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1.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(278): 5892-5901, jul.-2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1343019

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Investigar o conhecimento da equipe de enfermagem sobre o manejo não farmacológico da dor e descrever os principais métodos não farmacológicos para o manejo da dor em recém-nascidos pré-termo sob cuidados intensivos. Método: Estudo exploratório-descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa, realizado em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, de Fortaleza-CE, Brasil, cuja coleta de dados foi realizada de julho a agosto de 2018, por meio de entrevista e observação dos cuidados de enfermagem aos neonatos. Participaram duas enfermeiras e seis técnicas de enfermagem e observaram-se quatro recém-nascidos quanto às respostas fisiológicas e comportamentais aos procedimentos invasivos durante o tratamento intensivo. Resultados: Os métodos mais utilizados pela equipe de enfermagem na Unidade pesquisada foram: soro glicosado a 25%, sucção não nutritiva, contenção facilitada, leite materno e Método Canguru. Conclusão: Algumas participantes demonstraram não conhecer os métodos para manejo não farmacológico da dor em recém-nascidos pré-termo, constatando-se necessidade de mais pesquisas relacionadas à temática investigada.(AU)


Objective: To investigate the knowledge of the nursing staff on non-pharmacological pain management and describe the main non-pharmacological methods for pain management in preterm newborns under intensive care. Method: Exploratory-descriptive study, with a qualitative approach, carried out in an Intensive Care Unit, in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, whose data collection was carried out from July to August 2018, through interviews and observation of nursing care to neonates. Two nurses and six nursing technicians participated and four newborns were observed for physiological and behavioral responses to invasive procedures during intensive care. Results: The methods most used by the nursing team in the researched unit were: 25% glucose serum, non-nutritive suction, facilitated containment, breast milk and Kangaroo Method. Conclusion: Some participants demonstrated that they do not know the methods for non-pharmacological management of pain in preterm newborns, confirming the need for more research related to the theme investigated. (AU)


Objetivo: Investigar los conocimientos del equipo de enfermería sobre manejo no farmacológico del dolor y describir los principales métodos no farmacológicos para manejo del dolor en recién nacidos prematuros en cuidados intensivos. Método: Estudio exploratorio descriptivo, cualitativo, realizado en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, en Fortaleza-CE, Brasil, cuya recolección de datos se realizó de julio a agosto de 2018, a través de entrevistas y observación de cuidados de enfermería a neonatos. Participaron dos enfermeras y seis técnicos de enfermería y se observaron a cuatro recién nacidos para determinar las respuestas fisiológicas y conductuales a los procedimientos invasivos durante los cuidados intensivos. Resultados: Los métodos más utilizados por el equipo de enfermería en la unidad investigada fueron: suero de glucosa al 25%, succión no nutritiva, contención facilitada, leche materna y método canguro. Conclusión: Algunos participantes señalaron no conocen los métodos para manejo no farmacológico del dolor en recién nacidos prematuros, por lo que se necesitan más investigaciones relacionadas al tema investigado.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pain/prevention & control , Infant, Premature , Pain Management/methods , Neonatal Nursing , Qualitative Research , Infant Care
2.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 10(1): 262, abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147578

ABSTRACT

El bloqueo del nervio peri prostático con lidocaína, proporciona un buen alivio del dolor en la realización de la biopsia prostática guiada por ultrasonido, pero el dolor post-procedimiento, puede llegar a ser significativo, la adición del supositorio de diclofenac, podría proporcionar alivio adicional. Se asignaron al azar pacientes en 2 grupos el grupo 1 bloqueo con lidocaína del plexo peri prostático + supositorio de diclofenac sódico y el grupo 2 bloqueo con lidocaína del plexo peri prostático + supositorio de placebo, realizando biopsia doble sextante, el dolor a varios intervalos después del procedimiento se registró en una escala visual análoga (EVA) de 0 a 10. Los 2 grupos fueron similares en cuanto a edad, volumen de próstata, antígeno prostático específico, diagnóstico histopatológico. Los pacientes que recibieron diclofenac tuvieron puntajes de dolor significativamente más bajos que los que recibieron placebo (2 frente a 3,35) p 0,02. La administración rectal de diclofenac antes de la realización de la biopsia de próstata es un procedimiento simple que alivia significativamente el dolor experimentado sin aumento en la morbilidad(AU)


The peri-prostatic nerve block with lidocaine, provides good pain relief in performing ultrasoundguided prostate biopsy, but the postprocedure pain can be significant, the addition of diclofenac suppository, could provide additional relief. Patients were randomly assigned in 2 groups to group 1 blockade with lidocaine of the prostatic peri plexus + suppository of diclofenac sodium and group 2 blockade with lidocaine of the prostatic peri plexus + placebo suppository, performing double sextant biopsy, pain at several intervals after the procedure was recorded on a visual analog scale (EVA) from 0 to 10. Thee 2 groups were similar in terms of age, prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen, histopathological diagnosis. Patients who received diclofenac had pain scores significantly lower than those who received placebo (2 vs. 3.35) p 0.02. Rectal administration of diclofenac before performing a prostate biopsy is a simple procedure that relieves significantly pain experienced without increased morbidity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostate/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Diclofenac/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Nerve Block/methods , Placebos/therapeutic use , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Administration, Rectal , Prospective Studies , Pain Management/methods , Image-Guided Biopsy , Anesthesia, Local
3.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(1): 4-8, mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177177

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la osteopatía aborda al paciente de manera global y aplica técnicas de tratamiento manual. Se realizó una evaluación retrospectiva sobre 447 pacientes para conocer los resultados del tratamiento del dolor lumbar y cervical. Material y métodos: fueron incluidos en este estudio 447 pacientes con diagnóstico de lumbalgia y cervicalgia (77,4% de sexo femenino). Los pacientes atendidos ya habían realizado tratamientos convencionales sin haber conseguido resultados satisfactorios. Se evaluó a los pacientes con la escala de valor numérico de dolor (EVN), y los puntajes (scores) de Oswestry (ODI) y el índice de discapacidad de la región cervical (NDI). Los 4 osteópatas intervinientes son profesionales certificados en esta disciplina. Resultados: el 42,8% de los pacientes fueron derivados por el Servicio de Traumatología y el 41,3% por el Servicio de Medicina Familiar. El 34,2% tuvieron diagnóstico de dolor lumbar y al 20,81% se le diagnosticó dolor cervical. Tanto en la valoración del dolor como en los scores utilizados se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre la primera y la última sesión. Discusión: en pacientes con diagnóstico de lumbalgia y cervicalgia que no habían obtenido resultados satisfactorios con tratamientos convencionales previos, el tratamiento osteopático derivó en mejoras significativas en todos los parámetros estudiados. (AU)


Introduction: osteopathy addresses the patient globally and applies manual treatment techniques. A retrospective evaluation was carried out on 447 patients to know the results of the treatment of lumbar and cervical pain. Material and methods: 447 patients with a diagnosis of low back pain and cervical pain (77.4% female) were included in this study. The patients already had undergone conventional treatments without having achieved satisfactory results. The patients were evaluated with the numerical value of pain scale (VNS), and Oswestry scores (ODI) and the index of disability of the cervical region (NDI). The 4 intervening osteopaths are certified professionals in this discipline. Results: 42.8% of the patients were referred by the Traumatology Service and 41.3% by the Family Medicine Service. 34.2% had a diagnosis of lumbar pain and 20.8% were diagnosed with neck pain. Statistically significant differences were found between the first and last sessions in both the pain assessment and the scores used. Discussion: in patients with low back pain and neck pain who had not obtained satisfactory results with previous conventional treatments, osteopathic treatment resulted in significant improvements in all the parameters evaluated. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Osteopathic Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Low Back Pain/therapy , Neck Pain/therapy , Pain Measurement/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Low Back Pain/diagnosis , Neck Pain/diagnosis , Manipulation, Osteopathic/statistics & numerical data , Pain Management/methods
5.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(1): 48-67, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289052

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Proponer estrategias agile para este abordaje integral de la analgesia, sedación, delirium, implementación de movilidad temprana e inclusión familiar del paciente con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda por COVID-19, considerando el alto riesgo de infección que existe entre los trabajadores de salud, el tratamiento humanitario que debemos brindar al paciente y su familia, en un contexto de falta estrategias terapéuticas específicas contra el virus globalmente disponibles a la fecha y una potencial falta de recursos sanitarios. Metodos: Se llevó a cabo una revision no sistemática de la evidencia científica en las principales bases de datos bibliográficos, sumada a la experiencia y juicio clínico nacional e internacional. Finalmente, se realizó un consenso de recomendaciones entre los integrantes del Comité de Analgesia, Sedación y Delirium de la Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva. Resultados: Se acordaron recomendaciones y se desarrollaron herramientas para asegurar un abordaje integral de analgesia, sedación, delirium, implementación de movilidad temprana e inclusión familiar del paciente adulto con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda por COVID-19. Discusión: Ante el nuevo orden generado en las terapias intensivas por la progresión de la pandemia de COVID-19, proponemos no dejar atrás las buenas prácticas habituales, sino adaptarlas al contexto particular generado. Nuestro consenso está respaldado en la evidencia científica, la experiencia nacional e internacional, y será una herramienta de consulta atractiva en las terapias intensivas.


ABSTRACT Objective: To propose agile strategies for a comprehensive approach to analgesia, sedation, delirium, early mobility and family engagement for patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, considering the high risk of infection among health workers, the humanitarian treatment that we must provide to patients and the inclusion of patients' families, in a context lacking specific therapeutic strategies against the virus globally available to date and a potential lack of health resources. Methods: A nonsystematic review of the scientific evidence in the main bibliographic databases was carried out, together with national and international clinical experience and judgment. Finally, a consensus of recommendations was made among the members of the Committee for Analgesia, Sedation and Delirium of the Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva. Results: Recommendations were agreed upon, and tools were developed to ensure a comprehensive approach to analgesia, sedation, delirium, early mobility and family engagement for adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to COVID-19. Discussion: Given the new order generated in intensive therapies due to the advancing COVID-19 pandemic, we propose to not leave aside the usual good practices but to adapt them to the particular context generated. Our consensus is supported by scientific evidence and national and international experience and will be an attractive consultation tool in intensive therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Delirium/therapy , Consensus , Pain Management/standards , COVID-19/complications , Analgesia/standards , Psychomotor Agitation/therapy , Neuromuscular Blockade/methods , Delirium/diagnosis , Early Ambulation , Checklist , Pain Management/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Analgesia/methods , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods
6.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 34: 5, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1155190

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effects in the pain and sleep, and the clinic significance after an analytic-behavioral intervention to manage the condition of the physical and interpersonal environment related to pain. Four women with fibromyalgia and insomnia participated in a study with intervention withdrawal multiple baseline design and initial, intermediate, final, and follow-up assessments. Self-report instruments were used to assess pain intensity and disability, sleep quality, and insomnia severity, besides the actigraphy. Data showed that the intervention (20 sessions) was effective in reducing the sleep and pain problems in all participants by shifting two participants from clinical to non-clinical status in sleep indicators. The gains were maintained or increased in follow-up measures. However, the results should take into consideration the clinical condition and other variables that may have individually impacted the results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Behavior Therapy , Fibromyalgia/complications , Chronic Pain/therapy , Pain Management/methods , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/complications , Treatment Outcome , Actigraphy
7.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 25: e1392, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1346848

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo foi mapear o conhecimento sobre o uso da solução de glicose 25% no alívio da dor de recém-nascidos durante a punção arterial e venosa. Trata-se de uma revisão de escopo. Realizada busca em oito fontes de dados (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, SciVerse Scopus, Web of Science, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Cochrane Library, Catálogo de Teses e Dissertações) e em buscador eletrônico no mês de agosto de 2020. Foram selecionados 11 estudos, que corroboram a utilização da glicose 25% como medida não farmacológica para redução da dor em Recém-nascidos, evidenciando seu efeito analgésico a partir da redução da pontuação nas escalas que avaliam a dor. Quanto à utilização, notou-se que a maioria utilizou 2 mL dessa solução, por via oral, dois minutos antes do procedimento. As medidas não farmacológicas são de fácil uso e baixo custo. A glicose 25% é vista como um método padrão-ouro para o alívio da dor de Recém-nascidos. Este estudo possibilitou mais embasamento científico ao mostrar que o uso da solução de glicose 25% é benéfico no alívio da dor de recém-nascidos durante a punção arterial e venosa, principalmente quando associada a outras técnicas. O estudo elucida as ações de saúde para o manejo da dor neonatal e contribui para o fomento da visibilidade e relevância científica ao tema.


RESUMEN El objetivo fue mapear el conocimiento sobre el uso de una solución de glucosa al 25% para el alivio del dolor en recién nacidos durante la punción arterial y venosa. Esta es una revisión del alcance. Se buscaron ocho fuentes de datos (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, SciVerse Scopus, Web of Science, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Cochrane Library, Tesis y disertaciones Catálogo) y en un buscador electrónico en agosto de 2020. Se seleccionaron once estudios, que corroboran el uso de glucosa al 25% como medida no farmacológica para reducir el dolor en Recién Nacido, mostrando su efecto analgésico a partir de la reducción de puntuaciones en escalas que evalúan el dolor. En cuanto al uso, se notó que la mayoría utilizó 2 mL de esta solución, por vía oral, dos minutos antes del procedimiento. Las medidas no farmacológicas son fáciles de usar y económicas. La glucosa al 25% se considera un método de referencia para el alivio del dolor Recién Nacido. Este estudio proporcionó una base más científica al demostrar que el uso de una solución de glucosa al 25% es beneficioso para aliviar el dolor de los recién nacidos durante la punción arterial y venosa, especialmente cuando se asocia con otras técnicas. El estudio dilucida acciones de salud para el manejo del dolor neonatal y contribuye a promover la visibilidad y relevancia científica del tema.


ABSTRACT The objective was to map knowledge about the use of a 25% glucose solution in pain relief in newborns during arterial and venous puncture. This is a scoping review. It was conducted during August 2020 in eight data sources (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, SciVerse Scopus, Web of Science, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Cochrane Library, and Theses and Dissertations Catalog), as well as in an electronic search engine. Eleven studies were selected, which corroborate the use of 25% glucose as a non-pharmacological measure to reduce pain in Newborns, evidencing its analgesic effect from the reduction of the scores in the scales that assess pain. Regarding use, it was noticed that most employed 2 mL of this solution, via oral route, two minutes before the procedure. The non-pharmacological measures are low-cost and easy to use. The 25% glucose solution is seen as a gold-standard method for pain relief in Newborns. This study provided additional scientific basis by showing that the use of a 25% glucose solution is beneficial in relieving pain in newborns during arterial and venous puncture, especially when associated with other techniques. The study elucidates the health actions for the management of neonatal pain and contributes to fostering scientific visibility and relevance regarding the theme.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Pain Management/methods , Glucose/therapeutic use , Analgesia , Blood Gas Analysis
8.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 24(2): e002071, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254939

ABSTRACT

Ante un escenario clínico de coxalgia por artrosis de cadera se planteó la necesidad de conocer los tratamientos con-servadores más seguros y efectivos para el manejo del dolor. El tratamiento de la artrosis requiere un enfoque integral e individualizado en función de las preferencias del paciente para lograr el máximo beneficio clínico. Existen numerosas estrategias útiles para el manejo del dolor en pacientes con artrosis de cadera siendo fuertemente recomendados de inicio la actividad física, los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINE) orales y en ciertos casos los corticoides intraarticulares, tramadol o duloxetina, siempre asociado con la actividad física. Los ejercicios más recomendados son los aeróbicos y el Tai Chi o yoga. (AU)


Faced with a clinical scenario of coxalgia due to hip osteoarthritis, the need to know the safest and most effective conservative treatments for pain management arose. The treatment of osteoarthritis requires a comprehensive and individualised approach based on the patient's preferences to achieve maximum clinical benefit. There are numerous useful strategies for pain management in patients with hip osteoarthritis being strongly recommended from the beginning such as physical activity, oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and in certain cases intra-articular corticosteroids, tramadol or duloxetine, always associated with physical activity. The most recommended exercises are aerobics and Tai Chi or yoga. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Osteoarthritis, Hip/drug therapy , Osteoarthritis, Hip/therapy , Conservative Treatment/methods , Pain , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Yoga , Exercise , Osteoarthritis, Hip/diagnostic imaging , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Tai Ji , Pain Management/methods , Duloxetine Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Muscle Rigidity
9.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(5): 509-517, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144221

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study verified, through a systematic review with meta-analysis, the effects of a rehabilitation, physical training program for the treatment of pain and muscle strength in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods We analyzed studies published between 2008 and 2018 referenced at the Medline (National Library of Medicine) database, selecting 7 randomized controlled clinical trials about exercise programs to improve pain and muscle strength in patients with knee OA with Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PeDro) score higher than 8. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) systematization was used to prepare this review, and a meta-analysis was carried out to obtain mathematical evidence the outcomes of physical exercise on pain. Results The studies included in the analysis contained a total of 934 participants aged 40 to 73 years-old, with 34.90% males. Most of the exercise sets offered in OA treatment had a significantly positive outcome result in both criteria, but mainly for pain relief (statistically significant difference, p< 0.003). Conclusion We infer that there was an improvement of pain in all articles that performed muscle strengthening, but there is still an obstacle to the protocols used.


Resumo Objetivo O presente estudo verificou por meio de uma revisão sistemática com metanálise os efeitos de um programa de reabilitação, através de um programa de treinamento físico, para o tratamento da dor e força muscular na osteoartrose (OA) de joelho. Métodos Foram analisados os estudos publicados entre 2008 e 2018, tendo como referência a base de dados Medline (National Library of Medicine), da qual foram selecionados 7 ensaios clínicos controlados randomizados que pontuaram acima de 8 na escala Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PeDro, na sigla em inglês), sobre programas de exercícios na melhora da dor e força muscular em paciente com OA de joelho. Foi usada a sistematização Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA, na sigla em inglês) para a elaboração desta revisão e a realização de uma metanálise com o objetivo de evidenciar matematicamente os resultados do exercício físico sobre a dor. Resultados Os estudos incluídos na análise continham um total de 934 participantes com idade entre 40 a 73 anos, sendo que 34,90% desses eram do sexo masculino. A maioria dos conjuntos de exercícios oferecidos no tratamento da OA tiveram resultado significativamente positivo em ambos os quesitos, mas principalmente para o alívio da dor (estatisticamente significativo p< 0, 003). Conclusão Inferimos que houve uma melhora da dor em todos os artigos que realizaram fortalecimento muscular, porém ainda há um óbice sobre os protocolos utilizados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise , Osteoarthritis, Knee/rehabilitation , Muscle Strength , Pain Management/methods
10.
Medisur ; 18(4): 694-705, jul.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125252

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El dolor ha acompañado a la humanidad desde épocas remotas hasta la actualidad; síntoma muy frecuente observado en todos los niveles de salud, y en que la medicina presenta éxitos y fracasos, por lo que preocupa y ocupa en forma permanente a los investigadores. Su atención desde el punto de vista asistencial se hace complejo por la variedad de factores que lo condicionan. El enfoque terapéutico de ese síntoma debe apoyarse en el conocimiento de la fisiopatología y el empleo de medios que permitan hacer una valoración de su origen y evolución para adecuar las estrategias analgésicas que correspondan. En este trabajo se realiza una revisión sobre los aspectos antes mencionados en relación con el dolor.


ABSTRACT Pain has accompanied humanity from remote times to the present day; this is a very well- frequent symptom in health levels, where medicine presents successes and failures. For this reason it is a permanent researchers´ concern and occupation. Assisting pain is complex due to the variety of factors which conditions it. Therapeutic approach to this symptom must be based on pathophysiology knowledge and the use of means that allow assessing its origin and progress to adapt the corresponding analgesic strategies. In this work, a review is made on the aforementioned aspects in relation to pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain/etiology , Pain/physiopathology , Signs and Symptoms , Pain Management/methods , Analgesics/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(2): e1089, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149892

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La drepanocitosis incluye un grupo de desórdenes genéticamente heredados en los que a baja saturación de oxígeno ocurre la agregación de polímeros rígidos de hemoglobina S desoxigenada. El dolor es la principal característica clínica de la enfermedad drepanocítica, constituye la primera causa de hospitalización; es básicamente de tipo nociceptivo. Los pacientes con drepanocitosis pueden presentar varios tipos de dolor en dependencia de las estructuras lesionadas, el de tipo músculo-esquelético es el más frecuente. Objetivo: Analizar las principales modalidades terapéuticas para el manejo del dolor en la drepanocitosis. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura, en inglés y español, a través del sitio web PubMed y el motor de búsqueda Google académico de artículos publicados en los últimos 5 años. Se hizo un análisis y resumen de la bibliografía revisada. Análisis y síntesis de la información: Actualmente existen varias opciones de tratamiento. La base del manejo del dolor es el reconocimiento y la evaluación de la gravedad, ya que de esta dependerá el tratamiento analgésico. Una vez instaurado el dolor, el manejo inicial debe enfocarse en proveer control rápido, garantizar las dosis terapéuticas de los fármacos y evitar la aparición de complicaciones. Conclusión: Se debe mantener un adecuado tratamiento y seguimiento de los pacientes con dolor en la drepanocitosis, pues esto permitirá disminuir en lo posible las complicaciones que pueden ocasionar la enfermedad en los pacientes desde el punto de vista orgánico y psicológico(AU)


Introduction: Sickle cell disease includes a group of genetically inherited disorders in which, at low oxygen saturation, aggregation of rigid polymers of deoxygenated hemoglobin S occurs. Pain is the main clinical characteristic of sickle cell disease. It is the first cause of hospitalization. It is basically of nociceptive type. Patients with sickle cell disease can present various types of pain depending on the injured structures; the musculoskeletal type is the most frequent. Objective: To analyze the main therapeutic modalities for pain management in sickle cell disease. Methods: A literature review was carried out, in English and in Spanish, through the PubMed website and the Google Scholar search engine, of articles published in the last five years. Analysis and summary of the revised bibliography was made. Information analysis and synthesis: Currently, there are several treatment options. The basis for pain management is the recognition and evaluation of severity, since analgesic treatment will depend on this. Once pain is established, initial management should focus on providing rapid control, guaranteeing therapeutic doses of drugs, and avoiding the onset of complications. Conclusion: Adequate treatment and follow-up of patients with pain in sickle cell disease should be maintained, as this will reduce, as much as possible, the complications that the disease can cause in patients from an organic and psychological point of view(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Sickle Cell Trait/drug therapy , Pain Management/methods
12.
Rev. salud pública ; 22(3): e406, May-June 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150182

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El dolor de los pacientes de cáncer ha sido descrito como dolor total. Tanto en la literatura científica, los libros de texto, así como en informes y directrices de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, el concepto de dolor total ha servido de trasfondo para promover la atención multidisciplinaria de pacientes cuyo dolor involucra también aspectos psicológicos, emocionales, espirituales y sociales. El objetivo de este artículo es proponer una caracterización del concepto de dolor total de manera tal que continúe jugando un papel central en la promoción de la atención multidisciplinaria propia de los cuidados paliativos. Primero, se presenta un bosquejo del concepto y de los diferentes usos en la literatura. Segundo, se hace un contraste con la definición del dolor de la Asociación Internacional para el Estudio del Dolor (IASP) para establecer la naturaleza y referente del concepto de dolor total. Tercero, se muestra cómo esta caracterización del concepto disuelve algunas tensiones en la literatura respecto a su uso adecuado. Se plantea que el concepto de dolor total hace referencia a aquellas relaciones causales entre el dolor y los estados psicológicos, emocionales, espirituales y sociales que han sido Identificadas como susceptibles de ser intervenidas por el modelo de atención paliativa multidisciplinar. Como conclusión, se recomienda no vincular el concepto de dolor total con el padecimiento de una enfermedad en particular, ni con qué tan limitante para la vida es la enfermedad; tampoco para referirse a la "experiencia global" del paciente, ni como un punto muy alto de una escala.(AU)


ABSTRACT The pain suffering in cancer patients has been described as "total pain". The concept of "total pain" plays a key role in the promotion of the multidisciplinary nature of palliative care. In palliative attention, suffering is conceptualized as an addition of physical, psychological, emotional, spiritual and social aspects. In this paper, I offer a characterization of the concept of "total pain", one which preserves its key role in palliative care promotion. First, I sketch the concept and some different usages found in the literature. Second, I establish the nature and referent of the "total pain" concept by means of showing the contrast between it and the pain definition provided by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). Third, I propose that the concept of "total pain" refers to the relevant causal chains identified by the palliative care research as elements susceptible of intervention for the purpose of alleviating patient's suffering. These causal chains feature and link physical, psychological, emotional, spiritual and social aspects of the patient's suffering. As conclusion, I add the recommendation to not associate the concept of "total pain" with any particular diagnostic or disease or any particular prognosis, neither to the global experience of the patient, nor treat it as a high point on a scale.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Palliative Care/psychology , Pain Management/methods , Cancer Pain/therapy , Palliative Medicine/trends
13.
Med. infant ; 27(1): 25-28, Marzo de 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1118643

ABSTRACT

Los parches de EMLA son frecuentemente utilizados como anestésicos locales durante la realización en procedimientos invasivos. Con el fin de valorar su eficacia y compararla con la de otros analgésicos y anestésicos disponibles, se realizó una revisión sistemática de todos los estudios realizados que cumplieran criterios de inclusión entre los años 1990 y 2019. Población y métodos: la búsqueda bibliográfica de la evidencia disponible fue realizada en las bases de datos de Cochrane Medline y Lilacs. Se incluyeron todos los ECA y revisiones sistemáticas en pacientes menores de 16 años entre los años 1990 y 2019. Resultados: Fueron hallados 31 artículos de los cuales 21 cumplían con los criterios de inclusión. De dichos 21, solamente 8 estudios resultaron de muy buena y excelente calidad metodológica (JADAD). Conclusiones: El EMLA demostró mayor eficacia como analgésico en el 100% de los estudios donde se comparaba respecto del placebo. Sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias significativas respecto de otros analgésicos farmacológicos y no farmacológicos.(AU)


EMLA patches are commonly used as local anesthetics in minor invasive procedures. To assess efficacy and compare the patches with other available analgesics and anesthetics, a systematic review was conducted evaluated all studies that met the inclusion criteria published between 1990 and 2019. Population and methods: A literature search of the available evidence was conducted in the Cochrane, Medline, and Lilacs databases. All RCTs and systematic reviews in patients younger than 16 years published between 1990 and 2019 were included. Results: 31 articles were identified of which 21 met the inclusion criteria. Of these 21, of only 8 studies the methodology was of very good and excellent quality (JADAD). Conclusions: EMLA better efficacy as an analgesic in 100% of the studies comparing EMLA patches with placebo. However, no significant differences were found when comparing the patches with other pharmacological and non-pharmacological analgesics.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pain/prevention & control , Transdermal Patch , Pain Management/methods , Lidocaine, Prilocaine Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Comparative Effectiveness Research
15.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 27: e42849, jan.-dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1050558

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar o número de procedimentos dolorosos agudos e manejo da dor em recém-nascidos pré-termo em uma unidade neonatal. Método: estudo descritivo, transversal. Teve como campo uma unidade neonatal de uma instituição pública de saúde. Os participantes da pesquisa foram recém-nascidos abaixo de 35 semanas. Resultados: foram incluídos 17 recémnascidos. Foi quantificado um total de 729 procedimentos dolorosos. Em média foram realizados 42,9 procedimentos por recém-nascido durante os primeiros 14 dias de vida, sendo aproximadamente três procedimentos realizados por bebê no serviço diurno. Dentre os procedimentos, o mais frequente foi a punção de calcâneo (23,9%). O manejo predominante foi a contenção facilitada (32,7%). A (re)inserção de pronga foi o segundo procedimento mais realizado. Conclusões: O estudo permitiu apreender que o manejo da dor no recém-nascido pré-termo internado em uma unidade neonatal ainda é um desafio


Objective: to analyze the number of acute painful procedures and pain management in preterm infants in a neonatal unit. Method: a cross-sectional and descriptive study. It was conducted in a neonatal unit of a public health institution. The newborns younger than 35 weeks were the participants in the survey. Results: seventeen preterm newborns were included. A total of 729 painful procedures were quantified. On average, 42.9 procedures per newborn were performed during the first 14 days of birth, and approximately three procedures performed per day service by child. The most common procedure was the hell-stick (23.9%). The predominant management was facilitated tucking (32.7%). The CPAP prongs insertion/reinsertion was the second most performed procedure. Conclusions: The present study showed that the management of pain in the preterm newborns in a neonatal unit is strongly neglected by the professionals


Objetivo: analizar el número de procedimientos dolorosos agudos y manejo del dolor en recién nacidos prematuros en una unidad neonatal. Método: estudio descriptivo, transversal. Tuvo como campo una unidad neonatal de una institución pública de salud. Los participantes de la investigación fueron recién nacidos por debajo de 35 semanas. Resultados: se incluyeron 17 recién nacidos. Se cuantificó un total de 729 procedimientos dolorosos. En promedio se realizaron 42,9 procedimientos por recién nacido durante los primeros 14 días de vida, siendo acerca de tres procedimientos realizados por bebé en el servicio diurno. Entre los procedimientos, el más frecuente fue la punción de calcáneo (23,9%). El manejo predominante fue la contención facilitada (32,7%). La (re) inserción de prong fue el segundo procedimiento más realizado. Conclusiones: El estudio permitió aprehender que el manejo del dolor en el recién nacidos prematuros internado en una unidad neonatal se muestra fuertemente descuidado por el equipo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Pain , Infant, Premature/physiology , Infant, Premature/psychology , Infant, Premature/blood , Critical Pathways , Pain Management/methods , Brazil , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pain Management , Pain Management/adverse effects , Pain Management/psychology
16.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(6): 543-549, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094517

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Shoulder pain is considered to be the third largest cause of musculoskeletal functional alterations in individuals presenting pain during movement. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this synthesis of evidence was to identify the clinical effectiveness of conservative and surgical treatments reported in Cochrane systematic reviews among individuals diagnosed with rotator cuff disease. DESIGNAND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Federal University of São Paulo (Universidade Federal de São Paulo, UNIFESP). METHODS: This synthesis of evidence included systematic reviews that had been published in the Cochrane database. The inclusion criteria were that these systematic reviews should involve individuals aged ≥ 16 years with rotator cuff disease, comparing surgical procedures with or without associated nonsurgical procedures versus placebo, no treatment or other nonsurgical interventions. RESULTS: Thirty-one systematic reviews were included, involving comparisons between surgical procedures and conservative treatment; procedures either combined or not combined with drugs, versus other procedures; and procedures involving exercises, manual therapy and electrothermal or phototherapeutic resources. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that strengthening exercises, with or without associated manual therapy techniques and other resources, were the interventions with greatest power of treatment over the medium and long terms, for individuals with shoulder pain. These had greater therapeutic power than surgical procedures, electrotherapy or photobiomodulation. Protocol registration number in the PROSPERO database: ID - CRD42018096578.


Subject(s)
Humans , Evidence-Based Medicine , Rotator Cuff Injuries/therapy , Phototherapy/methods , Exercise , Treatment Outcome , Shoulder Pain/therapy , Pain Management/methods , Rotator Cuff Injuries/surgery , Rotator Cuff Injuries/drug therapy , Conservative Treatment/methods , Systematic Reviews as Topic
18.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(5): 439-447, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057449

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Intra-articular injections of platelet-rich plasma to treat symptoms of knee osteoarthritis have been successfully used in young patients. However in most of these studies the control and test knees were present in different patients thus incorporating a large amount of bias in the results. Therefore, the present study was designed in which patients with bilateral osteoarthritis knee were included and platelet-rich plasma was administered in one knee and normal saline in another knee of same patient. Methods: 20 patients aged 30-65 years with bilateral osteoarthritis knees (ASA class I and II) of either gender were included in the study. Patients were randomized to receive platelet-rich plasma and normal saline in one of the two knees. The primary outcome was VAS and WOMAC score at 6 months after procedure. The secondary outcome included changes in joint stiffness, physical function, any adverse effects noted during the course of study. Results: The baseline VAS score in platelet-rich plasma knee was 8.4 ± 0.88 which improved significantly to 4.85 ± 2.48 (p < 0.001) at 6 months as compared to normal saline knee (p = 0.017). The WOMAC pain score also improved from baseline (14.5 ± 1.3) to over 6 month 7.00 ± 4.24 (p < 0.001) in platelet-rich plasma knee while in the normal saline knee, no significant change occurred from baseline to six months (10.2 ± 1.2 to 10.05 ± 1.23). There was also significant decrease in stiffness and improvement of physical activity in the platelet-rich plasma knee as compared to normal saline knee. Conclusion: The present study showed significant decrease in pain and stiffness and improvement of physical functions of knee joint with intra-articular platelet-rich plasma injection as compared to normal saline.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Injeções intra-articulares de plasma rico em plaquetas têm sido usadas com sucesso para tratar os sintomas da osteoartrite de joelho em pacientes jovens. Porém, na maioria desses estudos, os joelhos de controle e teste estavam presentes em diferentes pacientes, o que incorporou uma grande quantidade de viés aos resultados. Portanto, o projeto do presente estudo incluiu pacientes com osteoartrite em ambos os joelhos, com a administração de plasma rico em plaquetas em um dos joelhos e de solução salina normal no outro joelho do mesmo paciente. Métodos: 20 pacientes, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 30-65 anos e portadores de osteoartrite bilateral de joelho (classificação ASA I e II) foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram randomizados para receber plasma rico em plaquetas e solução salina normal em um dos dois joelhos. O desfecho primário foram os escores VAS e WOMAC seis meses após o procedimento. O desfecho secundário incluiu alterações na rigidez articular, função física e qualquere feito adverso observado durante o curso do estudo. Resultados: O escore VAS basal para o joelho que recebeu plasma rico em plaquetas foi 8,4 ± 0,88 e melhorou significativamente para 4,85 ± 2,48 (p < 0,001) após seis meses, comparado ao joelho que recebeu solução salina normal (p = 0,017). A intensidade da dor avaliada com o WOMAC também melhorou de 14,5 ± 1,3 na fase basal para 7,00 ± 4,24 após seis meses (p < 0,001) nos joelhos que receberam plasma rico em plaquetas, enquanto nenhuma mudança significativa ocorreu nos joelhos que receberam solução salina normal entre a fase basal e após seis meses (10,2 ± 1,2 a 10,05 ± 1,23). Além disso, houve uma diminuição significativa da rigidez e melhora da atividade física nos joelhos que receberam plasma rico em plaquetas, comparados aos joelhos que receberam salina normal. Conclusão: O presente estudo identificou uma diminuição significativa da dor e da rigidez e uma melhora das funções físicas da articulação do joelho com a injeção intra-articular de plasma rico em plaquetas, comparada à solução salina normal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Arthralgia , Arthralgia/etiology , Osteoarthritis, Knee/complications , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Pain Management/methods , Knee Joint , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Injections, Intra-Articular , Middle Aged
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(8): 993-996, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058634

ABSTRACT

Background: Treatment of spine bone metastases with stereotactic radio-therapy (SBRT) may produce greater pain relief than palliative radiotherapy. Aim: To evaluate the analgesic response to SBRT. Material and Methods: A search was made in an electronic database of all patients treated by SBRT in our center. We found 20 patients that were treated with SBRT in the spine on 24 sites (lesions). Analgesic response was evaluated at 3 and 6 months after SBRT. Other factors such as age, sex, functional status, diagnosis, metastasis location, dosimetry and toxicity of the treatment were also described. Results: The median follow-up was 8.1 months. Complete pain relief occurred at three months in 74% of the treated sites. At three months, 78% of the patients presented a functional status 0 (ECOG). The median dose used was 24 Gy in 2 fractions. No cases of G3 or greater toxicity were recorded. Conclusions: The analgesic response to SBRT seems to be better than that reported for palliative radiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Spinal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Spinal Neoplasms/secondary , Radiosurgery/methods , Pain Management/methods , Radiation Dosage , Spinal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Radiosurgery/adverse effects , Visual Analog Scale
20.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 21(2): e85, mayo.-ago. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093816

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el dolor en el paciente reumático puede presentarse, en forma de dolor agudo o crónico, de carácter más complejo, de mayor duración (a partir de 3 meses) o que permanece una vez solucionada la lesión. Objetivo: precisar algunas regularidades sobre este tipo de dolor en el paciente reumático. Desarrollo: es de alta significación considerar en la evaluación del enfermo con dolor crónico el rol de las vías de afrontamiento. Conclusiones: el carácter del manejo del dolor es multifactorial, lo que obliga a implementar intervenciones multifactoriales complejas para perfeccionar el tratamiento apropiado(AU)


Introduction: the pain in the rheumatic patient can present, in the form of acute or chronic pain, more complex nature, of greater duration (from 3 months) or that remains after the injury has been resolved. Objective: to focus on some regularities on this type of pain in the rheumatic patient. Development: it is highly significant to consider in the evaluation of the patient with chronic pain the role of the coping ways. Conclusions: the character of pain management is multifactorial, which requires the implementation of complex multifactorial interventions to perfect the appropriate treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Chronic Pain/prevention & control , Pain Management/methods , Rheumatic Diseases/complications
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