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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(5): 908-916, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248912

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Nas últimas décadas, o número de dispositivos eletrônicos cardíacos implantáveis (DCEI) aumentou consideravelmente, assim como a necessidade de remoção destes. Neste contexto, a remoção percutânea apresenta-se como uma técnica segura e capaz de evitar uma cirurgia cardíaca convencional. Objetivos: Primário: descrever a taxa de sucesso e complicações da remoção percutânea de DCEI em um hospital público brasileiro. Secundário: estabelecer preditores de sucesso e complicações. Métodos: Serie de casos retrospectiva de todos os pacientes submetidos à remoção de DCEI em um hospital público brasileiro no período de janeiro de 2013 a junho de 2018. Remoção, explante e extração de eletrodos, complicações e desfechos foram definidos conforme a diretriz norte-americana de 2017. Variáveis categóricas foram comparadas pelos testes Qui-quadrado ou Fisher, enquanto variáveis contínuas, por testes não pareados. O nível de significância adotado nas análises estatísticas foi de 5%. Resultados: 61 pacientes foram submetidos à remoção de DCEI, sendo 51 extrações e 10 explantes. No total, 128 eletrodos foram removidos. Taxa de sucesso clínico foi 100% no grupo do explante e 90,2% no da extração (p=0,58). Complicações maiores foram encontradas em 6,6% dos pacientes. Falha do procedimento foi associada a eletrodos de ventrículo (p=0,05) e átrio (p=0,04) direito implantados há mais tempo. Duração do procedimento (p=0,003) e necessidade de transfusão sanguínea (p<0,001) foram associadas a maior índice de complicação. Conclusão: As taxas de complicação e sucesso clínico observadas foram de 11,5% e 91,8%, respectivamente. Remoções de eletrodos atriais e ventriculares mais antigos estiveram associados a menores taxa de sucesso. Procedimentos mais longos e necessidade de transfusão sanguínea foram associados a complicações.


Abstract Background: In the last decade, the number of cardiac electronic devices has risen considerably and consequently the occasional need for their removal. Concurrently, the transvenous lead removal became a safe procedure that could prevent open-heart surgery. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to describe the successful performance and the complication rates of pacemaker removals in a Brazilian public hospital. Our secondary aim was to describe the variables associated to successes and complications. Methods: A retrospective case series was conducted in patients submitted to pacemaker removal in a Brazilian public hospital from January 2013 to June 2018. Removal, explant, extraction, success and complication rates were defined by the 2017 Heart Rhythm Society Guideline. Categorical variables were compared using x2 or Fisher's tests, while continuous variables were compared by unpaired tests. A p-value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Cardiac device removals were performed in 61 patients, of which 51 were submitted to lead extractions and 10 to lead explants. In total, 128 leads were removed. Our clinical success rate was 100% in the explant group and 90.2% in the extraction one (p=0.58). Major complications were observed in 6.6% patients. Procedure failure was associated to older right ventricle (p=0.05) and atrial leads (p=0,04). Procedure duration (p=0.003) and need for blood transfusion (p<0,001) were associated to more complications. Conclusion: Complications and clinical success were observed in 11.5% and 91.8% of the population, respectively. Removal of older atrial and ventricular leads were associated with lower success rates. Longer procedures and blood transfusions were associated with complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Defibrillators, Implantable , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Device Removal
2.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(3): 412-415, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288231

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dual-chamber pacemaker is a fully automatic pacemaker with the function of simulating human physiological pacing. It regulates pacing by programming different refractory periods and various special functions, which are closely related to arrhythmia. After in-depth understanding of these special functions, regular electrocardiogram follow-up analysis is required to provide individualized optimal program control and so is appropriate the administration of the pacemaker's special functions to better provide optimal clinical guidance for patients with arrhythmia.


Subject(s)
Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Electrocardiography , Logic
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(6): 1114-1124, dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152928

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Remoção de cabos-eletrodos de dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis (DCEI) é procedimento pouco frequente e sua realização exige longo treinamento profissional e infraestrutura adequada. Objetivos Avaliar a efetividade e a segurança da remoção de cabos-eletrodos de DCEI e determinar fatores de risco para complicações cirúrgicas e mortalidade em 30 dias. Métodos Estudo prospectivo com dados derivados da prática clínica. De janeiro/2014 a abril/2020, foram incluídos, consecutivamente, 365 pacientes submetidos à remoção de cabos-eletrodos, independentemente da indicação e técnica cirúrgica utilizada. Os desfechos primários foram: taxa de sucesso do procedimento, taxa combinada de complicações maiores e morte intraoperatória. Os desfechos secundários foram: fatores de risco para complicações intraoperatórias maiores e morte em 30 dias. Empregou-se análise univariada e multivariada, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados A taxa de sucesso do procedimento foi de 96,7%, sendo 90,1% de sucesso completo e 6,6% de sucesso clínico. Complicações maiores intraoperatórias ocorreram em 15 (4,1%) pacientes. Fatores preditores de complicações maiores foram: tempo de implante dos cabos-eletrodos ≥ 7 anos (OR= 3,78, p= 0,046) e mudança de estratégia cirúrgica (OR= 5,30, p= 0,023). Classe funcional III-IV (OR= 6,98, p<0,001), insuficiência renal (OR= 5,75, p=0,001), infecção no DCEI (OR= 13,30, p<0,001), número de procedimentos realizados (OR= 77,32, p<0,001) e complicações maiores intraoperatórias (OR= 38,84, p<0,001) foram fatores preditores para mortalidade em 30 dias. Conclusões Os resultados desse estudo, que é o maior registro prospectivo de remoção de cabos-eletrodos da América Latina, confirmam a segurança e a efetividade desse procedimento no cenário da prática clínica real. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1114-1124)


Abstract Background Transvenous lead extraction (TLE) of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) is an uncommon procedure and requires specialized personnel and adequate facilities. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the removal of CIED leads and to determine risk factors for surgical complications and mortality in 30 days. Methods Prospective study with data derived from clinical practice. From January 2014 to April 2020, we included 365 consecutive patients who underwent TLE, regardless of the indication and surgical technique used. The primary outcomes were: success rate of the procedure, combined rate of major complications and intraoperative death. Secondary outcomes were: risk factors for major intraoperative complications and death within 30 days. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used, with a significance level of 5%. Results Procedure success rate was 96.7%, with 90.1% of complete success and 6.6% of clinical success. Major intraoperative complications occurred in 15 (4.1%) patients. Predictors of major complications were: lead dwelling time ≥ 7 years (OR = 3.78, p = 0.046) and change in surgical strategy (OR = 5.30, p = 0.023). Functional class III-IV (OR = 6.98, p <0.001), renal failure (OR = 5.75, p = 0.001), CIED infection (OR = 13.30, p <0.001), number of procedures performed (OR = 77.32, p <0.001) and major intraoperative complications (OR = 38.84, p <0.001) were predictors of 30-day mortality. Conclusions The results of this study, which is the largest prospective registry of consecutive TLE procedures in Latin America, confirm the safety and effectiveness of this procedure in the context of real clinical practice. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1114-1124)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Defibrillators, Implantable/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Device Removal
4.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(4): 330-336, jul.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289234

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El aumento de los implantes de dispositivos de estimulación cardiaca en los últimos años, aunado a la longevidad y al perfil de morbilidad de los pacientes, ha hecho que la incidencia de infecciones asociadas a estos procedimientos aumente. Sin embargo, existe disparidad en Colombia y en el mundo respecto al esquema apropiado de profilaxis antibiótica. Objetivo: Evaluar la incidencia de infecciones postoperatorias con dos protocolos de antibiótico-profilaxia. Métodos: Ensayo clínico controlado aleatorizado en el que se incluyeron 360 pacientes que recibieron implante de dispositivos cardíacos y fueron aleatorizados en dos grupos para recibir una dosis de antibiótico (cefazolina 1 g) (240 pacientes) o tres dosis (120 pacientes). Se realizó seguimiento durante un año. El desenlace principal fue la incidencia de infecciones postoperatorias. Resultados: No se observó una diferencia significativa entre la incidencia de infección postoperatoria en los dos grupos (tres dosis vs. una dosis: OR crudo 0.92; IC95% 0.23 - 3.64; p 0.912), con una tasa de 2.9% (7/238) en el grupo de una dosis y de 2.7% (3/110) en el grupo de tres dosis. Tras el análisis multivariado se identificó a la enfermedad renal crónica como un predictor independiente para el desarrollo de complicaciones infecciosas (OR ajustado 4.71; IC95% 1,13 - 19,60). Conclusión: El uso de un protocolo de única dosis de antibiótico profiláctico una hora antes del implante de dispositivos de estimulación cardiaca parece no ser inferior al protocolo de tres dosis postoperatorias.


Abstract Introduction: The increase in implantable cardiac stimulation devices in the last few years, along with the longevity and morbidity characteristics of the patient, has led to an increase in infections associated with these procedures. However, there are differences in Colombia and in the rest of the world as regards a suitable antibiotic prophylaxis scheme. Objective: To evaluate the incidence of post-operative infections with two antibiotic prophylaxis protocols. Methods: A controlled, randomised clinical trial was performed, in which 360 patients that had received a cardiac device implant were randomised into two groups: one with 240 patients to receive one dose of antibiotic (1 g cephazolin), and another of 120 patients to receive 3 doses. The patients were followed-up for one year. The primary outcome was the incidence of post-operative infections. Results: No significant difference was observed in the incidence of post-operative infections between the two groups (three doses versus one dose: crude OR, 0.92; 95% CI; 0.23 - 3.64; P = .912), with a rate of 2.9% (7/238) in the one-dose group, and 2.7% (3/110) in the three-dose group. After the multivariate analysis, chronic kidney disease was identified as an independent predictor of developing infectious complications (adjusted OR = 4.71; 95% CI; 1.13 - 19.60). Conclusion: The use of a single-dose prophylaxis antibiotic protocol one hour before the implantation of cardiac stimulator devices does not appear to be inferior to the three-dose post-operative protocol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Defibrillators, Implantable/adverse effects , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Cefazolin , Anti-Bacterial Agents
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(1): 17-22, feb. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125033

ABSTRACT

La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es una enfermedad grave y potencialmente letal. La capacidad diagnóstica de los criterios de Duke modificados es alta para válvulas nativas, pero decae en el caso de EI de válvulas protésicas o EI asociadas a dispositivos. El ecocardiograma y los hallazgos microbiológicos son fundamentales para el diagnóstico, pero pueden resultar insuficientes en este grupo de pacientes. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la utilidad de la tomografía por emisión de positrones y fusión con tomografía computarizada (PET/TC) en pacientes con sospecha de EI, portadores de válvulas protésicas o dispositivos intracardiacos. Se estudiaron 32 pacientes, a los cuales se les realizó un PET/CT con 18F-Flúor desoxiglucosa (18F-FDG). Se consideraron sugestivos de infección aquellos con captación intensa de tipo focal y/o heterogénea con un punto de corte de Standard Uptake Value (SUV) mayor o igual a 3.7. Los diagnósticos iniciales según los criterios de Duke modificados, se compararon con el diagnóstico final establecido por la Unidad de Endocarditis institucional. El agregado del PET/CT a esos criterios, proporcionó un diagnóstico concluyente en 22 de los 32 casos iniciales, reclasificando a 11 casos en EI definitivas y a otros 5 casos como negativos para ese diagnóstico. La EI continúa siendo un grave problema clínico. En aquellos casos donde los criterios de Duke no son suficientes para establecer el diagnóstico y la sospecha clínica persiste, el PET/CT puede ser una herramienta complementaria útil para aumentar la sensibilidad diagnóstica.


Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious and potentially lethal condition. The diagnostic capacity of the modified Duke criteria is high for native valves, but it declines in the case of EI of prosthetic valves or EI associated with devices. Echocardiography and microbiological findings are essential for diagnosis but may be insufficient in this group of patients. Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of positron emission tomography and fusion with computed tomography (PET / CT) in patients with suspected IE, carriers of prosthetic valves or intracardiac devices; 32 patients were studied, who underwent PET / CT with 18F-Fluorine deoxyglucose (18F-FDG). Those with intense focal and/or heterogeneous uptake with a Standard Uptake Value (SUV) cut-off point greater than or equal to 3.7 were considered suggestive of infection. The initial diagnoses according to the modified Duke criteria were compared with the final diagnosis established by the Institutional Endocarditis Unit. The addition of PET / CT to these criteria, provided a conclusive diagnosis in 22 of the 32 initial cases reclassifying 11 cases in definitive EI; another 5 cases were negative for that diagnosis. EI continues to be a serious clinical problem. In those cases where the Duke criteria are not sufficient to establish the diagnosis and clinical suspicion persists, PET / CT can be a useful complementary tool to increase the diagnostic sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Defibrillators, Implantable/adverse effects , Endocarditis/microbiology , Endocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Pacemaker, Artificial/microbiology , Reference Values , Heart Valve Prosthesis/microbiology , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Prosthesis-Related Infections/diagnostic imaging , Defibrillators, Implantable/microbiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(4): 458-463, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020506

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Indications for cardiac devices have been increasing as well as the need for lead extractions as a result of infections, failed leads and device recalls. Powered laser sheaths, with a global trend towards the in-creasingly technological tools, meant to improve the procedure's outcome but have economic implications. Objective: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the experience of a Bra-zilian center that uses simple manual traction in most lead removals per-formed annually, questioning the real need for expensive and technically challenging new devices. Methods: This retrospective observational study included 35 patients who had a transvenous lead extraction in the period of a year between January 1998 and October 2014 at Hospital de Messejana Dr. Carlos Alberto Studart Gomes, in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. Data were collected through a records review. They were evaluated based on age, type of device, dwelling time, indication for removal, technique used and immediate outcomes. Results: The median dwelling time of the devices was 46.22 months. Infec-tion, lead fracture and device malfunction were the most common indica-tions. Simple traction was the method of choice, used in 88.9% of the pro-cedures. Manual traction presented high success rates, resulting in com-plete removal without complications in 90% of the cases. Conclusion: This article suggests that lead extraction by simple manual traction can still be performed effectively in countries with economic diffi-culties as a first attempt, leaving auxiliary tools for a second attempt in case of failure or contraindications to the simple manual traction technique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Pacemaker, Artificial/microbiology , Device Removal/instrumentation , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Catheters, Indwelling/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Defibrillators, Implantable , Device Removal/methods
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(4): 410-421, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001291

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Considering the potential deleterious effects of right ventricular (RV) pacing, the hypothesis of this study is that isolated left ventricular (LV) pacing through the coronary sinus is safe and may provide better clinical and echocardiographic benefits to patients with bradyarrhythmias and normal ventricular function requiring heart rate correction alone. Objective: To assess the safety, efficacy, and effects of LV pacing using an active-fixation coronary sinus lead in comparison with RV pacing, in patients eligible for conventional pacemaker (PM) implantation. Methods: Randomized, controlled, and single-blinded clinical trial in adult patients submitted to PM implantation due to bradyarrhythmias and systolic ventricular function ≥ 0.40. Randomization (RV vs. LV) occurred before PM implantation. The main results of the study were procedural success, safety, and efficacy. Secondary results were clinical and echocardiographic changes. Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test and Student's t-test were used, considering a significance level of 5%. Results: From June 2012 to January 2014, 91 patients were included, 36 in the RV Group and 55 in the LV Group. Baseline characteristics of patients in both groups were similar. PM implantation was performed successfully and without any complications in all patients in the RV group. Of the 55 patients initially allocated into the LV group, active-fixation coronary sinus lead implantation was not possible in 20 (36.4%) patients. The most frequent complication was phrenic nerve stimulation, detected in 9 (25.7%) patients in the LV group. During the follow-up period, there were no hospitalizations due to heart failure. Reductions of more than 10% in left ventricular ejection fraction were observed in 23.5% of patients in the RV group and 20.6% of those in the LV group (p = 0.767). Tissue Doppler analysis showed that 91.2% of subjects in the RV group and 68.8% of those in the LV group had interventricular dyssynchrony (p = 0.022). Conclusion: The procedural success rate of LV implant was low, and the safety of the procedure was influenced mainly by the high rate of phrenic nerve stimulation in the postoperative period.


Resumo Fundamento: Considerando-se os potenciais efeitos deletérios da estimulação do ventrículo direito (VD), a hipótese desse estudo é que a estimulação unifocal ventricular esquerda pelo seio coronário é segura e pode proporcionar melhores benefícios clínicos e ecocardiográficos aos pacientes com bradiarritmias que apresentam função ventricular normal, necessitando apenas da correção da frequência cardíaca. Objetivos: Avaliar a segurança, a eficácia e os efeitos da estimulação do ventrículo esquerdo (VE), utilizando um cabo-eletrodo com fixação ativa, em comparação à estimulação do VD. Métodos: Estudo clínico, randomizado, simples-cego em pacientes adultos com indicação de marca-passo (MP) devido a bradiarritmias e função ventricular sistólica ≥ 0,40. A randomização aleatória (VD vs VE) ocorreu antes do procedimento. Os desfechos primários do estudo foram: o sucesso, a segurança e a eficácia do procedimento proposto. Os desfechos secundários foram: a evolução clínica e alterações ecocardiográficas. Empregou-se os testes Qui-quadrado, Exato de Fisher e t de Student, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: De junho de 2012 a janeiro de 2014 foram incluídos 91 pacientes, sendo 36 no grupo VD e 55 no grupo VE. As características basais dos pacientes dos dois grupos foram similares. O implante de MP foi realizado com sucesso e sem nenhuma intercorrência em todos os pacientes do grupo VD. Dos 55 pacientes inicialmente alocados para o grupo VE, o implante do cabo-eletrodo em veias coronárias não foi possível em 20 (36,4%) pacientes. Dentre os 35 pacientes que permaneceram com o cabo-eletrodo no VE, a estimulação frênica foi a complicação mais frequente e foi detectada em 9 (25,7%) pacientes. Na fase de seguimento clínico, não houve hospitalizações por insuficiência cardíaca. Reduções superiores a 10% na fração de ejeção do VE foram observadas em 23,5% dos pacientes do grupo VD e em 20,6% dos pacientes do grupo VE (p = 0,767). A análise feita pelo Doppler tecidual mostrou que 91,2% dos indivíduos do grupo VD e 68,8% dos do grupo VE apresentaram dissincronia interventricular (p = 0,022). Conclusões: A taxa de sucesso do implante no VE foi baixa e a segurança do procedimento foi influenciada, principalmente, pela alta taxa de estimulação frênica no pós-operatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Bradycardia/therapy , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial/methods , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Stroke Volume , Bradycardia/physiopathology , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial/adverse effects , Single-Blind Method , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(5): 686-696, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973794

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Venous obstructions are common in patients with transvenous cardiac implantable electronic devices, but they rarely cause immediate clinical problems. The main consequence of these lesions is the difficulty in obtaining venous access for additional leads implantation. Objectives: We aimed to assess the prevalence and predictor factors of venous lesions in patients referred to lead reoperations, and to define the role of preoperative venography in the planning of these procedures. Methods: From April 2013 to July 2016, contrast venography was performed in 100 patients referred to device upgrade, revision and lead extraction. Venous lesions were classified as non-significant (< 50%), moderate stenosis (51-70%), severe stenosis (71-99%) or occlusion (100%). Collateral circulation was classified as absent, discrete, moderate or accentuated. The surgical strategy was defined according to the result of the preoperative venography. Univariate analysis was used to investigate predictor factors related to the occurrence of these lesions, with 5% of significance level. Results: Moderate venous stenosis was observed in 23%, severe in 13% and occlusions in 11%. There were no significant differences in relation to the device side or the venous segment. The usefulness of the preoperative venography to define the operative tactic was proven, and in 99% of the cases, the established surgical strategy could be performed according to plan. Conclusions: The prevalence of venous obstruction is high in CIED recipients referred to reoperations. Venography is highly indicated as a preoperative examination for allowing the adequate surgical planning of procedures involving previous transvenous leads.


Resumo Fundamento: Obstruções venosas são frequentes em portadores de dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis (DCEI) endocárdicos, mas raramente causam problemas clínicos imediatos. A principal consequência destas lesões é a dificuldade para obtenção de via de acesso para o implante de novos cabos-eletrodos. Objetivos: Determinar a prevalência de lesões venosas em candidatos a reoperações envolvendo o manuseio de cabos-eletrodos, e definir o papel da venografia pré-operatória no planejamento desses procedimentos. Métodos: De abril de 2013 a julho de 2016, 100 pacientes com indicação de troca de cabos-eletrodos, ou mudança no modo de estimulação, realizaram venografia com subtração digital no período pré-operatório. As lesões venosas foram classificadas em: não significativas (< 50%), moderadas (51-70%), graves (71-99%) ou oclusivas (100%), e a circulação colateral, em ausente, discreta, moderada ou acentuada. A estratégia cirúrgica foi definida a partir do resultado deste exame. Empregou-se análise univariada para a pesquisa de fatores de risco relacionados à ocorrência dessas lesões, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Obstruções venosas moderadas foram observadas em 23%, graves em 13% e oclusões em 11% dos pacientes estudados, não sendo identificadas diferenças significativas em sua distribuição em relação ao lado do implante, ou do segmento venoso. A utilidade do exame para definição da tática operatória foi comprovada, sendo que em 99% dos casos, a estratégia cirúrgica estabelecida pode ser executada. Conclusões: A prevalência de obstruções venosas é elevada em portadores de DCEI que serão submetidos a reoperações. A venografia é altamente indicada como exame pré-operatório para o adequado planejamento cirúrgico de procedimentos envolvendo cabos-eletrodos transvenosos previamente implantados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Reoperation/methods , Vascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Preoperative Care/methods , Phlebography/methods , Defibrillators, Implantable/adverse effects , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Reoperation/standards , Vascular Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Constriction, Pathologic/diagnostic imaging , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy/adverse effects
12.
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 31(3)jul.-set. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-967791

ABSTRACT

A cardiomiopatia induzida pelo marcapasso é uma cardiomiopatia que ocorre em pacientes expostos a estimulação ventricular direita, sendo definida pela piora da função sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo na ausência de outras etiologias possíveis, com ou sem evidência de insuficiência cardíaca. Sua incidência varia de 9% a 26%, dependendo da população estudada e do período de acompanhamento. Relata-se o caso de uma criança submetida a implante de marcapasso ventricular por bloqueio atrioventricular total, que evoluiu com disfunção ventricular grave e insuficiência cardíaca 14 meses após o implante. Após realização de terapia de ressincronização cardíaca, a criança evoluiu com melhora clínica e remodelamento reverso do ventrículo esquerdo


Pacing-induced cardiomyopathy is observed in patients exposed to right ventricular pacing and is defined as worsening of left ventricular systolic function in the absence of alternative causes, with or without clinical evidence of heart failure. Incidence ranges from 9% to 26%, depending on the study population and the length of follow-up. This is a case report of a child with univentricular pacemaker for total atrioventricular block that evolved into severe ventricular dysfunction and heart failure after implant. Cardiac resynchronization was performed and the child evolved with clinical improvement and reverse left ventricular remodeling


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Ventricular Function/physiology , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy/methods , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/therapy , Stroke Volume , Echocardiography/methods , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction , Drug Therapy/methods , Atrioventricular Block/diagnosis , Atrioventricular Block/therapy , Heart Ventricles
14.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(2): 136-139, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055005

ABSTRACT

Resumen La perforación miocárdica relacionada a electrodos de estimulación cardiaca es una complicación poco frecuente, pero desafortunada, ya que sus implicaciones clínicas son potencialmente letales. Nosotros describimos la evolución fluoroscópica de un caso de perforación subaguda del ventrículo derecho, así como el análisis en función de la revisión de la literatura. © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo la licencia CC BY-NC-ND (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).


Abstract Myocardial perforation related to cardiac electronic devices leads is a rare, but unfortunate complication, since its clinical implications are potentially lethal. The fluoroscopic outcome of case of subacute right ventricular perforation is presented, together with an analysis based on a literature review. © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Heart Injuries/etiology
15.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(2): 194-202, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958399

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: In the last two decades, the increased number of implants of cardiac implantable electronic devices has been accompanied by an increase in complications, especially infection. Current recommendations for the appropriate treatment of cardiac implantable electronic devices-related infections consist of prolonged antibiotic therapy associated with complete device extraction. The purpose of this study was to analyze the importance of percutaneous extraction in the treatment of these devices infections. Methods: A systematic review search was performed in the PubMed, BVS, Cochrane CENTRAL, CAPES, SciELO and ScienceDirect databases. A total of 1,717 studies were identified and subsequently selected according to the eligibility criteria defined by relevance tests by two authors working independently. Results: Sixteen studies, describing a total of 3,354 patients, were selected. Percutaneous extraction was performed in 3,081 patients. The average success rate for the complete percutaneous removal of infected devices was 92.4%. Regarding the procedure, the incidence of major complications was 2.9%, and the incidence of minor complications was 8.4%. The average in-hospital mortality of the patients was 5.4%, and the mortality related to the procedure ranged from 0.4 to 3.6%. The mean mortality was 20% after 6 months and 14% after a one-year follow-up. Conclusion: Percutaneous extraction is the main technique for the removal of infected cardiac implantable electronic devices, and it presents low rates of complications and mortality related to the procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Prosthesis-Related Infections/surgery , Defibrillators, Implantable/adverse effects , Device Removal/methods , Postoperative Complications , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Prosthesis-Related Infections/mortality , Device Removal/adverse effects , Device Removal/mortality
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(6): 550-559, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-887985

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a well-established procedure; however, atrioventricular block requiring permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) is a common complication. Objectives: To determine the incidence, predictors and clinical outcomes of PPI after TAVI, focusing on how PPI affects left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after TAVI. Methods: The Brazilian Multicenter TAVI Registry included 819 patients submitted to TAVI due to severe aortic stenosis from 22 centers from January/2008 to January/2015. After exclusions, the predictors of PPI were assessed in 670 patients by use of multivariate regression. Analysis of the ROC curve was used to measure the ability of the predictors; p < 0.05 was the significance level adopted. Results: Within 30 days from TAVI, 135 patients (20.1%) required PPI. Those patients were older (82.5 vs. 81.1 years; p = 0.047) and mainly of the male sex (59.3% vs 45%; p = 0.003). Hospital length of stay was longer in patients submitted to PPI (mean = 15.7 ± 25.7 vs. 11.8 ± 22.9 days; p < 0.001), but PPI affected neither all-cause death (26.7% vs. 25.6%; p = 0.80) nor cardiovascular death (14.1% vs. 14.8%; p = 0.84). By use of multivariate analysis, the previous presence of right bundle-branch block (RBBB) (OR, 6.19; 3.56-10.75; p ≤ 0.001), the use of CoreValve® prosthesis (OR, 3.16; 1.74-5.72; p ≤ 0.001) and baseline transaortic gradient > 50 mm Hg (OR, 1.86; 1.08-3.2; p = 0.025) were predictors of PPI. The estimated risk of PPI ranged from 4%, when none of those predictors was present, to 63%, in the presence of all of them. The model showed good ability to predict the need for PPI: 0.69 (95%CI: 0.64 - 0.74) in the ROC curve. The substudy of 287 echocardiograms during the 1-year follow-up showed worse LVEF course in patients submitted to PPI (p = 0.01). Conclusion: BRD prévio, gradiente aórtico médio > 50 mmHg e CoreValve® são preditores independentes de implante de MPD pós-TAVI. Ocorreu implante de MPD em aproximadamente 20% dos casos de TAVI, o que prolongou a internação hospitalar, mas não afetou a mortalidade. O implante de MPD afetou negativamente a FEVE pós-TAVI.


Resumo Fundamento: O implante valvar aórtico transcateter (TAVI) está bem estabelecido, porém, o bloqueio atrioventricular, com necessidade de marca-passo definitivo (MPD), é complicação frequente. Objetivo: Determinar a incidência, preditores e desfechos clínicos de implante de MPD após TAVI, focando em como a evolução da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE), após o TAVI, é afetada pelo MPD. Métodos: No registro brasileiro foram incluídos 819 pacientes submetidos a TAVI por estenose aórtica severa em 22 centros entre janeiro/2008 e janeiro/2015. Após exclusões, os preditores de implante de MPD foram avaliados em 670 pacientes por regressão multivariada. Análise da curva ROC foi utilizada para medir a habilidade dos preditores; p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: Aos 30 dias, 135 pacientes (20,1%) necessitaram de MPD. Tais pacientes eram mais velhos (82,5 vs. 81,1 anos; p = 0,047) e predominantemente homens (59,3% vs 45%; p = 0,003). A permanência hospitalar foi maior no Grupo MPD (média= 15,7 ± 25,7 vs. 11,8 ± 22,9 dias; p < 0,001), mas o implante não afetou morte por qualquer causa (26,7% vs. 25,6%; p = 0,80) nem morte cardiovascular (14,1% vs. 14,8%; p = 0,84). Por análise multivariada, a presença prévia de bloqueio de ramo direito (BRD) (OR, 6,19; 3,56-10,75; p ≤ 0,001), o uso da prótese CoreValve® (OR, 3,16; 1,74-5,72; p ≤ 0,001) e gradiente transaórtico basal > 50 mmHg (OR, 1,86; 1,08-3,2; p= 0,025) foram preditores de implante de MPD. O risco estimado de implante de MPD foi 4%, quando nenhum dos fatores de risco estava presente, e 63% na presença de todos. O modelo mostrou boa habilidade de prever a necessidade de MPD: 0,69 (IC95%: 0,64 - 0,74) na curva ROC. Subestudo de 287 ecocardiogramas durante o seguimento de 1 ano mostrou pior evolução da FEVE no Grupo MPD (p = 0,01). Conclusão: Em crianças de 6 a 11 anos, circunferência da cintura aumentada está associada à PA elevada, mesmo quando o IMC é normal. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Valve/surgery , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Bundle-Branch Block/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial/methods , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Atrioventricular Block/surgery , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Brazil , Risk Factors , Electrocardiography , Atrioventricular Block/physiopathology
17.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(6): 492-497, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897955

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Chronic stimulation of the right ventricle with pacemaker is associated with ventricular dyssynchrony and loss of contractility, even in subjects without previous dysfunction. In these patients, there is a debate of which pacing site is less associated with loss of ventricular function. Objective: To compare pacemaker-induced dyssynchrony among different pacing sites in right ventricular stimulation. Methods: Cross-sectional study of outpatients with right ventricle stimulation higher than 80% and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Pacing lead position (apical, medial septum or free wall) was assessed through chest X-rays. Every patient underwent echocardiogram to evaluate for dyssynchrony according to CARE-HF criteria: aortic pre-ejection time, interventricular delay and septum/posterior wall delay on M mode. Results: Forty patients were included. Fifty-two percent had apical electrode position, 42% mid septum and 6% free wall. Mean QRS time 148.97±15.52 milliseconds. A weak correlation between the mean QRS width and pre-aortic ejection time (r=0.32; P=0.04) was found. No difference in QRS width among the positions could be noted. Intraventricular delay was lower in apical patients against mid septal (34.4±17.2 vs. 54.3±19.1 P<0.05) - no difference with those electrode on the free wall. No difference was noted in the pre-aortic ejection time (P=0.9). Conclusion: Apical pacing showed a lower interventricular conduction delay when compared to medial septum site. Our findings suggest that apical pacing dyssynchrony is not ubiquitous, as previously thought, and that it should remain an option for lead placement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Stroke Volume , Echocardiography , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ventricular Function, Right , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Electrocardiography , Heart Ventricles , Myocardial Contraction
19.
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 29(4): f:150-l:154, out.-dez. 2016. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-831728

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A população pediátrica corresponde a menos de 1% dos implantes de marcapasso e possui desafios peculiares. Este estudo tem o objetivo de revelar o perfil dos pacientes pediátricos submetidos a cirurgias de dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis e taxas de complicação. Método: Estudo observacional retrospectivo de análise de prontuários de pacientes com até 18 anos de idade, submetidos a cirurgias de dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis entre 2009 e 2014 no Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, sobre variáveis clínicas e cirúrgicas e complicações. Resultados: Entre 2009 e 2014, 51 pacientes foram submetidos a 57 cirurgias, dos quais 60,8% eram do sexo feminino. A média de idade foi de 8,32 anos. Cardiopatia congênita foi encontrada em 60,8% dos pacientes e cirurgia cardíaca prévia, em 76,4%. As principais indicações para dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis foram bloqueio atrioventricular total pós-operatório (40,4%) e bloqueio atrioventricular total congênito (31,6%). Dentre as cirurgias realizadas, destacam-se implante de marcapasso bicameral (38,6%) e implante de marcapasso monocameral ventricular (28,1%). Em 44 cirurgias de implantes, 72,7% foram endocárdicos. Ocorreram 3 complicações (5,3%). Conclusão: Na população pediátrica sujeita a implante de dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis, a escolha do sistema de estimulação cardíaca, a técnica de implante, a programação e o acompanhamento devem ser criteriosos. As taxas de complicação foram baixas. A melhor compreensão dessa população pode auxiliar na definição de diretrizes para seu tratamento


Background: The pediatric population represents less than 1% of all pacemaker implants and has unique challenges. This study is aimed at identifying the profile of pediatric patients undergoing surgical procedures for implantable electronic cardiac devices and complication rates. Method: This was a retrospective observational analysis of medical records of patients up to 18 years of age, submitted to implantable electronic cardiac devices between 2009-2014 at the National Institute of Cardiology on the clinical and surgical variables and complications. Results: Between 2009 and 2014, 51 patients underwent 57 surgeries, of which 60.8% were female. Mean age was 8.32 years. Congenital heart disease was found in 60.8% of the patients and 76.4% had had a previous heart surgery. The main indications for implantable electronic cardiac devices implantation were: postoperative complete heart block (40.4%), and congenital complete heart block (31.6%). The surgeries included dual chamber pacemakers (38.6%), and ventricular single chamber pacemaker (28.1%). Out of 44 surgical implants, 72.7% were endocardial. There were 3 complications (5.3%). Conclusion: In the pediatric population subject to implantable electronic cardiac device implantation, the choice of the cardiac pacing system,the implantation technique, planning and follow-up must be carefully made. Complication rates were low. A better understanding of this population can help define treatment guidelines


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Child Health , Hospitals, Public/standards , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Pacemaker, Artificial/trends , Pediatrics , Age Factors , Electrodes , Endocardial Cushions/surgery , Equipment Safety/methods , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Multivariate Analysis , Observational Study , Patients , Sex Factors , Treatment Outcome
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(5): 321-325, Oct. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841602

ABSTRACT

La estimulación por marcapasos se asocia con eventos adversos graves. En la siguiente serie de casos se evaluó la disincronía mecánica intraventricular izquierda (DMVI) en la estimulación endocárdica prolongada del ventrículo derecho a nivel septal. Se estudiaron 6 personas con marcapasos implantados no antes de un año utilizando SPECT gatillado con 99mTc-MIBI y análisis de fase en reposo. Se registraron variables clínicas, duración del QRS, tasa y modo de estimulación ventricular, presencia y extensión de isquemia y/o infarto, volúmenes cavitarios y FEVI en reposo. Utilizando V-Sync de Emory Cardiac Toolbox se obtuvieron el ancho de banda (AB) y el desvío estándar de fase (DEF) en reposo (grados), comparándolos con una población control. La estimulación endocárdica prolongada en el septum ventricular derecho se asoció con marcada DMVI, aun cuando la función sistólica estaba conservada. Aquellos con FEVI moderada/gravemente disminuida (caracterizados por diámetros cavitarios mayores, infarto o isquemia grave) exhibieron mayor disincronía que aquellos con FEVI conservada/levemente disminuida (AB: 177.3o vs. 88.3o; DEF: 53.1o vs. 33.8o). En los casos con cardiopatía isquémica portadores de marcapasos, el AF es una herramienta válida de potencial utilidad para evaluar la disincronía asociada al infarto y, eventualmente, aportar a la decisión oportuna del pasaje al modo de estimulación biventricular.


Pacemaker stimulation is associated with unpredictable severe cardiac events. We evaluated left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) during prolonged septal right ventricular pacing. We performed 99mTc-MIBI gated-SPECT and phase analysis in 6 patients with pacemakers implanted at least one year before scintigraphy due to advanced atrioventricular block. Using V-Sync of Emory Cardiac Toolbox we obtained phase bandwidth (PBW) and standard deviation (PSD) from rest phase histogram. Clinical variables, QRS duration, rate and mode of pacing in septal right ventricle wall, chamber diameters, presence and extension of myocardial scar and ischemia and rest LVEF were recorded. Prolonged septal endocardial pacing is associated with marked LVMD, even when systolic function was preserved. More severe dyssynchrony was found in patients with impaired LVEF, higher left ventricle diameters, extensive infarct or severe ischemia than in patients with preserved LVEF (PBW: 177.3o vs. 88.3o; PSD: 53.1o vs. 33.8o). In the patients with ischemic heart disease and pacemaker, gated-SPECT phase analysis is a valid and potentially useful technique to evaluate LMVD associated with myocardial scar and to decide the upgrading to biventricular pacing mode.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Septum/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Electrocardiography , Ventricular Septum/diagnostic imaging , Atrioventricular Block/surgery , Cardiac-Gated Single-Photon Emission Computer-Assisted Tomography , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
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