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2.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 325-332, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137203

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Skin conductance response reflects the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and is used to measure acute pain. This pilot study examines correlations of skin conductance response with emotional stressors postoperatively. Methods: The correlation of skin conductance response with pain, anxiety, nausea and intellectual task performance was analyzed in postoperative patients. Results: Significant correlations were observed between anxiety and pain during physical activity on both postoperative day 1 and 2. No significant correlations were found between skin conductance response versus mild pain, nausea, anxiety or intellectual task performance. Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that when the pain is well-controlled in the early postoperative period, skin conductance response monitoring may not be influenced by other emotional stressors.


Resumo Justificativa: A variação da condutância da pele reflete a atividade do sistema nervoso simpático e é usada para avaliar dor aguda. Este estudo piloto examinou as correlações entre a variação da condutância da pele e estressores emocionais no pós-operatório. Método: A correlação entre a variação da condutância da pele e dor, ansiedade, náusea e desempenho de tarefa intelectual foi analisada em pacientes no pós-operatório. Resultados: Correlações significantes foram observadas entre ansiedade e dor durante atividade física nos dias 1 e 2 pós-operatórios. Não foram encontradas correlações significantes entre a variação da condutância da pele e dor leve, náusea, ansiedade ou desempenho de tarefa intelectual. Conclusão: Este estudo piloto sugere que, quando a dor é bem controlada no pós-operatório inicial, o monitoramento empregando a variação da condutância da pele pode não ser influenciado por outros estressores emocionais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Pain Measurement/methods , Galvanic Skin Response/physiology , Anxiety/psychology , Pain, Postoperative/psychology , Postoperative Period , Time Factors , Exercise , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Emotions , Middle Aged
3.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(2): e1042, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149893

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El dolor como experiencia subjetiva desagradable es un síntoma frecuente en los pacientes atendidos en el servicio de Hematología. Este afecta al individuo a nivel psicológico y provoca la aparición de dificultades en las áreas laboral, educacional, familiar y en las relaciones interpersonales. La percepción del dolor puede verse distorsionada como resultado de esta alteración provocada en el paciente. Objetivo: Analizar los factores psicológicos que median la percepción del dolor de los pacientes. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura, a través del sitio web PubMed y el motor de búsqueda Google Académico. Se emplearon las palabras clave: dolor, manejo del dolor, evaluación del dolor, psicología del dolor, dolor en hematología, dolor en drepanocitosis, dolor en hemofilia, dolor en leucemia. Análisis y síntesis de la información: Se evidencia el carácter multifacético de esta experiencia subjetiva. Los determinantes y mecanismos del dolor son diversos, lo cual implica que su enfrentamiento requiera un enfoque integral que ayude a los pacientes a desarrollar conciencia acerca de los efectos de la enfermedad que padece y los síntomas del dolor. También es necesario guiarlos en la comprensión de los factores que contribuyen a su magnificación, crear estrategias que les ayuden a minimizar la exposición a estos, y orientarlos para que desarrollen métodos personales que les permitan lidiar con el dolor con un mínimo estrés psicológico. Conclusiones: El dolor es un fenómeno complejo que involucra diversas variables y factores en su funcionamiento. Su manejo requiere un enfoque integral para la atención de los pacientes en su enfrentamiento al dolor(AU)


Introduction: Pain as an unpleasant subjective experience is a frequent symptom in patients treated by the Hematology service. This affects the individual on a psychological level and causes the onset of difficulties in the work, educational, family and interpersonal relationships. The perception of pain can be distorted as a result of this alteration caused in the patient. Objective: To analyze the psychological factors that mediate patients' perception of pain. Methods: A literature review was carried out through the PubMed website and the search engine of Google Scholar. The following keywords were used: dolor [pain], manejo del dolor [pain management], evaluación del dolor [pain assessment], psicología del dolor [pain psychology], dolor en hematología [pain in hematology], dolor en drepanocitosis [pain in sickle cell disease], dolor en hemofilia [pain in hemophilia], dolor en leucemia [pain in leukemia]. Information analysis and synthesis: The multifaceted nature of this subjective experience is evidenced. Pain determinants and mechanisms are diverse, which implies that their coping requires a comprehensive approach that helps patients develop awareness about the disease effects and the pain symptoms. It is also necessary to guide them in understanding the factors that contribute to pain magnification, create strategies that help them minimize pain exposure, and guide them to develop personal methods that allow them to deal with pain with minimal psychological stress. Conclusions: Pain is a complex phenomenon involving several variables and factors in its operation. Its management requires a comprehensive approach to patient care regarding coping with pain(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain Measurement/methods , Pain Measurement/psychology , Pain Perception/physiology , Pain Management/psychology , Hematologic Diseases/psychology , Hematology
4.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(1): 66-71, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138453

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar temporalmente o estímulo doloroso em prematuros com o uso de três escalas de mensuração de dor neonatal. Métodos: Foram observados 83 prematuros durante a aspiração de vias aéreas por três avaliadores (E1, E2 e E3) utilizando três escalas de avaliação da dor (Neonatal Facial Coding System - NFCS; Neonatal Infant Pain Scale - NIPS; e Premature Infant Pain Profile - PIPP) em cinco momentos: T1 (antes da aspiração de vias aéreas), T2 (durante a aspiração de vias aéreas), T3 (1 minuto após a aspiração de vias aéreas), T4 (3 minutos após a aspiração de vias aéreas) e T5 (5 minutos após a aspiração de vias aéreas). Utilizaram-se o Light's Kappa (concordância entre examinadores e entre as escalas em cada tempo) e teste de McNemar (comparação entre os tempos), considerando-se p < 0,05. Resultados: Houve diferença significativa entre T1 e T2 para os três examinadores nas três escalas. Em T3, observou-se dor em 22,9%/E1, 28,9%/E2 e 24,1%/E3 de acordo com a NFCS; 22,9%/E1, 21,7%/E2 e 16,9%/E3, conforme a NIPS e 49,4%/E1, 53,9%/E2 e 47%/E3 considerando a PIPP dos prematuros. Houve diferença entre T1 e T3 nas três escalas, exceto para dois examinadores na PIPP (E2: p = 0,15/ E3: p = 0,17). Ao comparar T4 e T5 ao T1, não houve diferença em nenhuma das três escalas. Conclusão: Os prematuros necessitaram de pelo menos 3 minutos para retornarem ao seu estado inicial de repouso (sem dor).


ABSTRACT Objective: To temporally assess a painful stimulus in premature infants using 3 neonatal pain scales. Methods: A total of 83 premature infants were observed during airway aspiration by 3 evaluators (E1, E2 and E3) using 3 pain assessment scales (Neonatal Facial Coding System - NFCS; Neonatal Infant Pain Scale - NIPS; and Premature Infant Pain Profile - PIPP) at 5 time points: T1 (before airway aspiration), T2 (during airway aspiration), T3 (1 minute after airway aspiration), T4 (3 minutes after airway aspiration), and T5 (5 minutes after airway aspiration). Light's Kappa (agreement among examiners and among scales at each time point) and the McNemar test (comparison among time points) were used considering p < 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference between the 3 examiners for T1 and T2 using the 3 scales. In T3, pain was observed in 22.9%/E1, 28.9%/E2, and 24.1%/E3 according to the NFCS; 22.9%/E1, 21.7%/E2, and 16.9%/E3 according to the NIPS; and 49.4%/E1, 53.9%/E2, and 47%/E3 according to the PIPP. There was a difference between T1 and T3 using the 3 scales, except for 2 examiners for the PIPP (E2: p = 0.15/E3: p = 0.17). Comparing T4 and T5 to T1, there was no difference in the 3 scales. Conclusion: Premature infants required at least 3 minutes to return to their initial state of rest (no pain).


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pain/etiology , Suction/adverse effects , Pain Measurement/methods , Time Factors , Infant, Premature , Airway Obstruction/therapy
5.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 62-67, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090549

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Posttonsillectomy pain results in significant morbidity to the patients. There is a disagreement in the literature regarding the use of local anesthetics during tonsillectomy. The aim of this placebo-controlled, double-blind study is to evaluate the effect of peritonsillar administration of local anesthetics. Objective To evaluate the role of intraoperative use of analgesics in tonsillar fossa and postoperative evaluation with visual analogue scale (VAS) scores in achieving pain relief after tonsillectomy procedure Methods In this study, 180 patients were randomized to 1 of the 6 groups: bupivacaine infiltration, lidocaine infiltration, normal saline infiltration, bupivacaine packing, lidocaine packing, and normal saline packing. Pain caused by speaking, swallowing, and on rest was assessed using VAS at 4, 8, 12, 16 hours, and at discharge. Results Significant analgesia was obtained in patients who received bupivacaine infiltration and packing compared with placebo (p < 0.05). The majority of the study subjects had no postoperative complications, and patients receiving bupivacaine infiltration required less additional analgesics in the first 24 hours after surgery. Conclusion We advocate the use of bupivacaine infiltration or packing immediately following the procedure to achieve adequate postoperative analgesia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Tonsillectomy , Analgesia , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Intraoperative Care , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pakistan , Placebos/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications , Pain Measurement/methods , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Injections, Intravenous , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Lidocaine/therapeutic use
6.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e043, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132658

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of the present study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of pain scales used to assess dentin hypersensitivity (DH). The preferred scale, and toothbrushing habits of participants were also investigated. This cross-sectional study was conducted with students and employees of a Brazilian Federal University who presented DH. The participants answered a questionnaire about their toothbrushing and drinking habits. Hypersensitive and non-sensitive teeth were submitted to tactile and ice stick stimuli. Then, the subjects marked their pain level in the visual analogue (VAS), numeric scale (NS), faces pain scale (FPS) and verbal evaluation scale (VES). DH was also assessed by Schiff scale (SS). The data were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Chi-Square tests, as well as by ROC curve. The mean age of the sample (56 women, 16 men) was 27.8 years. The most prevalent acidic beverage was coffee (36.0%) and the most preferred scale was the NS (47.2%). The pain level was statistically higher in teeth with DH compared to teeth without DH (p < 0.05). The accuracy ranged from 0.729 (SS) to 0.750 (NS). The highest sensitivity value was 81.9% for NS. The SS presented the highest specificity (91%). The visual analog, numerical, verbal evaluation, faces pain, and Schiff scales were accurate for DH diagnosis. The Schiff scale was the preferred scale for DH assessment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pain Measurement/methods , Dentin Sensitivity/diagnosis , Toothbrushing/adverse effects , Beverages/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Facial Expression
7.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 38: e2018178, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057220

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the perception of physiotherapists in neonatal units regarding pain, the use of measurement scales and strategies that minimize pain. Methods: Interviews were conducted with physiotherapists in hospitals with neonatal units between 2013 and 2015 in Rio de Janeiro. The questions concerned the knowledge of the feeling of pain, from its recognition to its care or treatment. The description of the results was done by comparing public and private hospitals (Fisher''s Exact exact Testtest), considering p<0.05 as significant. Results: 27 hospitals were visited. All the professionals interviewed (n=27) stated that the newborns feel pain, with facial expression being the most cited and known sign for pain. 26% of physiotherapists believe that newborns experience pain at the same magnitude as adults. Among the scales, the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) was the most well known, but only 37% of the units had routine pain assessment protocols. IV cannulation and blood collection were the most mentioned procedures as a cause of pain and there was no difference between public and private hospitals. Conclusions: There is a gap in the knowledge about neonatal pain and how to evaluate it among the participating physiotherapists, with no systematization of care routines involving this assessment.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a percepção dos fisioterapeutas de unidades neonatais sobre a dor, a utilização de escalas de mensuração e estratégias que a minimizem. Métodos: Entrevistas foram realizadas com chefes ou rotinas de fisioterapia em hospitais com unidades neonatais entre 2013 e 2015, no Rio de Janeiro. As perguntas versaram sobre o conhecimento da sensação dolorosa, desde seu reconhecimento até seu cuidado ou tratamento. Foi realizada a descrição dos resultados, comparando-se os dados dos hospitais públicos com os privados (teste exato de Fisher), considerando-se p<0,05 como significante. Resultados: Vinte e sete hospitais foram visitados. Todos os profissionais entrevistados (n=27) afirmaram que os recém-nascidos sentem dor, sendo a expressão facial o sinal de dor mais conhecido. Do total de fisioterapeutas entrevistados, 26% acreditam que os neonatos sentem dor na mesma magnitude que o adulto. Entre as escalas, a Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) era a mais conhecida, e apenas 37% das unidades possuíam protocolos de avaliação da dor na rotina. As coletas e as punções foram os procedimentos mais mencionados como causa de dor, e não houve diferença entre os hospitais públicos e privados. Conclusões: Constatou-se uma lacuna no conhecimento sobre dor neonatal e como avaliá-la entre os fisioterapeutas participantes, com ausência de sistematização de rotinas assistenciais que envolvam essa aferição.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pain/diagnosis , Perception/physiology , Pain Measurement/methods , Physical Therapists/psychology , Pain/etiology , Pain/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Infant, Premature/psychology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Interviews as Topic/methods , Hospitals, Private/statistics & numerical data , Knowledge , Facial Expression , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data
8.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190025, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056588

ABSTRACT

Abstract Periodontal therapy usually requires local anesthesia. If effective, a non-invasive, liposomal anesthetic gel could increase the levels of acceptance of patients in relation to periodontal therapy. Objective: This study investigated the efficacy of liposomal anesthetic gel for pain control during periodontal therapy. Methodology: Forty volunteers with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis were recruited, of which at least three sextants required periodontal therapy. At least one of the selected teeth had one site with a probing depth of ≥4 mm. The volunteers received the following three gels: a placebo, lidocaine/prilocaine (Oraqix®), or a liposomal lidocaine/prilocaine, which were applied to different sextants. Pain frequency was registered during treatment and the volunteers received a digital counter to register any painful or uncomfortable experiences. At the end of each session, the volunteers indicated their pain intensity using rating scales (NRS-101 and VRS-4). The volunteers had their hemodynamic parameters measured by a non-invasive digital monitor. Results: Pain frequency/intensity did not show statistical difference between intervention groups. The tested gels did not interfere with the hemodynamic indices. Dental anxiety, suppuration and probing depth could influence pain during periodontal therapy. Conclusion: Our results suggest limited indications for the use of non-invasive anesthesia when used for scaling and root planing. Intra-pocket anesthetic gel could be a good option for anxious patients, or those who have a fear of needles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pain/prevention & control , Dental Scaling/adverse effects , Root Planing/adverse effects , Gels/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Dental/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Periodontal Pocket , Placebos , Prilocaine/administration & dosage , Pain Measurement/methods , Double-Blind Method , Chronic Periodontitis/complications , Chronic Periodontitis/therapy , Lidocaine, Prilocaine Drug Combination , Lidocaine/administration & dosage
9.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(4): 450-457, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041368

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To propose and analyze the test-retest reliability of an instrument to verify the presence and intensity of pain in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine in Brazilian young people. Methods: This reliability study enrolled a sample of 458 participants (13 to 20 years). Two groups were formed for each sex according to the range of days for the test-retest (10±3 and 28±2 days). For analysis of spinal pain, a drawing of the human body with cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine areas delimited was presented. The following question was presented: during a normal day, do you feel pain in any of these regions of your spine? If so, what is the intensity from 0 to 10 (mark on the line)? The starting point, with the number 0, corresponded to no pain, and the number 10 to severe pain. The agreement of frequency and of intensity of pain was verified by Kappa test and Bland-Altman plot, respectively. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.71 (confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI - 0.59-0.79) to 0.94 (95%CI 0.90-0.96). The results concerning the agreement of pain scores showed the mean differences to be close to 0, and the largest mean difference was -0.40 (95%CI -5.14-4.34). The agreement in reported pain ranged from 72.2 (Kappa 0.43; 95%CI 0.28-0.58) to 90.1% (Kappa 0.76; 95%CI 0.60-0.92). Conclusions: This instrument was shown to be a reliable manner to verify the pain in different regions of the spine in Brazilian young people.


RESUMO Objetivo: Propor e analisar a reprodutibilidade de um instrumento para verificar a presença e a intensidade da dor na coluna cervical, torácica e lombar em jovens brasileiros. Métodos: Estudo de reprodutibilidade com uma amostra de 458 participantes (13 a 20 anos). Dois grupos foram formados para cada sexo de acordo com o intervalo de dias entre teste e reteste (10±3 e 28±2 dias). Para a análise da dor na coluna, foi apresentada a figura de um corpo humano com as áreas da coluna cervical, torácica e lombar delimitadas. A seguinte pergunta foi realizada: durante um dia comum, você sente dor em alguma dessas regiões da coluna? Se sim, qual é a intensidade de 0 a 10 (marque um traço)? A extremidade com o número 0 correspondia à ausência de dor e o número 10, à dor muito intensa. A concordância na frequência e intensidade da dor foi verificada por meio do teste Kappa e da plotagem de Bland-Altman, respectivamente. Resultados: Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse variaram de 0,71 (intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% - 0,59-0,79) a 0,94 (IC95% 0,90-0,96). Os resultados relativos à concordância no escore de dor mostraram que as diferenças médias foram próximas de 0 e a maior diferença média foi de -0,40 (IC95% -5,14-4,34). A concordância no relato de dor variou de 72,2 (Kappa 0,43; IC95% 0,28-0,58) a 90,1% (Kappa 0,76; IC95% 0,60-0,92). Conclusões: O instrumento demonstrou ser uma forma reprodutível de verificar a dor em diferentes regiões da coluna vertebral em jovens brasileiros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Pain Measurement/methods , Back Pain/diagnosis , Neck Pain/diagnosis , Spine , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results
10.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(4): 571-581, out.-dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058057

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a adequação de duas escalas comportamentais, a Behavioral Pain Scale e a Critical Care Pain Observation Tool, para a avaliação da dor em pacientes intubados orotraquealmente, internados em unidades de terapia intensiva. Método: Utilizando a metodologia recomendada pelo Centro Cochrane, foi realizada revisão sistemática da literatura, na base de dados eletrônica EBSCO host (CINAHL Complete, MEDLINE®Complete, Nursing & Allied Health Collection: Comprehensive, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Methodology Register, Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts, MedicLatina). Foram realizadas duas pesquisas com os seguintes termos em inglês no campo de pesquisa: "behavioral pain scale" AND "critical care pain observation tool" AND "behavioral pain scale" OR "critical care pain observation tool". Dois revisores independentes realizaram a avaliação crítica, a extração e a síntese dos dados. Resultados: Foram incluídos 15 estudos que evidenciaram que a Behavioral Pain Scale e a Critical Care Pain Observation Tool eram duas escalas válidas e confiáveis para a avaliação da dor em pacientes intubados orotraquealmente e internados em unidade de terapia intensiva. As escalas apresentaram propriedades psicométricas semelhantes, bem como boa confiabilidade. Conclusão: Ambas as escalas são adequadas para a avaliação da dor em pacientes intubados orotraquealmente, internados em unidade de terapia intensiva, contudo, apresentam limitações em populações específicas como doentes vítimas de trauma, queimados e do foro neurocirurgico. É sugerida a realização de mais estudos sobre o tema e em populações específicas.


ABSTRACT Objective: Descrever a adequação de duas escalas comportamentais, a Behavioral Pain Scale e a Critical Care Pain Observation Tool, para a avaliação da dor em pacientes intubados orotraquealmente, internados em unidades de terapia intensiva. Method: Utilizando a metodologia recomendada pelo Centro Cochrane, foi realizada revisão sistemática da literatura, na base de dados eletrônica EBSCO host (CINAHL Complete, MEDLINE®Complete, Nursing & Allied Health Collection: Comprehensive, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Methodology Register, Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts, MedicLatina). Foram realizadas duas pesquisas com os seguintes termos em inglês no campo de pesquisa: "behavioral pain scale" AND "critical care pain observation tool" AND "behavioral pain scale" OR "critical care pain observation tool". Dois revisores independentes realizaram a avaliação crítica, a extração e a síntese dos dados. Results: Foram incluídos 15 estudos que evidenciaram que a Behavioral Pain Scale e a Critical Care Pain Observation Tool eram duas escalas válidas e confiáveis para a avaliação da dor em pacientes intubados orotraquealmente e internados em unidade de terapia intensiva. As escalas apresentaram propriedades psicométricas semelhantes, bem como boa confiabilidade. Conclusion: Ambas as escalas são adequadas para a avaliação da dor em pacientes intubados orotraquealmente, internados em unidade de terapia intensiva, contudo, apresentam limitações em populações específicas como doentes vítimas de trauma, queimados e do foro neurocirurgico. É sugerida a realização de mais estudos sobre o tema e em populações específicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain/diagnosis , Pain Measurement/methods , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal
11.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(6): 587-593, nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057466

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: To investigate, describe, and assess the phenomenon of "rebound pain" as a clinically relevant problem in anesthetic practice. Content: The phenomenon of "rebound pain" has been demonstrated and described as a very severe pain, which occurs after a peripheral nerve block resolution with the recovery of sensitivity. The incidence of rebound pain is unknown. Usually, it occurs between 12 and 24 hours after surgery and, adversely affecting sleep quality. It is not yet possible to establish a mechanism as a definitive cause or trigger factor of rebound pain. Studies suggest that rebound pain is a side effect of peripheral nerve blocks, despite their effectiveness in pain control. Currently, the extent and clinical significance of rebound pain cannot be well determined due to the lack of large prospective studies. Conclusion: Rebound pain assessment should always be considered in clinical practice, as it is not a rare side effect of peripheral nerve blocks. There are still many challenging questions to be answered about rebound pain, so large prospective studies are needed to address the issue. For prevention, the use of peripheral nerve block techniques that avoid nerve damage and adequate perioperative analgesia associated with patient education on the early administration of analgesics, even during the period of analgesia provided by peripheral nerve block, is recommended. A better understanding of the "rebound pain" phenomenon, its pathophysiology, associated risk factors, and long-term consequences may help in developing more effective preventive strategies.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Investigar, descrever e avaliar o fenômeno da "dor rebote" como um problema clinicamente relevante na prática anestésica. Conteúdo: O fenômeno da "dor rebote" foi demonstrado e descrito como uma dor muito intensa que ocorre após a resolução do bloqueio de nervo periférico com o retorno da sensibilidade. A incidência de dor rebote é desconhecida. Normalmente ela ocorre entre 12 a 24 horas após a cirurgia e afeta negativamente a qualidade do sono. Ainda não é possível estabelecer um mecanismo como causa definitiva ou fator desencadeante da dor rebote. Estudos sugerem que a dor rebote seja um efeito colateral dos bloqueios de nervos periféricos, apesar destes terem eficácia no controle álgico. Atualmente, a extensão e a significância clínica da dor rebote não podem ser bem determinadas, devido à falta de grandes estudos prospectivos. Conclusão: A avaliação da dor rebote deve ser sempre considerada na prática clínica, pois não é um efeito colateral raro dos bloqueios de nervo periféricos. Ainda existem muitas questões desafiadoras a serem respondidas sobre a dor rebote, portanto fazem-se necessários amplos estudos prospectivos sobre a temática. Para a sua prevenção recomenda-se o uso de técnicas de bloqueio de nervo periférico que evitem a lesão do nervo e uma adequada analgesia perioperatória associada à orientação do paciente sobre a administração precoce de analgésicos mesmo na vigência da analgesia proporcionada pelo bloqueio de nervo periférico. A melhor compreensão do fenômeno "dor rebote", sua fisiopatologia, seus fatores de risco associados e suas consequências em longo prazo poderá ajudar na elaboração de estratégias preventivas mais eficazes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain/etiology , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Pain/physiopathology , Pain/epidemiology , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain Measurement/methods , Patient Education as Topic , Risk Factors , Nerve Block/methods
12.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(4): 396-402, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041998

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives Patient self-rating based scales such as Numerical Rating Scale, Visual Analog Scale that is used for postoperative pain assessment may be problematic in geriatric or critically ill patients with communication problems. A method capable of the assessment of pain in objective manner has been searched for years. Analgesia nociception index, which is based on electrocardiographic data reflecting parasympathetic activity, has been proposed for this. In this study we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of analgesia nociception index as a tool for acute postoperative pain assessment. Our hypothesis was that analgesia nociception index may have good correlation with Numerical Rating Scale values. Methods A total of 120 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II undergoing any surgical procedure under halogenated-based anesthesia with fentanyl or remifentanil were enrolled for the study. At the 15th minute of arrival to the Postoperative Care Unit the patients' pain was rated on a 0-10 point Numerical Rating Scale. The patients' heart rate, blood pressure, and analgesia nociception index scores were simultaneously measured at that time. The correlation between analgesia nociception index, heart rate, blood pressure and Numerical Rating Scale was examined. Results The study was completed with 107 patients, of which 46 were males (43%). Mean (SD) analgesia nociception index values were significantly higher in patients with initial Numerical Rating Scale ≤3, compared with Numerical Rating Scale >3 (69.1 [13.4] vs. 58.1 [12.9] respectively, p < 0.001). A significant negative linear relationship (r 2 = -0.312, p = 0.001) was observed between analgesia nociception index and Numerical Rating Scale. Conclusion Analgesia nociception index measurements at postoperative period after volatile agent and opioid-based anesthesia correlate well with subjective Numerical Rating Scale scores.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivo As escalas baseadas na autoavaliação de pacientes, como a Escala Visual Numérica e a Escala Visual Analógica, que são usadas para avaliar a dor pós-operatória podem ser problemáticas em pacientes geriátricos ou em estado crítico com problemas de comunicação. Portanto, um método capaz de avaliar a dor de maneira objetiva vem sendo pesquisado há anos. O índice de analgesia/nocicepção, baseado em dados eletrocardiográficos que refletem a atividade parassimpática, tem sido proposto para tal avaliação. Neste estudo, objetivamos investigar a eficácia do índice de analgesia/nocicepção como uma ferramenta para a avaliação da dor pós-operatória aguda. Nossa hipótese foi que o índice de analgesia/nocicepção pode ter boa correlação com os valores da Escala de Classificação Numérica. Métodos Um total de 120 pacientes com estado físico ASA I e II, submetidos a qualquer procedimento cirúrgico com o uso de anestésicos halogenados associados a fentanil ou remifentanil, foi incluído no estudo. No 15º minuto após a chegada à sala de recuperação pós-anestesia, a dor dos pacientes foi avaliada em uma escala numérica de 0-10 pontos. Os escores de frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial e o índice de analgesia/nocicepção dos pacientes foram medidos simultaneamente naquele momento. A correlação entre o índice de analgesia/nocicepção, frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial e a Escala Visual Numérica foi avaliada. Resultados O estudo foi concluído com 107 pacientes, dos quais 46 eram do sexo masculino (43%). Os valores da média (DP) do índice de analgesia/nocicepção foram significativamente maiores nos pacientes com valor inicial na Escala Visual Numérica ≤ 3, em comparação com valor na mesma escala > 3 (69,1 [13,4] vs. 58,1 [12,9], respectivamente, p < 0,001). Uma relação linear negativa significativa (r2 = -0,312, p = 0,001) foi observada entre o índice de analgesia/nocicepção e a Escala Visual Numérica. Conclusão As mensurações do índice de analgesia/nocicepção no pós-operatório após anestesia com agentes halogenados e opioides mostraram boa correlação com os escores subjetivos da Escala Visual Numérica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Pain Measurement/methods , Acute Pain/diagnosis , Nociception/drug effects , Analgesia/methods , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Acute Pain/prevention & control , Remifentanil/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
13.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(3): 594-598, abr.-maio 2019. graf, il
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-987980

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Caracterizar a técnica de craniopuntura japonesa como instrumento para o tratamento da dor não específica em profissionais de saúde. Método: Estudo do tipo antes e depois. O cenário foi uma instituição pública de saúde, de assistência em nível primário. O processo de coleta dos dados ocorreu por um período de 4 semanas, totalizando 8 sessões. Foi utilizada a Escala Visual/verbal Numérica antes e após a sessão. Os dados foram analisados com auxílio do programa Bioestat 5.3. Resultados: Foi composto por 7 sujeitos, aproximadamente 41% do total dos profissionais da equipe que compõem o cenário do estudo. A técnica de craniopuntura japonesa auxiliou na redução da dor (p=0,009) em 100% dos participantes deste estudo. Conclusão: A craniopuntura japonesa foi eficaz em todas as sessões, na redução da dor não específica dos sujeitos do estudo


Objective: The study's goal has been to characterize the Japanese scalp acupuncture technique as an instrument for non-specific pain treatment in health professionals. Methods: It is a controlled before-and-after study. The scenario was a public health institution, which performs health assistance at the primary level. The data collection process was carried out over a period of 4 weeks, totaling 8 sessions. The Visual/Verbal Numeric Scale was used both before and after each session. Data were analyzed using the Bioestat 5.3 program. Results: It was encompassed by 7 subjects, approximately 41% of the total of the professionals of the team that comprises the studied scenario. The Japanese scalp acupuncture technique helped reduce pain (p=0.009) in 100% of the participants of this study. Conclusion: Japanese scalp acupuncture was effective in all sessions, therefore, reducing non-specific pain events in the participants under study


Objetivo: Caracterizar la técnica de craneofaringe japonés como instrumento para el tratamiento del dolor no específico en los profesionales de la salud. Método: Estudio del tipo antes y después. El escenario fue una institución pública de salud, de asistencia a nivel primario. El proceso de recolección de datos ocurrió por un período de 4 semanas, totalizando 8 sesiones. Se utilizó la Escala Visual / verbal Numérica antes y después de la sesión. Los datos se analizaron con ayuda del programa Bioestat 5.3. Resultados: Fue compuesto por 7 sujetos, aproximadamente el 41% del total de los profesionales del equipo que componen el escenario del estudio. La técnica de craneoparatil japonesa ayudó en la reducción del dolor (p = 0,009) en el 100% de los participantes de este estudio. Conclusión: La cranealuntura japonesa fue eficaz en todas las sesiones, en la reducción del dolor no específico de los sujetos del estudio


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pain Measurement/methods , Complementary Therapies/methods , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Pain Measurement/statistics & numerical data , Complementary Therapies/statistics & numerical data , Acupuncture Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health
14.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(3): 446-451, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003034

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of virtual reality application on experimental ischemic pain created with a blood pressure instrument in healthy volunteers. METHODS: The research sample consisted of 172 volunteer adult students who conformed to the inclusion criteria. These individuals were assigned into an experimental (n=86) and a control group (n=86) by a simple randomization method. All individuals in the experimental and control groups wereexperimentally subjected to pain for two minutes by applying 260 mmHg of pressure 3-4 cm above the antecubital region of the left arm with an aneroid adult-type blood pressure instrument. During the procedure, the volunteers in the experimental group watched virtual reality images, while those in the control group received no intervention. Immediately after the procedure, the pain levels of the individuals in both groups were assessed with a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). RESULTS: We found that the mean pain score of the individuals in the experimental group was 2.62±1.82, and that of individuals in the control group was 5.75±1.65. Results of the statistical analysis showed a statistically significant difference between the mean pain scores of the individuals in the experimental and control groups (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: This study found that the use of virtual reality was effective in reducing the level of pain in healthy individuals. This method used a smartphone with widespread availability and ease of transportation, which can be used by health professionals as a non-pharmacological method in the management of pain.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el efecto de la aplicación de realidad virtual en el dolor isquémico experimental creado con un instrumento de presión arterial en voluntarios sanos. MÉTODO: La muestra de investigación consistió en 172 estudiantes adultos voluntarios que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. A estos individuos se les asignó mediante un método de aleatorización simple en un grupo experimental (n = 86) y uno de control (n = 86). Todos los individuos en los grupos experimentales y de control fueron sometidos experimentalmente a dolor durante dos minutos aplicando 260 mmHg de presión 3-4 cm por encima de la región antecubital del brazo izquierdo con un instrumento de presión arterial aneroide tipo adulto. Durante el procedimiento, los voluntarios en el grupo experimental observaron imágenes de realidad virtual, mientras que los del grupo de control no recibieron ninguna intervención. Inmediatamente después del procedimiento, los niveles de dolor de los individuos en ambos grupos se evaluaron con una Escala Analógica Visual (EAV). RESULTADOS: Se encontró que el puntaje promedio de dolor de los individuos en el grupo experimental fue 2.62 ± 1.82, y el de los individuos en el grupo control fue de 5.75 ± 1.65. Los resultados del análisis estadístico mostraron una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre las puntuaciones medias de dolor de los individuos en los grupos experimental y control (p<0,000). CONCLUSÃO: Se encontró en este estudio que el uso de la realidad virtual fue efectivo para reducir el nivel de dolor en individuos sanos. Este método, que se lleva a cabo mediante el uso del teléfono inteligente y que ofrece una amplia disponibilidad y facilidad de transporte, puede ser utilizado por profesionales de la salud como un método no farmacológico en el tratamiento del dolor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Pain/etiology , Pain/prevention & control , Blood Pressure Determination/adverse effects , Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy/methods , Virtual Reality , Ischemia/etiology , Pain/psychology , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Blood Pressure Determination/instrumentation , Pain Measurement/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Pain Management/instrumentation , Pain Management/methods , Mobile Applications , Ischemia/psychology
15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(1): 54-59, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004747

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The chest pain classifications that are currently in use are based on studies that are several decades old. Various studies have indicated that these classifications are not sufficient for determining the origin of chest pain without additional diagnostic tests or tools. We describe a new chest pain scoring system that examines the relationship between chest pain and ischemic heart disease (IHD). DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary-level university hospital and two public hospitals. METHODS: Chest pain scores were assigned to 484 patients. These patients then underwent a treadmill stress test, followed by myocardial perfusion scintigraphy if necessary. Coronary angiography was then carried out on the patients whose tests had been interpreted as positive for ischemia. Afterwards, the relationship between myocardial ischemia and the test score results was investigated. RESULTS: The median chest pain score was 2 (range: 0-7) among the patients without IHD and 6 (1-8) among those with IHD. The median score of patients with IHD was significantly higher than that of patients without IHD (P = 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the score had sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 87.5% for detecting IHD. CONCLUSION: We developed a pre-test chest pain score that uses a digital scoring system to assess whether or not the pain was caused by IHD. This scoring system can be applied easily and swiftly by healthcare professionals and can prevent the confusion that is caused by other classification and scoring systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Chest Pain/diagnosis , Pain Measurement/methods , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Chest Pain/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment/methods , Area Under Curve , Tertiary Care Centers , Hospitals, Public
16.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(1): 11-19, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-985125

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Mensurar e comparar a dor musculoesquelética em pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil (FMJ) e em pacientes com artrite idiopática juvenil poliarticular (AIJ); e avaliar e comparar a percepção e o enfrentamento da dor. Métodos: Foram avaliados, em estudo transversal, 150 crianças e adolescentes (e seus respectivos pais), divididos em três grupos: FMJ, AIJ e controles saudáveis. A mensuração e o enfrentamento da dor foram realizados por meio de instrumentos específicos. Para a avaliação da percepção da dor, desenvolveram-se três vinhetas com simulação de situações que pudessem gerar dor: aplicação de injeção, queda de bicicleta e isolamento social. Os pais e os pacientes responderam individualmente quanto à percepção da dor em cada situação. Resultados: As maiores notas de dor, os menores escores de enfrentamento da dor, as maiores notas para a percepção da dor nas vinhetas e os piores índices de qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde foram observados nos pacientes com FMJ, quando comparados aos pacientes com AIJ e aos controles. O mesmo padrão foi observado com os respectivos pais. Conclusões: Pacientes com AIJ e FMJ se comportam diferentemente em relação à percepção da dor e ao desenvolvimento de técnicas para o enfrentamento da dor. A dor deve ser avaliada sob diferentes perspectivas para um planejamento mais individualizado e efetivo do tratamento desses pacientes.


ABSTRACT Objective: To measure and compare musculoskeletal pain in patients with juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM) and polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and to evaluate and compare pain perception and pain coping mechanisms in these patients. Methods: In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 150 children and adolescents, and their respective parents, from 3 different groups: JFM, polyarticular JIA, and healthy controls. Pain intensity and pain coping mechanisms were measured using specific questionnaires. Pain perception was evaluated according to three illustrations simulating situations that might cause pain: a shot, a bicycle fall, and social isolation. The patients' parents also filled out the questionnaires and provided a pain score that matched their child's perception of pain for each illustration. Results: The highest pain scores, the lowest pain coping strategy scores, the highest pain perception scores for all three illustrations, and the worse health related to quality of life indicators were observed in the JFM group, when compared to the JIA and control groups. The same pattern was observed with their parents. Conclusions: Patients with JIA and JFM behave differently in relation to pain perception and the development pain coping mechanisms. Pain should be evaluated from different perspectives for an individualized and efficient treatment of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Quality of Life , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Pain/diagnosis , Pain/etiology , Pain/psychology , Arthritis, Juvenile/physiopathology , Arthritis, Juvenile/psychology , Arthritis, Juvenile/epidemiology , Pain Measurement/methods , Pain Measurement/psychology , Brazil/epidemiology , Fibromyalgia/physiopathology , Fibromyalgia/psychology , Fibromyalgia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disability Evaluation , Health Status Disparities , Pain Perception
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180195, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975891

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pain due to administration of local anesthetics is the primary reason for patients' fear and anxiety, and various methods are used to minimize it. This study aimed to measure the degree of pain during administration of anesthesia and determine the latency time and duration of pulpal anesthesia using two anesthetic methods in the maxilla. Materials and Methods: A randomized, single-blind, split-mouth clinical trial was conducted with 41 volunteers who required class I restorations in the maxillary first molars. Local anesthesia was administered with a needleless jet injection system (experimental group) or with a carpule syringe (control) using a 30-gauge short needle. The method of anesthesia and laterality of the maxilla were randomized. A pulp electric tester measured the latency time and duration of anesthesia in the second molar. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of pain during the anesthetic method. Data were tabulated and then analyzed by a statistician. The t-test was used to analyze the differences between the groups for basal electrical stimulation. Duration of anesthesia and degree of pain were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. A 5% significance level was considered. Results: There was no statistical difference in the basal electrical stimulation threshold (mA) and degree of pain between the two methods of anesthesia (p>0.05). Latency time was 2 minutes for all subjects. The duration of pulpal anesthesia showed no statistical difference (minutes) between the two methods (p<0.001), with a longer duration for the traditional method of anesthesia (median of 40 minutes). Conclusions: The two anesthetics methods did not differ concerning the pain experienced during anesthesia. Latency lasted 2 minutes for all subjects; the traditional infiltration anesthesia resulted in a longer anesthetic duration compared with the needleless jet injection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Pain Measurement/methods , Injections, Jet/methods , Pain, Procedural/diagnosis , Anesthesia, Dental/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Single-Blind Method , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Pain Threshold , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods , Electric Stimulation , Anesthesia, Dental/adverse effects , Needles
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180003, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975881

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate patients' pain levels during four different debonding procedures. The null hypothesis was that the pain perception of the patients undergoing four different debonding applications was not statistically significant different. Material and Methods One hundred and twenty orthodontic patients who underwent orthodontic debonding were included in this study. The patients were randomly divided into 4 groups according to technique used in the patients. Debonding groups were as follows: Group 1) Conventional debonding group, Group 2) Medication group (acetaminophen was given 1 hour before debonding), Group 3) Soft bite wax group, and Group 4) Soft acrylic bite wafer group. The patients' levels of anxiety and fear of pain were evaluated before debonding, and Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) was applied to evaluate their pain perception during debonding. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to evaluate non-normally distributed data. Categorical data analysis were carried by chi-square and McNemar tests. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Results Anxiety scores of the patients were not statistically significant between both genders and debonding groups. In the quadrants in which the patients were perceived, the highest pain level was in the left side of the mandible. The teeth in which the highest pain level was perceived were the lower left and upper right lateral incisors. Although there was no statistically significant difference among the pain scores of the patients in each group, quadrant scores of female patients showed significant differences, being the lowest scores in the soft bite wax group. Conclusions Majority of the patients had no fear of pain before debonding. Pain levels of the patients in the conventional debonding group were not significantly different from those of the other groups, except quadrant scores of females in the soft bite wax group. The null hypothesis was accepted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Toothache/etiology , Orthodontic Brackets/adverse effects , Dental Debonding/adverse effects , Pain Perception , Reference Values , Toothache/psychology , Bite Force , Pain Measurement/methods , Prospective Studies , Age Factors , Dental Debonding/methods , Dental Debonding/psychology , Dental Anxiety/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18022, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039067

ABSTRACT

Eugenol has been employed for decades as a condiment, an antimycotic, an antibacterial, an antiviral, and an antioxidant, and it is one of the natural analgesics most frequently utilized for pain and inflammation. Our objective was to determine the analgesic/anti-inflammatory effect of eugenol compared with diclofenac, naproxen, and tramadol using the formalin test. The formalin method was used in 6- to 10-week-old Wistar rats (weighing 250 g each) divided into six groups: saline (0.9%); formalin (5%); diclofenac (250 µg/kg); naproxen (400 µg/kg); tramadol (500 µg/kg), and eugenol (1,400 µg/kg), in the intraplantar part of the hind-end trunk of the rats, with n = 5 per group. Eugenol diminished 44.4% of nociceptive behavior in phase 1 and 48% in phase 2 (p ≤0.05 vs formalin). Eugenol was shown to be 1.14 times more effective than diclofenac, but 1.62 and 1.75 times less effective than naproxen and tramadol, respectively, in phase 1 and 1.45 times less effective than diclofenac and naproxen and 1.66 less effective than tramadol in phase 2 (p ≤0.05). These data suggest that eugenol possesses moderate activity in the acute pain phase and greater activity in inflammatory-type pain, and both effects are comparable to those produced by diclofenac and are less than the effects produced by naproxen and tramadol in the formalin test


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Eugenol/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/analysis , Diclofenac/adverse effects , Tramadol/adverse effects , Pain Measurement/methods , Naproxen/adverse effects
20.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 17(2): 1-11, mayo.-ago. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991024

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El dolor es una experiencia sensorial y emocional desagradable asociada con daño hístico. Objetivo: Evaluar una herramienta para la valoración del dolor posoperatorio en pacientes con intervenciones quirúrgicas electivas. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación de innovación tecnológica por tratarse de la construcción y validación de un instrumento de medición, en el Hospital Universitario Docente Manuel Ascunce Domenech, de octubre de 2015 a enero de 2018. El estudio se realizó en dos fases, la primera referida a la construcción del instrumento y la segunda relacionada con la validación de este. Resultados: Los coeficientes de correlación más altos fueron: expresión facial, tono muscular y presión arterial sistólica. A partir de este análisis quedó conformado el instrumento definitivo con igual número de partes. Para evaluar la confiabilidad de la escala se empleó el test en paralelo, que tuvo como resultado un coeficiente de correlación lineal de Pearson de 0,945 con un intervalo de confianza de 95 por ciento de 0,93 a 0,97 entre los puntajes obtenidos en una y otra aplicación. En el análisis de la consistencia interna se utilizó el coeficiente alpha de Cronbach, que obtuvo un valor de 0,753. Se exploró la validez de apariencia mediante consulta a expertos, los que consideraron que los ítems contenidos en la escala fueron bien construidos. Conclusiones: El tiempo promedio requerido para aplicar el instrumento fue de 10 min. La escala no necesita de condiciones particulares para el proceso de evaluación. Por estas razones se considera que se construyó un instrumento adecuado, útil y factible para aplicarlo por personal calificado(AU)


Introduction: Pain is an unpleasant, sensory and emotional experience associated with tissue damage. Objective: To evaluate a tool for the assessment of postoperative pain in patients with elective surgeries. Methods: A technological innovation research was carried out for the construction and validation of a measuring instrument at Manuel Ascunce Domenech Teaching University Hospital, from October 2015 to January 2018. The study was carried out in two phases: the first refers to the construction of the instrument and the second related to the validation of this. Results: The highest correlation coefficients were: facial expression, muscle tone and systolic blood pressure. From this analysis, the definitive instrument with the same number of parts was formed. To evaluate the reliability of the scale, the parallel test was used, which resulted in a Pearson linear correlation coefficient of 0.945 with a 95 percent confidence interval from 0.93 to 0.97 between the scores obtained in one and another use. In the internal consistency analysis, the Cronbach alpha coefficient was used, which obtained a value of 0.753. The appearance validity was explored by consulting experts, who considered that the items contained in the scale were well constructed. Conclusions: The average time required to apply the instrument was 10 min. The scale does not need particular conditions for the evaluation process. For these reasons, it is considered that an adequate, useful and feasible instrument was built to be used by qualified personnel(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain Measurement/methods , Techniques, Measures, Measurement Equipment , Evaluation Study , Perioperative Period/methods
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