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China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2260-2264, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981357


With the effects of activating blood and resolving stasis, and moving Qi to relieve pain, Jingtong Granules is widely used in the treatment of cervical radiculopathy in China. Long-term clinical application and related evidence have shown that the prescription has ideal effect in alleviating the pain in neck, shoulder, and upper limbs, stiffness or scurrying numbness, and scurrying pain caused by this disease. However, there is a lack of consensus on the clinical application of Jingtong Granules. Therefore, clinical first-line experts and methodology experts from all over the country were invited to compile this expert consensus. This expert consensus is expected to guide clinicians to use Jingtong Granules in a standardized and reasonable way, improve clinical efficacy, reduce medication risks, and benefit patients. First, according to the clinical experience of experts and the standard development procedures, the indications, syndrome characteristics, clinical advantages, and possible adverse reactions of Jingtong Granules were summarized. Then, through face-to-face interview of clinical doctors in traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine and survey of the clinical application, the clinical problems were summed up, and the consensus was reached with the nominal group method to form the final clinical problems. Third, evidence retrieval was carried out for the clinical problems, and relevant evidence was evaluated. The GRADE system was employed to rate the quality of evidence. Fourth, 5 recommendation items and 3 consensuses items were summarized with the nominal group method. Opinions and peer reviews on the consensus content were solicited through expert meetings and letter reviews. The final consensus includes the summary of evidence on the clinical indications, effectiveness, and safety of Jingtong Granules, which can serve as a reference for clinicians in hospitals and primary health institutions.

Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Consensus , Radiculopathy/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pain/drug therapy
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 168-175, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971657


BACKGROUND@#Treatment duration of wrist-ankle acupuncture (WAA) is uncertain for post-thyroidectomy pain relief.@*OBJECTIVE@#This study evaluated the effect of different WAA treatment duration on post-operative pain relief and other discomforts associated with thyroidectomy.@*DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION@#This randomized controlled trial was conducted at a single research site in Guangzhou, China. A total of 132 patients receiving thyroidectomy were randomly divided into the control group (sham WAA, 30 min) and three intervention groups (group 1: WAA, 30 min; group 2: WAA, 45 min; group 3: WAA, 60 min), with group allocation ratio of 1:1:1:1. Acupuncture was administered within 1 hour of leaving the operating room.@*OUTCOMES AND MEASURES@#Primary outcome was patients' pain at the surgical site assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) at the moment after acupuncture treatment (post-intervention). Secondary outcomes included the patients' pain VAS scores at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after the thyroidectomy, the 40-item Quality of Recovery (QoR-40) score, the grade of post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and the use of additional analgesic therapy.@*RESULTS@#The adjusted mean difference (AMD) in VAS scores from baseline to post-intervention in group 1 was -0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.02 to -0.76). The decrease in VAS score at post-intervention was statistically significant in group 1 compared to the control group (AMD, -0.43; 95% CI, -0.58 to -0.28; P < 0.001), and in groups 2 and 3 compared to group 1 (group 2 vs group 1: AMD, -0.65; 95% CI, -0.81 to -0.48; P < 0.001; group 3 vs group 1: AMD, -0.66; 95% CI, -0.86 to -0.47; P < 0.001). The VAS scores in the four groups converged beyond 24 h after the operation. Fewer patients in group 2 and group 3 experienced PONV in the first 24 h after operation. No statistical differences were measured in QoR-40 score and the number of patients with additional analgesic therapy.@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with the 30 min intervention, WAA treatment with longer needle retention time (45 or 60 min) had an advantage in pain relief within 6 h after surgery. WAA's analgesic effect lasted for 6-12 h post-operatively. Please cite this article as: Han XR, Yue W, Chen HC, He W, Luo JH, Chen SX, Liu N, Yang M. Treatment duration of wrist-ankle acupuncture for relieving post-thyroidectomy pain: A randomized controlled trial. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(2): 168-175.

Male , Humans , Ankle , Wrist , Duration of Therapy , Thyroidectomy , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/drug therapy , Acupuncture Therapy , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Pain/drug therapy
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 480-493, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985953


We wished to establish an expert consensus on late stage of critical care (CC) management. The panel comprised 13 experts in CC medicine. Each statement was assessed based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) principle. Then, the Delphi method was adopted by 17 experts to reassess the following 28 statements. (1) ESCAPE has evolved from a strategy of delirium management to a strategy of late stage of CC management. (2) The new version of ESCAPE is a strategy for optimizing treatment and comprehensive care of critically ill patients (CIPs) after the rescue period, including early mobilization, early rehabilitation, nutritional support, sleep management, mental assessment, cognitive-function training, emotional support, and optimizing sedation and analgesia. (3) Disease assessment to determine the starting point of early mobilization, early rehabilitation, and early enteral nutrition. (4) Early mobilization has synergistic effects upon the recovery of organ function. (5) Early functional exercise and rehabilitation are important means to promote CIP recovery, and gives them a sense of future prospects. (6) Timely start of enteral nutrition is conducive to early mobilization and early rehabilitation. (7) The spontaneous breathing test should be started as soon as possible, and a weaning plan should be selected step-by-step. (8) The waking process of CIPs should be realized in a planned and purposeful way. (9) Establishment of a sleep-wake rhythm is the key to sleep management in post-CC management. (10) The spontaneous awakening trial, spontaneous breathing trial, and sleep management should be carried out together. (11) The depth of sedation should be adjusted dynamically in the late stage of CC period. (12) Standardized sedation assessment is the premise of rational sedation. (13) Appropriate sedative drugs should be selected according to the objectives of sedation and drug characteristics. (14) A goal-directed minimization strategy for sedation should be implemented. (15) The principle of analgesia must be mastered first. (16) Subjective assessment is preferred for analgesia assessment. (17) Opioid-based analgesic strategies should be selected step-by-step according to the characteristics of different drugs. (18) There must be rational use of non-opioid analgesics and non-drug-based analgesic measures. (19) Pay attention to evaluation of the psychological status of CIPs. (20) Cognitive function in CIPs cannot be ignored. (21) Delirium management should be based on non-drug-based measures and rational use of drugs. (22) Reset treatment can be considered for severe delirium. (23) Psychological assessment should be conducted as early as possible to screen-out high-risk groups with post-traumatic stress disorder. (24) Emotional support, flexible visiting, and environment management are important components of humanistic management in the intensive care unit (ICU). (25) Emotional support from medical teams and families should be promoted through"ICU diaries"and other forms. (26) Environmental management should be carried out by enriching environmental content, limiting environmental interference, and optimizing the environmental atmosphere. (27) Reasonable promotion of flexible visitation should be done on the basis of prevention of nosocomial infection. (28) ESCAPE is an excellent project for late stage of CC management.

Humans , Consensus , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units , Pain/drug therapy , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Delirium/therapy , Critical Illness
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 94(1): e206, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1439318


Introducción: el tratamiento del dolor es un derecho humano y constituye un pilar de los cuidados paliativos (CP). Este síntoma en niños suele ser subestimado e insuficientemente tratado. Objetivo: conocer la prevalencia del dolor y describir el perfil de uso de fármacos analgésicos, coadyuvantes y procedimientos invasivos en niños asistidos en la Unidad de Cuidados Paliativos Pediátricos del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell (UCPP-CHPR) durante el período 2019-2021. Metodología: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo mediante revisión de historias clínicas. Resultados: se incluyeron 317 niños, 58% de sexo masculino, con una mediana de edad 6,9 años. Eran portadores de enfermedades neurológicas severas no evolutivas 64%, utilizaban prótesis o tecnología médica 51%. Se encontró registro de presencia de dolor en 35%, de tipo crónico 87%, mixto 55% y de fuentes múltiples 54%. Se detectó uso de escala para evaluación del dolor en 61%, la más utilizada fue r-FLACC. En el grupo de niños con dolor se encontró prescripción de analgésicos en 43% (48/111) y de coadyuvantes 87% (97/111), gabapentina en 78. En todos la vía de administración fue la oral/enteral. Se encontró uso off label de fármacos en 79% y polifarmacia en 82%. Se registraron efectos adversos en 10%. Conclusión: un tercio de los niños asistidos por la UCPP-CHPR, presentaba registros de presencia dolor. La mayoría de tipo crónico, mixto y de fuentes múltiples. Se encontró amplio uso de escalas validadas para evaluación del dolor y alta prescripción de coadyuvantes en relación a la de analgésicos.

Introduction: pain treatment is a human right and a pillar of palliative care (PC). This symptom in children is often underestimated and insufficiently treated. Objective: learn about the prevalence of pain and describe the analgesic drugs' usage profile, adjuvants and invasive procedures in children assisted in the Pediatric Palliative Care Unit of the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center (UCPP-CHPR) during the period 2019-2021. Methodology: observational, descriptive and retrospective study based on the review of medical records. Results: 317 children were included, 58% male, with a median age of 6.9 years. 64% were carriers of severe non-progressive neurological diseases, 51% used prosthetics or medical technology. A record of the presence of pain was found in 35%, chronic type 87%, mixed 55% and multiple sources 54%. The use of a pain assessment scale was detected in 61%, the most used was r-FLACC. In the group of children with pain, analgesics were prescribed in 43% (48/111) and adjuvants in 87% (97/111), gabapentin in 78. In all of them, the administration route was oral/enteral. Off-label use of drugs was found in 79% and polypharmacy in 82%. Adverse effects were recorded in 10%. Conclusion: a third of the children assisted by the UCPP-CHPR showed records of pain presence. Most chronic type, mixed and multiple sources. We found a vast use of validated scales for pain assessment and high prescription of adjuvants in relation to analgesics.

Introdução: o tratamento da dor é um direito humano e constitui um pilar dos Cuidados Paliativos (CP). Este sintoma em crianças é geralmente subestimado e insuficientemente tratado. Objetivo: conhecer a prevalência da dor e descrever o perfil do uso de medicamentos analgésicos, adjuvantes e procedimentos invasivos em crianças atendidas na Unidade de Cuidados Paliativos Pediátricos do Centro Hospitalar Pereira Rossell (UCPP-CHPR) durante o período de 2019-2021. Metodologia: foi realizado um estudo observacional, descritivo e retrospectivo por meio de revisão de prontuários. Resultados: foram incluídas 317 crianças, 58% do sexo masculino, com idade mediana de 6,9 anos. 64% eram portadores de doenças neurológicas graves não evolutivas, 51% usavam próteses ou tecnologia médica. Registro da presença de dor foi encontrado em 35%, do tipo crônica 87%, mista 55% e de origem múltipla 54%. A utilização de escala para avaliação da dor foi detectada em 61%, sendo a mais utilizada a r-FLACC. No grupo de crianças com dor, a prescrição de analgésicos foi encontrada em 43% (48/111) e adjuvantes em 87% (97/111), gabapentina em 78. Ao todo, a via de administração foi oral/enteral. Uso off-label de medicamentos foi encontrado em 79% e polifarmácia em 82%. Efeitos adversos foram registrados em 10%. Conclusão: um terço das crianças atendidas pela UCPP-CHPR apresentou registro da presença de dor. A maioria do tipo crônica, mista e de fontes múltiplas. Encontrou-se ampla utilização de escalas validadas para avaliação da dor e elevada prescrição de coadjuvantes em relação aos analgésicos.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Pain/drug therapy , Pain Measurement , Polypharmacy , Off-Label Use/statistics & numerical data , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Palliative Care , Retrospective Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(9): 854-865, Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423283


Abstract Objective To comparatively evaluate the outcome of treatment with 150 versus 200 units (U) of botulinum toxin in achieving pain-free intercourse and relieving muscle contraction in order to allow gynecological examination. Methods In this comparative prospective observational study, 99 patients with vaginismus were treated with botulinum toxin injections from September 2016 to August 2021. Diagnosis and grading of vaginismus severity were assessed using a Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. Under local or general anesthesia, botulinum toxin diluted with preservative-free saline (150 U and 200 U) was injected into, above, and below the right and left bulbospongiosus muscle and the lateral submucosal areas of the introitus and perineal body using an insulin syringe. Patients were recalled after 2 weeks, and the postoperative outcome was recorded using a similar preoperative questionnaire. Results Overall, the mean age of patients was 30.2 years. The baseline and clinical characteristics were comparable between the 2 groups (p > 0.05). Significant improvements were seen in the pain and anxiety scores of finger penetration, dilator use, intercourse, and cotton swab in individual groups. The intergroup comparisons between 150 U and 200 U of Botox were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion Low-dose Botox (150 U) is equally effective as high dose Botox injections (200 U) in vaginismus patients. Therefore, Botox-150 U can be used to treat vaginismus as an alternative to high doses of the same substance.

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar comparativamente o resultado do tratamento com 150 versus 200 unidades (U) de toxina botulínica na obtenção de relações sexuais sem dor e no alívio da contração muscular para permitir o exame ginecológico. Métodos Neste estudo observacional prospectivo comparativo, 99 pacientes com vaginismo foram tratadas com injeções de toxina botulínica de setembro de 2016 a agosto de 2021. O diagnóstico e a classificação da gravidade do vaginismo foram avaliados usando um questionário Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Sob anestesia local ou geral, injetou-se toxina botulínica diluída em soro fisiológico sem conservantes (150 U e 200 U) nos músculos bulbo esponjoso direito e esquerdo e nas áreas submucosas laterais do intróito e corpo perineal, utilizando-se uma seringa de insulina. Os pacientes foram chamados após 2 semanas, e o resultado pós-operatório foi registrado usando um questionário pré-operatório semelhante. Resultados No geral, a média de idade dos pacientes foi de 30,2 anos. As características basais e clínicas foram comparáveis entre os 2 grupos (p > 0,05). Melhorias significativas foram observadas nos escores de dor e ansiedade à penetração com dedo, uso de dilatador, relação sexual e cotonete em grupos individuais. As comparações intergrupos entre 150 U e 200 U Botox foram não estatisticamente significativas (p > 0,05). Conclusão Botox de baixa dose (150 U) é tão eficaz quanto injeções de Botox de alta dose (200 U) em pacientes com vaginismo. Portanto, o Botox-150 U pode ser usado para tratar o vaginismo como alternativa às altas doses da mesma substância.

Humans , Female , Anxiety , Pain/drug therapy , Botulinum Toxins , Vaginismus
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(4): 464-484, jul. 2022. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526711


Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional interaction of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract (GGRE) on the large conductance Ca 2+ - activated K + (BKCa) channels expressed in the peripheral nervo us system by using nociception and inflammation models in rodents in vivo . Besides toxicity studies and open field tests, nociception and inflammation tests were performed on rodents. Different doses of GGRE were given orally to rats and mice. Naloxone, in domethacin, morphine, NS1619 and iberiotoxin (IbTX) were administered. GGRE had both anti - nociceptive and anti - inflammatory activity in rats and mice. GGRE exhibited an analgesic effect by decreasing the time - course of the pain threshold or reaction time i n some nociceptive tests. Furthermore, GGRE reduced level of pro - inflammatory cytokines, including TNF - α and IL - 1ß. As a conclusion, GGRE can alleviate the pain sensation of the afferent nerves and can reduce inflammation and associated pain by activating B KCa channels and reducing the levels of TNF - α, IL1ß

Resumen: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la interacción funcional del extracto de raíz de Glycyrr hiza glabra (GGRE) en los canales de K + (BKCa) activados por Ca 2+ de gran conductancia expresados en el sistema nervioso periférico mediante el uso de modelos de nocicepción e inflamación en roedores in vivo . Además de los estudios de toxicidad y las prueb as de campo abierto, se realizaron pruebas de nocicepción e inflamación en roedores. Se administraron por vía oral diferentes dosis de GGRE a ratas y ratones. Se administraron naloxona, indometacina, morfina, NS1619 e iberiotoxina (IbTX). GGRE tenía activi dad tanto antinociceptiva como antiinflamatoria en ratas y ratones. GGRE mostró un efecto analgésico al disminuir la evolución temporal del umbral del dolor o el tiempo de reacción en algunas pruebas nociceptivas. Además, GGRE redujo el nivel de citocinas proinflamatorias, incluidas TNF - α e IL - 1ß. Como conclusión, GGRE puede aliviar la sensación de dolor de los nervios aferentes y puede reducir la inflamación y el dolor asociado activando los canales BKCa y reduciendo los niveles de TNF - α, IL1ß.

Animals , Rats , Pain/drug therapy , Glycyrrhiza/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel alpha Subunits/pharmacology
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e58304, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364007


This study aimed to determine pain assessment approaches and pain management strategies in elderly people in a nursing home.The cross-sectional-descriptive study sample consisted of 147 older adults living in a nursing home in Turkey in 2019. They all agreed to participate in the study (n = 147); however, as our research was about older adultswith pain problems, the study was completed with a total of 108 older adultsexperiencing pain problems. The participants' average age was 73.60 ± 6.97 years. Geriatric pain scale scores were higher for women aged 75 years and over, those who had a chronic disease and those who received analgesics, and there was a statistically significant difference between the mean scores (p < 0.05). Nurses must pay attention to pain assessment and management in nursing homes because of the adverse effects of pain on older adults' health status, vital functions, and well-being.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pain/nursing , Pain/drug therapy , Pain Measurement/nursing , Aged , Prevalence , Pain Management/nursing , Homes for the Aged , Health Status , Geriatric Nursing , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Nurses , Nursing Homes
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 190-195, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935994


Children are high-risk groups of burns, with unique physiological, psychological, and anatomical states, and the management of anxiety and pain for burn children are extremely challenging. Non-pharmacological interventions are very important for pain management in burn children, but are often inadequate for treating pain and anxiety, so pharmacological sedation and analgesia are necessary. This article reviewed the clinical treatment and research progress in this field in the past 10 years at home and abroad, including the pain assessment of burn children, monitoring in sedative and analgesic treatment, main therapeutic drugs and research progress, and some controversies in clinical practice. Besides, some suggestions have been put forward for clinical reference.

Child , Humans , Analgesia , Burns/therapy , Pain/drug therapy , Pain Management , Pharmaceutical Preparations
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 683-690, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940975


Objective: To investigate the effects of compound analgesia on ultra-pulsed fractional carbon dioxide laser (UFCL) treatment of post-burn hypertrophic s in children. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted. From April 2018 to March 2020, 169 pediatric patients with post-burn hypertrophic s admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University were randomly divided into general anesthesia alone group (39 cases, 19 males and 20 females, aged 35 (21, 48) months), general anesthesia+lidocaine group (41 cases, 23 males and 18 females, aged 42 (22, 68) months), general anesthesia+ibuprofen suppository group (41 cases, 25 males and 16 females, aged 38 (26, 52) months), and three-drug combination group with general anesthesia + lidocaine+ibuprofen suppository (48 cases, 25 males and 23 females, aged 42 (25, 60) months), and the pediatric patients in each group were treated with corresponding analgesic regimens when UFCL was used to treat s, and the pediatric patients were given comprehensive care throughout the treatment process. The pain degree of pediatric patients scar was evaluated by facial expression,legs,activity,cry,and consolability (FLACC) of children's pain behavior scale at 0 (immediately), 1, 2, and 4 h after awakening from the first anesthesia, respectively. At 4 h after awakening from the first anesthesia of postoperative pain assessment, the self-made analgesia satisfaction questionnaire was used to evaluate the satisfaction for the analgesic effect of the pediatric patients or their families, and the satisfaction rate was calculated. Within 2 h after the first operation, the occurrences of adverse reactions of the pediatric patients, such as nausea and vomiting, headache, dizziness, drowsiness, etc, were observed and recorded. Before the first treatment and 1 month after the last treatment, the Vancouver scar scale (VSS) was used to evaluate the pediatric patients scar, and the difference value between the two was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed with least significant difference test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, chi-square test and Fisher's exact probability test. Results: At 0 h after awakening from the first anesthesia, the FLACC scores of pediatric patients in general anesthesia+lidocaine group, general anesthesia+ibuprofen suppository group and three-drug combination group were significantly lower than those in general anesthesia alone group (P<0.01). The FLACC scores of the pediatric patients in anesthesia+ibuprofen suppository group and three-drug combination group were significantly lower than that in general anesthesia+lidocaine group (P<0.01), and the FLACC score of the pediatric patients in three-drug combination group was significantly lower than that in general anesthesia+ibuprofen suppository group (P<0.01). At 1 and 2 h after awakening from the first anesthesia, the FLACC scores of pediatric patients in general anesthesia+ibuprofen suppository group and three-drug combination group were both significantly lower than those in general anesthesia alone group and general anesthesia+lidocaine group (P<0.01), and the FLACC score of the pediatric patients in three-drug combination group was significantly lower than that in general anesthesia+ibuprofen suppository group (P<0.01). At 4 h after awakening from the first anesthesia, the FLACC scores of the pediatric patients in general anesthesia+ibuprofen suppository group and three-drug combination group were significantly lower than those in general anesthesia alone group and general anesthesia+lidocaine group (P<0.01). At 4 h after awakening from the first anesthesia, the satisfactions rate with the analgesic effect in the four groups of pediatric patients or their families were 79.49% (31/39), 85.37% (35/41), 87.80% (36/41), and 97.92% (47/48), respectively. The satisfaction rate of the pediatric patients in three-drug combination group was significantly higher than those in general anesthesia alone group, general anesthesia+lidocaine group, general anesthesia+ibuprofen suppository group. Within 2 h after the first operation, there was no significant difference in the overall comparison of adverse reactions such as nausea and vomiting, headache, dizziness, and drowsiness of pediatric patients among the 4 groups (P>0.05). The VSS scores of pediatric patients before the first treatment, 1 month after the last treatment, and and the difference value between the two in the 4 groups were not significantly different (P>0.05). Conclusions: Three-drug combination for analgesia has a good effect in the treatment of hypertrophic scars after burn in pediatric patients with UFCL. Pediatric patients or their families are highly satisfied with the effect, and the treatment effect and incidence of adverse reactions are similar to other analgesic regimens, so it is recommended to be promoted in clinical practice.

Child , Female , Humans , Male , Analgesia , Analgesics , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/pathology , Dizziness/drug therapy , Headache/drug therapy , Ibuprofen/therapeutic use , Lasers, Gas/therapeutic use , Lidocaine , Nausea/drug therapy , Pain/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vomiting/drug therapy
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18681, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360162


Abstract Vascular ulcers (VU) constitute a major cause of pain and disability, and significantly compromise quality of life. VU have a natural tendency to become chronic and in many cases exhibit anunsatisfactoryresponse to many of the standard therapeutic options.The case of a 73 year-old Caucasian female with severe pain and poorly-controlled pain (Visual Analogic Scale-VAS- of 8-9) due to three lower leg long-standing VUs is reported and discussed herein. The patient was treated with topical instillations of undiluted sevoflurane as per institutional off-label protocol (starting doses of 1mL/cm2 twice a day, and up-titrated according to response to a maximum of 7 mL twice daily). The VAS score dropped to 0-1 shortly after initiation of therapy and remained stable throughout treatment up until the closure of the observations. Subsequently, opioid therapy was gradually tapered down and ultimately abandoned.Sevoflurane application resulted on adequate and sustained pain management of refractory VU, with no significant side effects. On account of its beneficial effectivity and safety profiles, topical sevoflurane emerges as an add-on alternative for the long-term management of VU, and potentially other painful conditions.

Humans , Female , Aged , Pain/drug therapy , Varicose Ulcer , Research Report , Sevoflurane/analysis , Drug Tapering/methods , Analgesics, Opioid/agonists , Patients/classification , Pain Management/classification
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 289-293, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936149


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effectiveness and feasibility of dexamethasone combined with oxybuprocaine hydrochloride gel on the prevention of postoperative sore throat after nasal endoscopy.@*METHODS@#In the study, 60 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical statuses Ⅰ to Ⅱ, aged 18 to 72 years, scheduled for elective nasal endoscope surgery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation were randomly divided into dexamethasone combined with oxybuprocaine hydrochloride gel group (G group, n=30) and control group (C group, n=30). The patients in the G group received dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg before induction and the oxybuprocaine gel was applied to the endotracheal catheter cuff and the front end within 15 cm. The patients in the C group received the same dose of saline and the saline was applied to the endotracheal catheter cuff and the front end within 15 cm. Then, all the patients in the two groups received the same induction and anesthesia maintainance. The operation time, anesthesia time, emergence time, extubation time and departure time were recorded. The intraoperative infusion volume, blood loss volume, propofol, remifentanil, rocuronium dosage were also recorded. The adverse reactions such as intraoperative hypotension, bradycardia and postoperative agitation were recorded. The postoperative sore throat score was recorded at the end of operation and 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h after operation.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the C group, the emergence time [(8.4±3.9) min vs. (10.8±4.7) min], extubation time [(8.8±3.7) min vs. (11.9±4.8) min], and departure time [(20.0±5.3) min vs. (23.0±5.8) min] were significantly shorter, and the propofol dosage [(11.8±1.8) mg/kg vs. (15.9±4.6) mg/kg], remifentanil dosage [(10.9±4.7) μg/kg vs. (14.1±3.6) μg/kg] were significantly less in the G group, and there was no difference of rocuronium dosage in the two groups. Compared with the C group the incidence of intraoperative hypotension [10%(3/30) vs. 30%(9/30)], bradycardia [16.7%(5/30) vs. 20%(6/30)] and postoperative agitation [6.7%(2/30) vs. 23.3%(7/30)] were significantly lower in the C group. The postoperative sore throat score at the end of operation, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h after operation in the G group were significantly lower than in the C group respectively [0 (0, 1) vs. 1 (1, 2), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (1, 2), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (1, 2), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (0.75, 1), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (0, 1)].@*CONCLUSION@#Dexamethasone combined with oxybuprocaine hydrochloride gel was effective and feasible on the prevention of postoperative sore throat after nasal endoscopy.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bradycardia/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Endoscopy/adverse effects , Hypotension/drug therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Pain/drug therapy , Pharyngitis/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Procaine/analogs & derivatives , Propofol , Remifentanil , Rocuronium
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20458, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403699


Abstract Dysmenorrhea is a common condition among females that is characterized by painful cramps before or during menstruation. It is considered as a common gynecological complaint that affects the quality of women's life. The study evaluated prevalence of dysmenorrhea, its impact, associated risk factors, and the management strategies adopted by female university students in Taif city, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 562 female students aged 18-30 years at the university level. The results showed a high prevalence rate of dysmenorrhea (79.4%) among the students. The most common risk factors were family history (87.4%) and length of menstruation (79%). Half (50.2%) of the respondents were absent at the university at least 1 day every month. The most widely used medications by the respondents were ibuprofen (42%) and paracetamol (40%), whereas only 3% used mefenamic acid, despite that they experienced complete pain relief with mefenamic acid. High prevalence rate of dysmenorrhea associated with risk factors such as family history and length of menstruation, was found among university students. However, pain and associated symptoms affect the quality of life.

Humans , Female , Adult , Students/classification , Women , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Dysmenorrhea/pathology , Menstruation/metabolism , Pain/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Saudi Arabia/ethnology , Universities , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(3): e1196, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347391


Introducción: La cirugía torácica figura entre los procedimientos quirúrgicos más dolorosos. Objetivo: Describir los resultados de la alcoholización de nervios intercostales para analgesia postoperatoria. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, observacional y descriptivo de pacientes tratados quirúrgicamente por afecciones torácicas durante 2018-2019. La muestra incluyó 50 pacientes que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión: operados por el autor principal, mayores de 18 años, acceso intercostal y firmaron el consentimiento informado. Se excluyeron los operados por otros cirujanos o presentaron afectación de la pared torácica. La intensidad del dolor se categorizó en cuatro grupos: leve, moderado, intenso e insoportable, según escala análogo visual. Resultados: Durante la primera noche, predominaron el dolor leve (25/50 por ciento) y moderado (9/18 por ciento). El dolor intenso se presentó en dos (4 por ciento) pacientes y 14(28 por ciento) no necesitaron medicación adicional. Al día siguiente no hubo casos con dolor intenso y solo 9 acusaron dolor moderado. La analgesia peridural solo se utilizó la primera noche y al siguiente día. La tendencia a disminuir el dolor se mantuvo al segundo y tercer día. No hubo casos con dolor insoportable. A largo plazo solo un paciente presentó dolor intenso que necesitó tratamiento con bloqueos. Conclusiones: La alcoholización disminuyó el uso adicional de analgésicos. No hubo complicaciones ni dolor insoportable, por lo que consideramos que este método podría ser una alternativa segura, sobre todo cuando no se dispone de fármacos costosos o personal entrenado en las técnicas modernas de analgesia postoperatoria(AU)

Introduction: Thoracic surgery is among the most painful surgical procedures. Objective: To describe the outcomes of the alcoholization of the intercostal nerves for postoperative analgesia. Methods: A prospective, observational and descriptive study was carried out, with patients treated surgically for thoracic conditions during 2018-2019. The sample included fifty patients who met the inclusion criteria: operated by the corresponding author, older than eighteen years, intercostal access and patients who signed the informed consent. Those operated on by other surgeons or who had chest wall involvement were excluded. Pain intensity was categorized into four groups: mild, moderate, intense and unbearable, according to the analog-visual scale. Results: During the first night, mild (25: 50 percent) and moderate (9: 18 percent) pain predominated. Severe pain occurred in two (4 percent) patients, while 14 (28 percent) did not require any additional medication. The next day, there were no cases of severe pain and only nine reported moderate pain. Epidural analgesia was only used the first night and the next day. The tendency to decrease in pain was maintained on the second and third days. There were no cases with unbearable pain. In the long term, only one patient had severe pain and required, therefore, treatment with blocks. Conclusions: Alcoholization decreased the additional use of analgesics. There were no complications or unbearable pain, a reason why we consider that this method could be a safe alternative, especially when expensive drugs or personnel trained in modern postoperative analgesia techniques are not available(AU)

Humans , Pain/drug therapy , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Analgesia, Epidural/adverse effects , Intercostal Nerves/pathology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic , Informed Consent
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(2): 206-209, June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286985


Painful anal fissures could be distressing conditions that severely impair the patients' quality of life. The analgesic effectiveness of topical drugs, such as calcium-antagonists and nitrates is quite variable. The inhalational anesthetic sevoflurane is being repurposed as a topical analgesic for painful chronic wounds.We report a pioneer experience treating a painful chronic anal fissure with topical sevoflurane. A young adult male was suffering from an extremely painful chronic anal fissure, which severely affected his quality of life. The topical treatment with nitroglycerine and diltiazem gels failed. The patient agreed to the treatement with topical sevoflurane as an off-label medication, and it produced an immediate, intense, and long-lasting analgesic effect. An intense but rapidly transient burning sensation, as well as persistent but well-tolerated flatulence were the only adverse effects. The quality of life was greatly improved, and the cost of the treatment was affordable. Therefore, the off-label use of topical sevoflurane appears to be an effective alternative for the symptomatic treatment of painful anal fissures (AU)

As fissuras anais dolorosas podem ser condições angustiantes que prejudicam gravemente a qualidade de vida dos pacientes. A eficácia analgésica de medicamentos tópicos, como antagonistas de cálcio e nitratos, é bastante variável. O anestésico inalatório sevoflurano está sendo reaproveitado como analgésico tópico para feridas crônicas dolorosas. Relatamos uma experiência pioneira de tratamento com sevoflurano tópico em fissura anal crônica dolorosa. Umjovemadulto do sexomasculino sofria de uma fissura anal crônica extremamente dolorosa, que afetava gravemente sua qualidade de vida. O tratamento tópico com nitroglicerina e géis de diltiazem foi ineficaz. O paciente concordou com o tratamento com sevoflurano tópico como medicamento off-label, ou seja, com uso diferente do aprovado embula. O sevoflurano tópico produziu um efeito analgésico imediato, intenso e duradouro. Uma sensação de ardência intensa, mas transitória, e flatulência persistente, embora bem tolerada, foram os únicos efeitos adversos. A qualidade de vidamelhorou significativamente, e o custo do tratamento revelou-se acessível. Portanto, o uso off-label de sevoflurano tópico pode ser uma alternativa analgésica eficaz em casos de fissuras anais dolorosas. (AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Quality of Life , Fissure in Ano/drug therapy , Sevoflurane/therapeutic use , Analgesia , Pain/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(1): 125-130, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287781


SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of withdrawal of the antiparkinsonian drug regimen administration on patients with PD and its relation to pain. METHODS: The sample included 22 men and 12 women who were candidates for neurosurgery to control motor signs and symptoms treated with L-dopa as a drug, alone or in combination with others (Cholinergic Antagonists; Dopamine Agents). All of them were examined at two different moments, with and without medication, and analyzed for painful symptoms. The Hoehn and Yahr scale was used for functional staging of the disease. Pain intensity was assessed by using the numerical verbal scale. RESULTS: The mean pain intensity among those on medication {2.17±0.39 (SE)} was significantly lower than in the abstinence group {4.2±0.59 (SE), p=0.006, Wilcoxon}, which corresponded to the increase in the total functional staging score from 93 to 111, respectively. CONCLUSION: The interruption of the administration of specific medications in patients with Parkinson's disease caused, or increased the intensity of, painful discomfort correlated with the intensity of functional impairment. This effect was also observed in women, but it was statistically relevant only for men. The results suggest that pain may be a "red flag" that points to the need for a therapeutic drug review when its presence or worsening is detected.

Humans , Male , Female , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Pain/etiology , Pain/drug therapy , Levodopa/adverse effects , Antiparkinson Agents/adverse effects
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 333-339, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888755


BACKGROUND@#Conscious patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) suffer from pain for various reasons, which can affect their recovery process.@*OBJECTIVE@#The present study compared the effects of aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium and lavender essential oils against placebo for reducing pain in conscious intensive care patients.@*DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS@#This study was a parallel randomized placebo-controlled trial. The ICUs of two educational hospitals in Kerman in Southeastern Iran were the study setting. One hundred and fifty conscious intensive care patients were randomly divided into three groups using a stratified block randomization method. Two groups received aromatherapy with essential oils: one with lavender and the other with C. aurantium; these patients received a 30-minute therapy session using their assigned essential oil on the second day of their intensive care stay. The placebo group used 5 drops of normal saline instead of essential oil during their session.@*MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES@#Patient's pain was assessed using a visual analog scale before the aromatherapy intervention, as well as immediately after and one and three hours after intervention.@*RESULTS@#The mean pain score of the lavender group was 40.01 before the aromatherapy intervention and fell to 39.40, 30.60 and 23.68 immediately after the intervention, and at hour one and three post-intervention, respectively. The mean pain score of the C. aurantium group was 45.48 before the intervention and was reduced to 32.34 at three hours after the intervention. The mean pain of the placebo group decreased from 42.80 before the intervention to 35.20 at three hours after the intervention. Pain scores of all groups decreased during the study (P < 0.001). The mean pain of the lavender group was significantly lower than that of the placebo group at three hours after the intervention.@*CONCLUSION@#The results of this study showed that aromatherapy with lavender essential oil reduced pain in conscious ICU patients. Our data could not justify the use of C. aurantium for reducing pain in this population.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#No. IRCT20170116031972N9 (

Humans , Citrus , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Lavandula , Oils, Volatile , Pain/drug therapy , Plant Oils
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1271-1276, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922421


OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the current status of the cognition of neonatal pain assessment and analgesia management among medical staff in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).@*METHODS@#A self-made scale was developed according to "Expert consensus on neonatal pain assessment and analgesia management (2020 edition)" and was used to distribute questionnaires to the medical staff in the NICU from the member units of Jiangsu Province Medical Quality Control Centre of Neonatal Department to evaluate their levels of understanding the basic knowledge, assessment, and management of neonatal pain.@*RESULTS@#A total of 957 questionnaires (from 383 doctors and 574 nurses) were collected. Doctors and nurses had mean correct rates of 38% and 39% respectively in answering the questions on the basic knowledge of neonatal pain. They had median correct rates of 0% and 50% respectively in answering the questions on neonatal pain assessment, and mean correct rates of 73% and 68% respectively in answering on analgesia management. Compared with those who did not receive the training on neonatal pain, the medical staff who received such training had significantly higher correct rates in answering the questions on the basic knowledge of neonatal pain and neonatal pain assessment (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The medical staff in the NICU have insufficient cognition of neonatal pain, and thus it is necessary to carry out the special training on neonatal pain, focusing on the promotion and practical application of "Expert consensus on neonatal pain assessment and analgesia management (2020 edition)", in order to improve the level of neonatal pain assessment and analgesia management among medical staff in the NICU.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Analgesia , Cognition , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Medical Staff , Pain/drug therapy , Pain Measurement , Surveys and Questionnaires