caspase 3 and NF-κB activity was determined by a Caspase 3 Activity Assay Kit or NF-κB p65 Transcription Factor Assay Kit, respectively. Bioinformatics prediction and luciferase reporter assay were used to investigate interactions between miR-128 and PPAR-γ 3′UTR. RESULTS: MiR-128 expression was upregulated and PPAR-γ expression was downregulated in plasma from AD patients and amyloid-β (Aβ)-treated primary mouse cortical neurons (MCN) and Neuro2a (N2a) cells. Inhibition of miR-128 decreased Aβ-mediated cytotoxicity through inactivation of NF-κB in MCN and N2a cells. Moreover, PPAR-γ was a target of miR-128. PPAR-γ upregulation attenuated Aβ-mediated cytotoxicity by inactivating NF-κB in MCN and N2a cells. Furthermore, PPAR-γ downregulation was able to abolish the effect of anti-miR-128 on cytotoxicity and NF-κB activity in MCN and N2a cells. CONCLUSION: MiR-128 inhibitor decreased Aβ-mediated cytotoxicity by upregulating PPAR-γ via inactivation of NF-κB in MCN and N2a cells, providing a new potential target in AD treatment.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , Cause of Death , Cell Survival , Computational Biology , Down-Regulation , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Luciferases , Mice , MicroRNAs , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Plasma , PPAR gamma , RNA, Messenger , Transcription Factor RelA , United States , Up-Regulation
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775344

ABSTRACT

To observe the effect of total triterpenoids of Chaenomeles speciosa on PPARγ/SIRT1/NF-κBp65 signaling pathway and intestinal mucosal barrier of ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice, C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, total triterpenoids of C. speciosa (50, 100 mg·kg⁻¹) groups and sulfasalazine (250 mg·kg⁻¹) group. The ulcerative colitis (UC) model was induced by orally administering 2.5% DSS to the experimental mice, and the corresponding drugs were given to each group 3 days before the administration with 2.5% DSS. The normal group and the model group were given the equal volume of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium solution by gavage continuously for 10 days, q.d. The general conditions of the mice were observed on a daily basis, and the disease activity index (DAI) score was recorded. On the 10th day after the treatment, mice were put to death, the contents of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 in the blood were detected, colon length was measured, colon mucosa damage index (CMDI) score was calculated, and MPO activity detection and histomorphology analysis were conducted. Real-time PCR was applied to detect the mRNA expressions of E-cadherin, occluding,MUC2 and TFF3; the protein expressions of SIRT1, IKKβ, p-IKKβ, IκBα, p-IκBα and cytosol and nucleus PPARγ, NF-κBp65 in intestinal tissue were detected by western blot. The results indicated that total triterpenoids of C. speciosa (50, 100 mg·kg⁻¹) could significantly improve the general conditions of UC mice, reduce the DAI, CMDI and histopathological scores, increase the colon length, reduce the colonic mucosa ulcers, erosion and inflammatory infiltration, restore the normal intestinal mucosal barrier function, reduce the contents of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, increase the contents of IL-4 and IL-10 in the blood, inhibit MPO activity in colon tissue, up-regulate the mRNA expressions of E-cadherin, occludin, MUC2 and TFF3 in colon tissue, down-regulate the protein expressions of cytosol PPARγ, tissue p-IKKβ, p-IκBα and nucleus NF-κBp65 in the colon tissue, decrease the p-IKKβ/IKKβ and p-IκBα/IκBα ratios, up-regulate the protein expressions of nucleus PPARγ, tissue SIRT1 and cytosol NF-κBp65 (<0.05 or <0.01, respectively), with a dose-effect relationship between the total triterpenoids of C. speciosa treated groups. These findings suggested that total triterpenoids of C. speciosa had a significantly therapeutic effect on UC mice induced by DSS, its mechanism might be related to the regulation of PPARγ/SIRT1/NF-κBp65 signaling pathway, the inhibition of pro-inflammatory factor formation and the up-regulation of protein expression of protective factors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative , Drug Therapy , Colon , Dextran Sulfate , Disease Models, Animal , Intestinal Mucosa , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , PPAR gamma , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rosaceae , Chemistry , Signal Transduction , Sirtuin 1 , Metabolism , Transcription Factor RelA , Metabolism
19.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 573-588, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777032

ABSTRACT

In gliomas, the canonical Wingless/Int (WNT)/β-catenin pathway is increased while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) is downregulated. The two systems act in an opposite manner. This review focuses on the interplay between WNT/β-catenin signaling and PPAR-γ and their metabolic implications as potential therapeutic target in gliomas. Activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway stimulates the transcription of genes involved in proliferation, invasion, nucleotide synthesis, tumor growth, and angiogenesis. Activation of PPAR-γ agonists inhibits various signaling pathways such as the JAK/STAT, WNT/β-catenin, and PI3K/Akt pathways, which reduces tumor growth, cell proliferation, cell invasiveness, and angiogenesis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, curcumin, antipsychotic drugs, adiponectin, and sulforaphane downregulate the WNT/β-catenin pathway through the upregulation of PPAR-γ and thus appear to provide an interesting therapeutic approach for gliomas. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an antiangiogenic agent. The downstream action of this opposite interplay may explain the TMZ-resistance often reported in gliomas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Neoplasms , Metabolism , Therapeutics , Dacarbazine , Pharmacology , Down-Regulation , Glioma , Metabolism , Therapeutics , Humans , PPAR gamma , Metabolism , Temozolomide , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Physiology
20.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 591-601, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-statin therapy plus lower intensity statin might be an alternative in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A recent data suggested an anti-inflammatory therapy can reduce recurrent cardiovascular events and pioglitazone is also an intriguing inflammatory-modulating agent. However, limited data exist on whether pioglitazone on top of statins further attenuates plaque inflammation. METHODS: Statin-naïve patients with stable CAD and carotid plaques of ≥3 mm were randomly prescribed moderate dose atorvastatin (20 mg/day), or moderate dose atorvastatin plus pioglitazone (30 mg/day) for 3 months. The primary endpoint was the change in the arterial inflammation of the carotid artery measured by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) during 3 months. RESULTS: Of the 41 randomized patients, 33 underwent an evaluation by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT; 17 atorvastatin plus pioglitazone and 16 atorvastatin patients). The addition of pioglitazone significantly improved the insulin sensitivity and increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol after 3 months. Although a reduction in the (FDG) uptake by pioglitazone on top of atorvastatin in carotid arteries with plaque showed marginally statistical significance in the entire patient group (atorvastatin plus pioglitazone; −0.10±0.07 and atorvastatin −0.06±0.04, p=0.058), pioglitazone showed a further reduction of the fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake among patients who had a baseline FDG uptake above the median (atorvastatin plus pioglitazone; −0.14±0.04 and atorvastatin −0.03±0.03, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Pioglitazone demonstrated marginally significant anti-inflammatory effects in addition to moderate dose atorvastatin. This may have been due to the lack of power of the study. However, pioglitazone may have an anti-inflammatory effect in those patients with high plaque inflammation (Trial registry at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01341730).


Subject(s)
Arteritis , Atherosclerosis , Atorvastatin , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Stenosis , Cholesterol , Coronary Artery Disease , Electrons , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Inflammation , Insulin Resistance , Lipoproteins , PPAR gamma
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL