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1.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 109(3): 207-212, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1373478

ABSTRACT

La maloclusión clase III se considera un reto en la práctica de todo ortodoncista. Una de las principales dudas al respecto reside en ¿cuándo es el mejor momento para intervenir? Exis- ten dos enfoques en el manejo ortodóntico del paciente: 1) la ortodoncia interceptiva; y 2) la ortodoncia correctiva. La or- todoncia interceptiva busca la prevención del establecimiento de la malolcusión. En este grupo, se encuentra el uso de más- cara facial con disyunción maxilar y el de aparatología fija (2x4 o 2x6). Por otro lado, la intervención correctiva hace re- ferencia al camuflaje de las características que trae consigo la maloclusión clase III ya establecida; dentro de este enfoque se encuentran las extracciones de piezas, el uso de minitornillos extraalveolares y la filosofía MEAW. Se puede concluir que el adecuado manejo de la maloclusión clase III radica en el oportuno y correcto diagnóstico, que debe realizarse a través de la minuciosa inspección de las características y hallazgos intra y extraorales de los pacientes (AU)


Class III malocclusion is considered a challenge in the practice of every orthodontist. One of the main questions is: when is the best time to intervene? There are 2 approaches to the orthodontic management of the patient: 1) interceptive orthodontics, and 2) corrective orthodontics. Interceptive or- thodontics seeks to prevent the establishment of malocclusion by means of the use of a facial mask with maxillary disjunc- tion, or the use of fixed appliances (2x4 or 2x6). Corrective intervention refers to camouflaging the characteristics of a Class III malocclusion that is already established. This ap- proach uses tooth extraction, extra-alveolar mini screws or the MEAW philosophy. To conclude, proper management of Class III malocclu- sion is based on timely, correct diagnosis, which must be made through careful inspection of the characteristics and intraoral and extraoral findings in patients (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Orthodontics, Corrective , Orthodontics, Interceptive , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/therapy , Serial Extraction , Palatal Expansion Technique , Extraoral Traction Appliances , Orthodontic Appliances, Fixed
2.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(3): 315-325, May-Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285680

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The association between the treatment of transverse maxillary deficiency and the recovery of hearing and voice functions has gained attention in recent years. Objective This prospective controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion on hearing and voice function in children with non-cleft lip palate and bilateral cleft lip palate with transverse maxillary deficiency Methods 53 patients (26 non-cleft and 27 bilateral cleft lip palate; mean age, 11.1 ± 1.8 years) requiring rapid maxillary expansion for correction of narrow maxillary arches were recruited for this trial. Eight sub-groups were established based on the degree of hearing loss. Pure-tone audiometric and tympanometric records were taken for each subject at four different time periods. The first records were taken before rapid maxillary expansion (T0), the second after expansion (T1) (mean, 0.8 months), the third after three months (T2) (mean, 3 months) and the fourth at the end of retention period (T3) (mean, 6 months). ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests were used for data analysis. Additionally, voice analysis was done using an updated PRAAT software program in a computerized speech lab at T0 and T2. A paired-samplet-test was used for comparisons of mean values of T0 and T2 voice parameters within both groups. Results Rapid maxillary expansion treatment produced a significant increase in the hearing levels and middle ear volumes of all non-cleft and bilateral cleft lip palate patients with normal hearing levels and with mild conductive hearing loss, during the T0-T1, T1-T2, T0-T2, and T0-T3 observation periods (p < 0.05). The significant increase was observed in right middle ear volumes during the T0-T1, T0-T2 and T0-T3 periods in non-cleft patients with moderate hearing loss. For voice analysis, significant differences were observed only between the T0 and T2 mean fundamental frequency (F0) and jitter percentage (p < 0.05) in the non-cleft group. In the cleft group, no significant differences were observed for any voice parameter between the T0 and T2 periods. Conclusion Correction of the palatal anatomy by rapid maxillary expansion therapy has a beneficial effect on both improvements in hearing and normal function of the middle ear in both non-cleft and bilateral cleft lip palate patients. Similarly, rapid maxillary expansion significantly influences voice quality in non-cleft patients, with no significant effect in BCLP patients.


Resumo Introdução A associação entre o tratamento da deficiência maxilar transversa e a recuperação das funções auditivas e vocais ganhou atenção nos últimos anos. Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos da expansão rápida da maxila na função auditiva e vocal em crianças sem fissura labiopalatina e com fissura labiopalatina bilateral com deficiência maxilar transversa. Método Foram recrutados para este estudo 53 pacientes (26 sem fissura e 27 com fissura labiopalatina bilateral; média de 11,1 ± 1,8 anos) que necessitam de expansão rápida da maxila para correção de arcos maxilares estreitos. Oito subgrupos foram estabelecidos com base no grau de perda auditiva. Registros audiométricos e timpanométricos de tons puros foram obtidos para cada indivíduo em quatro períodos. Os primeiros registros foram obtidos antes da expansão rápida da maxila (T0), o segundo após a expansão (T1) (média de 0,8 meses), o terceiro após três meses (T2) (média de 3 meses) e o quarto no fim do período de retenção (T3) (média de 6 meses). Anova e o teste post-hoc de Tukey HSD foram usados para análise dos dados. Além disso, a análise da voz foi feita com um programa PRAAT atualizado em um laboratório de fala computadorizadaem T0 e T2. Foi usado um teste t de amostras pareadas para comparação dos valores médios dos parâmetros de voz em T0 e T2 nos dois grupos. Resultados O tratamento com expansão rápida da maxila produziu um aumento significativo nos níveis auditivos e nos volumes da orelha média de todos os pacientes sem fissura e pacientes com fissura labiopalatina bilateral e níveis auditivos normais e com perda auditiva condutiva leve, durante os períodos de observação T0-T1, T1-T2, T0-T2 e T0-T3 (p < 0,05). Aumento significativo foi observado nos volumes da orelha média direita durante os períodos T0-T1, T0-T2 e T0-T3 em pacientes sem fissura e com perda auditiva moderada. Para a análise de voz, diferenças significantes foram observadas apenas entre a frequência fundamental média T0 e T2 (F0) e a porcentagem de jitter (p < 0,05) no grupo sem fissura. No grupo com fissura, não foram observadas diferenças significantes para nenhum parâmetro de voz entre os períodos T0 e T2. Conclusão A correção da anatomia palatal pela expansão rápida da maxila tem um efeito benéfico tanto na melhoria da audição quanto na função normal da orelha média em pacientes sem fissura e com fissura labiopalatina bilateral. Da mesma forma, a expansão rápida da maxila influencia significativamente a qualidade da voz em pacientes sem fissura, sem efeito significativo em pacientes com fissura labiopalatina bilateral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cleft Lip/complications , Cleft Palate/complications , Palate , Prospective Studies , Palatal Expansion Technique , Hearing , Maxilla
3.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(1): 98-103, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180724

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) have the ability to increase vascular proliferation and permeability. The aim of this study was to quantify the release of two diffusible angiogenic growth factors (VEGF and FGF-2) after rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Thirty animals were randomly assigned to two groups. Control group (5 rats - intact suture) and Experimental groups (25 rats with RME) which were evaluated in different periods of treatment. Five animals were euthanized in different periods of healing at 0, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days after RME. RT-PCR was used to evaluate the gene expression of angiogenic growth factors released on different periods of study. Data were submitted to statistical analysis using ANOVA followed by Tukey test and significance was assumed at a=0.05. RT-PCR showed that mRNAs of VEGF and FGF-2 were expressed in intact palatal suture tissue. mRNAs of VEGF and FGF-2 was upregulated in early periods (24 h) after RME (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). The molecular levels of VEGF never returned to its original baseline values, and FGF-2 expression decreased up to day 5 (p<0.001) and suddenly increased at day 7, returning to its original level. RME increased VEGF secretion, but decreased FGF-2 secretion when compared to intact tissue. The results showed that these angiogenic growth factors are released and regulated in the palatal suture tissue after RME and could make an important contribution to the knowledge of overall reparative response of the suture tissue during the bone remodeling process.


Resumo Fator de crescimento endothelial (VEGF) e fator de crescimento de fibroblasto (FGF-2) tem a capacidade de aumentar a proliferação e permeabilidade vascular. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a liberação dos dois fatores de crescimento (VEGF e FGF-2) após expansão rápida da maxilla (ERM). Trinta animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos. Grupo Controle (5 ratos - sutura intacta) e grupos Experimentais (25 ratos submetidos a ERM) que foram avaliados em períodos diferentes de tratamento. Cinco animais foram eutanaziados em diferentes períodos de avaliação aos 0, 2, 3, 5 e 7 dias após ERM. RT-PCR foi usado para avaliar a expressão gênica dos fatores de crescimento liberados nos diferentes períodos de estudo. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística usando ANOVA seguido do pós-teste de Tukey com nível de significância de a=0.05. RT-PCR mostrou que os RNAm de VEGF e FGF-2 estavam expressos na sutura palatina mediana intacta. Os RNAm de VEGF e FGF-2 foram estimulados nos períodos iniciais (24h) após ERM (p<0.001 e p<0.01, respectivamente). Os nívies moleculares de VEGF nunca retornaram aos valores originais, e a expressão de FGF-2 reduziu até o dia 5 (p<0.001) e de repente aumentou até o dia 7, retornando aos níveis originais. ERM aumentou a secreção de VEGF, mas diminuiu a secreção de FGF-2 quando comparado ao tecido intacto. Os resultados mostraram que estes fatores de crescimento são liberados e regulados na sutura palatina mediana após ERM e podem ser de importante contribuição para o entendimento da resposta reparadora geral do tecido da sutura durante o processo de remodelação óssea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 , Palatal Expansion Technique , Palate/surgery , Sutures , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
4.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 21(supl.1): e0022, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1340339

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the dento-alveolar effects between dental and skeletal anchored expansion devices to achieve maxillary expansion in different groups of patients: pure dental anchorage was used in growing patients and skeletal anchorage in adult patients. Linear, angular and volumetric parameters have been analysed. Material and Methods: 22 patients has been selected from the total archive of patients treated in the Orthodontics Department of the University of Ferrara, Italy, divided into 3 groups according to the appliance used to obtain the transversal maxillary correction. Digital files of the upper arch were obtained from scans performed using an intro-oral scanner before treatment (T0) and at the end of expansion (T1). Therefore, linear, angular and volumetric measurements have been performed. Results: There is a highly significant statistic variation of the 3-3, 4-4 and 6-6 diameter as a function of time. There was a statistically significant variation of the palatal vault angle and of the 6-6 distance at the cusp level as a function of time. Moreover, it appears that these parameters are reduced in the group with skeletal anchored expander. No tooth considered have encountered a statistically significant change in tip and torque values, no matter the type of RPE and the treatment time. For all patients, we have recorded the superimposition of the maxillary dental cast before and after treatment. Conclusion: In all patients, we obtained a resolution of the maxillary transverse deficit. Patients treated by pure skeletal anchored devices have recorded a less variations of palatal vault angle and the distance between first molar cusps, as if the expansion was gained more parallel. The expansion obtained showed reduced dental side effects, as tip and torque values haven't changed in a statistically significant way.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Orthodontics , Palatal Expansion Technique/instrumentation , Models, Dental , Malocclusion , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Italy/epidemiology
5.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180854

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the impact of wearing palatal expanders on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children aged 8 to 10 years. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 35 children aged 8 to 10 years treated at the orthodontics and pediatric dentistry outpatient clinics affiliated with the Dental School. Children were divided in two groups: 17 were submitted to palatal expansion treatment (Group 1), while 18 just received coronal polishing and topical fluoride application (Group 2). The Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10) was used to assess children's OHRQoL. The questionnaire was administered before the expander was placed, at the end of its activation, and before its removal. Intervals between the interviews were similar in the two groups. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA were used for data analyses. Results: The overall CPQ8-10 score was not significantly different between the groups. The results show statistically significant differences between the two groups only for the functional limitations domain after activation of the appliance (p=0.001). Conclusion: Palatal expanders may negatively affect children's functions only during the initial wearing period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Orthodontics , Quality of Life , Oral Health/education , Palatal Expansion Technique/instrumentation , Malocclusion/etiology , Schools, Dental , Brazil/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , Pediatric Dentistry
6.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 21(supl.1): e0019, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1340343

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate how the lower arch spontaneously change after upper rapid palatal expansion in a group of patients with transversal skeletal deficit. Material and Methods: Twenty-four patients treated by the same orthodontist with a rapid palatal expander (RPE) bounded on a deciduous molar have been selected. The sample was divided into two groups: no treatment was provided for group one, while group two was treated using a lip bumper or Schwarz appliance. For each patient, dental casts were collected when the RPE was bounded (T0) and at the end of treatment, 9 months ± 3 months later (T1). Each outcome was analyzed, providing descriptive statistics, main effects significance tests and post-hoc analyses with the objective to evaluate the variations between pre-treatment (TO) and post-treatment (T1) of each of them. Results: If the linear measurements are considered, a significant beneficial effect on both arches is observed. However, the upper arch always shows a major increase of all values at T1 with respect to the lower arch. Even though the post-hoc tables indicate that time differences are all statistically significant across considered partitions, the lower arch's increase is more pronounced in group two, where patients were treated in both arches. If the angular measurements are concerned, the increase of lingual crown inclination was found in all patients, independently from the type of treatment in lower arch. Conclusion: All patients show normalization of upper diameters, regardless of whether the lower arch was treated or not.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Orthodontics , Palatal Expansion Technique/instrumentation , Extraoral Traction Appliances , Orthodontists , Malocclusion, Angle Class III , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Italy
7.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(5): e21spe5, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345937

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Due to the anatomical constraints of the mandible, mandibular dental arch usually serves as a guideline to determine the required changes in the maxillary transverse dimension. The Schwarz appliance and the Lip Bumper are the traditional orthodontic appliances for mandibular arch expansion in patients with borderline amounts of crowding, and/or transverse discrepancy. However, they often require patient cooperation, which may be a concern for orthodontists in daily practice. Objectives: This article illustrates a simple fixed orthodontic device as an alternative to achieve mandibular arch expansion in patients with moderate tooth-size/arch-length discrepancy. The four reported cases refer to 8 to 10-year-old patients in the mixed dentition, with an Angle Class I or Class II malocclusion, transverse deficiency in both arches, moderate crowding and/or posterior crossbite, combined with compromised smile aesthetics. The patients were treated with rapid maxillary expansion (RME) using Hass expander appliance and the modified Arnold expander (MAE). Conclusion: This low-cost compliance-free orthodontic appliance provided dentoalveolar decompensation by means of uprighting the posterior teeth, with minimal or no adjustments during treatment. The final results were achieved in only three to four months, and fulfilled all treatment objectives, such as an increase in the arch perimeter and width, and a better teeth alignment.


RESUMO Introdução: Devido aos limites anatômicos da mandíbula, a arcada dentária inferior geralmente serve como guia para determinar as alterações necessárias na dimensão transversal da maxila. O aparelho de Schwarz e o Lip Bumper são os aparelhos usados tradicionalmente para expansão da arcada inferior em pacientes com quantidades limítrofes de apinhamento e/ou discrepância transversal. No entanto, eles requerem a cooperação do paciente, o que pode ser uma preocupação para os ortodontistas na prática diária. Objetivos: O presente artigo ilustra uma alternativa diferente de aparelho fixo para se obter a expansão da arcada inferior em pacientes com discrepância moderada de tamanho dentário e/ou comprimento da arcada. Os quatro casos relatados referem-se a pacientes com 8 a 10 anos de idade, na dentição mista, com má oclusão de Classe I ou II de Angle, deficiência transversal em ambas as arcadas, apinhamento moderado e/ou mordida cruzada posterior, apresentando comprometimento da estética do sorriso. Os pacientes foram tratados com expansão rápida da maxila (ERM), usando aparelho expansor de Hass, e expansor Arnold modificado (EAM). Conclusão: O EAM, que é um aparelho de baixo custo e não depende da colaboração do paciente, promoveu uma descompensação dentoalveolar por meio da verticalização dos dentes posteriores, necessitando de mínimo ou nenhum ajuste durante o tratamento. Os resultados pretendidos foram alcançados em três a quatro meses e cumpriram todos os objetivos do tratamento, como aumento do perímetro e largura da arcada, assim como o melhor alinhamento dos dentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Arch , Malocclusion/therapy , Palatal Expansion Technique , Dentition, Mixed , Esthetics, Dental
8.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(3): e2119300, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1286207

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: In Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics, the timing of treatment onset may be critical and individual analysis should be applied to promote a favorable treatment planning. In this study, individual analysis of midpalatal suture (MS) and palatal measurements were performed in teenagers and young adult patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Description: Twenty-six patients submitted to RME with a tooth-supported appliance (Hyrax) were evaluated. The inclusion criteria were: minimum age of 14 years, presenting all posterior teeth, diagnosed with transverse maxillary discrepancy, and with a clinical indication for maxillary expansion. The pretreatment CBCT scans of these patients were assessed to obtain the stages of MS maturation (MSM); density ratio (MSD); and palatal length, thickness (anterior, intermediate and posterior) and sagittal area. Results: The maturation stages present were C, D or E; the density ranged from 0.6 to 1, and lower density (MSD < 0.75) and higher density (MSD ≥ 0.75) groups were determined. Individuals with higher MSD presented smaller sagittal area, compared to the lower density group. Individuals in D and E MSM stages presented smaller sagittal area and intermediate thickness, compared to stage C. Conclusions: Smaller palatal sagittal area was observed in the high MSD groups and in the stages D and E of MSM.


RESUMO Introdução: Em Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial, o momento de início do tratamento pode ser crítico, e uma análise individual deve ser aplicada para promover um planejamento de tratamento favorável. No presente estudo, foram realizadas a avaliação individualizada da sutura palatina mediana (SPM) e medições no palato de adolescentes e adultos jovens tratados com expansão rápida da maxila (ERM). Descrição: Foram avaliados vinte e seis pacientes submetidos à ERM com aparelho dentossuportado (Hyrax). Os critérios de inclusão foram: idade mínima de 14 anos, apresentando todos os dentes posteriores, diagnosticado com discrepância transversa da maxila e com uma indicação clínica para expansão maxilar. A tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC) pré-tratamento desses pacientes foi avaliada para obter os estágios de maturação da SPM (MSPM), densidade da SPM (DSPM), comprimento do palato, espessura (anterior, intermediária e posterior) e área sagital. Resultados: Os estágios de maturação presentes foram C, D ou E; a densidade variou de 0,6 a 1, e foram determinados grupos de baixa (DSPM < 0,75) e alta densidade (DSPM ≥ 0,75). Indivíduos com maior DSPM apresentaram menor área sagital, em comparação com o grupo de densidade mais baixa. Indivíduos nos estágios D e E de MSPM apresentaram menor área sagital e espessura intermediária, comparados aos indivíduos no estágio C. Conclusão: Uma menor área sagital palatina foi observada nos grupos de alta DSPM e nos estágios D e E de MSPM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Palatal Expansion Technique , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Sutures , Homosexuality, Male , Cranial Sutures/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Maxilla/surgery , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
9.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(3): e21bbo3, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1286211

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Skeletal posterior crossbite (SPCB) has a multifactorial etiology, as it may be caused by parafunctional habits, atypical position of the tongue, tooth losses and maxillary or mandibular transverse skeletal asymmetries. Skeletal involvement may lead to facial changes and an unfavorable aesthetic appearance. The treatment of SPCB diagnosed in an adult patient should be correctly approached after the identification of its etiologic factor. Surgically-assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME), one of the techniques used to correct SPCB in skeletally mature individuals, is an efficient and stable procedure for the correction of transverse discrepancies that may be performed in the office or in a hospital. Objective: This study discusses the results of asymmetrical SARME used to correct unilateral SPCB associated with transverse mandibular asymmetry. Conclusion: The treatment alternative used in the reported case was quite effective. At the end of the treatment, the patient presented adequate occlusion and facial aesthetics.


RESUMO Introdução: A mordida cruzada posterior esquelética (MCPE) apresenta etiologia multifatorial, podendo ser causada por hábitos parafuncionais, posição atípica da língua, perdas dentárias e assimetrias esqueléticas transversais da maxila ou da mandíbula. Alterações faciais podem estar presentes quando há envolvimento esquelético, levando a estética desfavorável. O tratamento da MCPE, quando diagnosticada no paciente adulto, requer abordagem correta, com identificação do fator etiológico. Entre as técnicas utilizadas para correção da MCPE em pacientes esqueleticamente maduros, cita-se, em especial, a Expansão Rápida de Maxila Assistida Cirurgicamente (ERMAC). Essa modalidade tem se mostrado bastante eficiente na correção dos problemas transversais, apresenta estabilidade e pode ser realizada em ambiente ambulatorial ou hospitalar. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente trabalho será discutir os resultados da ERMAC assimétrica para correção da MCPE unilateral associada a assimetria transversal da mandíbula. Conclusão: A alternativa de tratamento utilizada no caso relatado mostrou-se bastante eficiente. Ao fim do tratamento, o paciente apresentou adequada oclusão e boa estética facial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Tooth , Malocclusion/therapy , Malocclusion/diagnostic imaging , Palatal Expansion Technique , Facial Asymmetry/surgery , Facial Asymmetry/diagnostic imaging , Mandible/surgery , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla
10.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(1): e211967, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154066

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Assess the influence of mono- and bicortical anchorage and diameter of mini-implants (MIs) on the primary stability of these devices. Methods: 60 self-drilling MIs were distributed in six groups according to diameter (1.5mm, 1.8mm or 2.0mm) and type of anchorage (monocortical and bicortical) in bovine rib. The primary stability was evaluated by insertion torque, micromobility and pull-out strength tests. ANOVA and/or Tukey analysis were used to conduct intergroup comparisons (p< 0.05). Non-parametric statistics (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney) were performed when normality was not found (p< 0.05). Results: MIs with larger diameters and bicortical anchorage showed greater primary stability regarding insertion torque (p< 0.05) and micromobility (p< 0.05). Only MI diameter had an effect on the pull-out strength test. Larger diameter MIs presented better retention in pull-out strength tests (p< 0.001), regardless of mono- or bicortical anchorage. Conclusions: MI primary stability is dependent on its diameter and type of anchorage. Bicortical anchorage showed greater stability when compared with monocortical anchorage, independently of other variables.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a influência da ancoragem mono e bicortical e do diâmetro dos mini-implantes (MIs) na estabilidade primária desses dispositivos. Métodos: 60 MIs autoperfurantes foram distribuídos em seis grupos, de acordo com o diâmetro (1,5 mm, 1,8 mm ou 2,0 mm) e tipo de ancoragem (monocortical e bicortical), e inseridos em costela bovina. A estabilidade primária foi avaliada pelos testes de torque de inserção, micromobilidade e resistência à tração. ANOVA e/ou análise de Tukey foram usadas para realizar comparações intergrupos (p< 0,05). Estatística não paramétrica (Kruskal-Wallis e Mann-Whitney) foi realizada quando a normalidade não foi encontrada (p< 0,05). Resultados: MIs com diâmetros maiores e ancorados bicorticalmente apresentaram maior estabilidade primária em relação ao torque de inserção (p< 0,05) e micromobilidade (p< 0,05). Apenas o diâmetro do MI influenciou os resultados do teste de resistência à tração. MIs de maior diâmetro apresentaram melhor retenção nos testes de resistência à tração (p< 0,001), independentemente da ancoragem mono ou bicortical. Conclusões: a estabilidade primária do MI é dependente de seu diâmetro e tipo de ancoragem. A ancoragem bicortical apresentou maior estabilidade quando comparada à ancoragem monocortical, independentemente das demais variáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cattle , Dental Implants , Orthodontic Anchorage Procedures , Palate , Palatal Expansion Technique , Torque
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878407

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to assess the influence of different types of rapid maxillary expansion on root resorption (RR).@*METHODS@#Literature searches were carried out electronically in five English and two Chinese databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), cohort studies, and case-control studies were included. The data were extracted by three authors. The risk of bias in the RCTs and nonrandomized studies were assessed in accordance with corresponding scales.@*RESULTS@#Among the 400 articles identified, seven were included for the final analysis. Three studies were graded as high value of evidence, while two and another two studies were graded as moderate value and low value, respectively. According to the available evidence, the tooth-borne maxillary expansion caused more obvious RR of anchorage teeth than the bone-borne one. In addition, the Haas-type palatal acrylic pads could not effectively reduce the degree of RR. The difference in the design of the retainer between the tooth-borne maxillary expansion (the use of a band or wire framework to connect the anchorage tooth) did not cause the difference in the incidence and degree of RR.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Clinical evidence suggested that bone-borne maxillary expansion may decrease the amount of RR, while the amounts of resorption did not significantly differ between Haas and Hyrax and between different retainer types of Hyrax.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Humans , Maxilla , Palatal Expansion Technique , Palate , Root Resorption , Tooth
12.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 25(5): 51-56, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1133692

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Nasal septum deviation (NSD) is the most common structural cause of nasal obstruction, affecting around 65-80% of the adult population. Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is currently used for treatment of maxillary transverse deficiency, but can also influence nasal cavity geometry. Objective: The present study aimed at evaluating the changes in NSD by using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans in pre-pubertal patients treated with RME. Methods: This retrospective exploratory study evaluated 20 pre-pubertal patients (mean age 10 ± 2 years) who were treated for transverse maxillary constriction with RME and presented mild/moderate NSD as an incidental finding. The outcome measures were NSD tortuosity and area. These measures were obtained from transverse and coronal views of records taken before and after RME treatment. Intra-rater reliability was also assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient. Results: NSD was mild in thirteen patients (65%) and moderate in seven (35%). NSD tortuosity index did not significantly change over time (mean difference 0.002 mm/year, 95% CI; p = 0.58). NSD area did not significantly change over time (mean difference 2.103 mm2/year, 95% CI; p = 0.38). Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.73 (95% CI) for NSD tortuosity and 0.84 (95% CI) for NSD area. Conclusions: NSD tortuosity and area suggested potential changes in NSD with small clinical relevance in pre-pubertal patients who were treated with RME. Additional studies using CBCT scans in larger samples are required to clarify the role of RME in NSD treatment.


RESUMO Introdução: O desvio de septo nasal (DSN) é a causa estrutural mais frequente de obstrução nasal, afetando de 65% a 80% da população adulta. A expansão rápida da maxila (ERM), atualmente utilizada para o tratamento da deficiência transversa da maxila, também pode influenciar na geometria da cavidade nasal. Objetivos: O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar, usando tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC), as mudanças no DSN após o tratamento com ERM em pacientes pré-púberes. Métodos: Esse estudo exploratório retrospectivo avaliou 20 pacientes pré-púberes (idade média de 10 ± 2 anos) com deficiência transversa da maxila tratados com ERM, e que apresentavam DSN de leve a moderado, como um achado incidental. Foram realizadas medições da tortuosidade e área do DSN. Essas medições foram feitas em cortes transversais e coronais das TCFCs pré- e pós-tratamento com ERM. A confiabilidade intraexaminador também foi aferida por meio do coeficiente de correlação intraclasse. Resultados: O DSN era leve em 13 pacientes (65%) e moderado em 7 (35%). O índice de tortuosidade do DSN não mudou significativamente ao longo do tempo (diferença média = 0,002 mm/ano, IC 95%; p= 0,58). A área do DSN não mudou significativamente ao longo do tempo (diferença média = 2,103 mm2/ano, IC 95%; p= 0,38). O coeficiente de correlação intraclasse foi igual a 0,73 (IC 95%) para a tortuosidade do DSN e 0,84 (IC 95%) para a área do DSN. Conclusões: Os valores de tortuosidade e da área do DSN sugeriram potenciais mudanças no DSN, mas com pequena relevância clínica, nos pacientes pré-púberes tratados com ERM. Estudos adicionais utilizando TCFC em amostras maiores são necessários para esclarecer o papel da ERM no tratamento do DSN.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Palatal Expansion Technique , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Maxilla , Nasal Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Nasal Septum/diagnostic imaging
13.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 25(3): 39-45, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1133667

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is assumed as a well established procedure; although, some effects on facial complex are not yet fully understood. Objective: The aim of this research was to verify, using cone-beam computed tomography, the effect on linear dimensions of the nasal cavity. Methods: Sample consisted of twenty patients aged 7 to 16 years, with skeletal deformity that justified the use of CT scans, and who required the RME as part of the orthodontic treatment planning. Scans were taken before clinical procedures were performed (T0) and after stabilizing the expander screw (T1). Dolphin Imaging v. 11.5 3D software was used to measure six areas on nasal cavity: three at the anterior portion (upper, middle, and lower) and other three at the posterior portion (also upper, middle, and lower). Data were statistically treated using Shapiro-Wilk test to verify normality. Differences between T0 and T1 were calculated using the Spearman correlation and paired Student's t-test, with a significance level of 5%. Results: All linear measurements presented a significant increase (p< 0.05) after RME, both in the anterior and posterior regions, suggesting some parallelism on the opening pattern, especially at the lower portion (p< 0.001). Conclusions: RME was able to significantly modify the internal dimensions of the nasal cavity.


RESUMO Introdução: A expansão rápida da maxila (ERM) é um procedimento bem estabelecido. Entretanto, alguns efeitos no complexo facial ainda não foram completamente compreendidos. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o efeito da ERM nas medidas lineares da cavidade nasal, utilizando a tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC). Métodos: A amostra foi composta por 20 pacientes da Universidade Federal da Bahia, com idades entre 7 e 16 anos, com deformidades esqueléticas que justificavam o uso da TCFC e que necessitavam da ERM como parte do tratamento ortodôntico. As imagens tomográficas foram realizadas antes dos procedimentos clínicos (T0) e após estabilização do parafuso expansor (T1). O software Dolphin Imaging v. 11.5 3D (Dolphin, Chatsworth, CA, EUA) foi utilizado para mensurar seis áreas na cavidade nasal, três delas na região anterior (superior, média e inferior) e outras três na região posterior (também superior, média e inferior). Os dados foram trabalhados estatisticamente, utilizando o teste de Shapiro-Wilk para avaliar a normalidade. Diferenças entre T0 e T1 foram calculadas usando a Correlação de Spearman e o teste t de Student pareado, usando um nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Todas as mensurações lineares apresentaram um aumento significativo (p< 0,05) após a ERM, tanto na região anterior quanto na posterior, sugerindo algum paralelismo no padrão de abertura, principalmente na porção inferior (p< 0,001). Conclusão: A ERM foi capaz de modificar significativamente as dimensões internas da cavidade nasal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Palatal Expansion Technique , Nasal Cavity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Maxilla
14.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 25(3): 73-84, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1133661

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Maxillary deficiency, also called transverse deficiency of the maxilla, may be associated with posterior crossbite, as well as with other functional changes, particularly respiratory. In adult patients, because of bone maturation and the midpalatal suture fusion, rapid maxillary expansion has to be combined with a previous surgical procedure to release the areas of resistance of the maxilla. This procedure is known as surgically-assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). Objective: This study discusses the indications, characteristics and effects of SARME, and presents a clinical case of transverse and sagittal skeletal maxillary discrepancy treated using SARME and orthodontic camouflage.


RESUMO Introdução: A atresia maxilar, ou deficiência transversa da maxila, pode estar associada à mordida cruzada posterior, além de outras alterações funcionais, especialmente respiratórias. Em pacientes adultos, devido à maturação óssea e fusão da sutura palatina mediana, a expansão rápida da maxila precisa ser associada a um procedimento cirúrgico prévio, para liberar as áreas de resistência da maxila, sendo conhecida como expansão rápida da maxila assistida cirurgicamente (ERMAC). Objetivo: O objetivo deste artigo é discutir as indicações, características e efeitos esperados da ERMAC, além de apresentar um caso clínico de deficiência maxilar esquelética transversal e sagital, cujo tratamento consistiu na ERMAC associada ao tratamento ortodôntico compensatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Malocclusion , Micrognathism , Palatal Expansion Technique , Maxilla
15.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(1): 101-108, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056508

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El apiñamiento en edades tempranas, se refleja cuando el tamaño dental no coincide con la longitud de arco. De este modo, resulta importante determinar si la expansión del maxilar podría solucionar por sí solo el problema de apiñamiento en el sector anterior, teniendo en cuenta que este tratamiento es uno de los más antiguos y que comúnmente se ha enfocado en la resolución de alteraciones transversales en dientes posteriores empleándose a edades tempranas. El objetivo fue determinar si la expansión maxilar es efectiva o no, en la corrección del apiñamiento en dentición mixta mediante el análisis de la evidencia disponible. Se realizó una revisión sistemática en español e inglés, para establecer la máxima evidencia posible, con las indicaciones de la guía PRISMA. Dos artículos cumplieron con la calidad de la revisión. En el primero se estableció que el apiñamiento mejoro despues del tratamiento de expansion maxilar, con una recidiva menor en la dentición permanente. En el segundo, se encontró que el apiñamiento en los incisivos permanentes superiores fue corregido cuando se retiró el aparato expansor. Se concluyó que la evidencia actual no tiene la suficiente calidad metodológica para llevar a una toma de decisión. Se recomienda hacer ensayos clínicos aleatorizados en este tema.


ABSTRACT: Crowding at early ages is reflected when tooth size does not coincide with arch length. Thus, it is important to determine whether maxillary expansion alone could solve the problem of crowding in the anterior sector, bearing in mind that this treatment is one of the oldest and has commonly focused on solving transverse alterations in posterior teeth used at an early age. The objective was to determine whether or not maxillary expansion is effective in correcting crowding in the mixed dentition by analysing the available evidence. A systematic review was carried out in Spanish and English, to establish the maximum possible evidence, with the indications of the PRISMA guide. Two articles met the quality of the review. The first established that crowding improved after the treatment of maxillary expansion, with a minor recurrence in the permanent dentition. In the second, it was found that crowding in the upper permanent incisors was corrected when the expanding appliance was removed. The current evidence is not of sufficient methodological quality to lead to a decision. Randomized clinical trials are recommended in this area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Palatal Expansion Technique , Extraoral Traction Appliances , Overbite/therapy , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/therapy , Mass Screening , Orthodontic Appliance Design , Dentition, Mixed
16.
Rev. ADM ; 77(1): 41-45, ene.-feb. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088066

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La maloclusión clase III es considerada como severa y en la mayoría de los pacientes la etiología suele estar combinada entre componentes esqueléticos y dentoalveolares. Las posibilidades terapéuticas dependerán de la edad biológica del paciente y del tipo de maloclusión. Conforme va aumentando la edad del paciente va menguando la capacidad de crecimiento y se va asentando la relación de clase III esquelética. Las maloclusiones de clase III esqueléticas se pueden corregir mediante extracciones dentales y cirugía ortognática. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 13 años de edad con protrusión mandibular, discrepancia óseo dentaria negativa, convexidad facial disminuida y clase III dental y esqueletal. Resultados: Se resolvió la discrepancia óseo dentaria negativa del paciente, se logró la clase I Molar y canina con una sobremordida adecuada (AU)


Introduction: Class III malocclusion is considered severe and in most patients the etiology is usually combined between skeletal and dentoalveolar components. The therapeutic possibilities depend on the biological age of the patient and the type of malocclusion. As it increases the age of the patient wanes growth capacity and Will settled the relationship skeletal class III. The skeletal class III malocclusion can be corrected by tooth extractions and orthognathic surgery. Case report: Male patient 13 years old with mandibular protrusion, negative tooth bone discrepancy, decreased facial convexity and dental and skeletal class III. Results: Dental patient refusal bone discrepancy was resolved, I molar and canine class and adequate overbite was achieved (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Palatal Expansion Technique , Extraoral Traction Appliances , Orthodontic Appliances, Fixed , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/therapy , Patient Care Planning , Tooth Extraction , Orthodontic Space Closure
17.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 25(1): 70-79, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089825

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Transverse deficiencies should be a priority in orthodontic treatment, and should be corrected as soon as diagnosed, to restore the correct transverse relationship between maxilla and mandible and, consequently, normal maxillary growth. Corrections may be performed at the skeletal level, by opening the midpalatal suture, or by dentoalveolar expansion. The choice of a treatment alternative depends on certain factors, such as age, sex, degree of maxillary hypoplasia and maturation of the midpalatal suture. Thus, the present study discusses different treatment approaches to correct maxillary hypoplasia in patients with advanced skeletal maturation.


RESUMO Os problemas transversais devem ser priorizados no tratamento ortodôntico e corrigidos assim que diagnosticados, para restituir a correta relação transversal entre maxila e mandíbula e, consequentemente, restabelecer o crescimento maxilar normal. A correção pode ser realizada em nível esquelético, por meio da abertura da sutura palatina mediana (SPM), ou por expansão dentoalveolar. A opção de tratamento depende de alguns fatores como idade, sexo, grau de hipoplasia da maxila e a maturação da SPM. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi discutir as diferentes abordagens terapêuticas para correção da hipoplasia maxilar em pacientes com maturação esquelética avançada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Palatal Expansion Technique , Maxilla , Mandible
18.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 49: e20200049, 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1144884

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction There is no consensus about the immediate and latte follow-up effects of maxillary protraction in cleft lip and palate patients. Objective To evaluate the stability of Class III early treatment in cleft lip and palate patients through maxillary expansion and protraction. Material and method The sample consists in three lateral cephalometric radiographs of 28 patients (mean pre-treatment age of 6.7±1.8 years) who presented cleft lip and palate and were treated with maxillary expansion and Petit facial mask. The angular (SNA, SNB, ANB, SN.GoGn, FMA, Z Angle) and linear (overjet, Co-A, Co-Gn, Nperp-A, Nperp-Pg, AO-BO) cephalometric measures were evaluated through the Dolphin® software, in three moments: T0 (initial), T1 (after treatment), and T2 (follow-up). Data were submitted to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey-Kramer test. The correlation between cephalometric measures and patient's age was determined by Pearson's chi-squared test. Result The SNA, ANB, and AO-BO measures increased considerably (p<0.05), and they did not present any differences compared to the initial ones after the follow-up time. The overjet measure increased (p<0.05) after treatment and, even with its decrease at the follow-up time, it was still higher than at the beginning (p<0.05). The Z angle showed improvement with treatment and remained stable at the follow-up time. Conclusion After treatment (maxillary expansion associated with protraction), there was a skeletal pattern improvement. During the follow-up period, those alterations decreased to a measure close to the beginning. There was an improvement in the dental pattern and facial profile that continued in the follow-up period.


Resumo Introdução Não há consenso sobre os efeitos imediatos e tardios da protração maxilar em pacientes com fissura lábio palatal. Objetivo avaliar a estabilidade do tratamento precoce da Classe III em pacientes com fissura labiopalatina por meio da expansão e protração maxilar. Material e método A amostra consistiu de 28 pacientes com fissura lábio palatal com (média de idade pré tratamento de 6.7±1.8) com fissura lábio palatal transforame unilateral, tratados com disjuntor maxilar e com máscara facial de Petit. Por meio de análise em telerradiografias laterais as grandezas angulares (SNA, SNB, ANB, SN.GoGn, FMA, Ângulo Z) e lineares (overjet, Co-A, Co-Gn, Nperp-A, Nperp-Pg, AO-BO) foram avaliadas, com o software Dolphin®, nos tempos: inicial (T0), após o tratamento (T1) e acompanhamento de 2 a 6 anos (T2). Os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA e teste Tukey-Kramer. A correlação entre as grandezas cefalométricas e a idade do paciente foi determinada pelo teste de Pearson. Todas as análises foram realizadas com nível de significância de 5%. Resultado SNA, ANB e AO-BO aumentaram significativamente (p<0,05) e após o período de acompanhamento voltaram a ser semelhantes às iniciais (p>0,05). O overjet aumentou significativamente após o tratamento e mesmo tendo diminuído com o tempo, ainda se apresentava maior quando comparado ao momento inicial (p<0,05). O ângulo Z apresentou melhora com o tratamento e se manteve estável no período de acompanhamento (p<0,05). Conclusão após o tratamento (disjunção associada à protração maxilar) houve melhora do padrão esquelético. No período de acompanhamento, verificou-se que essas melhoras voltaram a medidas próximas das iniciais. Houve melhora no padrão dentário e no perfil facial que se manteve no período de controle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Palatal Expansion Technique , Continuity of Patient Care , Malocclusion, Angle Class III , Cleft Palate , Orthognathic Surgical Procedures
19.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): 380-386, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114911

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de nuestro estudio de tipo longitudinal prospectivo simple de medidas repetidas fue determinar la variación del flujo aéreo nasal medido con un flujómetro nasal portátil, en niños entre 6 y 14 años de edad con compresión maxilar, después de la expansión rápida del maxilar (ERM). El trabajo constó de 16 niños diagnosticados con compresión maxilar y a quienes se les indicó una disyunción maxilar rápida. Los valores de la cantidad de expansión fueron registrados y la medición del flujo inspiratorio nasal máximo (FINM) se realizó antes de la ERM (T1), inmediatamente después (T2) y al cabo de 3 meses del período de retención (T3), manteniendo las mismas condiciones iniciales. El valor máximo y el promedio de las mediciones del FINM en T2 fueron significativamente mayores que en T1 (p-valor, 0,0056) y (p-valor 0,0062) respectivamente, mientras que entre T2 y T3 no existieron tales diferencias (p-valor: 0,3021) y (p-valor: 0,3315) respectivamente. Existe un aumento significativo en los valores del FINM inmediatamente después de la expansión rápida del maxilar que se mantienen en un período de tiempo de 3 meses.


The objective of our simple prospective longitudinal type study of repeated measures, was to determine the variation of nasal airflow measured with a portable nasal flow meter, in children between 6 and 14 years of age with maxillary compression, after rapid maxillary expansion (RME). The study consisted of 16 children diagnosed with maxillary compression and those who were identified with a rapid maxillary disjunction. The values of the amount of expansion were recorded and the measurement of the peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) was performed before the ERM (T1), immediately after (T2) and after 3 months of retention period (T3), maintaining the same initial conditions. Results: the value maximum and average measurements of FINM in T2 were greater than in T1 (p-value, 0.0056) and (p-value 0.0062) respectively, while between T2 and T3 there were no differences (p value: 0.3021) and (p value: 0.3315) respectively. There is a significant increase in PNIF values immediately after rapid maxillary expansion that is in a period of 3 months.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Inhalation/physiology , Nose/physiology , Malocclusion/therapy , Maxillary Sinus/surgery , Nasal Obstruction/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Palatal Expansion Technique , Flowmeters
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781343

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the efficacy of bone anchorage and maxillary facemask protraction devices in treating skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion in adolescents.@*METHODS@#Articles relating to the use of bone anchorage and maxillary facemask protraction devices for treating skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion in adolescents were searched from the databases of Cochrane Library, PubMed, EmBase, CNKI, and Wanfang database. Several inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed for the article screening. The clinical data were extracted, and the quality of the selected articles was evaluated. A Meta-analysis of SNA, SNB, ANB, ANS-Me, Wits, and U1-PP change was performed by using RevMan 5.3.@*RESULTS@#Seven studies (264 patients) were included in the Meta-analysis. Among these studies, three were randomized controlled trials, and four were non-randomized controlled trials. Compared with the maxillary facemask protraction device group, the bone ancho-rage device group had higher SNA changes and lower ANS-Me, Wits, and U1-PP changes (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in the SNB and ANB changes between these two groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with the maxillary facemask protraction device, the bone anchorage device can increase the extent of protraction of the maxilla and has better controls for the labial inclination of the maxillary anterior teeth in treating skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion among adolescents. However, additional high-quality randomized controlled trials must be performed to verify the results.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Cephalometry , Extraoral Traction Appliances , Humans , Malocclusion, Angle Class III , Maxilla , Palatal Expansion Technique
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