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1.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(6): 457-465, dic. 31, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178939

ABSTRACT

Soft tissue calcifications can indicate the presence of more serious, potentially life-threatening pathologies. Therefore, their study can lead to an early diagnosis of those conditions that have not yet become clinically apparent. Main objective: To determine the prevalence of calcifications in soft tissues of the head and neck in cone beam computed tomography images obtained from the Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Service at Universidad Andrés Bello (UNAB), Viña del Mar, Chile. Material and Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional, quantitative study. A total of 288 images of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) were used. Images were obtained at random from the database of the Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Service at UNAB, Viña Del Mar, between 2014 and 2019. Results: A prevalence of 59.72% of soft tissue calcifications was obtained. The most prevalent were: tonsilloliths and calcified stylohyoid ligament, accounting for 30.65% and 45.56%, respectively. Conclusion: A high prevalence of soft tissue calcifications was found in a population that has not been studied previously; therefore, it is important that the dentist perform a detailed analysis of the cone beam computed tomography.


Introducción: Las calcificaciones en tejidos blandos pueden indicar patologías más graves, que incluso pueden comprometer la vida. Por lo tanto, investigarlas puede conducir a un diagnóstico temprano de aquellas que aún no se han manifestado clínicamente. Objetivo principal: determinar la prevalencia de calcificaciones en tejidos blandos de cabeza y cuello en tomografía computarizada de haz cónico del Servicio de Radiología Oral y Maxilofacial de la UNAB, Viña del Mar, Chile. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, transversal, cuantitativo. Se utilizaron 288 volúmenes de tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (CBCT, por las iniciales en inglés de Cone Beam Computed Tomography), obtenidas al azar, de la base de datos del Servicio de Radiología Oral y Maxilofacial de la Universidad Andrés Bello (UNAB), Viña del Mar entre 2014 y 2019. Resultados: Se obtuvo una prevalencia de 59.72% de calcificaciones en tejidos blandos. Las más prevalentes fueron: tonsilolitos, con un 30,65% y ligamento estilohioídeo calcificado, con un 45,56%. Conclusión: Se encontró una alta prevalencia de calcificaciones en tejidos blandos en una población que no ha sido estudiada previamente, por ello es importante que el odontólogo realice un análisis detallado de la tomografía computarizada de haz cónico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Head/diagnostic imaging , Neck/diagnostic imaging , Palatine Tonsil/diagnostic imaging , Calcinosis/epidemiology , Chile , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Ligaments
2.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 63(2): 55-64, nov. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150752

ABSTRACT

La función de las amígdalas siempre ha sido discutida, desde afirmar que no tenían funcionalidad, hasta la actualidad que se plantea un papel inmunológico, con actividad linfocitaria de defensa, debido a la localización de linfocitos en el tejido de las amígdalas. Este artículo de actualización pretende describir desde la embriología, histología, fisiología, patología y estomatología, el rol que desempeñan las mismas en su papel inmunológico ante la acción de agentes patógenos. Se destaca la acción conjunta de las amígdalas palatinas, amígdalas faríngeas o adenoides, amígdalas peritubarias, amígdalas linguales y todo el resto de tejido linfático que conforman el anillo linfático faríngeo o anillo de Waldeyer, ya que cumplen un rol determinante en la defensa del organismo (AU)


The function of the tonsils has always been debated, from stating that they had no functionality, to the present day that an immunological role is proposed, with lymphocyte defense activity, due to the location of lymphocytes in the tissue of the tonsils. This update article aims to describe from embryology, histology, physiology, pathology and stomatology, the role they play in their immunological role against the action of pathogens. The joint action of the palatine tonsils, pharyngeal or adenoid tonsils, peritubal tonsils, lingual tonsils and all the rest of the lymphatic tissue that make up the pharyngeal lymphatic ring or Waldeyer's ring is highlighted, since they play a decisive role in the defense of the organism (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Palatine Tonsil/immunology , Adenoids/immunology , Lymphoid Tissue , Immunoglobulins/physiology , Lymphocytes/physiology , Mouth Diseases/immunology
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1201-1207, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134425

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Enlarged palatine tonsils and adenoids are thought to cause obstruction of the upper airway, triggering changes in breathing patterns, which in turn lead to dentofacial alterations, including malocclusions. The object of the present study was to correlate the size (grade) of the palatine tonsil with measurements of the maxillary and mandibular dental arches in children. This was an observational cross-sectional study carried out in 35 children aged between 6 and 11 years. The inter- and intra-arch parameters were measured (horizontal, vertical and sagittal analyses) by making plastercasts and then taking measurements with callipers. The tonsil size was classified in 5 grades from 0-4, using the Brodsky tonsil grading scale. The researcher was calibrated prior to carrying out the measurements. Pearson's chi-squared test was used and Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated. The SPSS v.22.0 software was used, with a significance threshold of 5 %. Six patients were classified as grade 1, sixteen grade 2, eleven grade 3, two grade 4 and none of the patients presented grade 0.A low positive association was found between tonsil grade and the total length of the mandibular arch, a very low positive association between tonsil grade and maxillary inter-first premolar distance, total length of the maxillary arch and depth of the palatine recess.A very low negative association was found for tonsil grade and overjet, overbite, mandibular inter-permanent first molar distance, mandibular inter-first premolar distance, and mandibular and maxillary intercanine widths. No statistically significant correlation was observed for any of the measurements. No association was found between the tonsil grade and Angle's Classification, canine relationship, overjet and overbite. According to the results of this study there is no significant correlation between the dental arches and the tonsil grade.


RESUMEN: Se ha considerado que el grado del tamaño de las tonsilas palatinas y los adenoides pueden ser factores que generan obstrucción de la vía aérea superior, desencadenando cambios en el patrón de respiración, lo que provoca alteraciones dentofaciales, entre ellas, maloclusiones. El objetivo del presente estudio fue correlacionar el grado tonsilar palatino con medidas de los arcos dentales maxilar y mandibular en niños. Se realizó un estudio observacional de corte transversal. Fueron incluidos 35 niños entre 6 y 11 años de edad. Fueron medidos parámetros interarco e intra-arco (análisis transversal, vertical, sagital). Para eso fueron tomados modelos de yeso y luego las medidas fueron realizadas con un caliper. El grado tonsilar fue clasificado en 5 grados (0-5), de acuerdo a la escala de graduación de Brodsky. Para la realización de las mediciones el evaluador fue previamente calibrado. Se realizó la prueba Chi-cuadrado de Pearson, y coefi- ciente de correlación de Pearson. Se utilizó el software SPSS 22.0, considerándose umbral de significación de 5 %. Seis pacientes fueron clasificados en grado 1, dieciséis grado 2, once grado 3, dos grado 4 y ningún paciente presentó grado 0. Se encontró una asociación positiva baja entre grado tonsilar y la longitud total del arco mandibular, positiva muy baja entre grado tonsilar y distancia inter-primer premolar maxilar, longitud total del arco maxilar y profundidad de la bóveda palatina. Una asociación negativa muy baja fue encontrada para el grado tonsilar y overjet, overbite, distancia inter-primer molar permanente mandibular, distancia inter- primer premolar mandibular, ancho intercanino mandibular y maxilar. Se observó ausencia de correlación estadísticamente significativa para todas las medidas. No se encontró asociación entre el grado tonsilar y clase molar de Angle, relación canina, overjet y overbite. Según los resultados de este estudio no se aprecia una correlación significativa entre los arcos dentales y el grado tonsilar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Palatine Tonsil/anatomy & histology , Dental Arch/anatomy & histology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Maxilla/anatomy & histology
4.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 23-29, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089369

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Obstrutive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction, associated with intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia, and the main risk factor in childhood is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The lymphocytes in these structures are responsible for local and systemic immune responses. Objective Verify the levels of the inflammatory markers, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, TNF-α, CRP and α1-GP, in the tonsils of children with and without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Methods This cross-sectional prospective study included 34 children with complains of snoring, difficulty breathing during sleep or recurrent tonsillitis. Patients underwent to a complete otorhinolaryngological examination, nasal endoscopy and polysomnography and were divided into two groups with 17 children each: obstructive sleep apnea syndrome group and control group. All underwent an adenotonsillectomy. Cytokines were measured in the collected tonsils (ELISA and Multiplex methods). Results Statistically significant increasing were observed between IL-8 and IL-10 cytokines of patients with obstructive sleep apnea when compared to the control group; also between c-reactive protein and α1-GP of the tonsils cortical region in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome when compared with the medullary region. There were no statistically significant differences for the remaining inflammatory mediators. Conclusion After the analysis of the levels of pro and anti-inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, Il-15, TNF-α, CRP, α1-GP) in the tonsils, we observed higher levels of markers IL-8 and IL-10 in pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.


Resumo Introdução A síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono é caracterizada por episódios repetidos de obstrução das vias aéreas superiores, associados a hipóxia intermitente e hipercapnia, e o principal fator de risco na infância é a hipertrofia adenotonsilar. Os linfócitos nessas estruturas são responsáveis por respostas imunes locais e sistêmicas. Objetivo Dosar os marcadores inflamatórios, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, TNF-α, PCR e α1-GP, nas tonsilas de crianças com e sem síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono. Método Estudamos prospectivamente 34 crianças que se queixavam de ronco, dificuldade para respirar durante o sono ou tonsilites recorrentes. Os pacientes foram submetidos a exame otorrinolaringológico completo, endoscopia nasal e polissonografia e foram divididos em dois grupos com 17 crianças cada: síndrome de apneia obstrutiva do sono e controle. Todos foram submetidos à adenotonsilectomia. As citocinas foram medidas nas tonsilas coletadas (métodos ELISA e Multiplex). Resultados Com diferenças estatisticamente significantes, observou-se aumento das citocinas IL-8 e IL-10 em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono em comparação ao grupo controle, assim como aumento dos níveis de proteína C reativa e de α1-GP na região cortical das tonsilas de crianças portadoras de síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono em comparação com a região medular. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes para o restante dos mediadores inflamatórios. Conclusão Após a análise dos níveis de marcadores pró e anti-inflamatórios (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, Il-15, TNF-α, PCR, α1-GP) nas tonsilas, observamos níveis mais altos de marcadores IL-8 e IL-10 em pacientes pediátricos com síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Palatine Tonsil/immunology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/immunology , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Tonsillectomy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Orosomucoid/analysis , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Interleukins/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Inflammation/immunology
5.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 47(4): 245-248, Oct-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1042735

ABSTRACT

Abstract We report an unexpected difficult airway in a patient with unrecognized lingual tonsillar hypertrophy. A 54-year-old hypertensive woman presented for resection of a mediastinal mass under general anesthesia (GA). After induction, mask ventilation was impossible. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was used, achieving suboptimal ventilation. Fiberoptic intubation through LMA was attempted but tube advancement was hindered by a protrudingmass. Finally, intubation was achieved using the Frova introducer. After completion of the surgery, the patient was transferred, intubated, to the postanesthesia care unit. Ear, nose, and throat assessment concluded that the mass was a hyper-trophied lingual tonsil. Unexpected lingual tonsillar hypertrophy can complicate GA, making mask ventilation, and even intubation impossible. It is considered a frequent cause of unexpected difficult airway. Diagnosis cannot be made by standard airway physical examination. Once recognized, fiberoptic intubation is mandatory in subsequent surgeries.


Resumen Presentamos el caso de una vía aérea difícil imprevista debido a hipertrofia de la amígdala lingual no conocida. Mujer de 54 años, hipertensa, que ingresa para resección de masa mediastínica bajo anestesia general. Tras la inducción, la ventilación mediante mascarilla facial resultó imposible. Se coloca mascarilla laríngea (ML) y se consigue ventilación de forma subóptima. Se intenta intubación guiada por fibroscopia a su través, pero se objetiva masa protruyente que impide la progresión del tubo. Finalmente se intuba mediante introductor Frova. Tras finalizar la cirugía, la paciente se traslada intubada a la Unidad de Reanimación Postanestésica (URPA). Se realiza evaluación por otorrinolaringología (ORL), que concluye que la masa corresponde a una amígdala lingual hipertrófica. La hipertrofia de la amígdala lingual puede complicar la anestesia, dificultando la ventilación e intubación. Se considera una causa frecuente de vía aérea difícil imprevista. El diagnóstico no puede realizarse mediante exploración anestésica estándar. Una vez conocida, las intubaciones siguientes deben ser guiadas por fibroscopia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pharynx , Amygdalin , Hypertrophy , Otolaryngology , Tongue , Palatine Tonsil , Ventilation , Laryngeal Masks
6.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(2): 151-158, jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014431

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El trastorno respiratorio del sueño (TRS) afecta al 2% a 3% de la población pediátrica, siendo la hiperplasia adenoamigdalina (HAA) su principal causa. Se ha observado un aumento en los niveles de leucotrienos excretados en orina (LTU) en estos pacientes, los cuales se correlacionarían con la severidad de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de LTU en niños con TRS e HAA antes y después de adenoamigdalectomía (AA), y en controles sanos. Correlacionar los niveles de LTU con los síntomas de TRS. Material y método: Estudio prospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes con TRS e HAA (n =12) y controles sanos (n =12). Se determinó la concentración de LTU en ambos grupos de forma basal y un mes después de cirugía en el grupo con TRS. Resultados: No hubo diferencias en los niveles de LTU antes y después de AA. Tampoco existieron diferencias entre el grupo control y grupo TRS previo a la cirugía. No se encontró asociación entre LTU y la severidad de síntomas respiratorios. Conclusión: Los LTU no se encuentran elevados en pacientes con TRS e HAA, no disminuyen luego de AA y no se correlacionan con la severidad de los síntomas. La medición de LTU no sería una herramienta útil en la evaluación de pacientes con TRS. Nuevos estudios son necesarios para evaluar el rol de los leucotrienos en esta enfermedad.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Sleep disorder breathing (SDB) affects 2%-3% of the pediatric population, being adenotonsillar hyperplasia (ATH) its main cause. An increase in the levels of urinary leukotrienes (ULT) has been measured in these patients, which could be correlated with the severity of the disease. Aim: To determine the level of ULT in children with SDB and ATH before and after adenotonsillectomy, and healthy controls. To correlate the levels of ULT with symptoms of SDB. Material and method: prospective study. SDB and ATH patients (n =12) and healthy controls (n =12) were included. The concentration of ULT in both groups was determined, before surgery and after a month of surgery. Results: There were no differences in the levels of ULT before and after tonsillectomy in the studied group. There were also no differences between the control group and the SDB group. No association was observed between the level of ULT and the severity of respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: ULT are not elevated in patients with SDB and ATH and they do not decrease after adenotonsillectomy. ULT are not correlated with the severity of the symptoms of SDB. The measurement of ULT would not be a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with SDB. New studies are needed to assess the role of the role of leukotrienes in this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/urine , Leukotrienes/urine , Sleep-Wake Transition Disorders/urine , Postoperative Period , Quality of Life , Respiration Disorders/surgery , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/surgery , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Tonsillectomy , Prospective Studies , Hyperplasia/complications
7.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 47(3): 183-186, 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1095197

ABSTRACT

El recubrimiento del lecho amigdalino se trata de un procedimiento coadyuvante y sencillo ya descrito por varios autores con diferencias en la técnica que ocupa unos cuantos minutos más en la cirugía amigdalina tradicional, pero que representa en la experiencia de muchos un aporte para la pronta cicatrización y recuperación de los pacientes sometidos a esta cirugía que se realiza desde hace mucho tiempo, pero que implica un postoperatorio particularmente molesto por cuenta del dolor en los días siguientes. Es un reto y una responsabilidad el alivio del dolor postoperatorio y la prevención de las complicaciones relacionadas principalmente con el sangrado. La intención de este artículo es proponer en la práctica diaria, cuando se realizan amigdalectomías, una técnica complementaria que mejorará las condiciones de un período postoperatorio con menor dolor y una recuperación más rápida. Se busca el recubrimiento de la zona operada con el remanente de la mucosa de la cápsula amigdalina protegiendo la musculatura del lecho.


The covering of the tonsillar bed is a simple procedure already described by several authors with differences in the technique that occupies a few minutes more in the traditional tonsillectomy, but that represents, in the experience of many, a contribution for the early healing and recovery of patients submitted to this surgery that has been performed since long time ago, but that embodies a particularly annoying postoperative period due to pain in the following days. It is our challenge and responsibility to relieve postoperative pain and prevent complications mainly related to bleeding. The intention of this article is to propose in our daily practice, when it is performed tonsillectomies, a complementary technique that will improve the conditions of a postoperative period with less pain and quick recovery. The coating of the operated area is sought with the remaining mucosa of the tonsillar capsule protecting the musculature of the tonsillar bed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tonsillectomy , Pain, Postoperative , Palatine Tonsil
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760092

ABSTRACT

Adenosquamous cell carcinoma of tonsil is a rare lesion of head and neck and is often misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. It has a very aggressive clinical pattern. We encountered a patient with an adenosquamous cell carcinoma of tonsil and performed various treatment modalities including surgical resection, radiation therapy, chemotherapy but the patient expired two years after the first diagnosis. Such case has never been reported earlier in Korea. Herein, we present this rare case with a review of related literature.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Adenosquamous , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Head , Humans , Korea , Neck , Palatine Tonsil
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759990

ABSTRACT

Presyrinx consists of reversible spinal cord swelling without frank cavitation, as observed on T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The condition may evolve into syringomyelia, but timely surgical interventions have achieved meaningful results. Here, we report the case of a 27-year-old woman who presented with headache, dizziness, and diplopia 2 months after suffering a mild head trauma. On MRI, hydrocephalus, downward herniation of the cerebellar tonsil, and a diffuse high signal change in the cervical spinal cord were detected. After insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, her neurological symptoms resolved, and she has had no signs of presyrinx recurrence for >4 years.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arnold-Chiari Malformation , Cervical Cord , Craniocerebral Trauma , Diplopia , Dizziness , Female , Headache , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Palatine Tonsil , Recurrence , Spinal Cord , Syringomyelia , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761443

ABSTRACT

This report is a case of 76-year old male patient who had difficulty in swallowing, pronunciation and suffered regurgitation of food. The patient lacks uvula and both tonsils, had short palatoglossal arch and soft palate, as well as defective left palatopharyngeal arch. The height and width of the soft palate defect were measured by reconstructing the Computed Tomography (CT) image in three dimensions. Phonation and soft palate obstructing ability were examined by nasometry and nasal endoscopy. Evaluations on phonetics and swallowing were done and improvements were shown. The patient was satisfied with the results of treatment.


Subject(s)
Deglutition , Endoscopy , Humans , Jaw, Edentulous , Male , Palate, Soft , Palatine Tonsil , Phonation , Phonetics , Rehabilitation , Uvula
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761298

ABSTRACT

Arnold-Chiari malformation type 1 is a congenital disease characterized by herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Most common clinical symptom is pain, including occipital headache and neck pain, upper limb pain exacerbated by physical activity or valsalva maneuvers. Various otoneurological manifestations also occur in patients with the disease, which has usually associated with dizziness, vomiting, dysphagia, poor hand coordination, unsteady gait, numbness. Patients with Arnold-Chiari malformation may develop vertigo after spending some time with their head inclined on their trunk. Positional and down-beating nystagmus are common forms of nystagmus in them. We experienced a 12-year-old female who presented complaining of vertigo related to changes in head position which was initially misdiagnosed as a benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.


Subject(s)
Arnold-Chiari Malformation , Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo , Child , Deglutition Disorders , Dizziness , Female , Foramen Magnum , Gait Disorders, Neurologic , Hand , Head , Headache , Humans , Hypesthesia , Motor Activity , Neck Pain , Palatine Tonsil , Upper Extremity , Valsalva Maneuver , Vertigo , Vomiting
12.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 78-82, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760458

ABSTRACT

A 56-year-old female presented with clinical features of acute tonsillitis with subsequent cervical lymphadenitis. After taking empirical antibiotics for 1 week, the acute infection symptoms and signs were resolved. However, an asymmetric enlargement of the left palatine tonsil with ipsilateral neck swelling remained. Subsequent tonsillectomy and lymph node excisional biopsy were performed due to the possibility of malignancy. The patient was eventually diagnosed as malignant lymphoma according to pathological confirmation. We demonstrate the diagnostic challenges in such a rare case and emphasize the importance of differentiating malignant lymphoma from an atypically presenting acute infectious disease.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biopsy , Communicable Diseases , Female , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphadenitis , Lymphoma , Middle Aged , Neck , Palatine Tonsil , Tonsillectomy , Tonsillitis
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Partial intracapsular tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (PITA) has become a well-recognized technique for tonsillectomy in children. Several studies have reported that PITA shows better postoperative morbidity compared to the conventional technique. However, there is still concern about the regrowth of remnant tonsil tissues. The authors evaluated the postoperative results of PITA, combined extracapsular and intracapsular tonsillectomy, and conventional tonsillectomy. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: The authors studied 97 children (male: 62, female: 35) aged 2 to 13 years old, who underwent tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (PITA, combined extracapsular and intracapsular tonsillectomy, and conventional tonsillectomy). The degree of adenotonsillar hypertrophy, apnea-hypopnea index and lowest oxygen saturation was confirmed for all subjects. Operation time, quality of life, scale for postoperative pain, frequency of postoperative bleeding, and recurrence with tonsillar regrowth were compared after surgery performed by different surgical procedures. RESULTS: Regardless of the surgical technique, all the cases presented significant improvement in the quality of life before and after surgery. On the day of surgery and four days after surgery, PITA showed superior results in terms of postoperative pain level compared to the conventional technique. There were no statistically significant results with respect to the operation time and postoperative bleeding. Six months after the surgery, the recurrence of sleep apnea due to the regrowth of remaining tonsil was not obvious. CONCLUSION: Tonsillectomy technique preserving tonsillar capsule may show better results on early postoperative pain. It can be a good alternative to the conventional technique in surgical treatment for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea in terms of early postoperative pain control.


Subject(s)
Adenoidectomy , Child , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypertrophy , Methods , Oxygen , Pain, Postoperative , Palatine Tonsil , Pediatrics , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Tonsillectomy
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774298

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical manifestation, immunophenotypes and prognostic factors of patients with primary tonsil afftive large B cell lymphoma ( PT-DLBCL ).@*METHODS@#The clinical data including clinical characterstics, typing, staging, treatment efficacy and prognostic factors of PT-DLBCL patients were collected and analyzed restrospectively.@*RESULTS@#Out of 36 cases with the detinite cell origin, 24 cases (66.7%) were detecmined as the type of germinal center B-cell (GCB) and 12 cases (33.3%) was non-germinal center B-cell (non-GCB), 15 (40.5%) out of 37 cases were in Ann Arbor stage Ⅰ, and 22 (59.5%) in stage Ⅱ. With the median follow-up of 44 (10-101) months, 2 cases (5.4%) failed to be followed-up, after treatment for 6 (3-8) cycles 35 patients were evaluated. Among them 26 cases (74.3%) reached to complete remission (CR), 8 cases (22.9%) to partial remission ( PR ), and 1 (2.8%) to stable disease (SD). Both the 3 years and 5 years progression-free survival ( PFS ) were 82.5%, and both 3 and 5 years overall survival (OS) were 95.5%. 5 cases (13.5%) received radiotherapy. The patients aged>60 ( P<0.05 ) or aged>70 (P<0.05) had shorter PFS than younger patients. The patients with increased lactic dehydrogenase ( LDH ) level (P<0.01) and without rituximab (R) (P<0.05) in the treatment regimen had relatively short OS.@*CONCLUSION@#The patients sensitive to chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy have a good prognosis. Most of the patients can obtain long-term survival after treatment. The effect of combined immunotherapy are better than that of the simple chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , Middle Aged , Palatine Tonsil , Prognosis , Tonsillar Neoplasms
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787531

ABSTRACT

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare epithelial neuroendocrine malignancy and is preferentially located in gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Cases of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma have been reported in many other locations, including the thymus, gallbladder, prostate, larynx, salivary glands, nasopharynx, tonsil and mastoid. However, primary sinonasal large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma never have been reported in Korea. We experienced a case of primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma arising from left maxillary sinus recently. A 82-year-old male patient presented with nasal obstruction and epistaxis. The biopsy revealed large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with poor differentiation. After a general evaluation, the patient was staged as cT3N0M0. The patient was treated by combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We report this rare case with literature review.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Drug Therapy , Epistaxis , Gallbladder , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Korea , Larynx , Male , Mastoid , Maxillary Sinus , Nasal Obstruction , Nasopharynx , Palatine Tonsil , Pancreas , Prostate , Radiotherapy , Salivary Glands , Thymus Gland
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787356

ABSTRACT

The most common cause of mouth breathing is obstacles caused by mechanical factors in upper airway. Mouth breathing could be consequently pathological cause of sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep-disordered breathing in children can cause growth disorders and behavioral disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between upper airway and sleep-disordered breathing in children with mouth breathing.Twenty boys between 7 – 9 years old who reported to have mouth breathing in questionnaire were evaluated with clinical examination, questionnaires, lateral cephalometric radiographs, and portable sleep testing. This study assessed apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) for the evaluation of sleep-disordered breathing and was done to investigate the correlation between these values and the upper airway width measured by lateral cephalometric radiographs.There was no significant correlation with the size of the tonsils (p = 0.921), but the adenoid hypertrophy was higher in the abnormal group than in the normal group (p = 0.008). In the classification according to AHI and ODI, retropalatal and retroglossal distance showed a statistically significant decrease in the abnormal group compared to the normal group (p = 0.002, p = 0.001). As AHI and ODI increased, upper airway width tended to be narrower. This indicates that mouth breathing could affect the upper airway, which is related to sleep quality.


Subject(s)
Adenoids , Child , Classification , Growth Disorders , Humans , Hypertrophy , Mouth Breathing , Mouth , Oxygen , Palatine Tonsil , Sleep Apnea Syndromes
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stem cell engineering is appealing consideration for regenerating damaged endothelial cells (ECs) because stem cells can differentiate into EC-like cells. In this study, we demonstrate that tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) can differentiate into EC-like cells under optimal physiochemical microenvironments.METHODS: TMSCs were preconditioned with Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) or EC growth medium (EGM) for 4 days and then replating them on Matrigel to observe the formation of a capillary-like network under light microscope. Microarray, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses were used to evaluate the expression of gene and protein of EC-related markers.RESULTS: Preconditioning TMSCs in EGM for 4 days and then replating them on Matrigel induced the formation of a capillary-like network in 3 h, but TMSCs preconditioned with DMEM did not form such a network. Genome analyses confirmed that EGM preconditioning significantly affected the expression of genes related to angiogenesis, blood vessel morphogenesis and development, and vascular development. Western blot analyses revealed that EGM preconditioning with gelatin coating induced the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), a mature EC-specific marker, as well as phosphorylated Akt at serine 473, a signaling molecule related to eNOS activation. Gelatin-coating during EGM preconditioning further enhanced the stability of the capillary-like network, and also resulted in the network more closely resembled to those observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that under specific conditions, i.e., EGM preconditioning with gelatin coating for 4 days followed by Matrigel, TMSCs could be a source of generating endothelial cells for treating vascular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Blood Vessels , Blotting, Western , Eagles , Endothelial Cells , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gelatin , Genome , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Morphogenesis , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Palatine Tonsil , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serine , Stem Cells
19.
Rev. fac. cienc. méd. (Impr.) ; 15(1): 20-25, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-947012

ABSTRACT

Se define amigdalectomía a la disección de la amígdala palatina, unilateral o bilateral. La amigdalectomía es la cirugía más frecuente realizada en otorrinolaringología, en el año 2006, en Estados Unidos de América se realizaron 737 000 procedimientos. Objetivo: identificar las características epidemiológicas, clínicas, e histopatológicas de niños y adultos sometidos a amigdalectomía, para la detección precoz y manejo oportuno de patologías malignas. Material y Métodos: estudio no experimental, descriptivo transversal, realizado en salas quirúrgicas del Bloque Materno Infantil y Otorrinolaringología del Bloque Médico Quirúrgico del Hospital Escuela Universitario, del periodo junio 2016 a marzo 2017; el universo fue igual a la muestra 100 pacientes, mayores de 3 años, sometidos a amigdalectomía. Las técnicas utilizadas fueron la observación y la entrevista; se recolectó la información a través de un instrumento estructurado con preguntas abiertas y cerradas. Los resultados fueron procesados en el programa estadístico EPI-INFO 7.0, aplicando frecuencias, porcentajes y medidas de tendencia central. El estudio se realizó previa aprobación del Comité de Ética. Resultados: en 100 pacientes, la edad media fue de 13 años; el mayor factor de riesgo relacionado a malignidad identificado, correspondió a la halitosis 84%, la manifestación clínica frecuente fue la roncopatía 100%, el diagnóstico histopatológico frecuente de las biopsias obtenidas fue la hiperplasia folicular 99%, se encontró un caso de linfoma, neoplasia maligna 1%. Conclusiones: La incidencia de malignidad fue baja, el análisis histopatológico obtenido de muestras de pacientes amigdalectomizados, es necesario para la detección oportuna y manejo precoz de patologías malignas, se recomienda realizar el estudio histopatológico.


Subject(s)
Child , Adolescent , Adult , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Palatine Tonsil/diagnostic imaging , Tonsillar Neoplasms/prevention & control , Tonsillectomy
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diagnostic features of peritonsillar abscess are an asymmetrically enlarged palatine tonsil with peripheral rim enhancement and central low density in the post-contrast computed tomography (CT). Although it is necessary to differentiate tumorous conditions of tonsils to compare pre- and post-contrast CT, pre-contrast CT may be less useful in the diagnosis of peritonsillar abscess. This study aims to evaluate of the efficacy of single post-contrast CT for diagnosis and treatment of peritonsillar abscess. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: We retrospectively compared 29 patients with peritonsillar abscess, who were diagnosed by single post-contrast CT, with 36 patients diagnosed by pre- and post-contrast CT to determine the success rates of pus drainage and hospital days. Additionally, two otorhinolaryngologists made a judgment of abscess presence for sixty randomly mixed CT images of peritonsillar abscess or tonsillitis with pre- and post-contrast CT or single post-contrast CT. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the success rate of drainage (p=0.622) and hospital days (p=0.504) between groups with/without pre-contrast CT. Abscess presence was judged by raters with/without pre-contrast CT. Inter-rater agreement value (Cohen's kappa) was 0.825 (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Single post-contrast CT of peritonsillar abscess may be a good alternative for diagnosis and treatment and may reduce unnecessary exposure to radiation.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Contrast Media , Diagnosis , Drainage , Humans , Judgment , Methods , Palatine Tonsil , Peritonsillar Abscess , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Suppuration , Tonsillitis
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