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2.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(6): 882-888, June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346902

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the Turkish validity and reliability of COVERS. METHODS: This study was conducted on 41 newborns as methodological design. The scales, such as newborn information form, COVERS, preterm infant pain profile (PIPP), and neonatal infant pain scale (NIPS), were used in the study. Validity (e.g., language, content concurrent, and construct) and internal consistency and inter-rater reliability of the scale were conducted. RESULTS: It was found that COVERS showed a high correlation with PIPP and NIPS, and the item-total correlation of COVERS was above 0.30 during and after heel lance procedure. The Cronbach's α values were 0.77 and 0.83 during and after heel lance procedure, respectively. The kappa values of the items of COVERS were between 0.38 and 0.78 during heel lance procedure. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded in this study that there was a moderate correlation in intraclass correlation coefficients for scores of COVERS during both diaper change and heel lance procedures. It has been concluded that the scale is valid and reliable in 27-week-old and older newborns.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Language , Pain/diagnosis , Pain Measurement , Reproducibility of Results
4.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 38: e2018178, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057220

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the perception of physiotherapists in neonatal units regarding pain, the use of measurement scales and strategies that minimize pain. Methods: Interviews were conducted with physiotherapists in hospitals with neonatal units between 2013 and 2015 in Rio de Janeiro. The questions concerned the knowledge of the feeling of pain, from its recognition to its care or treatment. The description of the results was done by comparing public and private hospitals (Fisher''s Exact exact Testtest), considering p<0.05 as significant. Results: 27 hospitals were visited. All the professionals interviewed (n=27) stated that the newborns feel pain, with facial expression being the most cited and known sign for pain. 26% of physiotherapists believe that newborns experience pain at the same magnitude as adults. Among the scales, the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) was the most well known, but only 37% of the units had routine pain assessment protocols. IV cannulation and blood collection were the most mentioned procedures as a cause of pain and there was no difference between public and private hospitals. Conclusions: There is a gap in the knowledge about neonatal pain and how to evaluate it among the participating physiotherapists, with no systematization of care routines involving this assessment.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a percepção dos fisioterapeutas de unidades neonatais sobre a dor, a utilização de escalas de mensuração e estratégias que a minimizem. Métodos: Entrevistas foram realizadas com chefes ou rotinas de fisioterapia em hospitais com unidades neonatais entre 2013 e 2015, no Rio de Janeiro. As perguntas versaram sobre o conhecimento da sensação dolorosa, desde seu reconhecimento até seu cuidado ou tratamento. Foi realizada a descrição dos resultados, comparando-se os dados dos hospitais públicos com os privados (teste exato de Fisher), considerando-se p<0,05 como significante. Resultados: Vinte e sete hospitais foram visitados. Todos os profissionais entrevistados (n=27) afirmaram que os recém-nascidos sentem dor, sendo a expressão facial o sinal de dor mais conhecido. Do total de fisioterapeutas entrevistados, 26% acreditam que os neonatos sentem dor na mesma magnitude que o adulto. Entre as escalas, a Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) era a mais conhecida, e apenas 37% das unidades possuíam protocolos de avaliação da dor na rotina. As coletas e as punções foram os procedimentos mais mencionados como causa de dor, e não houve diferença entre os hospitais públicos e privados. Conclusões: Constatou-se uma lacuna no conhecimento sobre dor neonatal e como avaliá-la entre os fisioterapeutas participantes, com ausência de sistematização de rotinas assistenciais que envolvam essa aferição.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pain/diagnosis , Perception/physiology , Pain Measurement/methods , Physical Therapists/psychology , Pain/etiology , Pain/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Infant, Premature/psychology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Interviews as Topic/methods , Hospitals, Private/statistics & numerical data , Knowledge , Facial Expression , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data
5.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 34(2): 8-13, dic. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371186

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Increasing evidence suggests that changes in the balance of excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmission are involved in the development of the majority of chronic pain forms. In this context, impairment in glycine mediated inhibitory neurotransmission is thought to play a critical role in the disinhibition that accounts for the development and maintenance of central pain hypersensitivity. AIMS: The goal of this study was to evaluate the Glycine Receptor α3 subunit (α3GlyR) expression in neuropathic (Chronic Constriction Injury, CCI) and inflammatory (Zymosan A injected) animal models of chronic pain. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: RT-qPCR analysis of spinal cord samples showed that glra3 gene expression does not change after 3 days of CCI and 4 hours of Zymosan A injection. However, we found that protein levels evaluated by Western blot increased after inflammatory pain. These data suggest that central sensitization is differentially regulated depending on the type of pain. α3GlyR protein expression plays an important role in the first step of inflammatory pain establishment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Receptors, Glycine/metabolism , Receptors, Glycine/agonists , Central Nervous System Sensitization/physiology , Pain/diagnosis , Pain/physiopathology , Zymosan/administration & dosage , Pain Measurement/methods , Analysis of Variance , Receptors, Glycine/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
6.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(4): 571-581, out.-dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058057

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a adequação de duas escalas comportamentais, a Behavioral Pain Scale e a Critical Care Pain Observation Tool, para a avaliação da dor em pacientes intubados orotraquealmente, internados em unidades de terapia intensiva. Método: Utilizando a metodologia recomendada pelo Centro Cochrane, foi realizada revisão sistemática da literatura, na base de dados eletrônica EBSCO host (CINAHL Complete, MEDLINE®Complete, Nursing & Allied Health Collection: Comprehensive, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Methodology Register, Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts, MedicLatina). Foram realizadas duas pesquisas com os seguintes termos em inglês no campo de pesquisa: "behavioral pain scale" AND "critical care pain observation tool" AND "behavioral pain scale" OR "critical care pain observation tool". Dois revisores independentes realizaram a avaliação crítica, a extração e a síntese dos dados. Resultados: Foram incluídos 15 estudos que evidenciaram que a Behavioral Pain Scale e a Critical Care Pain Observation Tool eram duas escalas válidas e confiáveis para a avaliação da dor em pacientes intubados orotraquealmente e internados em unidade de terapia intensiva. As escalas apresentaram propriedades psicométricas semelhantes, bem como boa confiabilidade. Conclusão: Ambas as escalas são adequadas para a avaliação da dor em pacientes intubados orotraquealmente, internados em unidade de terapia intensiva, contudo, apresentam limitações em populações específicas como doentes vítimas de trauma, queimados e do foro neurocirurgico. É sugerida a realização de mais estudos sobre o tema e em populações específicas.


ABSTRACT Objective: Descrever a adequação de duas escalas comportamentais, a Behavioral Pain Scale e a Critical Care Pain Observation Tool, para a avaliação da dor em pacientes intubados orotraquealmente, internados em unidades de terapia intensiva. Method: Utilizando a metodologia recomendada pelo Centro Cochrane, foi realizada revisão sistemática da literatura, na base de dados eletrônica EBSCO host (CINAHL Complete, MEDLINE®Complete, Nursing & Allied Health Collection: Comprehensive, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Methodology Register, Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts, MedicLatina). Foram realizadas duas pesquisas com os seguintes termos em inglês no campo de pesquisa: "behavioral pain scale" AND "critical care pain observation tool" AND "behavioral pain scale" OR "critical care pain observation tool". Dois revisores independentes realizaram a avaliação crítica, a extração e a síntese dos dados. Results: Foram incluídos 15 estudos que evidenciaram que a Behavioral Pain Scale e a Critical Care Pain Observation Tool eram duas escalas válidas e confiáveis para a avaliação da dor em pacientes intubados orotraquealmente e internados em unidade de terapia intensiva. As escalas apresentaram propriedades psicométricas semelhantes, bem como boa confiabilidade. Conclusion: Ambas as escalas são adequadas para a avaliação da dor em pacientes intubados orotraquealmente, internados em unidade de terapia intensiva, contudo, apresentam limitações em populações específicas como doentes vítimas de trauma, queimados e do foro neurocirurgico. É sugerida a realização de mais estudos sobre o tema e em populações específicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain/diagnosis , Pain Measurement/methods , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal
7.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(3): 748-755, mayo.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094082

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La hernia de Spiegel es un defecto raro de la pared abdominal. Su diagnóstico se hace muy difícil por lo infrecuente y por la dificultad para diferenciarla de la hernia inguinal supravesical. Precisamente, por lo poco común, los médicos muchas veces no valoran seriamente la presencia de esta variedad de hernia. Constituye una patología en la que el diagnóstico al igual que el resto de las hernias de la pared abdominal, es esencialmente clínico. El objetivo de este trabajo es informar un caso con un tipo de hernia poco común. Paciente de 50 años de edad, de color de piel blanca, obesa, multípara de procedencia urbana, con antecedentes personales patológico de relativa buena salud. Acudió a consulta por presentar dolor en la región inferior derecha, en la unión del flanco derecho con el mesogastrio, desde hacía varios meses. Fue diagnosticada con una hernia de Spiegel. Se le realizaron los estudios correspondientes fue intervenida quirúrgicamente realizándose hernioplastia.


ABSTRACT Spiegelian hernia is a rare defect of the abdominal wall. Its diagnosis is very difficult because of its infrequency and the difficult of differentiating it from the supravesical inguinal hernia. Precisely due to its infrequence the doctors usually do not seriously evaluate the presence of this kind of hernia. It is a pathology in which, like in the rest of the abdominal wall hernias, the diagnosis is essentially clinical. The aim of this work is to report a case of a patient with an uncommon kind of hernia: a female, obese, multiparous, white patient, aged 50 years, from urban precedence, with personal pathological antecedents of relatively good health, assisted the consultation presenting pain in the right inferior region, in the place where the right flank meets the mesogastrium for several months. She was diagnosed a Spiegel's hernia. The correspondent studies were carried out and she underwent a hernioplasty.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Surgical Mesh , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cefazolin/therapeutic use , Hernia, Abdominal/surgery , Hernia, Abdominal/diagnosis , Hernia, Abdominal/etiology , Hernia, Abdominal/blood , Hernia, Abdominal/epidemiology , Hernia, Abdominal/diagnostic imaging , Herniorrhaphy , Pain/diagnosis , Polypropylenes , Hemostasis
8.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(1): 173-179, ene.-feb. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991335

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El divertículo de Meckel es una evaginación en dedo de guante del borde antimesentérico del íleon, constituido por sus capas, debido a una persistencia embriológica del extremo proximal del conducto onfalomesentérico. Forma una bolsa a manera de tubo y que puede extenderse hasta la región umbilical, su inflamación (diverticulitis) produce un cuadro clínico semejante al de la apendicitis aguda, por lo que su diagnóstico preoperatorio es raro. Por lo infrecuente, los médicos no piensan seriamente en esta patología y su diagnóstico definitivo se realiza durante el transoperatorio. Se presentó un caso por lo infrecuente que resulta lo cual aporta conocimiento a la comunidad médica sobre el tema. Paciente de 68 años, acude al centro con dolor tipo cólico, taquicardia y fiebre de 38.5C°, con 24 h de evolución. Refiere que el dolor se le hizo fijo hacia fosa iliaca derecha, el cual se fue intensificando. Se decidió su ingreso para tratamiento quirúrgico. Se realizó apendicectomia y resección y anastomosis en la zona del divertículo. Se recibió biopsia informando diverticulitis de Meckel.


ABSTRACT Meckel's diverticulum is an evagination resembling a glove finger of the ileum anti-mesenteric edge, formed by layers due to an embryologic persistence of the proximal end of omphalo-mesenteric duct. It forms a sac like a tube that may extend up to the umbilical region; its inflammation (diverticulitis) has clinical characteristics similar to the acute appendicitis ones, making its pre-surgery diagnosis very unusual. Due to its frequency, doctors often do not take this disease into account, and it is definitely diagnosed during the trans-operative. The case was presented due to its infrequency, bringing knowledge on the theme to medical community. A patient aged 68 years assisted the hospital with a colic-like pain, tachycardia and fiver of 38.5oC after 24 hours of evolution. He refers that the pain became fixed in the right iliac fosse and got more intensity. The decision was entering him for surgical treatment. Appendectomy, resection and anastomosis were carried out in the area of the diverticulum. The received biopsy informed Meckel's diverticulum.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Hemostasis , Meckel Diverticulum/surgery , Meckel Diverticulum/diagnosis , Meckel Diverticulum/blood , Meckel Diverticulum/diagnostic imaging , Pain/diagnosis , Colic/diagnosis , Ilium/physiopathology
9.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(1): 11-19, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-985125

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Mensurar e comparar a dor musculoesquelética em pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil (FMJ) e em pacientes com artrite idiopática juvenil poliarticular (AIJ); e avaliar e comparar a percepção e o enfrentamento da dor. Métodos: Foram avaliados, em estudo transversal, 150 crianças e adolescentes (e seus respectivos pais), divididos em três grupos: FMJ, AIJ e controles saudáveis. A mensuração e o enfrentamento da dor foram realizados por meio de instrumentos específicos. Para a avaliação da percepção da dor, desenvolveram-se três vinhetas com simulação de situações que pudessem gerar dor: aplicação de injeção, queda de bicicleta e isolamento social. Os pais e os pacientes responderam individualmente quanto à percepção da dor em cada situação. Resultados: As maiores notas de dor, os menores escores de enfrentamento da dor, as maiores notas para a percepção da dor nas vinhetas e os piores índices de qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde foram observados nos pacientes com FMJ, quando comparados aos pacientes com AIJ e aos controles. O mesmo padrão foi observado com os respectivos pais. Conclusões: Pacientes com AIJ e FMJ se comportam diferentemente em relação à percepção da dor e ao desenvolvimento de técnicas para o enfrentamento da dor. A dor deve ser avaliada sob diferentes perspectivas para um planejamento mais individualizado e efetivo do tratamento desses pacientes.


ABSTRACT Objective: To measure and compare musculoskeletal pain in patients with juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM) and polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and to evaluate and compare pain perception and pain coping mechanisms in these patients. Methods: In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 150 children and adolescents, and their respective parents, from 3 different groups: JFM, polyarticular JIA, and healthy controls. Pain intensity and pain coping mechanisms were measured using specific questionnaires. Pain perception was evaluated according to three illustrations simulating situations that might cause pain: a shot, a bicycle fall, and social isolation. The patients' parents also filled out the questionnaires and provided a pain score that matched their child's perception of pain for each illustration. Results: The highest pain scores, the lowest pain coping strategy scores, the highest pain perception scores for all three illustrations, and the worse health related to quality of life indicators were observed in the JFM group, when compared to the JIA and control groups. The same pattern was observed with their parents. Conclusions: Patients with JIA and JFM behave differently in relation to pain perception and the development pain coping mechanisms. Pain should be evaluated from different perspectives for an individualized and efficient treatment of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Quality of Life , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Pain/diagnosis , Pain/etiology , Pain/psychology , Arthritis, Juvenile/physiopathology , Arthritis, Juvenile/psychology , Arthritis, Juvenile/epidemiology , Pain Measurement/methods , Pain Measurement/psychology , Brazil/epidemiology , Fibromyalgia/physiopathology , Fibromyalgia/psychology , Fibromyalgia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disability Evaluation , Health Status Disparities , Pain Perception
10.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1264233

ABSTRACT

Objectifs : La douleur est l'un des motifs les plus fréquents de demande de soins. L'objectif de notre étude était d'évaluer la qualité de sa prise en charge chez les patients adultes hospitalisés au CNHUHKM de Cotonou. Méthodes d'etude : Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive conduite sur une période de 09 mois allant de Janvier à Septembre 2016 au CNHU-HKM. Un recrutement exhaustif a été fait pendant la période d'étude et a inclus les sujets adultes hospitalisés depuis au moins 24 heures. L'APS-POQR (American Pain Society- Patient Outcome Questionnaire- Revised) a été modifié et intégré dans l'outil de collecte des données. Résultats : Des 408 patients recrutés, 76,7% avaient ressenti une douleur au cours des 24 premières heures d'hospitalisation. La douleur était sévère chez 72,5% de ces patients. On notait une prédominance masculine et une fréquence de la douleur plus importante en chirurgie. En dépit de la forte prévalence et de la sévérité de la douleur, près de 2 sur 3 patients (70,1%) d'entre eux étaient au moins modérément satisfaits du traitement antalgique. Conclusion : La douleur est fréquente, sévère et sous traitée au CNHU-HKM. L'étude suggère l'instauration d'une véritable « culture de lutte contre la douleur » qui commence dès la formation théorique des soignants dans les universités et qui continue dans les différents services à l'hôpital


Subject(s)
Benin , Inpatients , Pain Management/methods , Pain/diagnosis , Pain/physiology , Quality of Health Care
11.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 21(239): 2119-2123, abr. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-907894

ABSTRACT

Introdução: as disfunções miccionais possuem alta incidência entre as crianças, com potencial de afetar a qualidade devida destes indivíduos. É necessária a avaliação das terapêuticas utilizadas para tratar este problema quanto a sua capacidade de gerar dor. Objetivo: Avaliar a existência de dor nas crianças com distúrbios miccionais submetidas à técnica de eletroacupuntura.Método: Estudo avaliativo de abordagem quantitativa realizado em abril e maio de 2011 com 24 crianças em tratamento com eletroacupuntura em um Centro de Distúrbios Miccionais na Infância da cidade de Salvador-BA. Resultados: Em todas as sessões foi constatada presença de dor, contudo esta foi predominantemente caracterizada como leve e sua prevalência foi maior na primeira sessão e no momento inicial desta. Conclusão: O procedimento tem potencial de gerar dor em crianças e é necessária a adoção de medidas que atenuem este sintoma, de forma a melhorar a assistência e promover maior aceitação do tratamento.


Introduction: the miccional dysfunctions have high incidence among children, with potential of affecting thequality of life of these patients. It’s necessary the evaluation of therapeutic used to treat this problem regarding the ability toproduce pain. Objective: To evaluate the existence of pain in children with miccional dysfunctions submitted to the technique of electoacupuncture. Method: Evaluative study with quantitative approach carried on in April and May 2011 with 24 children intreatment with electoacupuncture in a Center of Miccional Disorders in Childhood in the city of Salvador-BA. Results: In all sessionspresence of pain was observed, however it was predominantly characterized as mild pain and its prevalence was higher in the firstsession and in the beginning of this. Conclusion: The procedure has the potential to generate pain in children and it’s necessary to adopt measures that decrease the pain, improving care and the acceptance of the treatment.


Objetivo: identificar los factores que ocasionan la caída en los ancianos, considerando consecuencias, y describiendocambios ocurridos en la vida diaria de los ancianos que son asistidos por la Estrategia Salud de la Familia. Método: se trata de unainvestigación descriptiva exploratoria, con abordaje cuantitativo con corte transversal. Se realizó con ancianos con 60 o más de edad.Ancianos atendidos en la Estrategia Salud de la Familia, en el período de octubre / 2017. En la mayoría de los casos, se observó queel 43,59% (n=17) tenía una edad comprendida entre 60 a 69 años incompletos, cuando se observó la variable acceso a la Unidadde Salud se observó que el 64,10% (n=25) se refiere a tener buen acceso, cuando se verifica la variable ya cayó se observó que el84,62% (n=33) respondieron sí. Conclusión: La caída es un evento de causa multifactorial, con factores extrínsecos e intrínsecosrelacionados de alta complejidad terapéutica y de difícil prevención, exigiendo de esa forma un abordaje multidisciplinario y unaasistencia continúa la salud de anciano por medio de estrategia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Acupuncture Analgesia , Acupuncture Therapy , Pain Measurement , Pain/diagnosis , Pain/prevention & control , Pediatric Nursing
12.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(1): 42-49, jan.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899556

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a validade e a confiabilidade da versão brasileira da Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS-Br) em vítimas de traumatismo craniencefálico. Métodos: Estudo observacional, prospectivo, de medidas repetidas e pareadas, realizado em duas unidades de terapia intensiva (clínica e cirúrgica) de um hospital geral de grande porte. A amostra por conveniência foi composta por vítimas de traumatismo craniencefálico moderado ou grave, penetrante ou fechado, adultos, sedados e mecanicamente ventilados. Foram realizadas 432 observações por pares de avaliadores independentes, simultaneamente, antes da limpeza do olho, durante a limpeza do olho, durante a aspiração traqueal e após a aspiração traqueal. Foram coletados dados sociodemográficos, clínicos, relacionados ao trauma, sedoanalgesia e parâmetros fisiológicos (frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica). A validade discriminante foi verificada pelo teste de Friedman e Wilcoxon por pares. Utilizaram-se o coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e coeficiente de Kappa de Cohen para avaliar a confiabilidade. O teste de correlação de Spearman foi utilizado para verificar a associação entre variáveis clínicas e os escores da BPS-Br durante a aspiração traqueal. Resultados: Houve elevação significativa dos parâmetros fisiológicos durante a aspiração traqueal, porém sem correlação com os escores de BPS-Br. A dor foi significativamente mais intensa durante a aspiração traqueal (p < 0,005). Foi evidenciada satisfatória concordância interobservadores, com coeficiente de correlação intraclasse de 0,95 (0,90 - 0,98) e Kappa de 0,70. Conclusão: Os escores da BPS-Br elevaram-se durante a aspiração traqueal. A versão brasileira da escala mostrou-se válida e confiável para avaliação da dor em vítimas de traumatismo craniencefálico submetidos à aspiração traqueal.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of the Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS-Br) in victims of traumatic brain injury. Methods: Observational prospective study with paired and repeated measures conducted at two intensive care units (clinical and surgical) of a large general hospital. The convenience sample consisted of adult victims of moderate or severe penetrating or blunt craniocerebral trauma who were sedated and mechanically ventilated. A total of 432 paired observations were performed by independent evaluators simultaneously, prior to eye cleaning, during eye cleaning, during tracheal aspiration and after tracheal aspiration. Sociodemographic, clinical, trauma-related, sedoanalgesia and physiological parameter data (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) were collected. The discriminant validity was tested using the Friedman and Wilcoxon paired tests. The intraclass correlation coefficient and Cohen's Kappa coefficient were used to evaluate the reliability. The Spearman correlation test was used to test the association between clinical variables and BPS-Br scores during tracheal aspiration. Results: There was a significant increase in the physiological parameters during tracheal aspiration, but without correlation with the BPS-Br scores. Pain was significantly more intense during tracheal aspiration (p < 0.005). Satisfactory interobserver agreement was found, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.95 (0.90 - 0.98) and Kappa coefficient of 0.70. Conclusion: Brazilian version of the Behavioral Pain Scale scores increased during tracheal aspiration. The Brazilian version of the scale was valid and reliable for pain assessment of traumatic brain injury victims undergoing tracheal aspiration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pain/diagnosis , Pain Measurement/methods , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications , Intensive Care Units , Pain/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Trachea , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric
13.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 89(1): 67-73, feb. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900070

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La evaluación y tratamiento del dolor en niños hospitalizados, continúa siendo un importante problema de salud. Objetivo: Conocer la prevalencia, características y prácticas de abor daje del dolor en niños y adolescentes hospitalizados en salas de cuidados moderados del Hospital Pediátrico, Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell (HP-CHPR), centro de referencia en Uruguay. Pa cientes y Método: Estudio transversal, mediante encuesta y revisión de historias clínicas el 13/09/16. Se incluyeron todos los menores de 19 años hospitalizados. Variables: edad, sexo, motivo de ingreso, presencia de trastorno cognitivo, prevalencia de dolor en algún momento de la hospitalización, en las últimas 24 h y durante la entrevista, causa de máximo dolor, intensidad, tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico. Resultados: se incluyó 97,4% (152/156) de los niños hospitalizados. Prevalencia de dolor en algún momento de la hospitalización: 51,3% (78/152; IC 95%: 43,2-59,3); en las 24 h previas: 39,5% (60/152; IC 95%: 31,7- 47,2); durante la entrevista: 15,8% (24/152; IC 95%: 10 - 21,5). Intensidad: leve 13/24, moderado-severo 11/24. Máximo dolor referido en internación: punciones con agujas 48,5% (38/78). Tenían alguna indicación analgésica 47,3%. Inadecuado intervalo inter dosis: 45,8% de las prescripciones; dosis adecuada 98,9%; vía de administración intravenosa: 43,7%; tenía contraindicación a la vía oral: 40,5%. Conclusiones: de los niños y adolescentes hospitalizados, 39,5% reportó dolor en las 24 h previas a la entrevista y 15,8% durante la misma. El máximo dolor referido durante la hospitalización se debió a punciones con agujas. Se continúa detectando niños con dolor con prescripciones analgésicas inadecuadas.


Abstract: Introduction: The evaluation and treatment of pain in hospitalized is still an important health pro blem. Objective: To know the prevalence, characteristics and approaches to pain management in children and adolescents hospitalized in the Pediatric Hospital of the Pereira Rossell Center (HP-CH- PR), a pediatric reference center in Uruguay. Patients and Method: Cross-sectional study, through survey and review of clinical records on 09/13/16. All hospitalized children under the age of 19 were included. Variables: age, gender, reason for admission, presence of cognitive disorder, the prevalen ce of pain at some time during hospitalization, in the last 24 hours and during the interview, cause of maximum pain, intensity, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment. Results: 97.4% (152/156) hospitalized children were included. Pain prevalence at some point during hospitalization: 51.3% (78/152, 95% CI: 43.2-59.3); in the previous 24 hours: 39.5% (60/152, 95% CI: 31.7-47.2); during the interview: 15.8% (24/152, 95% CI: 10-21.5). Intensity: mild 13/24, moderate-severe 11/24. Maximum pain referred during hospitalization: needle punctures 48.5% (38/78). They had some analgesic prescription 47.3% of them had some analgesic prescription. Inadequate interdose inter val: 45.8%; adequate dose 98.9%; intravenous administration: 43.7%; contraindication to oral route: 40.5%. Conclusions: Regarding children and adolescents hospitalized, 39.5% reported pain 24 hours before being the interviewed and 15.8% reported pain during the interview. The maximum pain reported during hospitalization was due to needle punctures. Children in pain with inappropriate analgesic prescriptions are still detected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pain/diagnosis , Pain/etiology , Pain/epidemiology , Pain Measurement , Pain Management/methods , Pain Management/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization , Uruguay , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Care Surveys , Tertiary Care Centers , Analgesics/therapeutic use
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(1): 267-276, Jan. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890480

ABSTRACT

Resumo O estudo objetivou criar um instrumento de medida que pudesse quantificar os desconfortos associados ao procedimento cirúrgico de pacientes submetidos a cirurgias dento-alveolares (QCirDental). O instrumento QCirDental foi desenvolvido em duas etapas iniciais: (1) geração e seleção das perguntas ou itens e, (2) teste do instrumento com avaliação das propriedades de medida (consistência interna e responsividade). A amostra foi composta por 123 pacientes. Nenhum deles apresentou qualquer dificuldade em entender o QCirDental. O instrumento mostrou excelente consistência interna com coeficiente alfa de Cronbach de 0,83. A análise de componentes principais (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy 0,72 e Bartlett's Test of Sphericity com p < 0,001) mostrou seis (6) dimensões do instrumento que explicam 67,5% da variância. O QCirDental possui excelente consistência interna, sendo um instrumento de fácil leitura e interpretação compatível com uma adequada validade semântica e de conteúdo. Mais de 80% dos pacientes submetidos a extrações dentárias de rotina odontológica apresentam algum desconforto ou incomodo no período transoperatório o que ressalta a necessidade de utilização de um instrumento para avaliação de cuidados.


Abstract The scope of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire (QCirDental) to measure the impacts associated with dental extraction surgery. The QCirDental questionnaire was developed in two steps; (1) question and item generation and selection, and (2) pretest of the questionnaire with evaluation of the its measurement properties (internal consistency and responsiveness). The sample was composed of 123 patients. None of the patients had any difficulty in understanding the QCirDental. The instrument was found to have excellent internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of 0.83. The principal component analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy 0,72 and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity with p < 0.001) showed six (6) dimensions explaining 67.5% of the variance. The QCirDental presented excellent internal consistency, being a questionnaire that is easy to read and understand with adequate semantic and content validity. More than 80% of the patients who underwent dental extraction reported some degree of discomfort within the perioperative period which highlights the necessity to assess the quality of care and impacts of dental extraction surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Pain/epidemiology , Quality of Health Care , Tooth Extraction/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pain/diagnosis , Pain/etiology , Reproducibility of Results , Principal Component Analysis , Middle Aged
15.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(3): 436-443, mar. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-964445

ABSTRACT

A identificação de dor em bovinos e seu alivio, são essenciais para o bem estar animal, todavia ainda não há um teste ideal para esta avaliação. Alguns pesquisadores têm utilizados cortisol sérico e frequências cardíaca e respiratória para esta avaliação, enquanto outros utilizam escalas baseadas em comportamento ou expressões faciais, não existindo uma escala que leve em consideração a união destes identificadores para bovinos. Além disso, a maioria dos pesquisadores manipulam os animais para identificar a dor, o que poderia mascarar os resultados. Desta maneira o presente trabalho propôs elaborar e validar uma escala análogo visual para identificação de dor em bovinos submetidos à orquiectomia. Para tanto 8 bovinos holandeses de 200 dias de vida e 250 kg de peso vivo foram submetidos a orquiectomia com previa anestesia local e uso de analgésicos. A identificação de dor foi baseada em analises fisiológica (cortisol sérico e frequência respiratória), comportamental, de expressão facial e análogo visual nos momentos -30 (30 minutos antes do procedimento) e 1, 3, 6 12, 24, 72 e 420 horas após o procedimento; e com a exceção do cortisol, todas as analises foram realizadas sem a interferência do avaliador com o animal, por meio de filmagens de vídeos. Notou-se que todas as metodologias propostas foram capazes de identificar dor pós orquiectomia em bovinos, no entanto a graduação de maior dor foi em momentos pós-cirúrgicos distintos conforme o parâmetro avaliado. Assim houve fraca correlação entre os modelos propostos, pois se encontrou limitações para a maioria das metodologias avaliadas, concluindo-se que a associação entre os vários parâmetros de dor, tal qual o utilizado na escala análogo visual, aumenta a acurácia em identificar a dor após orquiectomia em bovinos.(AU)


The identification of pain in cattle and your relief, are essential for animal welfare, however there is still no ideal test for this evaluation. Some researchers have used serum cortisol, heart and respiratory rates for this assessment, while others use scales based on behavior or facial expressions. However, doesn't exist but a scale that takes into account the union of these identifiers for cattle. Furthermore, most researchers manipulate the animals to identify pain, which could mask the result. In this way, this paper proposed design and validate a visual analog scale for pain identification in cattle undergoing orchiectomy. For this, 8 Holstein calves with 200 days old and 250kg live weight were submitted to orchiectomy with local anesthesia and analgesics. The identification of pain was based on physiological analysis (serum cortisol and respiratory rate), behavioral, and facial expression in the visual-analogue -30 (30 minutes before surgery) and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 72 and 420 hours after the procedure; and with the exception of cortisol, all analyzes were performed without the interference of the appraiser with the animal, by videos. It was noted that all the methods proposed were able to identify post orchiectomy pain in cattle, however the degree of pain were higher in different post-surgical times. There was poor correlation between the proposed models, because it was found limitations for most assessed methodologies. We concluded an association between various parameters of pain, as visual analogue scale, can increase the accuracy to identify pain orchiectomy in bulls.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Pain/diagnosis , Cattle/anatomy & histology , Orchiectomy/statistics & numerical data , Castration/veterinary
16.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 26: e3070, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-978603

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to correlate risk classification categories with the level of pain of patients in an emergency service. Method: cross-sectional study carried out in the Risk Classification of 611 patients. The variables studied were: age, gender, comorbidities, complaint duration, medical specialty, signs and symptoms, outcome, color attributed in the risk classification of and degree of pain. We used Analysis of Variance, a Chi-Square test and a Likelihood Ratio test. Results: the average age was 42.1 years (17.8); 59.9% were women; the green (58.9%) and yellow (22.7%) risk classification prevailed and hypertension (18.3%) was the most common Comorbidity. The most frequent pain intensity was moderate (25.9%). In the red category, patients presented a higher percentage of absence of pain; in the blue, mild pain; and in the green, yellow and orange categories, there was a greater percentage of intense pain (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: among the patients who presented pain, the majority reported moderate intensity. Regarding risk categories, most patients in the red category did not report pain. Those who were classified as green, yellow and orange, reported mostly intense pain. On the other hand, patients in the blue category reported predominantly mild pain.


RESUMO Objetivos: correlacionar as categorias da classificação de risco com grau de dor dos pacientes em um serviço de emergência. Método: estudo transversal, realizado no Acolhimento com Classificação de Risco com 611 pacientes. As variáveis estudadas foram: idade, sexo, comorbidades, duração da queixa, especialidade médica, sinais e sintomas, desfecho, cor atribuída na classificação de risco e grau da dor. Utilizou-se a Análise de Variância, teste Qui-Quadrado e teste da Razão de Verossimilhança. Resultados: a média de idade foi 42,1 anos (17,8), 59,9% eram mulheres, com classificação de risco verde (58,9%) e amarela (22,7%), e comorbidade prevalente a hipertensão arterial (18,3%). Intensidade de dor mais frequente foi moderada (25,9%). Na categoria vermelha, pacientes apresentaram maior percentual de ausência de dor; na azul, dor leve; e nas categorias verde, amarela e laranja, maior percentual de dor intensa (p<0,0001). Conclusão: dos pacientes que apresentaram dor, a maioria referiu intensidade moderada. Em relação às categorias de risco, a maior parte dos pacientes da categoria vermelha não relatou dor; os que foram classificados como verde, amarela e laranja referiram, na maioria das vezes, dor intensa; já os pacientes da categoria azul mencionaram, predominantemente, dor leve.


RESUMEN Objetivos: correlacionar las categorías de clasificación de riesgo con grado de dolor de los pacientes en un servicio de emergencia. Método: estudio transversal, realizado en la Acogida con Clasificación de Riesgo con 611 pacientes. Las variables estudiadas fueron: edad, sexo, comorbilidades, duración de la queja, especialidad médica, signos y síntomas, resultado, color atribuída a la clasificación de riesgo y grado de dolor. Se utilizaron Análisis de Varianza, Prueba Chi cuadrado y la prueba de Razón de Verosimilitud. Resultados: la edad promedio fue de 42,1 años (17,8), 59.9% eran mujeres, con clasificación de riesgo verde (58,9%) y amarillo (22,7%) y comorbilidad prevalente a hipertensión arterial (18,3%). La intensidad de dolor más frecuente fue moderada (25.9%). En la categoría roja, los pacientes presentaron un mayor porcentaje de ausencia de dolor, en la azul, dolor suave, y en las categorías verde, amarillo y naranja, un porcentaje más alto de dolor severo (p < 0,0001). Conclusión: de los pacientes que presentaron dolor, la mayoría se refiere a intensidad moderada. En relación con las categorías de riesgo, la mayoría de los pacientes de la categoría roja no informó dolor. Quienes fueron clasificados como verde, amarillo y naranja, mencionaron, en su mayoría, dolor intenso. Los pacientes de la categoría azul, reportaron, predominante, dolor leve.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pain/classification , Pain/diagnosis , Triage/methods , Triage/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment/methods , Socioeconomic Factors , Pain Measurement , Risk Assessment
17.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2018; 71 (2): 2535-2543
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-192495

ABSTRACT

Background: the term "anterior knee pain" is often used interchangeably with "Patellofemoral pain syndrome PFPS" or "runner's knee". PFPS can be defined as anterior knee pain involving the patella and retinaculum


Aim of the Work: to highlight the role of magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] in the diagnosis and grading of the most common causes of anterior knee pain


Patients and Methods: this study included fifty patients, their ages range between 10-60 years [average age 27 years]. All presented with anterior knee pain [AKP] and were referred to the Radiology Department of El-Demerdash Hospital for MRI examination after orthopedic consultation


Results: the role of MRI in the diagnosis and grading of the most common causes of anterior knee pain have been shown in this study. These causes have been classified in to five disease categories; Patellar abnormalities represented most of them [64% of the sample size] and they included chondromalacia patella, patellar instability, transient patellar dislocation and painful bipartite patella. Hoffa's diseases represented 12% of the sample size and they included Hoffa impingement syndrome and Hoffa fibrotic bands. Patellar tendon disorders represented 6 % of the sample size and they included Patellar Tendinopathy and Osgood Schlatter Disease. Quadriceps tendon disorders represented 4% of the sample size and they included Quadriceps Tendinopathy. Other causes represented 14% of the sample size and they included torn anterior horn of the lateral meniscus and cartilage injuries


Conclusion: many factors may cause anterior knee pain. MRI is generally safe, non-ionizing, non-invasive and valuable imaging technique which has been proven to be the modality of choice for establishing an accurate diagnosis of different knee pathologies that cause anterior knee pain in different age groups. It also allows to know the extent, severity, grades and types of the lesions, what will be necessary to decide appropriate treatment


Recommendations: further studies on a larger scale of patients are needed to confirm the results obtained by this work


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome/etiology , Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome/complications , Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Knee , Pain/diagnosis
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(9): 741-746, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896395

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: In order to introduce an instrument within our midst that allows a comprehensive clinical evaluation of pain-induced depression in the elderly, we proposed the translation, cross-cultural adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese, and study of the psychometric properties of the "Geriatric Psychosocial Assessment of Pain-induced Depression" (GEAP) scale. This instrument was especially developed for the screening of depression associated with chronic pain in the elderly. Method: We performed translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the GEAP scale, whose psychometric properties were analyzed in a sample of 48 elderly individuals. Sociodemographic data and information related to chronic pain were ascertained, as well as those related to depression. The GEAP-b scale was applied at three different times on the same day by two different interviewers (I1 and I2), and after 15 days by one of those interviewers (I3). Results: The GEAP-b proved to be an easy-to-apply instrument with a high internal consistency value, according to the Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.835). The reproducibility of the instrument was optimal, achieving intraclass correlations of 98.5 and 92% for interobserver and intraobserver, respectively. There was "considerable" agreement (between 0.419 and 1.0) for each GEAP-b item, except for item 19, according to the kappa statistic. As for the validity of the GEAP-b criterion, positive and statistically significant correlations were obtained for pain, according to GPM-p (r=49.5%, p<0.001), and depression, according to GDS (r=59%, p<0.001), both values being considered regular (between 40-60%). Conclusion: The GEAP-b scale has proven to be reliable and valid in the screening of pain-related depression in the elderly.


Resumo Objetivo: A fim de se introduzir no nosso meio um instrumento que permitisse uma avaliação clínica abrangente da depressão dor-induzida em idosos, propôs-se a tradução, adaptação transcultural para o Brasil e estudo das propriedades psicométricas do "Geriatric Psychosocial Assessment of Pain-induced Depression" (GEAP). Esse instrumento foi desenvolvido especialmente para rastreio da depressão associada à dor em idosos. Método: Foram realizadas tradução e adaptação transcultural do GEAP, cujas propriedades psicométricas foram analisadas em uma amostra de 48 idosos. Foram apurados dados sociodemográficos e relacionados a dor crônica, além de depressão. O GEAP-b foi aplicado em três momentos distintos, em um mesmo dia por dois entrevistadores diferentes (E1 e E2), e após 15 dias por um daqueles entrevistadores (E3). Resultados: O instrumento GEAP-b mostrou-se ser de fácil aplicação e alto valor de consistência interna, de acordo com o coeficiente alfa de Cronbach (0,835). Teve reprodutibilidade ótima, segundo as correlações intraclasses: valores de 98,5 e 92%, interobservador e intraobservador, respectivamente. As concordâncias para cada item do GEAP-b foram "consideráveis" (entre 0,419 e 1,0), excetuando-se a concordância para o item 19, segundo a estatística kappa. Para a validade de critério do GEAP-b, correlações positivas e estatisticamente significativas foram obtidas para a dor, segundo o GPM-p (r=49,5%; p<0,001), e para a depressão, segundo o GDS (r=59%; p<0,001), com ambos os valores considerados regulares (entre 40 e 60%). Conclusão: O GEAP-b demonstrou ser confiável e válido no rastreio da depressão associada à dor em idosos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Pain/psychology , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/psychology , Pain/diagnosis , Psychometrics , Translations , Pain Measurement , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Cultural Characteristics
19.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2017; 23 (4): 287-294
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-186907

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study aimed to assess interpretation of symptoms as a cause of delays in patients with acute myocardial infarction [AMI]. It was conducted at a university hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. The sample included 93 patients: 73 male, mean age 57.89 [12.13] years. Prehospital delay time ranged from 15 minutes to 10 days, with a median of 2 hours [interquartile range: 9.50]. Patients waited for pain to go away [48.4%] and tried to calm down [39.8%]. Most patients attributed AMI-related symptoms to a reason other than heart disease. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the type of AMI was classified based on electrocardiography findings [odds ratio 5.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.69-15.91, P=0.004] and was independently associated with a long prehospital delay time, indicating that patients with ST segment elevation MI would seek early medical care. Misinterpretation of symptoms and misconceptions about emergency treatment during AMI cause delays in admission and may affect treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Myocardial Infarction/classification , Logistic Models , Delayed Diagnosis/adverse effects , Pain/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(8): 789-794, Nov. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829529

ABSTRACT

Summary Introduction: The use of an improper shoe size is common in older people and is believed to have a detrimental effect on the quality of life related to foot health. The objective is to describe and compare, in a sample of participants, the impact of shoes that fit properly or improperly, as well as analyze the scores related to foot health and health overall. Method: A sample of 64 participants, with a mean age of 75.3±7.9 years, attended an outpatient center where self-report data was recorded, the measurements of the size of the feet and footwear were determined and the scores compared between the group that wears the correct size of shoes and another group of individuals who do not wear the correct size of shoes, using the Spanish version of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire. Results: The group wearing an improper shoe size showed poorer quality of life regarding overall health and specifically foot health. Differences between groups were evaluated using a t-test for independent samples resulting statistically significant (p<0.05) for the dimension of pain, function, footwear, overall foot health, and social function. Conclusion: Inadequate shoe size has a significant negative impact on quality of life related to foot health. The degree of negative impact seems to be associated with age, sex, and body mass index (BMI).


Resumo Introdução: o uso de sapatos com tamanhos inadequados é comum em pessoas idosas e acredita-se resultar em efeito negativo sobre a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde do pé. O objetivo é descrever e comparar o impacto de uma amostra de participantes usando calçados de tamanho adequado e indivíduos com calçados de tamanho inadequado, e as pontuações relacionadas com a saúde do pé e geral. Método: de uma amostra de 64 participantes, com idade média de 75,3±7,9, de um centro ambulatorial, dados de autorrelato foram registrados e medidas do tamanho dos pés e dos calçados foram determinadas. Os escores foram comparados pelo Foot Health Status Questionnaire, na versão em espanhol, entre os grupos que usavam sapatos de tamanhos corretos e incorretos. Resultados: o grupo que utilizava sapatos inadequados mostrou pior qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde geral e no pé. Diferenças entre os grupos foram avaliadas utilizando o teste t para amostras independentes, sendo estatisticamente significativas (p<0,05) para dimensão da dor, função, calçados, saúde geral, do pé e função social. Conclusão: o uso de calçado inadequado tem um impacto negativo significativo sobre a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde do pé. O grau de impacto negativo parece estar associado com idade, sexo e índice de massa corpórea (IMC).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life , Shoes , Health Status , Foot/anatomy & histology , Organ Size , Pain/diagnosis , Socioeconomic Factors , Spain , Body Mass Index , Chi-Square Distribution , Sex Factors , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Foot Diseases/diagnosis
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