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Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(3): 216-221, Mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285354


ABSTRACT Background: Sleep disorders induce anxiety and forgetfulness and change habits. The chemical hypnotic drugs currently used have serious side effects and, therefore, people are drawn towards using natural compounds such as plant-based healing agents. Abscisic acid (ABA) is produced in a variety of mammalian tissues and it is involved in many neurophysiological functions. Objective: To investigate the possible effect of ABA on pentobarbital-induced sleep and its possible signaling through GABA-A and PPAR (γ and β) receptors, in male Wistar rats. Methods: The possible effect of ABA (5 and 10 µg/rat, intracerebroventricularly) on sleep onset latency time and duration was evaluated in a V-maze model of sleep. Pentobarbital sodium (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was injected to induce sleep 30 min after administration of ABA. PPARβ (GSK0660, 80 nM/rat), PPARγ (GW9662, 3 nM/rat) or GABA-A receptor (bicuculline, 6 µg/rat) antagonists were given 15 min before ABA injection. Diazepam (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was used as a positive control group. Results: ABA at 5 µg significantly boosted the pentobarbital-induced subhypnotic effects and promoted induction of sleep onset in a manner comparable to diazepam treatment. Furthermore, pretreatment with bicuculline significantly abolished the ABA effects on sleep parameters, while the amplifying effects of ABA on the induction of sleep onset was not significantly affected by PPARβ or PPARγ antagonists. The sleep prolonging effect of ABA was significantly prevented by both PPAR antagonists. Conclusions: The data showed that ABA boosts pentobarbital-induced sleep and that GABA-A, PPARβ and PPARγ receptors are, at least in part, involved in ABA signaling.

RESUMO Introdução: Os distúrbios do sono induzem a ansiedade e esquecimento e mudam hábitos. Os medicamentos hipnóticos químicos utilizados atualmente têm efeitos colaterais graves e, portanto, as pessoas são atraídas para o uso de compostos naturais, como agentes de cura à base de plantas. O ácido abscísico (ABA) é produzido em uma variedade de tecidos de mamíferos e está envolvido em muitas funções neurofisiológicas. Objetivo: Investigar o possível efeito do ABA no sono induzido por pentobarbital e sua possível sinalização por meio dos receptores GABA-A e PPAR (γ e β), em ratos Wistar machos. Métodos: O possível efeito do ABA (5 e 10 µg/rato, intracerebroventricularmente) no tempo de latência e duração do início do sono foi avaliado em um modelo de labirinto em V de sono. Pentobarbital sódico (40 mg/kg, intraperitonealmente) foi injetado para induzir o sono 30 minutos após a administração de ABA. PPARβ (GSK0660, 80 nM/rato), PPARγ (GW9662, 3 nM/rato) ou antagonistas do receptor GABA-A (bicuculina, 6 µg/rato) foram administrados 15 minutos antes da injeção de ABA. Diazepam (2 mg/kg, intraperitonealmente) foi utilizado como grupo de controle positivo. Resultados: ABA a 5 µg aumentou significativamente os efeitos sub-hipnóticos induzidos por pentobarbital e promoveu a indução do início do sono de forma comparável ao tratamento com diazepam. Além disso, o pré-tratamento com bicuculina aboliu significativamente os efeitos do ABA nos parâmetros do sono, ao passo que os efeitos amplificadores do ABA na indução do início do sono não foram significativamente afetados pelos antagonistas do PPARβ ou PPARγ. O efeito de prolongamento do sono do ABA foi significativamente prevenido por ambos os antagonistas do PPAR. Conclusões: Os dados mostraram que o ABA estimula o sono induzido por pentobarbital e que os receptores GABA-A, PPARβ e PPARγ estão, pelo menos em parte, envolvidos na sinalização ABA.

Animals , Male , Rats , Sleep , Abscisic Acid/pharmacology , Receptors, GABA-A/metabolism , PPAR-beta/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Pentobarbital/pharmacology , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Rats, Wistar
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e7238, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889106


Ulomoides dermestoides is a beetle traditionally consumed to treat diabetes. In this study, we performed a composition analysis of U. dermestoides to obtain the principal fractions, which were used to assess the effect on glycemia, liver and pancreatic architecture, and PPARγ and GLUT4 expression. Normal mice and alloxan-induced diabetic mice were administered fractions of chitin, protein or fat, and the acute hypoglycemic effect was evaluated. A subacute study involving daily administration of these fractions to diabetic mice was also performed over 30 days, after which the liver and pancreas were processed by conventional histological techniques and stained with hematoxylin and eosin to evaluate morphological changes. The most active fraction, the fat fraction, was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and PPARγ and GLUT4 mRNA expressions were determined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The protein and fat fractions exhibited hypoglycemic effects in the acute as well as in the 30-day study. Only the fat fraction led to elevated insulin levels and reduced glycemia, as well as lower intake of water and food. In the liver, we observed recovery of close hepatic cords in the central lobule vein following treatment with the fat fraction, while in the pancreas there was an increased density and percentage of islets and number of cells per islet, suggesting cellular regeneration. The GC-MS analysis of fat revealed three fatty acids as the major components. Finally, increased expression of PPARγ and GLUT4 was observed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, indicating an antidiabetic effect.

Animals , Male , Pancreas/drug effects , Tissue Extracts/therapeutic use , Coleoptera/chemistry , Fat Body/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Liver/drug effects , Pancreas/metabolism , Pancreas/pathology , Tissue Extracts/isolation & purification , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , PPAR gamma/drug effects , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Glucose Transporter Type 4/drug effects , Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism , Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-11, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950864


BACKGROUND: From ancient times, marine algae have emerged as alternative medicine and foods, contains the rich source of natural products like proteins, vitamins, and secondary metabolites, especially Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) contains numerous anti-inflammatory, antioxidants and wound healing substances. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is closely associated with adipogenesis and their factors. Hence, we aimed to investigate the chemical constituents and adipo-genic modulatory properties of C. vulgaris in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. RESULTS: We analysed chemical constituents in ethanolic extract of C. vulgaris (EECV) by LC-MS. Results revealed that the EECV contains few triterpenoids and saponin compounds. Further, the effect of EECV on lipid accumulation along with genes and proteins expressions which are associated with adipogenesis and lipogenesis were evaluated using oil red O staining, qPCR and western blot techniques. The data indicated that that EECV treatment increased differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, which indicates positive regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic activity. These increases were associated with up-regulation of PPAR-γ2, C/EBP-α, adiponectin, FAS, and leptin mRNA and protein expressions. Also, EECV treatments increased the concentration of glycerol releases as compared with control cells. Troglitazone is a PPAR-γ agonist that stimulates the PPAR-y2, adiponectin, and GLUT-4 expressions. Similarly, EECV treatments significantly upregulated PPAR-γ, adiponectin, GLUT-4 expressions and glucose utilization. Further, EECV treatment decreased AMPK-α expression as compared with control and metformin treated cells. CONCLUSION: The present research findings confirmed that the EECV effectively modulates the lipid accumulation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells through AMPK-α mediated signalling pathway.

Animals , Mice , Seaweed/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , 3T3-L1 Cells/drug effects , Chlorella vulgaris/chemistry , Time Factors , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Up-Regulation , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Adipocytes/cytology , Adipocytes/drug effects , Adipocytes/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , 3T3-L1 Cells/physiology , PPAR gamma/analysis , PPAR gamma/drug effects , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Adiponectin/analysis , Adiponectin/metabolism , Glucose Transporter Type 4/analysis , Glucose Transporter Type 4/drug effects , Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/analysis , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/drug effects , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(3): 215-220, May 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-750650


Background The objective of this study was to compare the level differences of mRNA transcription and protein expression of PPARγ, FAS and HSL in different parts of the carcass in different tail-type sheep. Six Tan sheep and six Shaanbei fine-wool sheep aged 9 months were slaughtered and samples were collected from the tail adipose, subcutaneous adipose, and longissimus dorsi muscle. The levels of mRNA transcription and protein expression of the target genes in these tissues were determined by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot analyses. Results The results showed that PPARγ, FAS, and HSL were expressed with spatial differences in tail adipose, subcutaneous adipose and longissimus dorsi muscle of Tan sheep and Shaanbei fine-wool sheep. Differences were also observed between the two breeds. The mRNA transcription levels of these genes were somewhat consistent with their protein expression levels. Conclusion The present results indicated that PPARγ, FAS and HSL are correlated with fat deposition, especially for the regulating of adipose deposition in intramuscular fat, and that the mRNA expression patterns are similar to the protein expression patterns. The mechanism requires clarification in further studies.

Animals , Sheep , Sterol Esterase/genetics , PPAR gamma/genetics , Fatty Acid Synthases/genetics , Tail , Transcription, Genetic , RNA, Messenger , Blotting, Western , Sterol Esterase/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Fatty Acid Synthases/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 23(2): 352-360, Feb-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-747162


OBJECTIVE: to analyze the scientific literature on home-based family care of people with severe mental illness. METHOD: integrative review of 14 databases (CINALH, Cochrane Plus, Cuidatge, CUIDEN, Eric, IBECS, EMI, ISOC, JBI COnNECT, LILACS, PsycINFO, PubMed, SciELO, and Scopus) searched with the key words "family caregivers", "severe mental illness", and "home" between 2003 and 2013. RESULTS: of 787 articles retrieved, only 85 met the inclusion criteria. The articles appeared in 61 journals from different areas and disciplines, mainly from nursing (36%). The countries producing the most scientific literature on nursing were Brazil, the UK, and the US, and authorship predominantly belonged to university centers. A total of 54.12% of the studies presented quantitative designs, with descriptive ones standing out. Work overload, subjective perspectives, and resources were the main topics of these papers. CONCLUSIONS: the international scientific literature on home-based, informal family care of people with severe mental disorder is limited. Nursing research stands out in this field. The prevalent topics coincide with the evolution of the mental health system. The expansion of the scientific approach to family care is promoted to create evidence-based guidelines for family caregivers and for the clinical practice of professional caregivers. .

OBJETIVO: analisar a produção científica sobre o cuidado familiar de pessoas com transtorno mental grave em casa. MÉTODO: revisão integrativa de 14 bases de dados (CINALH, Cochrane Plus, Cuidatge, CUIDEN, Eric, IBECS, EMI, ISOC, JBI Connect, LILACS, PsycInfo e PubMed, SciELO, e Scopus), com as palavras-chave "cuidadores familiares", "TMG" (transtornos mentais graves ) e "casa", realizada entre 2003 e 2013. RESULTADOS: dos 787 artigos retornados, somente 85 atenderam os critérios de inclusão. Os artigos vieram de 61 periódicos de diferentes áreas e disciplinas, principalmente de enfermagem (36%). Os países com maior produção científica sobre enfermagem foram o Brasil, o Reino Unido e os Estados Unidos, e a autoria era predominantemente de centros universitários. Um total de 54,12% dos estudos apresentou delineamento quantitativo, e os descritivos se destacaram. Os principais temas desses trabalhos foram sobrecarga de trabalho, perspectivas subjetivas e recursos. CONCLUSÕES: a produção cientifica internacional sobre o cuidado familiar informal de pessoas com doenças mentais graves em casa é limitada. A pesquisa em enfermagem se destaca nesse campo. Os temas prevalentes coincidem com a evolução do sistema de saúde mental. Estimula-se a expansão da abordagem científica do cuidado familiar de modo a encontrar evidências para criar guias para cuidadores familiares e para a prática clínica de cuidadores profissionais. .

OBJETIVO: analizar la producción científica sobre el cuidado familiar de la persona con trastorno mental grave en el hogar familiar. MÉTODO: revisión integradora en 14 bases de datos (CINALH, Cochrane Plus, Cuidatge, CUIDEN, Eric, IBECS, IME, ISOC, JBI ConNECT, LILACS, PsycInfo, PubMed, SciELO y Scopus), con las palabras clave "cuidadores familiares", "TMG" y "hogar"; realizada entre 2003 y 2013. RESULTADOS: de 787 artículos recuperados, sólo 85 cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Los artículos procedieron de 61 revistas de diferentes áreas y disciplinas destacando la disciplina de enfermería (36%). Los países con mayor producción científica sobre enfermería fueron Brasil, Reino Unido y EEUU. En la autoría predominaron los centros universitarios. El 54,12% de los estudios presentó diseño cuantitativo, sobresaliendo los descriptivos. Las temáticas destacadas fueron sobrecarga, perspectivas subjetivas y recursos. CONCLUSIONES: la producción científica internacional sobre el cuidado informal familiar de la persona con trastorno mental grave, en el contexto del hogar familiar, es limitada. En este campo, destaca la investigación de enfermería. Las temáticas prevalentes coinciden con la evolución del sistema de salud mental. Se estimula la ampliación del abordaje científico del cuidado familiar con el fin de encontrar evidencias para la elaboración de guías de cuidadores familiares y para la práctica clínica de cuidadores profesionales. .

Humans , Female , Adipogenesis , Adipocytes/metabolism , Adult Stem Cells/physiology , Androgens/physiology , Dihydrotestosterone/pharmacology , Testosterone/physiology , Androgen Antagonists/pharmacology , Androgens/pharmacology , /metabolism , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta/genetics , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta/metabolism , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins/genetics , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Flutamide/pharmacology , Gene Expression , Lipid Metabolism , PPAR gamma/genetics , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Testosterone/pharmacology
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(2): 122-127, Mar. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745580


Background The objective of this study was to investigate proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) mRNA and protein expression in fat tails of Tan sheep. Rams from different developmental stages (aged 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months) were selected, and their tail measurements including length (L), width (W) and girth (G) were recorded. The mRNA and protein expressions of PPARγ, FAS and HSL were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot. Results The tail measurements increased with age. We observed no significant differences (P > 0.05) of PPARγ mRNA expression between ages 9 and 15 months, and between 12 and 15 months; FAS mRNA expression levels at each developmental stage were observed significantly in Tan sheep (P < 0.05); HSL mRNA expression with no significant differences were only observed between 6 and 15 months (P > 0.05). Significant differences (P < 0.05) of PPARγ, FAS and HSL protein expressions at each developmental stage were observed in Tan sheep. Conclusion We observed that the mRNA expression patterns of PPARγ and FAS decreased first before they increased again and then this process repeated. Conversely, the mRNA expression patterns of HSL increased first before they decreased and then this process repeated. The protein expression patterns of PPARγ and FAS decreased first before they increased again and then this process repeated. Conversely, the protein expression pattern of HSL increased first before it decreased again and then increased again.

Animals , Sheep/growth & development , Sheep/genetics , Proteins/metabolism , Sterol Esterase/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Fatty Acid Synthases/metabolism , Transcription Factors , RNA, Messenger , Blotting, Western , Sterol Esterase/genetics , PPAR gamma/genetics , Fatty Acid Synthases/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Braz. dent. j ; 25(3): 179-185, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722153


Immunoexpression of PPAR-γ and osteocalcin proteins was evaluated for bone repair of critical-size defects (CSDs), created in rat calvaria (n=42) and treated with fragmented abdominal autogenous adipose tissue graft. Three groups (n=14) were formed: C (control - blood clot), AB (autogenous bone) and AT (fragmented adipose tissue). The groups were divided into subgroups (n=7) for euthanasia at 30 and 90 days. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics (mode). A complete bone closure was observed in Group AB 90 days after surgery. In Group C, repair was achieved by the formation of collagen fiber bundles oriented parallel to the wound surface at both post-surgery periods. In Group AT the type of healing was characterized by dense connective tissue containing collagen fiber bundles arranged amidst the remaining adipose tissue, with rare heterotopic bone formation associated with fibrosis and different types of tissue necrosis. Immunostaining of PPAR-γ was not observed in any specimen from Groups C and AB. In Group AT, the immunostaining of PPAR-γ was more evident 30 days after surgery. Immunostaining of osteocalcin was present in all groups and at both postoperative periods. The fragmented autogenous abdominal adipose tissue graft did not favor the repair of critical-size bone defects created surgically in rat calvaria as evidenced by the positive immunostaining of PPAR-γ protein and the negative immunostaining of osteocalcin in the osteoblast-like cells and bone matrix.

A imunoexpressão das proteínas PPAR-γ e osteocalcina foi avaliada para o reparo ósseo de defeitos de tamanho crítico (DTC) criados em calvária de ratos (n = 42) e tratados com enxerto de tecido adiposo autógeno abdominal macerado. Foram formados três grupos (n=14): C (controlo - coágulo de sangue), AB (osso autógeno) e AT (tecido adiposo fragmentado). Estes grupos foram divididos em subgrupos (n = 7) para a eutanásia em 30 e 90 dias. Foram realizadas análises histológicas e imuno-histoquímico. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva (moda). Um fechamento ósseo completo foi observada no grupo AB 90 dias após a cirurgia. No grupo C a reparação foi alcançada através da formação de feixes de fibras de colágeno orientadas paralelamente à superfície da ferida nos dois períodos pós-operatórios. No Grupo AT, o tipo de cicatrização predominante foi caracterizada pela presença de tecido conjuntivo denso contendo feixes de colágeno de fibras dispostas em meio ao tecido adiposo restante, com raras formações ósseas heterotópicas associada à fibrose e diferentes tipos de necrose tecidual. A imunomarcação do PPAR- γ não foi observada em nenhum espécime dos grupos C e AB. No grupo AT a imunomarcação do PPAR-γ foi mais evidente aos 30 dias de pós-operátorio. A imunomarcação da osteocalcina estava presente em todos os grupos e nos dois períodos de pós-operatório O enxerto autógeno abdominal fragmentado tecido adiposo não favoreceu a reparação de defeitos ósseos de tamanho crítico criados cirurgicamente em calvária de ratos como evidenciado pela imunomarcação positiva da proteína PPAR-γ e a imunomarcação negativa de osteocalcina nos osteoblastos e matriz óssea.

Animals , Male , Rats , Abdominal Fat/transplantation , Bone and Bones/abnormalities , Osteocalcin/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Rats, Wistar
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Feb; 51(2): 129-138
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147576


This study investigates if glycyrrhizin, a constituent of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root, is able to treat the complications (insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress) of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was induced in rats by feeding a fructose-enriched (60%) diet for six weeks, after which single dose of glycyrrhizin (50 mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally. Different biochemical parameters from blood were estimated during three weeks after treatment. Then the rats were sacrificed to collect skeletal muscle tissue. Glycyrrhizin reduced the enhanced levels of blood glucose, insulin and lipids in metabolic syndrome group. Increased advanced glycation end products of hemoglobin, glycohemoglobin, hemoglobin-mediated iron release and iron-mediated free radical reactions (arachidonic acid and deoxyribose degradation) in metabolic syndrome were inhibited by glycyrrhizin treatment. Reduced activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and elevated oxidative stress markers (malonaldehyde, fructosamine, hemoglobin carbonyl content and DNA damage) in metabolic syndrome were reversed to almost normal levels by glycyrrhizin. The decreased levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) proteins in skeletal muscle of metabolic syndrome group were elevated by glycyrrhizin, indicating improved fatty acid oxidation and glucose homeostasis.

Animals , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Weight/drug effects , DNA Damage , Diet , Disease Models, Animal , Dyslipidemias/blood , Dyslipidemias/complications , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Fructose/adverse effects , Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Insulin/blood , Insulin Resistance , Lipids/blood , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/chemically induced , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy , Muscles/drug effects , Muscles/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Tissue Extracts
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(10): 1055-1060, out. 2012. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-654400


No ciclo estral de cadelas a fase luteínica, denominada diestro, compreende um período que varia de 60 a 100 dias em animais não-prenhes, caracterizado pela elevação plasmática de progesterona nos primeiros 20 dias pós ovulação (p.o). A adiponectina é a mais abundante proteína secretada pelo tecido adiposo, porém sua concentração plasmática diminui significativamente em alterações metabólicas como resistência insulínica e Diabetes mellitus tipo2, alterações descritas como relacionadas em algumas cadelas com o período de diestro. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar a expressão e imunolocalização do sistema adiponectina (adiponectina e seus receptores, adipoR1 e adipoR2) no corpo lúteo de cadelas ao longo do diestro, correlacionando-o ao perfil hormonal de 17β-estradiol e progesterona, assim como à expressão de um dos genes alvo do sistema, o PPAR-γ. Para realização do estudo foram coletados corpos lúteos de 28 cadelas durante ovariosalpingohisterectomia de eleição nos dias 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 pós ovulação (o dia zero da ovulação foi considerado aquele no qual a concentração plasmática de progesterona atingiu 5ng/mL). Os corpos lúteos foram avaliados por imunohistoquímica para adiponectina e seus receptores e a expressão do RNAm do PPAR-γ por PCR em tempo real. A análise estatística da avaliação gênica foi realizada com o teste ANOVA, seguido por comparação múltipla Newman-Keuls. O sinal da adiponectina apresentou-se mais intenso até os primeiros 20 dias p.o, momento de regência da progesterona; houve queda gradativa após este período, coincidindo com a ascensão do 17β-estradiol, cujo pico foi notado próximo do dia 40 p.o. A queda marcante da adiponectina ocorreu após 50 dias p.o. O sinal do adipoR1 mostrou-se bem evidente até os 40 dias p.o e o do adipoR2 até os 50 dias p. o, decaindo posteriormente. Foi observada maior expressão do gene PPAR-γ aos 10, 30 e 70 dias p.o. Estes resultados mostram que a expressão protéica da adiponectina e de seus receptores se altera ao longo do diestro e que estas alterações podem estar relacionados às alterações hormonais e expressão do PPAR- γ, participando do mecanismo fisiológico de desenvolvimento, manutenção, atividade e regressão luteínica em cadelas.

In the estrous cycle of bitches, the luteal phase or diestrus includes a period ranging from 60 to 100 days in non-pregnant animals, characterized by elevated serum progesterone during the first 20 days post-ovulation (p.o). Adiponectin is the most abundant protein secreted by adipose tissue, but plasma concentration decreases significantly in metabolic disorders like insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus type 2, described as related changes in some bitches in diestrus. The aim of this study was to determine the expression and immunolocalization of the adiponectin system (adiponectin, and adipoR1 adipoR2) in the corpus luteum during diestrus, and correlate it to hormonal profile of 17β-estradiol and progesterone, as well as the expression of a gene target of the system, the PPAR-γ. For the study, corpora lutea were collected from 28 dogs during ovariosalpingohysterectomy on days 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 post ovulation (day zero of ovulation was considered the day when the plasma progesterone concentration reached 5ng/mL). The corpora lutea were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for adiponectin, adipoR1 and adipoR2 and mRNA expression of PPAR-γ by real-time PCR. Statistical analysis of gene expression was performed with ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons. Adiponectin positive signal was stronger during the first 20 days p.o, time of the regency of progesterone; there was a gradual adiponectin and progesterone decline after this period, coinciding with the rise of 17β-estradiol, whose peak was near the 40 days p.o. The markedly adiponectin decrease occurred after 50 days p.o. The signal of adipoR1 was markedly evident at 40 days p.o and that of adipoR2 up to 50 days p.o, declining afterwards. We observed higher expression of PPAR-γ gene at 10, 30 and 70 days p.o. These results show that adiponectin and its receptors protein expression is altered during the diestrus and that these changes may be related to hormonal changes and expression of PPAR-γ, participating in the physiological mechanism of development, maintenance, activity and luteal regression in bitches.

Animals , Female , Dogs , Adiponectin/biosynthesis , Diestrus/metabolism , Corpus Luteum Hormones/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Adipose Tissue, White/metabolism , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Receptors, Adiponectin
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2012 Feb; 49(1): 18-24
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140214


Diabetes is associated with increased formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which have been implicated in micro and macrovascular complications of diabetes. Our earlier reports showed proangiogenic effect of AGE-bovine serum albumin (BSA). In order to understand the mechanism of AGE-mediated angiogenesis, the possibility of involvement of peroxisome prolifeator activated receptor (PPAR) , a ligand activated transcription factor was examined. The angiogenic effect was studied in chick chorio allantoic membrane (CAM) and by analyzing angiogenic markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in culture. The involvement of PPAR was investigated using synthetic PPAR agonist GW 1929 and antagonist GW 9662 and by RT-PCR. In CAM assay, PPAR antagonist GW 9662 reversed the AGE-induced effect on vascularity. In HUVECs in culture, GW 9662 reversed the effect of AGE-BSA and decreased the expression of CD 31, E-Selectin and VEGF. RT-PCR analysis showed that treatment with AGE-BSA caused upregulation of PPAR mRNA levels. The reversal of the effect of AGE on angiogenesis by treatment with PPAR antagonists and up-regulation of PPAR gene in HUVECs treated with AGE-BSA suggested the possible involvement of PPAR -dependent downstream pathway in mediating the angiogenic effect of AGE.

Angiogenesis Inducing Agents/metabolism , Anilides/pharmacology , Animals , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/drug effects , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Benzophenones/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Chick Embryo , Chorioallantoic Membrane/drug effects , Chorioallantoic Membrane/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , E-Selectin/metabolism , Glycation End Products, Advanced/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , PPAR gamma/antagonists & inhibitors , PPAR gamma/antagonists & inhibitors , PPAR gamma/drug effects , PPAR gamma/metabolism , RNA/drug effects , RNA/metabolism , Tyrosine/analogs & derivatives , Tyrosine/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136330


Background & objectives: Curcuma longa (turmeric) has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for inflammatory conditions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the preventive effects of curcumin against acute pancreatitis (AP) induced by caerulein in mouse and to elucidate possible mechanism of curcumin action. Methods: Curcumin (50 mg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally injected to Kun Ming male mice for 6 days, followed by injection of caerulein to induce AP. GW9662 (0.3 mg/kg), a specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) antagonist, was intravenously injected along with curcumin. Murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated with 100 μmol/l curcumin for 2 h, and then stimulated with 0.1 μ g/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Serum amylase and transaminase levels were measured at 10 h after AP. TNF-α level in mouse serum and cell culture medium were detected by ELISA. Expression of PPARγ and NF-κB were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot. Results: Curcumin significantly decreased the pancreas injury and reversed the elevation of serum amylase, ALT and AST activities and TNF-α level in mice with AP. Curcumin treatment inhibited the elevation of NF-κB-p65 in the nucleus of mouse pancreas AP group and RAW264.7 cells, but significantly increased the expression of PPARγ. GW9662 could abolish the effects of curcumin on serum levels of amylase, ALT, AST, TNF-α, and NF-κB level. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results suggest that curcumin could attenuate pancreas tissue and other organ injury by inhibiting the release of inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. These effects may involve upregulation of PPARγ and subsequent downregulation of NF-κB.

Alanine Transaminase/genetics , Alanine Transaminase/immunology , Amylases/blood , Anilides/pharmacology , Animals , Ceruletide/chemistry , Ceruletide/pharmacology , Cell Nucleus , Curcuma/immunology , Curcumin/administration & dosage , Curcumin/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages , Male , Mice , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , PPAR gamma/antagonists & inhibitors , PPAR gamma/genetics , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Pancreatitis/chemically induced , Pancreatitis/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Transaminases/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135684


Background & objectives Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women; dietary fat is the one of the factors that influences its incidence. In the present study we investigated the effect of feeding cow ghee versus soybean oil on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary cancer in rat and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor- γ (PPAR-γ) in mammary gland. Methods Two groups of 21 day old female rats (30 each) were fed for 44 wk diet containing cow ghee or soybean oil (10%). The animals were given DMBA (30mg/kg body weight) through oral intubation after 5 wk feeding. Another two groups (8 each) fed similarly but not given DMBA served as control for the gene expression study. Results In DMBA treated groups, the animal fed soybean oil had higher tumour incidence (65.4%), tumour weight (6.18 g) and tumour volume (6285 mm3) compared to those fed cow ghee (26.6%, 1.67 g, 1925 mm3, respectively). Tumour latency period was 23 wk on soybean oil compared to 27 wk on cow ghee. Histological analysis of tumours showed that the progression of carcinogenesis was more rapid on soybean oil than on cow ghee. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was observed only in DMBA treated rats and it was significantly less on cow ghee than on soybean oil. The expression of PPAR-γ was significantly more on cow ghee than on soybean oil. Interpretation & conclusions Our results show that dietary cow ghee opposed to soybean oil attenuates mammary carcinogenesis induced by DMBA; and the effect is mediated by decreased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and increased expression of PPAR-γ in the former group.

Analysis of Variance , Animals , Benz(a)Anthracenes/administration & dosage , Benz(a)Anthracenes/toxicity , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , DNA Primers/genetics , Dietary Fats/pharmacology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/chemically induced , Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Rats , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Soybean Oil/pharmacology
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2011 Apr; 48(2): 73-81
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135303


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. PPAR-alpha is involved in wound healing, stimulation of lipid and folic acid catabolism, inflammation control, inhibition of ureagenesis and peroxisome proliferation. The PPAR/ is involved wound healing, cell proliferation, embryo implantation, adipocyte differentiation, myelination alteration and apoptosis. The PPAR is involved in fat, lipid and calorie utilization, sugar control, inflammation control and macrophage (MQ) matutation. Homocysteine (Hcy) binds to nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor. Increase in PPAR expression decreases the level of nitrotyrosine and increases endothelial nitric oxide concentration, decreases metalloproteinase activity and expression as well as elastinolysis and reverses Hcy-mediated vascular dysfunction. The PPAR initially recognized as a regulator of adipocyte development has become a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diverse disorders. In addition, the activation of PPAR receptor ameliorates neurodegenerative disease. This review focuses on the recent knowledge of PPAR in neuroprotection and deals with the mechanism of neuroprotection of central nervous system disorder by PPAR.

Animals , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Cell Death , Central Nervous System/cytology , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Central Nervous System/pathology , Cytoprotection , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/therapy , Neurons/cytology , Neurons/pathology , Neuroprotective Agents/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104283


Obesity is a leading risk factor for insulin resistance, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular complications, collectively referred to as metabolic diseases. Given the prevalence of obesity and its associated medical problems, new strategies are required to prevent or treat obesity and obesity-related metabolic effects. Here we summarize contributors of obesity, and molecular mechanisms controlling adipogenesis from studies in mammalian systems. We also discuss the possibilities of using Drosophila as a genetic model system to advance our understanding of players in fat biology.

Animals , Drosophila/physiology , Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Obesity/complications , PPAR gamma/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195122


Cisplatin, a major anti-neoplastic drug, is known to be nephrotoxic and inflammation-inducing. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, regulating lipid metabolism, has known to have anti-inflammatory effect, but the protection mechanisms in various kidney injuries are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the reno-protective effect of rosiglitazone on cisplatin nephrotoxicity in mice focusing on inflammation and apoptosis. Male BALB/c mice were pretreated with rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg) or vehicle through daily intraperitoneal injection for 3 days and then were given a single injection of cisplatin (20 mg/kg). Cisplatin induced a significant rise in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, and tubular cell damage with marked tissue inflammation. Tissue cytokines and chemokines measured by a cytometric bead array showed increased TNF-alpha, IL-6, MCP-1, and IFN-gamma levels, while IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was significantly decreased by cisplatin treatment. However, rosiglitazone pretreatment substantially reversed the depressed IL-10 level with simultaneous suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This tissue cytokine and chemokine milieu was associated with marked attenuation of kidney injury elicited by cisplatin. These findings suggest that the rosiglitazone-mediated renoprotective effect in cisplatin nephrotoxicity of mice is partially mediated by upregulation of anti-inflammatory IL-10 production.

Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Animals , Apoptosis/physiology , Caspases/metabolism , Chemokines/metabolism , Cisplatin/toxicity , Cytokines/metabolism , Enzyme Activation , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2010. 138 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-601469


Este trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar o efeito de medicamentos com diferentes ações agonista PPAR (rosiglitazona, fenofibrato e bezafibrato) sobre o perfil lipídico, glicídico e alterações na massa corporal e morfologia do tecido adiposo e pancreático em modelo de diabetes e sobrepeso induzido por dieta. Camundongos C57BL/6 (2 meses de idade) foram alimentados com dieta padrão (SC, n=10) ou dieta hiperlipídica rica em sacarose (HFHS, n=40) por 6 semanas. Logo após, os animais HFHS foram subdividos em: HFHS não tratado e HFHS tratado com rosiglitazona (HFHS-Ro), fenofibrato (HFHS-Fe) ou bezafibrato (HFHS-BZ) (5 semanas). Os camundongos alimentados com dieta HFHS apresentaram maior glicemia e insulina de jejum (+33% e +138%, respectivamente), intolerância à glicose, resistência à insulina, aumento da massa corporal (MC) (+20%) e adiposidade, hipertrofia de adipócitos e redução da imunocoloração para adiponectina no tecido adiposo. No pâncreas houve aumento da massa (+28%), acúmulo de gordura (+700%), hipertrofia da ilhota (+38%) e redução da imunocoloração para GLUT-2 (-60%). A rosiglitazona diminuiu a glicemia e insulina de jejum, porém induziu o ganho de MC e hipertrofia cardíaca. O fenofibrato estabilizou a MC, enquanto o bezafibrato levou a perda de MC. Apenas o bezafibrato impediu a hipertrofia da ilhota. A imunocoloração para GLUT-2 foi aumentada por todos os medicamentos, e não houve alterações na imunocoloração para o PPARalfa. Sinais morfológicos de pancreatite foram vistos no grupo HFHS-Fe, apesar dos níveis normais de amilase e lipase séricos. A rosiglitazona exacerbou a infiltração intrapancreática de gordura (+75% vs. HFHS), e o bezafibrato aumentou a imunocoloração para o PPARbeta/delta nas ilhotas pancreáticas. Em conclusão, o bezafibrato apresentou um efeito mais amplo sobre as alterações metabólicas, morfológicas e biométricas decorrentes da dieta HFHS, sugerindo que a inibição das três isoformas do PPAR seria melhor do que a inibição...

This work aimed to evaluate the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists (rosiglitazone, fenofibrate and bezafibrate) on lipid and glucose metabolism, body mass, and adipose and pancreatic tissue morphology in a model of diet-induced type 2 diabetes and overweight in mice. Two-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a standard chow (SC, n=10) or a high-fat high-sucrose chow (HFHS, n=40) for 6 weeks, and then HFHS-fed mice were subdivided by treatment: untreated HFHS and HFHS treated with rosiglitazone (HFHS-Ro), fenofibrate (HFHS-Fe), or bezafibrate (HFHS-Bz) (5 weeks on medication). HFHS-fed mice have altered fasting glucose (+33%) and insulin (+138%), GI, IR, increased body mass (+20%) and fat pad weight, adipocyte hypertrophy, and decreased adiponectin immunostain. They also presented increased pancreatic (+28%) mass, intrapancreatic fat (+700%), islet hypertrophy (+38%), and decreased GLUT-2 immunostain (-60%). Rosiglitazone reduced fasting glucose and insulin but induced weight gain and heart hypertrophy. Fenofibrate impaired body mass gain, while bezafibrate induced weight loss. Only bezafibrate impaired islet hypertrophy. GLUT-2 immunostain was improved by all treatments, and there were no alterations in PPAR-alfa stain. There were morphological signs of pancreatitis in fenofibrate-treated mice, although there was no alteration in serum amylase and lipase. Rosiglitazone exacerbated pancreatic fat infiltration (+75% vs. HFHS group), and bezafibrate increased PPAR-beta expression in pancreatic islets. In conclusion, bezafibrate showed a wider range of action on metabolic, morphologic, and biometric alterations due to HFHS intake, suggesting that inhibiting the three PPAR isoforms is better than inhititing each isoform alone. Rosiglitazone exacerbated body mass gain, pancreatic fat infiltration and induced heart hyperthophy as well, thus, precaution has to be taken in prescribing rosiglitazone to obese patients.

Animals , Mice , Adiponectin , Bezafibrate/agonists , Dietary Fats , Fenofibrate/agonists , Lipid Metabolism , PPAR alpha/metabolism , PPAR-beta/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Sucrose , Thiazolidinediones/agonists , /chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Models, Animal , Pancreas/metabolism
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(supl.1): 1-7, July 2009. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-520882


Trypanosoma cruzi infection of the adipose tissue of mice triggers the local expression of inflammatory mediators and a reduction in the expression of the adipokine adiponectin. T. cruzi can be detected in adipose tissue by PCR 300 days post-infection. Infection of cultured adipocytes results in increased expression of cytokines and chemokines and a reduction in the expression of adiponectin and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ³, both of which are negative regulators of inflammation. Infection also results in the upregulation of cyclin D1, the Notch pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and a reduction in the expression of caveolin-1. Thus, T. cruzi infection of cultured adipocytes leads to an upregulation of the inflammatory process. Since adiponectin null mice have a cardiomyopathic phenotype, it is possible that the reduction in adiponectin contributes to the pathogenesis of chagasic cardiomyopathy. Adipose tissue may serve as a reservoir for T. cruzi from which parasites can become reactivated during periods of immunosuppression. T. cruzi infection of mice often results in hypoglycemia. In contrast, hyperglycemia as observed in diabetes results in increased parasitemia and mortality. Adipose tissue is an important target tissue of T. cruzi and the infection of this tissue is associated with a profound impact on systemic metabolism, increasing the risk of metabolic syndrome.

Animals , Adipocytes/parasitology , Adipose Tissue/parasitology , Chagas Disease/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/parasitology , Adiponectin/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151427


This study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of diglyceride (DG)-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing 22% CLA as fatty acids in C57BL/6J ob/ob male mice. There were four experimental groups including vehicle control, DG, CLA, and DG-CLA. The test solutions of 750 mg/kg dose were orally administered to the mice everyday for 5 weeks. CLA treatments significantly decreased mean body weight in the obese mice throughout the experimental period compared to the control (p < 0.01). All test solutions significantly decreased the levels of triglyceride, glucose and free fatty acids in the serum compared with control (p < 0.05). The levels of total cholesterol were also significantly reduced in DG and DG-CLA groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05). CLA significantly decreased weights of renal and epididymal fats compared with the control (p < 0.05). DG and DG-CLA also significantly decreased the epididymal fat weights compared with the control (p < 0.05). A remarkable decrease in the number of lipid droplets and fat globules was observed in the livers of mice treated with DG, CLA, and DG-CLA compared to control. Treatments of DG and CLA actually increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. These results suggest that DG-CLA containing 22% CLA have a respectable anti-obesity effect by controlling serum lipids and fat metabolism.

Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology , Blood Chemical Analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , Diglycerides/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Eating/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Linoleic Acids, Conjugated/pharmacology , Lipids/blood , Liver/drug effects , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Obesity/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Time Factors
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176593


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma (PPAR-gamma) is critical for phenotype determination at early differentiation stages of mesenchymal cells, whereas its physiological role is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of 15-deoxy-delta 12,14-prostaglandinJ2 (15d-PGJ2), the natural receptor ligand for PPAR-gamma, on dedifferentiation and inflammatory responses, such as COX-2 expression and PGE2 production, in articular chondrocytes. Our data indicate that the 15d-PGJ2 caused a loss of differentiated chondrocyte phenotype as demonstrated by inhibition of type II collagen and proteoglycan synthesis. 15d-PGJ2 also induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. The 15d-PGJ2-induced dedifferentiation effect seems to be dependent on PPAR-gamma activation, as the PPRE luciferase activity increased and PPAR-gamma antagonist, BADGE, abolished type II collagen expression. However, BADGE did not block 15d-PGJ2-induced COX-2 expression. Collectively, our findings suggest that PPAR-gamma-dependent and -independent mechanisms of 15d-PGJ2-induced dedifferentiation and inflammatory responses in articular chondrocytes, respectively. Additionally, these data suggest that targeted modulation of the PPAR-gamma pathway may offer a novel approach for therapeutic inhibition of joint tissue degradation.

Animals , Arteries/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Dinoprostone/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Genes, Reporter , Immunoblotting , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Prostaglandin D2/analogs & derivatives , Rabbits , Time Factors , Transfection
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15081


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorgamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear transcription factor, plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression associated with inflammation and cancer. PPARgamma is expressed in human gastric cancer as well as in colon cancer. Activation of PPARgamma by ligand produces pro-apoptotic effect and ameliorate growing of cancer cells. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a main etiologic agent for gastric inflammation, and raises cell turnover in gastric epithelium. Longstanding infection with this organism is related with the development of non-cardiac gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of H. pylori on the expression of PPARgamma protein and mRNA in chronic gastritis. METHODS: Gastric biopsy samples were taken from H. pylori infected (n=18) and non-infected (n=21) patients during endoscopic examination. PPARgamma expressions were assessed by real time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: PPARgamma was localized to the nuclei of the foveolar epithelial cells in both infected and non-infected mucosa. PPARgamma protein expression was higher in H. pylori infected patients than in non-infected patients (3.8+/-0.4 vs. 2.6+/-1.0, H. pylori infected and non-infected, respectively; p<0.05). However, PPARgamma mRNA levels were not significantly different between the two groups (24+/-18 vs. 29+/-25, H. pylori infected and noninfected, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: PPARgamma expression is increased in the gastric mucosa of H. pylori infected chronic gastritis, which suggests a certain role of PPARgamma in the mucosal inflammatory reaction to H. pylori infection.

Adult , Colonic Neoplasms/metabolism , Computer Systems , Female , Gastric Mucosa/metabolism , Gastritis/metabolism , Helicobacter Infections/metabolism , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism