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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(11): 5777-5792, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350467

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é investigar fatores que contribuíram na velocidade de crescimento de crianças até o sexto mês de vida. Coorte com 144 crianças observadas ao nascimento e no primeiro, segundo e sexto mês de vida. As velocidades de perímetro cefálico (cm/mês), peso (g/dia) e comprimento (cm/mês) foram comparadas segundo características ao nascimento, da gravidez, maternas, da família e relacionadas à alimentação, adoecimento e cuidados de saúde da criança. O sexo feminino e a dificuldade de amamentar contribuíram com a desaceleração das três velocidades de crescimento; a não vacinação materna contra o tétano, as velocidades de perímetro cefálico e comprimento. Transtorno mental materno grave, insegurança alimentar moderada/grave, consumo de mingau e o não acompanhamento da criança influenciaram as velocidades de perímetro cefálico e peso. Uso de bebida alcoólica durante a gravidez, parto cesariano, aleitamento materno misto/predominante, uso de fórmula infantil e episódios de diarreia/vômito influenciaram a velocidade de perímetro cefálico; pré-natal inadequado, ade peso; mães baixinhas e uso chupeta, a de comprimento. Sobressaem fatores modificáveis como o consumo de mingau e de fórmula infantil e o uso de chupeta que têm em comum a relação com o aleitamento materno do lactente.


Abstract The scope of this article is to investigate factors that contributed to the growth rate of children from birth through the sixth month of life. It involves a cohort study with 144 children observed at birth and in the first, second and sixth months of life. Child head circumference (cm/month), weight (g/day) and length (cm/month) rates were compared according to birth, pregnancy, maternal and family characteristics and those related to the food, illness and health care of the child. The female sex and difficulty in breastfeeding contributed to the deceleration of all three growth rates, while maternal non-vaccination against tetanus affected the increase of head circumference and of child length. Severe maternal mental disorder, moderate/severe food insecurity, oatmeal consumption and failure to follow-up the development of the child influenced the head circumference and weight rates. The intake of alcohol during pregnancy, cesarean delivery, mixed/predominant breastfeeding, use of infant formula and episodes of diarrhea/vomiting affected the head circumference, while inadequate prenatal care affected weight, and low-stature mothers and pacifier use affected length. Modifiable factors are highlighted, such as the consumption of oatmeal and infant formula, and the use of pacifiers, which are related to breastfeeding in infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child , Breast Feeding , Pacifiers , Cohort Studies , Infant Formula , Mothers
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(11): 5851-5860, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350457

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo é identificar fatores associados à continuidade da amamentação por 12 meses ou mais em mulheres trabalhadoras. Estudo transversal realizado por meio de entrevista com 251 trabalhadoras de um hospital, com filhos biológicos entre 12 e 36 meses de idade, não gemelares e sem doença que afetasse a amamentação, e amamentando quando do seu retorno ao trabalho. Para a associação entre a continuidade da amamentação e as variáveis de exposição utilizou-se a regressão multivariável de Poisson. Apenas uma variável relacionada ao local de trabalho da mulher mostrou associação significativa com o desfecho. Trabalhar durante o dia aumentou em 37% a prevalência da amamentação por 12 meses ou mais. Os fatores não relacionados ao trabalho da mulher que mostraram associação positiva com o desfecho: mãe sem curso superior, experiência de amamentação superior a 12 meses; criança não receber outro leite quando a mãe retornou ao trabalho e não ter usado chupeta. Por outro lado, maior idade da mãe, maior idade gestacional, apoio do cuidador da criança e apoio profissional na amamentação associaram-se negativamente ao desfecho. Fatores não relacionados diretamente ao trabalho materno tiveram maior participação na continuidade da amamentação por 12 meses ou mais.


Abstract This article aims to identify factors associated with breastfeeding continuation for at least 12 months among working mothers in a hospital in the south of Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study, interviewing 251 women who breastfed after returning to work. Eligibility criteria included non-twin biological children aged between 12 and 36 months and the absence of an illness (mother and/or child) that could affect breastfeeding. The association between breastfeeding continuation and the exposure variables was tested using Poisson multivariate regression. Only one work-related variable showed a significant association with the outcome. Working only during the day increased the prevalence of BF continuation for at least 12 months by 37%. The following non-work-related factors showed a positive association with the outcome: mothers without a college degree; mothers with at least 12 months' prior breastfeeding experience; child not given milks other than breast milk when the mother returned to work, and not using a pacifier. The following variables showed a negative association with the outcome: older maternal age; older gestational age; mother receiving support from the child's caregiver; and mother receiving professional breastfeeding support. Non-work-related factors had a greater influence on breastfeeding continuation for at least 12 months among working mothers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Breast Feeding , Mothers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pacifiers , Hospitals, General
3.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(2): 225-232, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287034

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate association between parental locus of control (belief of individuals about what or who has control of the events of their lives) and bottle feeding habits among children from 3 to 5 years of age. Methodology: Parental locus of control validated in Brazil, and semi-structured questionnaire to obtain sociodemographic, health, and oral habit behaviors was applied to mothers of 992 preschool children. Outcome variable "use of feeding bottle" was studied according to the time of its use (≤36 months and >36 months). Simple logistic regression models were adjusted and raw odds ratios were estimated for variables of distal blocks, which contemplated parental locus of control, socioeconomic characteristics of family, and maternal habits. In the intermediate block, the variables for conditions of the child's birth and place of health care attendance during the prenatal period and early childhood were included. In the proximal block, the time of breastfeeding and pacifier use were reported. Variables were analyzed from the distal to the proximal block, and the individual analyses that presented p ≤ 0.20 remained in each model; included in the subsequent block were the variables with p ≤ 0.10, because this was a study of prevention. Results: Longer time of feeding bottle use was associated with the internal parental locus of control, mothers older than 31 years of age, white race, premature children, who used pacifiers and are treated in the private health system. Conclusions: Children who maintained the habit of feeding bottle use for a longer time were those whose mother presented an internal locus of control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Bottle Feeding , Motivation , Brazil , Breast Feeding , Pacifiers
4.
Arq. odontol ; 57: 244-252, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1348380

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar na literatura quais são os hábitos associados à mordida aberta anterior em crianças. Métodos: Realizou-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica referente aos artigos publicados de 2015 a 2020 nos bancos de dados on-line PubMed, Embase, SciELO, LILACS e BBO utilizando descritores e sinônimos MeSH, DeCS e Emtree com as seguintes etapas: identificação, triagem, elegibilidade e inclusão. Foram incluídos estudos observacionais, transversais ou de coorte, e artigos que demonstrassem hábitos associados à mordida aberta anterior em crianças de 2 a 12 anos de idade. Relatos de caso, revisões da literatura e outros tipos de estudos que não estavam de acordo com os critérios foram excluídos. Os artigos foram analisados por dois pesquisadores independentes e os estudos selecionados foram avaliados quanto à qualidade metodológica. Resultados: De um total de 462 artigos encontrados apenas 9 foram selecionados para o estudo. Desses, 8 (88,9%) apresentaram alta ou moderada qualidade metodológica, sendo apenas 1 (11,1%), dentre os artigos, de baixa qualidade. Mediante à análise dos estudos inclusos, observou-se que a manutenção de hábitos orais como sucção digital (66,6% dos artigos) e de chupeta (77,7%), bem como uso de mamadeira (33,3%) e duração do tempo de aleitamento materno (22,2%) pode ocasionar alterações na oclusão, fala, respiração, crescimento craniofacial, afetando diretamente a qualidade de vida da criança. Conclusão:Uma vez que a infância é a fase adequada para a implementação de novos hábitos saudáveis e tratamentos, é imprescindível que o cirurgião-dentista conheça essa associação, e adote medidas terapêuticas e preventivas.


Aim: To perform an analysis of in the literature regarding which habits are associated with anterior open bite in children. Methods:This was a bibliographic study conducted using articles published from 2015 to 2020 in the PubMed, Embase, SciELO, LILACS, and BBO online databases, using MeSH, DeCS, and Emtree descriptors and synonyms with the following steps: identification, screening, eligibility, and inclusion. Observational, cross-sectional, or cohort studies, as well as and articles demonstrating habits associated with anterior open bite in children aged 2 to 12 years, were included. Case reports, literature reviews, and other types of studies that were not in accordance with the criteria were excluded. The articles were evaluated by two independent researchers, and the selected studies were evaluated for methodological quality. Results:Of a total of 462 articles found, only nine were selected for the study. Of these, eight (88.9%) presented high or moderate methodological quality, with only 1 (11.1%) of the articles presenting a low quality. Through the analysis of the included studies, it was observed that the maintenance of oral habits, such as finger sucking (66.6% of the articles) and pacifiers (77.7%), as well as the use of a bottle (33.3%) and the duration of breastfeeding time (22.2%), may cause changes in occlusion, speech, breathing, and craniofacial growth, directly affecting the child's quality of life. Conclusion: Since childhood is the appropriate phase for the implementation of new healthy habits and treatments, it is essential for the dentist to understand this association and adopt therapeutic and preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Sucking Behavior , Open Bite/etiology , Pacifiers/adverse effects , Nursing Bottles , Fingersucking , Risk Factors , Dental Care for Children
5.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 50: e20210034, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1347769

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Open bite can generate relevant psychosocial impact in the daily life of the patient, both from the aesthetic and functional point of view. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the anterior open bite in children in the first school year in a municipality in southern Brazil. Material and method A cross-sectional study was carried out with six-year-old schoolchildren in Palhoça/SC. Interviews were conducted with mothers to gather socioeconomic and non-nutritive sucking habits information. Children oral clinical examinations were carried out in schools. Multivariate analyses were performed using Poisson regression with a robust estimator. The study involved 655 children, 50.5% being female. Result The prevalence of anterior open bite was 14.1% (95% CI 11.5; 16.7). Girls exhibited a lower prevalence [PR= 0.96 (95% CI 0.94; 0.99) p= 0.024] and those children who used a pacifier exhibited a higher prevalence of anterior open bite [PR= 1.04 (95% CI 1.01; 1.07) p= 0.003]. Conclusion The prevalence was 14.1% and that it was associated with gender and the use of pacifier, in a statistically significant and independent way.


Introdução: A mordida aberta pode gerar relevante impacto psicossocial no cotidiano do paciente, tanto do ponto de vista estético quanto funcional. Objetivo Estimar a prevalência e os fatores associados à mordida aberta anterior em crianças do primeiro ano escolar de um município do sul do Brasil. Material e método Estudo transversal constituído por escolares de seis anos de idade de Palhoça/SC. Foram realizadas entrevistas com as mães para obtenção de informações socioeconômicas e de hábitos de sucção não nutritivos. Exames clínicos bucais das crianças foram realizados nas escolas. Análises multivariadas foram realizadas por meio de regressão de Poisson com estimador robusto. Resultado O estudo envolveu 655 crianças sendo 50,5% do sexo feminino. A prevalência de mordida aberta anterior foi de 14,1% (IC 95% 11,5; 16,7). Meninas apresentaram prevalência menor [RP= 0,96 (IC 95% 0,94; 0,99) p= 0,024] e aqueles que utilizaram chupeta apresentaram uma maior prevalência [RP= 1,04 (IC 95% 1,01; 1,07) p= 0,003]. Conclusão A prevalência foi de 14,1% associada de forma estatisticamente significativa e independente com sexo e utilização de chupeta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Child , Open Bite , Dental Occlusion , Pacifiers
6.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 24(3): e006940, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1348755

ABSTRACT

El chupete es un dispositivo utilizado para calmar a los lactantes y niños pequeños; sin embargo, se lo asocia a efectos nocivos. Muchas veces en la consulta los cuidadores solicitan la opinión de los profesionales de la salud sobre su uso; por este motivo, decidimos realizar una búsqueda bibliográfica de la mejor evidencia disponible. En base a la información recabada y analizada, concluimos que la introducción precoz del chupete (antes de las dos semanas de vida) no afectaría el amamantamiento hasta los seis meses, y que en niños con lactancia materna bien establecida y madres motivadas para amamantar, no influye en el destete precoz. Además existe evidencia débil a favor del uso del chupete para reducir el riesgo del síndrome de muerte súbita del lactante, mientras que su uso durante la dentición primaria se asocia al desarrollo de mordida cruzada posterior. (AU)


The pacifier is a device used to soo the infants and young children; however, it is associated with harmful effects. Many times during consultation, caregivers ask for the opinion of health professionals about its use; for this reason, we decided to perform a literature search of the best available evidence. Based on the collected and analyzed information, we concluded that the early introduction of the pacifier (before two weeks of life) would not affect breastfeeding until six months of age, and that in children with well-established breastfeeding and mothers motivated to breastfeed, it does not influence early weaning. Furthermore, there is weak evidence in favor of pacifier use to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome, while its use during primary dentition is associated with the development of posterior crossbite. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Weaning , Breast Feeding , Pacifiers , Sudden Infant Death/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Risk Factors , Malocclusion
7.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1250452

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion and associated factors in children and the level of knowledge of mothers participating in the child care group of a basic health unit. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in children between 18 and 72 months of a childcare group in Pelotas. Children whose parents or legal guardians signed the informed consent term participated in the study. Data were collected through a questionnaire previously tested and applied to the mothers, and a clinical examination of children's occlusion were performed by examiners after training and calibration. Statistical analysis was descriptive and analytic. In the bivariate analyses, it was used the Pearson, Fisher or Linear Trend Qui-Square tests and, in the multivariate analysis, the Poisson regression. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were obtained, and a p-value <0.05 was used. Results: Forty-seven children were included and 41.3% presented malocclusion. The prevalence of malocclusion was associated with a higher number of children in the family (p<0.005) and breastfeeding for more than 12 months (p<0.05). The highest prevalence of open bite was associated with the use of a pacifier and working mothers (p<0.05). Conclusion: Most mothers reported having knowledge about the time and use of pacifiers in childhood. In this group, the prevalence of malocclusion in children was high and associated with behavioral and social factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Tooth, Deciduous , Child Care , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pacifiers , Malocclusion , Mothers , Health Centers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Open Bite
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10115, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132561

ABSTRACT

The introduction of early complementary feeding (ECF) is determined by different factors depending on when it occurs. The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with the introduction of ECF in two different moments of the infant's life: from zero to three and from four to five months of age. A cohort with 3,306 dyads studied in the BRISA survey in São Luis/MA in 2010 was used. Questionnaires were applied at birth and at follow-up when the infants were 15 to 36 months of age of women with more than 20 weeks of gestational age, residing in this municipality. A multivariate model of multinomial logistic regression was used to verify associations between independent variables and ECF at 0 to 3 months and at 4 to 5 months of age. A hierarchical analysis model was used to select variables for confounding adjustment. Variables with a P-value <0.05 were considered significant. For ECF introduced between 0-3 months, the variables "use of pacifier", "maternal paid activity", "smoking", and "postpartum pregnancy" were identified as risk factors. The variables "use of pacifier" and "maternal paid activity" remained associated as a risk for ECF introduced from 4-5 months. The variable 'mother without partner' (RR=1.26 and P=0.04) represented a risk factor for ECF only for the 4-5 months period. Although each period presented specific risk factors, the use of pacifier and maternal professional activity were associated in the two periods studied, indicating their importance for the introduction of ECF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Adult , Young Adult , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Time Factors , Brazil , Breast Feeding , Smoking , Cesarean Section , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Gestational Age , Pacifiers , Employment
9.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 451-459, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1151553

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar as evidências, de produções científicas brasileiras, acerca da influência dos 10 passos para o sucesso do aleitamento materno na continuidade da amamentação. Método: revisão integrativa de produções científicas brasileiras, desenvolvida em junho de 2017, nas bases eletrônicas de dados LILACS, SCOPUS e PUBMED. Resultados: a normatização da assistência interfere positivamente na continuidade da amamentação. Treinar a equipe de saúde aumenta a prevalência de aleitamento materno. Orientar as vantagens e o manejo da lactação protege contra mastites, aleitamento misto e desmame precoce. Aqueles que receberam apoio no aleitamento materno na primeira meia hora após o parto estiveram mais propensos a mantê-lo no domicílio. Oferta de substitutos do leite materno, chupetas ou bicos artificiais interfere negativamente no estabelecimento e manutenção da amamentação. Conclusão: conclui-se, que os dez passos influenciam na continuidade da amamentação e, portanto, é importante que se amplie a cobertura nacional da IHAC


Objective: To evaluate the evidence of Brazilian scientific production about the influence of the 10 steps to succeed on breastfeeding continuity. Method: integrative review of Brazilian scientific literature developed at the databases LILACS, SCOPUS and MEDLINE in June of 2017. Results: the standardization of care positively interferes on breastfeeding continuity. Health team training increases the prevalence of breastfeeding. Professional orientation on the advantages and management of lactation protects against mastitis, mixed suckling and early weaning. Those who received support in breastfeeding within the first half hour after delivery were more likely to keep it at home. Provision of breast milk substitutes, pacifiers or artificial nipples interferes negatively in stablishing and maintaining breastfeeding. Conclusion: it is concluded that the ten steps influence on the continuity of breastfeeding and, therefore, it is important to expand the Child Friendly Hospital Initiative national coverage


Objetivo: Evaluar la evidencia de la producción científica brasileña sobre la influencia de los 10 pasos para tener éxito en la continuidad de la lactancia materna. Método: revisión integral de la literatura científica brasileña desarrollada en las bases de datos LILACS, SCOPUS y MEDLINE en junio de 2017. Resultados: La estandarización del cuidado interfiere positivamente en la continuidad de la lactancia materna. La capacitación de los equipos de salud aumenta la prevalencia de la lactancia materna. La orientación profesional sobre las ventajas y el manejo de la lactancia protege contra la mastitis, la lactancia mixta y el destete precoz. Aquellos que recibieron apoyo en la lactancia durante la primera media hora después del parto tenían más probabilidades de mantenerlo en casa. La provisión de sustitutos de la leche materna, chupones o pezones artificiales interfiere negativamente en el establecimiento y mantenimiento de la lactancia materna. Conclusión: se concluye que los diez pasos influyen en la continuidad de la lactancia materna y, por tanto, es importante ampliar la cobertura nacional de la Iniciativa Hospital Amigo de los Niños


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Patient Care Team , Breast Feeding/instrumentation , Breast Feeding/methods , Health Education/methods , Weaning , Pacifiers , Parturition , Health Policy , Breast-Milk Substitutes , Mastitis
10.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 44(3): 99-110, 20200813.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370982

ABSTRACT

Este estudo se propôs a averiguar a existência de associação entre o uso de chupeta e a interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo (AME) ao longo dos quatro primeiros meses de vida da criança. Para isso, utilizaram-se dados de uma coorte composta por 1.037 mães e crianças. Para estimar a associação entre a variável desfecho e aquelas de exposição ao longo do tempo, foi utilizada a técnica de Equação de Estimação Generalizada (GEE). Foi averiguado que a interrupção precoce do AME e o uso de chupeta aumentaram gradativamente conforme a idade da criança; no quarto mês, mais da metade das crianças já estava desmamada e fazia uso de chupeta. Os resultados da estimativa obtida por meio da GEE mostraram que permaneceu significativo apenas o uso de chupeta associado à baixa escolaridade materna como risco de interrupção precoce do AME, quando ajustado para as demais covariáveis. Os resultados reforçam a interferência negativa do uso da chupeta na duração do AME e a necessidade de informar às mães sobre as desvantagens do uso de chupetas.


This study investigates the possible association between pacifier use and early termination of exclusive breastfeeding for four months following birth. Data was collected from a cohort comprising1037 mothers and children. The association between the outcome variable and the exposure variables over time was estimated using the Generalized Estimation Equation (GEE). Early weaning and pacifier use increased gradually with the child's age; by the fourth month, more than half of the children were already weaned and using a pacifier. GEE estimations showed that only pacifier use associated with low maternal schooling level remained significant as a risk of early weaning, when adjusted for the other covariates. The results reinforce the negative interference of pacifier use on EB duration and the need to inform mothers about the disadvantages of pacifier use.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la existencia de una asociación entre el uso de chupete y la interrupción temprana de la lactancia materna exclusiva (LME) durante los primeros cuatro meses de vida del niño. Se utilizaron datos de una cohorte, compuesta por 1.037 madres y niños. Para estimar la asociación entre la variable resultado y las de exposición en el tiempo, se utilizó la técnica de Ecuación de Estimación Generalizada (GEI). La interrupción temprana de la LME y el uso de un chupete aumentaron gradualmente conforme a la edad del niño; en el cuarto mes, más de la mitad de los niños ya habían sido destetados y usaban chupete. Los resultados de la estimación obtenida a través de GEI mostraron que solo el uso de chupetes asociado a bajos niveles de educación materna permaneció significativo como riesgo de interrupción temprana de la LME, cuando se ajustó con las otras covariables. Los resultados apuntan la interferencia negativa del uso de chupete en la duración de la LME y la necesidad de informar a las madres sobre las desventajas del uso de chupete.


Subject(s)
Weaning , Breast Feeding , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Pacifiers
11.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101286

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the best strategy for pacifier disinfection methods. Material and Methods: The literature search was conducted on MEDLINE/PubMed, Scielo, Lilacs, Web of Science, and Scopus databases to find all relevant articles published over the past 20 years, based on PRISMA guidelines. Two reviewers extracted data independently by using a standardized form. The following factors were recorded: country of study, type of study, pacifier material, sample number, microorganisms analyzed, decontamination methods used, method accessibility and results found. Results: A total of 121 articles were obtained from all databases. The selected documents underwent a final screening, resulting in 8 articles. The method of disinfection analyzed by the literature were: 3.5% neutral detergent, apple cider vinegar 70% spray, boiling water during 15 minutes, sodium hypochlorite 2.5, hydrogen peroxide 70% spray, chlorhexidine 0.12%, Brushtox®, sterile water and microwave. Conclusion: Because of the broad methods for pacifier disinfection and different levels of accessibility to disinfectant agents, the pacifier consensus for decontamination remains unclear. Although the disinfection methods are diverse, the methods suggested to its disinfection were identified and described in this article.


Subject(s)
Sucking Behavior , Decontamination , Coronavirus , Pacifiers/microbiology , Environmental Microbiology , Brazil , Disinfection , Data Interpretation, Statistical
12.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058891

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess if the commercialization of infant formulas, baby bottles, bottle nipples, pacifiers and nipple protectors is performed in compliance with the Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância e de Produtos de Puericultura Correlatos (NBCAL - Brazilian Code of Marketing of Infant and Toddlers Food and Childcare-related products). The commercial promotion of these products is prohibited by the Law 11,265. METHOD Cross-sectional study conducted in 2017 through a census of all pharmacies, supermarkets and department stores that sold products covered by NBCAL in the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro. Health professionals trained at NBCAL used structured electronic form for direct observation of establishments and for interviews with their managers. We created indicators to evaluate commercial practices and performed descriptive analyses. RESULTS A total of 352 commercial establishments were evaluated: 240 pharmacies, 88 supermarkets and 24 department stores, of which 88% sold products whose promotion is prohibited by NBCAL. Illegal commercial promotions were found in 20.3% of the establishments that sold the products we investigated: 52 pharmacies (21.9%), four supermarkets (7.5%) and seven department stores (33.3%). The most frequent commercial promotion strategies were discounts (13.2%) and special exposures (9.3%). The products with the highest prevalence of infractions of NBCAL were infant formulas (16.0%). We interviewed 309 managers of commercial establishments; 50.8% reported unfamiliarity with the law. More than three-quarters of the managers reported having been visited at the establishments by commercial representatives of companies that produce infant formulas. CONCLUSION More than a fifth of commercial establishments promoted infant formulas, baby bottles and nipples, although this practice has been banned in Brazil for thirty years. We think it is necessary to train those managers. Government agencies must monitor commercial establishments in order to inhibit strategies of persuasion and induction to sales of these products, ensuring mothers' autonomy in the decision on the feeding of their children.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar se a comercialização de fórmulas infantis, mamadeiras, bicos, chupetas e protetores de mamilo é realizada em cumprimento com a Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância e de Produtos de Puericultura Correlatos (NBCAL). A promoção comercial desses produtos é proibida pela Lei 11.265. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal conduzido em 2017 por meio de um censo de todas as farmácias, supermercados e lojas de departamento que comercializavam produtos abrangidos pela NBCAL na Zona Sul do Rio de Janeiro. Profissionais de saúde capacitados na NBCAL utilizaram formulário eletrônico estruturado para observação direta dos estabelecimentos e para entrevista com seus responsáveis. Foram criados seis indicadores de avaliação das práticas comerciais e realizadas análises descritivas. RESULTADOS Foram avaliados 352 estabelecimentos comerciais: 240 farmácias, 88 supermercados e 24 lojas de departamento, dos quais 88% comercializavam produtos cuja promoção é proibida pela NBCAL. Foram encontradas promoções comerciais ilegais em 20,3% daqueles que comercializavam os produtos investigados: 52 farmácias (21,9%), quatro supermercados (7,5%) e sete lojas de departamento (33,3%). As estratégias de promoção comercial mais frequentes foram os descontos (13,2%) e as exposições especiais (9,3%). Os produtos com maior prevalência de infrações à NBCAL foram as fórmulas infantis (16,0%). Foram entrevistados 309 responsáveis por estabelecimentos comerciais, 50,8% relatando não conhecer a lei. Mais de três quartos dos responsáveis relataram receber visitas nos estabelecimentos de representantes comerciais de empresas fabricantes de fórmulas infantis. CONCLUSÃO Mais de um quinto dos estabelecimentos comerciais faziam promoção comercial de fórmulas infantis para lactentes, mamadeiras e bicos, apesar de essa prática ser proibida no Brasil há trinta anos. É necessária a capacitação dos seus responsáveis. Os órgãos governamentais devem realizar fiscalização dos estabelecimentos comerciais para coibir estratégias de persuasão e indução à vendas desses produtos, garantindo às mães autonomia na decisão sobre a alimentação de seus filhos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Pacifiers , Marketing/legislation & jurisprudence , Infant Formula/legislation & jurisprudence , Milk Substitutes/legislation & jurisprudence , Direct-to-Consumer Advertising , Brazil , Breast Feeding , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infant Food , Legislation, Food
13.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 49: e20200068, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1156804

ABSTRACT

Resumo Introdução A mordida aberta anterior é um dos tipos de má-oclusão mais frequentes em pré-escolares, sendo considerada um dos problemas oclusais mais difíceis de tratar, principalmente por sua etiologia multifatorial e sua íntima relação com hábitos bucais deletérios. Objetivo Identificar a prevalência de mordida aberta anterior nos pré-escolares de Salvador-BA, bem como fatores potencialmente associados à mesma. Material e método Trata-se de um estudo de corte transversal em 1.577 crianças em idade pré-escolar (36 a 71 meses), que frequentavam creches públicas municipais de Salvador-BA. Resultado A média de idade das crianças foi aproximadamente 54 meses. A maioria pertencia ao sexo masculino (50,29%). A população de estudo foi predominantemente composta por negros e pardos (92,02%). A prevalência de má-oclusão foi de 40,46% e, destes, 14,02% possuíam mordida aberta. Com relação à escolaridade, a maior parte das mães (55,86%) e dos pais (50,08%) foi igual ou superior ao Ensino Fundamental II Completo. A sucção digital foi comum em 6,73% das crianças e 10,39% faziam sucção de chupeta. Foram identificados, como fatores de proteção à mordida aberta, a escolaridade do pai maior ou igual ao Ensino Fundamental II completo (RP= 0,62 IC= 0,41-0,95) e a onicofagia (RP= 0,34 IC= 0,21-0,56). Como fatores de risco, identificaram-se o uso de chupeta (RP= 17,98 IC= 10,91-29,62) e a sucção digital (RP= 11,04 IC= 6,0-20,32). Conclusão Medidas educativas direcionadas aos pais e responsáveis se fazem essenciais para a prevenção do desenvolvimento de hábitos deletérios nos pré-escolares. Outros estudos são necessários a fim de aprofundar o entendimento sobre os fatores de proteção identificados neste estudo.


Abstract Introduction The previous open bite is one of the most frequent types of malocclusions in preschoolers, being considered one of the most difficult occlusal problems to treat, mainly due to its multifactorial etiology and its intimate relationship with deleterious oral habits. Objective Identify the prevalence of anterior open bite in preschoolers in Salvador-BA as well as factors potentially associated with it. Material and method This is a cross-sectional study of 1577 preschool children (36 to 71 months) who attended municipal public daycare centers in Salvador-BA. Result The children's average age was approximately 54 months. Most were male (50.29%). The study population was predominantly composed of blacks and browns (92.02%). The prevalence of malocclusion was 40.46%, of which 14.02% of these children had an open bite. Regarding schooling, most mothers (55.86%) and fathers (50.08%) were equal to or higher than complete primary school. The digital sucking was common in 6.73% of the children and 10.39% used pacifiers. As protective factors for open bite were found the father's education level ≥ 1st complete degree (PR = 0.62 CI = 0.41-0.95) and nail-biting (PR = 0.34 CI = 0.21-0.56). As risk factors were found the use of pacifiers (PR = 17.98 CI = 10.91-29.62) and digital suction (PR = 11.04 CI = 6.0-20.32). Conclusion Educational measures aimed at parents and guardians are essential to prevent the development of harmful habits in preschoolers. Other studies are needed for in order to deepen the understanding of the identified protection factors in this study.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child, Preschool , Risk Factors , Open Bite/epidemiology , Protective Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pacifiers , Growth and Development , Nail Biting
14.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 19: e207468, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1116573

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the clinical behavior of sucking habits in children between 2 to 6 years old in a private (A1) and a public school (A2) in the state of Piauí. Methods: It was cross-sectional and quantitative study in 340 participants, 169 in A1 and 171 in A2. The researchers asked the children evaluated to keep their teeth occluded while analyzing whether there was no contact between the anterior teeth and no lip sealing, characterizing the anterior openbite for G1 or if there was contact between the incisors, with lip sealing, characterizing the control group (G2). Results: There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding bottle feeding at main meals (χ2 = 3.03; p = 0.08). However, regarding the use of a pacifier, there was a statistically significant association (χ2 = 17.99; p <0.01) between pacifier use and the presence of anterior openbite. Such association was also observed between digital sucking habit and malocclusion (χ2 = 8.99; p = 0.01). Only the parents of the children with anterior openbite noticed the disharmony in the occlusion. It can be deduced that there was an awareness of parents /guardians about the disharmony generated by non-nutritive sucking habits. Conclusion: Nonnutritive sucking habits influenced the appearance of the anterior open bite in children with deciduous dentition. Nonnutritive sucking habits, such as digital sucking and pacifiers, are significantly associated with the presence of anterior open bite. Breastfeeding is important in preventing this malocclusion


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Sucking Behavior , Open Bite , Pacifiers , Nursing Bottles , Malocclusion
15.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135498

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To verify the relationship between the types of feeding and presence of harmful oral habits (HOH) in children with cleft lip (CL), palate (CP) and cleft lip and palate (CLP), as well as to compare the different types of cleft to each other. Material and Methods: A form was applied to the parents of 162 children (3-5 years old), addressing the following variables: gender, cleft type, age, socioeconomic conditions, type of breastfeeding, presence of HOH, and the parents' knowledge about the consequences of oral habits. The data obtained were analyzed by chi-square test (p<0.05). Results: The majority of children (83.3%) were bottle-fed and 12.3% were exclusively maternal breastfed. The main reason for weaning was the presence of cleft (59.9%). Breastfeeding was significantly higher in children with CL (75%) in comparison with CP (20%) and CLP (5%) (p<0.001). Children with CLP were 12 times more likely to be bottle-fed than children with CL (OR=12.21; CI=4.09-36.45). The prevalence of HOH was 37%. Sociodemographic characteristics were not associated with the presence of HOH (p>0.05). The type of feeding and cleft were not decisive to present some type of HOH (p>0.05) and 87% of parents stated that HOH could lead to serious complications of tooth misalignment. Conclusion: The type of feeding and fissure did not determine the acquisition of harmful oral habits in children with cleft. However, the greater the fissure's complexity, the lesser the chance of children receiving exclusive breastfeeding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Breast Feeding , Cleft Lip/pathology , Cleft Palate/pathology , Pacifiers , Habits , Brazil/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Pilot Projects , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(3): 298-305, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012614

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To describe and analyze indicators of feeding practices related to breastfeeding and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in a subnormal urban cluster (slums) in Pernambuco, Brazil. Methods: Four breastfeeding indicators were used to interview mothers of children under 3 years of age. An inventory of the families' socioeconomic and environmental factors, maternal obstetric history, and basic health care access was undertaken. The sample consisted of all 310 children under the age of 3 years from Coelhos, PE, Brazil. Spearman's correlation was carried out, as well as crude and adjusted prevalence ratios for a final statistical model that showed associated factors with the main outcome at a level of 0.05. Results: The prevalence of breastfeeding in the first hour of life, exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months, continued breastfeeding at 1 year, and continued breastfeeding at 2 years were 60.2%, 32.9%, 45.9, and 35.9%, respectively. A correlation was observed between start of pacifier use and duration of either exclusive (r s = 0.358 [p < 0.001]) or non‐exclusive breastfeeding (r s = 0.248 [p = 0.006]). Maternal age over 35 years (p < 0.001), home visit in the first week after birth (p = 0.003), having had a male baby (p = 0.029), and not using a pacifier (p < 0.001) remained protective factors in the final model. Conclusion: The prevalence rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months were well above the results obtained by other Brazilian authors. Home visit and maternal age prevailed as protective factors, while pacifier use was shown to be a discouraging practice.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever e analisar indicadores das práticas relacionadas ao aleitamento materno e fatores associados ao aleitamento materno exclusivo em um aglomerado urbano subnormal (favela) em Pernambuco. Métodos: Foram usados quatro indicadores do aleitamento materno mediante entrevista com as mães de menores de três anos. Fez-se um inventário de fatores socioambientais das famílias, antecedentes obstétricos e acesso às ações básicas de saúde. A amostra inclui todas as 310 crianças da Comunidade de Coelhos, PE, Brasil. Feitas correlação de Spearman e razões de prevalências brutas e ajustadas que compuseram um modelo estatístico final que evidenciou os fatores associados ao principal desfecho ao nível de 0,05. Resultados: A prevalência do aleitamento materno na primeira hora de vida, aleitamento materno exclusivo aos 6 meses, amamentação continuada até um ano e dois anos foram, respectivamente, 60,2%, 32,9%, 45,9% e 35,9%. Na correlação entre o início do uso de chupeta e a duração do aleitamento, exclusivo ou não, obtiveram-se respectivamente os coeficientes rs = 0,358 (p < 0,001) e rs = 0,248 (p = 0,006). No modelo final permaneceram como fatores de proteção: a idade materna acima de 35 anos (p < 0,001), a visita domiciliar na primeira semana de vida (p = 0,003), o sexo masculino (p = 0,029) e o não uso da chupeta (p < 0,001). Conclusão: Os índices de prevalência do aleitamento materno exclusivo aos 6 meses foram bem superiores aos resultados obtidos por outras pesquisas nacionais. A visita domiciliar e a idade materna prevaleceram como fatores de proteção e o uso de chupeta como uma prática desestimulante.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Family Health , National Health Programs , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pacifiers
17.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 19(2): 311-321, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013146

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to assess the use of pacifier and feedingbottle and their determinants in children from a municipality of Southwest Bahia. Methods: a cross-sectional study was performed with 354 children younger than 12 months old. The event was categorized in: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of feeding bottle,use of pacifier and feeding bottle, and not use any of them. Multinomial analysis with logistic regression was applied, and those who did not use any artificial nipples were thereference variable. Results: it was observed that 11.9% of the children exclusively used pacifiers, 21.2% only use bottles and 32.8% used both of them. The following factors were associated with the exclusive use of pacifiers: low maternal schooling level (eight or less years of education), lack of previous experience with breastfeeding, difficulty in postpartum breastfeeding, and lack of incentive to breastfeeding in puericulture. The exclusive use of feeding bottle was associated with unmarried mothers, aged 35 years old or older, and with less years of education (eight or less years). Women who worked outside home and had difficulty in breastfeeding had greater chance of giving both artificial nipples to the children. Conclusions: the findingspresent different featuresrelated to the exclusive or combined use of pacifiers and feeding bottles, being important to direct health professionals conducts towards mothers' orientation.


Resumo Objetivos: avaliar o uso de chupeta e mamadeira e seus determinantes em crianças de um município da região Sudoeste da Bahia. Métodos: estudo transversal realizado com 354 crianças menores de 12 meses. O evento foi categorizado em uso de chupeta exclusivo, uso de mamadeira exclusiva, uso de chupeta e mamadeira e não faz uso de ambas. Empregou-se análise multinomial com regressão logística tendo os que não usavam bicos artificiais como variável de referência. Resultados: observou-se que 11,9% das crianças faziam uso exclusivo de chupeta, 21,2% de mamadeira, 32,8% de ambos. Estiveram associadas ao uso exclusivo de chupeta: uma menor escolaridade materna (oito ou menos anos de estudo), ausência de experiência anterior com amamentação, dificuldade de amamentar no pós-parto e falta de incentivo à amamentação na puericultura. O uso exclusivo de mamadeira foi associado a mães sem companheiro, com idade de 35 anos ou mais e com menor escolaridade (oito ou menos anos de estudo). Mulheres que trabalhavam fora do lar e que tiveram dificuldade de amamentar apresentaram maior chance de fazerem uso de ambos os bicos artificiais. Conclusões: os resultados mostram características diferentes em relação ao uso exclusivo ou conjunto de bicos e mamadeiras, sendo importantes para direcionar as condutas dos profissionais de saúde para as orientações as mães.


Subject(s)
Child , Epidemiologic Studies , Child Care , Pacifiers/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Bottles , Brazil , Breast Feeding , Cross-Sectional Studies , Postpartum Period
18.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(2): 166-172, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002464

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the impact of an intervention for teenage mothers with the involvement of maternal grandmothers on the prevalence of pacifier use in the first six months of life. Methods: This randomized clinical trial involved 323 teenage mothers, allocated to four groups: intervention with teenagers only, intervention with teenagers and their mothers, and respective controls. Six breastfeeding counseling sessions, including the recommendation to avoid the use of a pacifier, were delivered at the maternity ward and subsequently at the teenagers' homes, at seven, 15, 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum. Data on infant feeding and pacifier use were collected monthly by interviewers blinded to group allocation. The impact of the intervention was measured by comparing survival curves for pacifier use in the first six months of life and mean time to pacifier introduction. Results: The intervention had a significant impact on reducing pacifier use only in the group in which grandmothers were involved. In this group, the intervention delayed by 64 days the introduction of a pacifier (21-85 days), compared to 25 days in the group without the participation of grandmothers (65-90 days). Conclusions: The intervention reduced pacifier use in the first six months of life and delayed its introduction until beyond the first month when grandmothers were involved. The intervention did not have a significant impact when only teenage mothers were involved.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto de uma intervenção para mães adolescentes com a participação de avós maternas na prevalência de uso de chupeta nos primeiros seis meses de vida. Métodos: Este ensaio clínico randomizado envolveu 323 mães adolescentes, alocadas para quatro grupos: intervenção com somente adolescentes, intervenção com adolescentes e suas mães e respectivos controles. Seis sessões de aconselhamento para amamentação, incluindo a recomendação de evitar o uso de chupeta, foram realizadas na maternidade e posteriormente nas casas das adolescentes ao 7°, 15°, 30°, 60° e 120° dias. Os dados sobre alimentação infantil e uso de chupeta foram coletados mensalmente por entrevistadores cegos a respeito da alocação dos grupos. O impacto da intervenção foi medido comparando as curvas de sobrevida para uso de chupeta nos primeiros 6 meses de vida e o tempo médio de introdução de chupetas. Resultados: A intervenção apresentou um impacto significativo sobre a redução do uso de chupeta somente no grupo em que as mães estiveram envolvidas. Nesse grupo, a intervenção mostrou atraso de 64 dias na introdução de chupeta (21 a 85 dias), em comparação a 25 dias no grupo sem a participação das avós (65 a 90 dias). Conclusões: A intervenção reduziu o uso de chupeta nos primeiros 6 meses de vida e atrasou sua introdução além do primeiro mês com a participação das avós. A intervenção não teve impacto significativo somente com o envolvimento das mães adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior , Pacifiers/statistics & numerical data , Grandparents , Health Promotion/methods , Maternal Behavior , Intergenerational Relations
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