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1.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 23-29, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089369

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Obstrutive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction, associated with intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia, and the main risk factor in childhood is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The lymphocytes in these structures are responsible for local and systemic immune responses. Objective Verify the levels of the inflammatory markers, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, TNF-α, CRP and α1-GP, in the tonsils of children with and without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Methods This cross-sectional prospective study included 34 children with complains of snoring, difficulty breathing during sleep or recurrent tonsillitis. Patients underwent to a complete otorhinolaryngological examination, nasal endoscopy and polysomnography and were divided into two groups with 17 children each: obstructive sleep apnea syndrome group and control group. All underwent an adenotonsillectomy. Cytokines were measured in the collected tonsils (ELISA and Multiplex methods). Results Statistically significant increasing were observed between IL-8 and IL-10 cytokines of patients with obstructive sleep apnea when compared to the control group; also between c-reactive protein and α1-GP of the tonsils cortical region in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome when compared with the medullary region. There were no statistically significant differences for the remaining inflammatory mediators. Conclusion After the analysis of the levels of pro and anti-inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, Il-15, TNF-α, CRP, α1-GP) in the tonsils, we observed higher levels of markers IL-8 and IL-10 in pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.


Resumo Introdução A síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono é caracterizada por episódios repetidos de obstrução das vias aéreas superiores, associados a hipóxia intermitente e hipercapnia, e o principal fator de risco na infância é a hipertrofia adenotonsilar. Os linfócitos nessas estruturas são responsáveis por respostas imunes locais e sistêmicas. Objetivo Dosar os marcadores inflamatórios, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, TNF-α, PCR e α1-GP, nas tonsilas de crianças com e sem síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono. Método Estudamos prospectivamente 34 crianças que se queixavam de ronco, dificuldade para respirar durante o sono ou tonsilites recorrentes. Os pacientes foram submetidos a exame otorrinolaringológico completo, endoscopia nasal e polissonografia e foram divididos em dois grupos com 17 crianças cada: síndrome de apneia obstrutiva do sono e controle. Todos foram submetidos à adenotonsilectomia. As citocinas foram medidas nas tonsilas coletadas (métodos ELISA e Multiplex). Resultados Com diferenças estatisticamente significantes, observou-se aumento das citocinas IL-8 e IL-10 em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono em comparação ao grupo controle, assim como aumento dos níveis de proteína C reativa e de α1-GP na região cortical das tonsilas de crianças portadoras de síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono em comparação com a região medular. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes para o restante dos mediadores inflamatórios. Conclusão Após a análise dos níveis de marcadores pró e anti-inflamatórios (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, Il-15, TNF-α, PCR, α1-GP) nas tonsilas, observamos níveis mais altos de marcadores IL-8 e IL-10 em pacientes pediátricos com síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Palatine Tonsil/immunology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/immunology , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Tonsillectomy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Orosomucoid/analysis , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Interleukins/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Inflammation/immunology
2.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(2): 151-158, jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014431

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El trastorno respiratorio del sueño (TRS) afecta al 2% a 3% de la población pediátrica, siendo la hiperplasia adenoamigdalina (HAA) su principal causa. Se ha observado un aumento en los niveles de leucotrienos excretados en orina (LTU) en estos pacientes, los cuales se correlacionarían con la severidad de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de LTU en niños con TRS e HAA antes y después de adenoamigdalectomía (AA), y en controles sanos. Correlacionar los niveles de LTU con los síntomas de TRS. Material y método: Estudio prospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes con TRS e HAA (n =12) y controles sanos (n =12). Se determinó la concentración de LTU en ambos grupos de forma basal y un mes después de cirugía en el grupo con TRS. Resultados: No hubo diferencias en los niveles de LTU antes y después de AA. Tampoco existieron diferencias entre el grupo control y grupo TRS previo a la cirugía. No se encontró asociación entre LTU y la severidad de síntomas respiratorios. Conclusión: Los LTU no se encuentran elevados en pacientes con TRS e HAA, no disminuyen luego de AA y no se correlacionan con la severidad de los síntomas. La medición de LTU no sería una herramienta útil en la evaluación de pacientes con TRS. Nuevos estudios son necesarios para evaluar el rol de los leucotrienos en esta enfermedad.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Sleep disorder breathing (SDB) affects 2%-3% of the pediatric population, being adenotonsillar hyperplasia (ATH) its main cause. An increase in the levels of urinary leukotrienes (ULT) has been measured in these patients, which could be correlated with the severity of the disease. Aim: To determine the level of ULT in children with SDB and ATH before and after adenotonsillectomy, and healthy controls. To correlate the levels of ULT with symptoms of SDB. Material and method: prospective study. SDB and ATH patients (n =12) and healthy controls (n =12) were included. The concentration of ULT in both groups was determined, before surgery and after a month of surgery. Results: There were no differences in the levels of ULT before and after tonsillectomy in the studied group. There were also no differences between the control group and the SDB group. No association was observed between the level of ULT and the severity of respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: ULT are not elevated in patients with SDB and ATH and they do not decrease after adenotonsillectomy. ULT are not correlated with the severity of the symptoms of SDB. The measurement of ULT would not be a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with SDB. New studies are needed to assess the role of the role of leukotrienes in this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/urine , Leukotrienes/urine , Sleep-Wake Transition Disorders/urine , Postoperative Period , Quality of Life , Respiration Disorders/surgery , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/surgery , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Tonsillectomy , Prospective Studies , Hyperplasia/complications
3.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 77(3): 326-334, set. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902784

ABSTRACT

Las amígdalas linguales (AL) forman parte del Anillo de Waldeyer (AW). La hipertrofia de amígdala lingual (HAL) se debe habitualmente a hiperplasia, generalmente asintomática. Su etiología no está precisada, pero se reconoce como causa de Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño (AOS) residual, posterior a adenoamigdalectomía (AA). Su identificación en el examen físico es dificultosa, por lo que resulta relevante la sospecha, junto con una nasofibroscopía. Según condiciones y sintomatología del paciente se puede complementar el estudio con otras técnicas diagnósticas, como polisomnograma (PSG) y resonancia magnética (RM). La cirugía es exitosa para el tratamiento de estos casos. Dentro de las complicaciones descritas para este procedimiento destacan: hemorragia, obstrucción de la vía área, dificultad en la intubación orotraqueal y dolor en el posoperatorio. Actualmente no existe una técnica quirúrgica de elección. Debido a la morbilidad asociada a AOS resulta fundamental el diagnóstico de esta patología, ya que es susceptible de tratamiento.


Lingual tonsils are part of Waldeyer`s Ring. The hypertrophy of the lingual tonsils is generally due to hiperplasia, without symptoms. The etiology is not clear, but it is a known cause of residual Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), after adenotonsilectomy. Their identification during the physical exam results dificult, so the suspicious and the nasofibroscopy are relevant. Acording to the particular patient it is posible realize additional exams, like polisomnography and magnetic nuclear resonance. Surgery is succesful for this cases. The complications include: bleeding, airway obstruction, anestesia dificulties and pain. Currently there is not a particular techniqe of choice. OSA is associated to morbidity, therefore it is fundamental to diagnose this pathology, because it is posible to treat it through surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/etiology , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/surgery , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/diagnosis , Tonsillectomy , Diagnosis, Differential , Hypertrophy/pathology
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(5): e5846, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839296

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of minimally invasive tonsil surgery for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in children. Tonsil ablation or turbinate reduction was performed on 49 pediatric patients with OSAHS by minimally invasive tonsil surgery. In order to evaluate the efficacy of surgery, a comparison was conducted between pre-operation and post-operation data in terms of the symptoms, signs and polysomnography test. Total effectiveness rate of the surgery was 83.7%. Subgroup analysis was also performed based on the severity of their conditions: mild, moderate, and severe groups had an effectiveness rate of 90.0, 88.9, and 66.7%, respectively (Hc=6.665, P<0.05). Postoperatively, the apnea-hypopnea index, the minimum oxygen saturation (SaO2), and corresponding symptoms improved compared to pre-operation conditions (P<0.05). Minimally invasive tonsil surgery was a safe and effective method for treating OSAHS in children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Ablation Techniques/methods , Palatine Tonsil/surgery , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/surgery , Ablation Techniques/instrumentation , Adenoids/pathology , Adenoids/surgery , Hypertrophy/surgery , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Polysomnography , Reproducibility of Results , Severity of Illness Index , Statistics, Nonparametric , Treatment Outcome
5.
Clinics ; 71(11): 664-666, Nov. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828543

ABSTRACT

Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is a type of sleep-disordered breathing that affects 1 to 5% of all children. Pharyngeal and palatine tonsil hypertrophy is the main predisposing factor. Various abnormalities are predisposing factors for obstructive sleep apnoea, such as decreased mandibular and maxillary lengths, skeletal retrusion, increased lower facial height and, consequently, increased total anterior facial height, a larger cranio-cervical angle, small posterior airway space and an inferiorly positioned hyoid bone. The diagnosis is based on the clinical history, a physical examination and tests confirming the presence and severity of upper airway obstruction. The gold standard test for diagnosis is overnight polysomnography. Attention must be paid to identify the craniofacial characteristics. When necessary, children should be referred to orthodontists and/or sleep medicine specialists for adequate treatment in addition to undergoing an adenotonsillectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Craniofacial Abnormalities/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Adenoids/pathology , Hypertrophy/complications , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/etiology
6.
Clinics ; 71(5): 285-290, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782840

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Adenotonsillectomy is recognized as an effective therapy for snoring and sleep disorders in children. It is important to understand whether adenotonsillectomy significantly increases the volume of the pharyngeal space. The goal of this study was to evaluate the change in oropharyngeal volume after adenotonsillectomy and the correlation of this change with the objective volume of the tonsils and body mass index. METHODS: We included 27 subjects (14 males) with snoring caused by tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy. The mean age of the subjects was 7.92 (±2.52) years. Children with craniofacial malformations or neuromuscular diseases or syndromes were excluded. The parents/caregivers answered an adapted questionnaire regarding sleep-disordered breathing. All patients were subjected to weight and height measurements and body mass index was calculated. The subjects underwent pharyngometry before and after adenotonsillectomy and the volume of both excised tonsils together was measured in cm3 in the operating room. RESULTS: Pharyngometric analysis showed that the mean pharyngeal volume was 28.63 (±5.57) cm3 before surgery and 31.23 (±6.76) cm3 after surgery; the volume of the oropharynx was significantly increased post-surgery (p=0.015, Wilcoxon test). No correlation was found between the objective tonsil volume and the post-surgical volume increase (p=0.6885). There was a fair correlation between the oropharyngeal volume and body mass index (p=0.0224). CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy increases the volume of the pharyngeal space, but this increase does not correlate with the objective tonsil size. Furthermore, greater BMI was associated with a smaller increase in the pharyngeal volume. Oropharyngeal structures and craniofacial morphology may also play a role in the increase in oropharyngeal volume.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adenoidectomy/methods , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Pharynx/pathology , Tonsillectomy/methods , Acoustics/instrumentation , Body Mass Index , Mouth Breathing/surgery , Organ Size , Snoring/surgery
7.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 82(2): 151-158, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780977

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common surgery performed by otolaryngologists in pediatric age, and one of the most frequently asked questions about the postoperative period is whether there is a potential for change in vocal pattern of these children. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of adenotonsillectomy in the voice emission pattern of children with hypertrophy of palatine and pharyngeal tonsils. METHODS: This is a prospective study in which we carried out perceptual auditory assessments and acoustic analysis of 26 children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy at three time points: before surgery, one month and three months after surgery. The following acoustic parameters were estimated using the Praat software: fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and harmonic-noise ratio. RESULTS: A statistically significant change was found between shimmer and harmonic-noise ratio during vowel /u/ production between the preoperative and 1st month postoperative time points. No significant differences were detected for acoustic parameters between preoperative analysis and that of the 3rd month post-operation. CONCLUSION: Transient changes in acoustic parameters occur in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy submitted to adenotonsillectomy, progressing to normalization in the 3rd postoperative month.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: Adenotonsilectomia é o procedimento cirúrgico mais realizado pelos otorrinolaringologistas em pacientes pediátricos, e entre as dúvidas mais frequentes a respeito do pós-operatório, inclui-se a possibilidade de modificações no padrão vocal dessas crianças. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da adenotonsilectomia no padrão de emissão vocal de crianças com hipertrofia de tonsilas palatinas e faríngea. MÉTODO: Trata-se de estudo prospectivo, em que foram realizadas a avaliação perceptiva-auditiva e a análise acústica da voz de 26 crianças com hipertrofia adenotonsilar em três oportunidades: no pré-operatório e no 1° e 3° meses após o procedimento cirúrgico. Os parâmetros acústicos frequência fundamental, jitter, shimmer e proporção harmônico-ruído foram avaliados por meio do programa Praat. RESULTADOS: Houve uma alteração estatisticamente significante entre o shimmer e a proporção harmônico-ruído da emissão da vogal/u/entre o período pré-operatório e o 1° mês do pós-operatório. Não houve diferenças significantes dos parâmetros acústicos entre a análise pré-operatória e aquela realizada no 3° mês do pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: Crianças com hipertrofia adenotonsilar submetidas à adenotonsilectomia cursam com alterações transitórias dos parâmetros acústicos, evoluindo com a normalização dos mesmos no 3° mês do pós-operatório.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Palatine Tonsil/surgery , Speech Acoustics , Voice Quality , Adenoidectomy , Hypertrophy/surgery , Postoperative Period , Prospective Studies , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Tonsillectomy
8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 147-150, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110202

ABSTRACT

Immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing disease (IgG4-SD) is currently recognized as a distinct systemic disease involving various organs. We reported the imaging findings of a case of pathologically confirmed IgG4-SD involving bilateral palatine tonsils. CT and MRI showed diffuse enlargement of both palatine tonsils with homogeneous contrast enhancement. Focal contour bulging was noted in the right palatine tonsil. Lesions appeared as isointense on T1-weighted and slightly hyperintense on T2-weighted MRI images, as compared with muscle. The T2-weighted MRI image showed a striated pattern in both tonsils. Despite its rare occurrence, IgG4-SD should be included in the differential diagnoses of patients with symptomatic bilateral tonsillar hypertrophy that is non-responsive to medication.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Diagnosis, Differential , Hypertrophy/pathology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sclerosis/diagnosis
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 113(4): e219-e222, ago. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: lil-757051

ABSTRACT

El tumor maligno de amígdalas es poco frecuente en niños. La asimetría amigdalina es, generalmente, secundaria a un proceso benigno, ya sea patología inflamatoria, diferencia en la profundidad de la fosa tonsilar o asimetría del pilar anterior. Sin embargo, puede indicar un trastorno subyacente grave, como el linfoma. El linfoma es el tumor maligno infantil más común en la cabeza y el cuello. En el 15% de los casos, afecta al anillo de Waldeyer. Las manifestaciones clínicas más comunes del linfoma de la amígdala palatina son la hipertrofia amigdalina unilateral, la alteración en la apariencia de la mucosa y la adenopatía cervical ipsilateral. El diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento adecuado son de gran importancia en el pronóstico. Presentamos un caso de linfoma amigdalino en un niño con asimetría amigdalina y destacamos la importancia del examen de la cavidad oral y del cuello para identificar alteraciones sospechosas de linfoma tonsilar.


Tonsil malignancy is uncommon in children. Tonsillar asymmetry is usually secondary to a benign process, either inflammatory conditions, differences in the tonsillar fossa depth or anterior pillar asymmetry. However, it may indicate a serious underlying disorder such as lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common childhood malignancy in the head and neck. Approximately, 15% of the cases affect the Waldeyer's ring. The most common clinical manifestations of palatine tonsils lymphoma are unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy, alteration in the appearance of the mucosa and ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are of great importance in the prognosis. We present a case of palatine tonsil lymphoma in a child with tonsillar asymmetry and we emphasize the importance of the examination of the oral cavity and the neck to identify suspicious alterations compatible with tonsillar lymphoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Tonsillar Neoplasms , Burkitt Lymphoma
10.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 81(3): 307-311, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751898

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is an ongoing debate about the existence and effects of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in adenotonsillar tissue. OBJECTIVE: A clinical study was conducted to assess the existence of Hp in the adenoid and/or adenotonsillar tissues, which were surgically excised due to chronic adenotonsillitis. METHODS: Phosphoglucosamine mutase gene for the detection of Hp and cytotoxin-associated gene as virulence gene were examined in 84 adenotonsillar tissues obtained from 64 patients and patients' serum by using polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Hp IgG was detected in 57 (89%) patients' serum. A total of seven tissue samples from 64 patients (10.9%) were found positive for Hp DNA, of which five were adenoids and two were tonsil tissues. All polymerase chain reaction positive samples were also positive for the cytotoxin-associated gene, which is a virulence determinant for the organism. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that children are exposed to Hp at an early age of their life in this province. Hp may have a role in the pathogenesis of chronic adenotonsillitis, especially in endemic areas. .


INTRODUÇÃO: Há um debate atual sobre os efeitos da Helicobacter pylori (HpHp) no tecido adenotonsilar. OBJETIVO: Conduzimos um estudo clinico para avaliar a existência de Hp nos tecidos adenoideano e/ou adenotonsilar, os quais foram removidos cirurgicamente em decorrência de adenotonsilite crônica. MÉTODO: No total, 84 amostras de tecido obtidos de 64 pacientes foram analisadas para o gen fosfoglucosamina mutase para a detecção de Hp. Os casos positivos foram a seguir examinados para o gen associado à citotoxina, relacionado à virulência, usando-se o método de Reação de Polimerase em Cadeia (PCR). RESULTADOS: A IgG de Hp foi detectado em 57 (89%) soros de pacientes. Sete amostras de tecido de sessenta e quatro pacientes (10.9%) resultou positivo para o DNA de Hp, das quais cinco eram adenóides e duas eram tecido tonsilar. No PCR todas as amostras foram também positivas para o gen associado à citotoxina, o qual é um determinante de virulência. CONCLUSÃO: Esse estudo sugere que as crianças são expostas ao Hp nos primeiros anos de vida nessa província e que o Hp pode ter um papel na patogênese da adenotonsilite crônica, principalmente em áreas endêmicas. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adenoids/microbiology , Carrier State/microbiology , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Palatine Tonsil/microbiology , Adenoids/pathology , Antigens, Bacterial , Bacterial Proteins , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Hypertrophy/microbiology , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(3): 80-87, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751400

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The main cause of mouth breathing and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in childhood is associated with upper airway narrowing to varying degrees. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of morphological and functional craniofacial changes and the main clinical symptoms of SDB in healthy children. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted. A sample comprising 687 healthy schoolchildren, aged 7-12 years old and attending public schools, was assessed by medical history, clinical medical and dental examination, and respiratory tests. The self-perceived quality of life of mouth breathing children was obtained by a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of the total sample, 520 children were nose breathers (NB) while 167 (24.3%) were mouth breathers (MB); 32.5% had severe hypertrophy of the palatine tonsils, 18% had a Mallampati score of III or IV, 26.1% had excessive overjet and 17.7% had anterior open bite malocclusion. Among the MB, 53.9% had atresic palate, 35.9% had lip incompetence, 33.5% reported sleepiness during the day, 32.2% often sneezed, 32.2% had a stuffy nose, 19.6% snored, and 9.4% reported having the feeling to stop breathing while asleep. However, the self-perception of their quality of life was considered good. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of facial changes as well as signs and symptoms of mouth breathing were found among health children, requiring early diagnosis and treatment to reduce the risk of SDB. .


INTRODUÇÃO: a principal causa da respiração bucal e dos distúrbios respiratórios do sono (DRS) está associada ao estreitamento das vias aéreas superiores, em diferentes graus. OBJETIVO: avaliar a prevalência de alterações morfológicas e funcionais da face e os principais sintomas clínicos de DRS em crianças saudáveis. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, observacional, com amostra de 687 escolares saudáveis, provenientes de escolas públicas, com idades entre 7 e 12 anos. Foram avaliados pela história clínica, exame clínico médico e odontológico e testes respiratórios. A autopercepção da qualidade de vida dos escolares com respiração bucal foi obtida por meio de um questionário validado. RESULTADOS: na amostra total, 520 crianças eram respiradoras nasais (RN) e 167 (24,3%) eram respiradoras bucais (RB); 32,5% tinham hipertrofia das amígdalas palatinas, 18% tinham índice Mallampati obstrutivo (III e IV); 26,1% tinham overjet exagerado e 17,7%, mordida aberta anterior. Entre os RB, 53,9% tinham palato atrésico; 35,9% com ausência de selamento labial; 33,5% relataram sonolência diurna; 32,2%, espirros frequentes; 32,2%, nariz entupido; 19,6% roncavam e 9,4% relataram ter a sensação de parar de respirar durante o sono. Entretanto, a autopercepção da qualidade de vida desses escolares foi considerada boa. CONCLUSÃO: foi encontrada alta prevalência de alterações faciais, de sinais e de sintomas clínicos de respiração bucal nos escolares saudáveis examinados, necessitando diagnóstico e tratamento para reduzir o risco de DRS. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/epidemiology , Mouth Breathing/epidemiology , Palate/abnormalities , Physical Examination , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests , Sleep Stages/physiology , Sneezing/physiology , Snoring/epidemiology , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Nose Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Open Bite/epidemiology , Overbite/epidemiology , Hypertrophy , Lip/pathology , Malocclusion/epidemiology , Medical History Taking , Mouth Breathing/psychology
12.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 80(6): 490-496, Nov-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-730457

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The success of pharyngeal surgery in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome depends on the appropriate selection of patients. Objective: To propose a new staging for indication of pharyngeal surgery in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Methods: A total of 54 patients undergoing extended tonsillectomy were retrospectively included, divided into six stages. Stage I: patients with palatine tonsils grade 3/4 and modified Mallampati index 1/2; stage II: palatine tonsils 3/4 and modified Mallampati index 3/4; stage III: palatine tonsils 1/2 and modified Mallampati index 1/2; stage IV: palatine tonsils 1/2 and modified Mallampati index 3/4; stage V: body mass index ≥40 kg/m2 with palatine tonsils 3/4 and modified Mallampati index 1, 2, 3, or 4. Stage VI: body mass index ≥40 with palatine tonsils 1/2 and modified Mallampati index 1, 2, 3, or 4. Results: The surgical success rates were 88.9%, 75.0%, 35.7%, 38.5%, and 100.0% in stages I–V. Conclusion: The presence of hypertrophic palatine tonsils was the anatomical factor in common in the most successful stages (I, II, and V), regardless of body mass index. Although the modified Mallampati index classes 3 and 4 reduced the success rate of surgery in patients with hypertrophic tonsils (stage II), the presence of modified Mallampati index classes 1 and 2 did not favor surgical success in patients with normal tonsils (stage III). .


Introdução: O sucesso da cirurgia faríngea no tratamento da síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS) depende da adequada seleção de pacientes. Objetivo: Propor um novo estadiamento para indicação de cirurgia faríngea na SAOS. Método: Estudo retrospectivo, onde foram inclusos, 54 pacientes submetidos a amigdalectomia ampliada, divididos em 6 estádios. Estádio I: pacientes com tonsilas palatinas graus 3/4 e índice de Mallampati modificado (IMM) 1/2; Estádio II: tonsilas palatinas 3/4 e IMM 3/4; Estádio III: tonsilas palatinas 1/2 e IMM 1/2; Estádio IV: tonsilas palatinas 1/2 e IMM 3/4; Estádio V: IMC (índice de massa corpórea) ≥ com tonsilas palatinas 3/4 e IMM 1, 2, 3 ou 4. Estádio VI: IMC ≥ kg/m2 com tonsilas palatinas 1 ou 2 e IMM 1, 2, 3, ou 4. Resultados: As taxas de sucesso cirúrgico foram de 88,9%; 75,0%; 35,7%; 38,5% e 100,0% nos estádios I a V. Conclusão: A presença de tonsilas palatinas hipertróficas foi o fator anatômico em comum nos estádios de maior sucesso (I, II e V), independente do IMC. Apesar do IMM classe III e IV diminuir a taxa de sucesso da cirurgia em pacientes com tonsilas hipertróficas (estádio II), a presença de IMM classe I e II não favoreceu o sucesso cirúrgico em pacientes com tonsilas normotróficas (estádio III). .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Palatine Tonsil/surgery , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/surgery , Polysomnography , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/classification , Tonsillectomy , Treatment Outcome
13.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 74(2): 151-154, 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-726166

ABSTRACT

Los pólipos linfangiomatosos son malformaciones congénitas de tipo hamartomatosas caracterizados histológicamente por una proliferación linfática vascular con distintos grados de componente fibroso, adiposo y linfático, cubiertos por un epitelio escamoso. Dado a que se conocen por distintos nombres en la literatura, sólo se han descrito alrededor de 30 casos de pólipos linfagiomatosos como tal. De etiopatogenia desconocida, se presentan como una masa polipoidea o papilomatosa en las amígdalas palatinas, con sintomatología variable. Su diagnóstico definitivo es histológico tras una resección completa. No se han reportado casos de malignización ni recurrencia. En el presente trabajo se reporta el caso de un paciente de 5 años con historia de crecimiento amigdalino bilateral de dos años de evolución. La biopsia definitiva demuestra una poliposis linfangiomatosa de amígdalas palatinas y adenoides.


Lymphangiomatous polyps are hamartomatous congenital malformations. They are histologically characterized by a vascular lymphatic proliferation associated with fibrous, adipose and lymphatic components covered by squamous epithelium. There are only 30 cases described in the literature by the name of lymphangiomatous polyp, since it has multiple denominations. Even though their etiopathogenesis is unknown, their clinical presentation is described as a polypoid mass in the palatine tonsils, which may have multiple manifestations. The diagnosis is made histologically after complete resection. There have not been reports of malignant transformation nor recurrence. We present a case of a five year old patient with history of bilateral palatine tonsil growth. Final biopsy described lymphangiomatous polyps of adenoids and palatine tonsils.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Palatine Tonsil/surgery , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Hamartoma/surgery , Hamartoma/pathology , Polyps/pathology , Tonsillectomy , Adenoidectomy , Adenoids/surgery , Adenoids/pathology
14.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 79(6): 663-667, Nov-Dec/2013. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-697691

ABSTRACT

O respirador bucal utiliza a cavidade oral como principal via durante a respiração. Dentre as principais causas, destacam-se: as hipertrofias adenoamigdalianas e as doenças inflamatórias como a rinite alérgica. OBJETIVO: Verificar a presença de atopia, os principais alérgenos envolvidos e verificar a coexistência de atopia com o grau de hipertrofia das tonsilas faríngeas e palatinas, em pacientes respiradores bucais. MÉTODO: Estudo de coorte histórico com corte transversal com revisão de 308 prontuários de pacientes acompanhados em um centro do respirador bucal de um hospital terciário, no período de 2008 a 2010. Foram coletados dados sobre a história clínica de respirador bucal e realizados exames clínico otorrinolaringológico, nasofibroscópico e teste cutâneo de leitura imediata aos aeroalérgenos. RESULTADOS: Dos 308 pacientes, 36% apresentaram positividade no teste alérgico, sendo que dos atópicos 95% foram positivos para ácaros. Do total de pacientes, 46% apresentaram hipertrofia adenoideana. Destes, 37% são atópicos e 47% apresentaram hipertrofia amigdaliana e, destes, 33% são atópicos. CONCLUSÃO: Nenhuma correlação direta entre atopia e o grau de aumento das tonsilas palatinas e faríngeas foi observada nos pacientes respiradores bucais avaliados. .


Mouth breathers use the oral cavity as their principal breathing route. The main causes include: adenotonsillar hypertrophy and inflammatory diseases such as allergic rhinitis. OBJECTIVE: To look for atopy, the main allergens involved and to check for atopy as a comorbidity with the degree of hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids in mouth breathers. METHOD: A historical cohort study with cross-sectional review of 308 medical charts of patients treated at a mouth breather care center of a tertiary hospital in the period of 2008-2010. We collected data on the mouth breather's clinical history and we ran otolaryngological exams, flexible nasal endoscopy and skin prick test to aeroallergens. RESULTS: Of 308 patients, 36% were positive on allergy testing, with 95 % of atopic patients being positive for mites. Among all patients, 46% had adenoid hypertrophy; of these, 37% were atopic and 47% had tonsillar hypertrophy, and among these, 33% were atopic. CONCLUSION: We found no direct correlation between atopy and the degree of tonsils and adenoid hypertrophy observed among the mouth-breathing patients assessed. si. .


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Adenoids/pathology , Hypersensitivity/complications , Mouth Breathing/etiology , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Hypertrophy/complications , Hypertrophy/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Skin Tests
15.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 79(5): 620-624, Sep-Oct/2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-688613

ABSTRACT

Devido à importância do estudo das causas de dificuldade de aprendizado, delineou-se estudo caso controle, para avaliar o volume das cavidades nasais, tonsilas faríngeas e tonsilas palatinas em crianças com e sem dificuldade de aprendizado. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 48 crianças, 24 oriundas do Centro de Avaliação e Estimulação Precoce (CADEP), no qual o critério é a repetência escolar de no mínimo dois anos consecutivos, e 24 escolares com aprendizado dentro dos padrões de normalidade, que constituíram o grupo controle. As crianças foram submetidas a exame otorrinolaringológico (anamnese, exame físico) e exames específicos (rinometria acústica, Rx de cavum). RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que os escolares com deficiência de aprendizado possuem prevalência maior de hipertrofia de tonsila faríngea, p < 0,001, e palatina, p < 0,001. A média do volume das cavidades nasais não mostrou associação estatisticamente significativa com dificuldade de aprendizado (p = 0,75). CONCLUSÃO: Com base neste estudo, conclui-se que crianças com hipertrofia adenotonsilar possuem mais dificuldade no aprendizado quando comparadas com crianças sem hipertrofia. Palavras-chave: obstrução nasal; respiração bucal; tonsila faríngea; transtornos de aprendizagem. .


Given the importance of studying the causes of learning disorders, we designed this case-control study to assess the nasal cavity volume, pharyngeal and palatine tonsils in children with and without learning disabilities. METHOD: A total of forty-eight children were enrolled in the study: twenty-four coming from the Center for Evaluation and Early Stimulation (CADEP), in which the criterion is the school failure of at least two consecutive years; and twenty-four students with normal learning - which made up the control group. The children were submitted to ENT examination (history, physical examination) and specific tests (acoustic rhinometry, cavum radiography). RESULTS: The results showed that students with learning disabilities have a higher prevalence of pharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy: p < 0.001, and palatine tonsil hypertrophy: p < 0.001. The average volume of the nasal cavities showed no statistically significant association with learning difficulties (p = 0.75). CONCLUSION: Based on this study, we concluded that children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy have more learning difficulties when compared to children without such hypertrophy. .


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Adenoids/pathology , Learning Disabilities/etiology , Mouth Breathing/etiology , Nasal Cavity/pathology , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Hypertrophy/complications , Hypertrophy/pathology , Rhinometry, Acoustic , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 79(5): 603-608, Sep-Oct/2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-688618

ABSTRACT

Hipertrofia e tonsilites de repetição são indicações comuns de tonsilectomia. Entretanto, os relatórios anátomo-patológicos são semelhantes, independentemente da clínica. OBJETIVO: Buscar alterações histopatológicas que diferenciem tonsilas palatinas operadas por hipertrofia de tonsilites de repetição. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal prospectivo descritivo com 46 crianças divididas em grupos I - 22 com hipertrofia e II - 24 com tonsilites de repetição, no período de 2010 a 2012, em hospital público. Avaliamos características clínicas e histopatológicas (folículos linfáticos, centros germinativos, fibrose, necrose, reticulação, infiltração por plasmócitos e neutrófilos). RESULTADOS: A idade dos pacientes variou entre 2 e 11 anos (5,17 ± 2,28). No grupo I, metade apresentou a última infecção há sete meses ou mais e todas grau de obstrução maior que 3 (≥ 50%). No grupo II, todos apresentaram a última infecção há menos de sete meses e a maioria grau de obstrução menor que 4 (≤ 75%). Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa no grau de obstrução (p = 0,0021) e número de centros germinativos (p = 0,002), maiores no grupo I. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo sugere que o número de centros germinativos é o único critério histopatológico que pode ser utilizado para diferenciar os dois grupos. .


Hypertrophy and recurrent tonsillitis are common indications of tonsillectomy. However, the pathological reports are similar, regardless of clinical aspects. OBJECTIVE: Search for histopathological changes that differentiate palatine tonsils operated because of hypertrophy vis-à-vis those operated because of recurrent tonsillitis. METHOD: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study involving 46 children divided into group I - 22 with hypertrophy; and group II - 24 with recurrent tonsillitis, in the period between 2010 and 2012, in a public hospital. We evaluated clinical and histopathological features (lymph follicles, germinal centers, fibrosis, necrosis, reticulation, infiltration by plasma cells and neutrophils). RESULTS: The patients' ages ranged between 2 and 11 years (5.17 ± 2.28). In group I, half of the patients had had the latest infection at seven months or more, and all with obstruction degree greater than 3 (> 50%). In group II, all had had the latest infection at less than seven months, and most with obstruction degree below 4 (< 75%). There was a statistically significant difference in the degree of obstruction (p = 0.0021) and number of germinal centers (p = 0.002) was higher in group I. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the number of germinal centers is the only histopathological criterion that can be used to differentiate the two groups. .


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Tonsillitis/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hyperplasia/pathology , Prospective Studies , Palatine Tonsil/surgery , Recurrence , Severity of Illness Index , Tonsillectomy , Tonsillitis/surgery
17.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 89(4): 361-365, ju.-ago. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-684134

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Verificar alterações na fala em crianças respiradoras orais e relacioná-las com o tipo respiratório, a etiologia, o gênero e a idade. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 439 respiradores orais com idade entre quatro e 12 anos. Considerou-se atraso no desenvolvimento de fala a presença de alterações em crianças acima de cinco anos de idade. As alterações observadas foram interposição de língua (IL), ceceio frontal (CF), troca articulatória (TA), omissões (OM) e ceceio lateral (CL). Relacionou-se etiologia da respiração oral, gênero, idade, tipo respiratório e alterações de fala. RESULTADOS: Alterações de fala foram diagnosticadas em 31,2% dos pacientes sem relação com o tipo respiratório: oral ou misto. Maior frequência de trocas articulatórias e mais de uma alteração de fala ocorreram no gênero masculino. IL foi documentada em 53,3% pacientes, seguida por TA em 26,3% e CF em 21,9%. Concomitância de duas ou mais alterações de fala ocorreu em 24,8% das crianças. CONCLUSÃO: Respirar pela boca pode afetar o desenvolvimento da fala, a socialização e o desempenho escolar. A detecção precoce da respiração oral é essencial para prevenir e minimizar seus efeitos negativos sobre o desenvolvimento global dos indivíduos.


OBJECTIVE: To assess speech alterations in mouth-breathing children, and to correlate Mouth breathing; them with the respiratory type, etiology, gender, and age. METHOD: A total of 439 mouth-breathers were evaluated, aged between 4 and 12 years. The presence of speech alterations in children older than 5 years was considered delayed speech development. The observed alterations were tongue interposition (TI), frontal lisp (FL), articulatory disorders (AD), sound omissions (SO), and lateral lisp (LL). The etiology of mouth breathing, gender, age, respiratory type, and speech disorders were correlated. RESULTS: Speech alterations were diagnosed in 31.2% of patients, unrelated to the respiratory type: oral or mixed. Increased frequency of articulatory disorders and more than one speech disorder were observed in males. TI was observed in 53.3% patients, followed by AD in 26.3%, and by FL in 21.9%. The co-occurrence of two or more speech alterations was observed in 24.8% of the children. CONCLUSION: Mouth breathing can affect speech development, socialization, and school performance. Early detection of mouth breathing is essential to prevent and minimize its negative effects on the overall development of individuals.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Mouth Breathing/complications , Speech Disorders/etiology , Age Factors , Adenoids/pathology , Hypertrophy/complications , Nasal Obstruction/etiology , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Rhinitis/complications , Sex Factors , Speech Disorders/pathology
18.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 79(4): 424-428, jul.-ago. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-681883

ABSTRACT

As alterações de mastigação e de deglutição em crianças com hipertrofia adenoamigdaliana precisam ser melhor caracterizadas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a frequência das alterações miofuncionais autorreportadas pelos pais, e se há diferenças entre os padrões de alterações entre crianças com hipertrofia adenoamigdaliana e as com hipertrofia apenas adenoideana. MÉTODO: Aplicação de questionário e avaliação clínica fonoaudiológica em crianças com hipertrofia de tonsilas com idade entre 3 e 6 anos. Os dados reportados pelos pais foram comparados com os dados obtidos pela avaliação fonoaudiológica; além disso, os dados das crianças com hipertrofia adenoamigdaliana foram comparados com as com hipertrofia adenoideana. Desenho científico: coorte transversal. RESULTADOS: As alterações miofuncionais observadas pela fonoaudióloga foram muito mais frequentes do que as reportadas pelos pais e não houve concordância entre os dois achados. As crianças com hipertrofia adenoideana e as com hipertrofia adenoamigdaliana apresentaram o mesmo padrão de alterações miofuncionais. CONCLUSÃO: Os pais relacionam pouco a hipertrofia de tonsilas a alterações na mastigação e na deglutição. A causa da obstrução respiratória parece não interferir no padrão de alteração miofuncional.


The changes in mastication and deglutition in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy need to be better characterized. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of parent-reported myofunctional changes and to determine if there are differences in the alteration patterns of children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and subjects with adenoid hypertrophy. METHOD: Questionnaire and assessment by a speech therapist of children aged between three and six years with tonsillar hypertrophy. The data reported by the parents were compared to the data obtained from the speech therapist's evaluation; additionally, data from children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy were compared to findings from subjects with adenoid hypertrophy. Study Design: cross-sectional cohort. RESULTS: The myofunctional changes observed by the speech therapist were more frequent than the alterations reported by the parents, and there was no correlation between the two findings. The children with adenoid hypertrophy and the individuals with adenotonsillar hypertrophy had the same pattern of myofunctional alteration. CONCLUSION: Parents cannot clearly correlate tonsillar hypertrophy with changes in mastication and deglutition. The cause of the respiratory obstruction does not seem to interfere in the pattern of myofunctional change.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Adenoids/pathology , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Mastication/physiology , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Airway Obstruction/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Hypertrophy/complications , Hypertrophy/pathology , Parents , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 111(3): 196-201, jun. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-694625

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño (SAOS) es la consecuencia más grave de la hipertrofia adenoidea/amigdalina (HAA). El método diagnóstico de referencia es la polisomnografía nocturna con oximetría (PSG), pero se requiere un equipamiento costoso, gran consumo de tiempo, y un técnico y un médico especializados, lo que dificulta su realización. La grabación del monitoreo de oximetría durante el sueño podría servir como método diagnóstico. En pediatría se han publicado aislados trabajos con resultados contradictorios. Objetivo. Estimar el valor diagnóstico del análisis visual de la grabación del monitoreo de oximetría nocturna en relación con la PSG. Población. Niños con sospecha clínica de SAOS secundario a HAA derivados para realización de PSG. Se excluyeron los niños con otro diagnóstico asociado (miopatía, malformación craneofacial, etc.). Métodos. 1) Se realizó el análisis visual (según un algoritmo propio) de la oximetría grabada simultáneamente con la realización de la PSG; 2) se estimó el valor diagnóstico de esta en comparación con la PSG. Los análisis de ambos registros fueron efectuados a ciegas y en orden aleatorio por dos médicos. Resultados. Se incluyeron 167 PSG; 75 niños presentaban SAOS en la PSG y 92, ronquido simple; 65 oximetrías se consideraron patológicas y coincidieron con SAOS en la PSG; 10 niños con SAOS leve en la PSG presentaron una oximetría normal. La oximetría mostró una sensibilidad del 86,6% y una especificidad del 98,9% para detectar el síndrome. Conclusiones. El análisis del monitoreo grabado de oximetría durante el sueño resulta un elemento de gran utilidad para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de este tipo de pacientes.


Introduction. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is the most serious consequence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH). The gold standard diagnostic method is polysomnography (PSG) with nocturnal oximetry, but it requires expensive equipment, the presence of a technician and a specialized doctor, and is very time consuming, making the procedure difficult. The recording of pulse oximetry monitoring during sleep may serve as a diagnostic approach. In pediatrics, few studies have been published, and their results have been controversial. Objective. To establish the diagnostic value of the visual analysis of the recorded nocturnal oximetry monitoring vs. the PSG. Population. Children with clinical suspicion of OSAS secondary to ATH referred to PSG. Children with other associated diagnoses (myopathy, craniofacial malformations, etc.) were excluded. Methods. 1) A visual analysis (using our own algorithm) of the oximetry recorded simultaneously with the PSG was performed; 2) the diagnostic value of the pulse oximetry vs. the PSG was established. Both tests were conducted in a blinded and random fashion by two doctors. Results. A total of 167 PSGs were included; the PSG showed OSAS in 75 children and simple snoring in 92; 65 oximetries were considered pathological and in agreement with the PSG in relation to OSAS; 10 children with mild OSAS in the PSGs had normal oximetries. The recorded pulse oximetry showed a sensitivity of 86.6% and a specificity of 98.9% for detecting OSAS. Conclusions. The visual analysis of recorded pulse oximetry monitoring during sleep is highly useful for the diagnosis and management of these patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Adenoids/pathology , Oximetry , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Hypertrophy/complications , Prospective Studies , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/etiology
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157455

ABSTRACT

Lymphagiomas are uncommon benign tumours of tonsils. Lymphangiomas are benign lymphatic tumours typically composed of dialated lymphatic channels which often occur subcutaneously in the head and neck region. Tonsillar lymphangiomas have been reported rarely in the literature which presents as a mass lesion. Histological confirmation is necessary for diagnosis. We report a case of lymphangioma of the tonsil in an otherwise well 17 year old female patient and review the clinical and histological features of this tumour. These lesions are usually cured by simple surgical excision.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Lymphangioma/diagnosis , Lymphangioma/pathology , Lymphangioma/surgery , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Palatine Tonsil/surgery , Tonsillar Neoplasms/diagnosis , Tonsillar Neoplasms/pathology , Tonsillar Neoplasms/surgery
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