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1.
Enfoque Revista Científica de Enfermería ; 30(26): [84-93], ene.-jun.2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1373173

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La población indígena es un grupo demográficamente importante en todo el mundo que tiende a desaparecer. Con el transcurso del tiempo, según el comportamiento demográfico, en algunas áreas están desapareciendo a causa de factores relacionados con el derecho a sus tierras y recursos, desfavoreciendo así su situación socioeconómica y de salud. La dimensión cultural de los grupos indígenas se refleja en su actuar individual, comunitario y social. Es así como el Fondo Población de las Naciones Unidas, promueve el 9 de agosto como día de la celebración internacional de los pueblos indígenas, para destacar el respeto a sus derechos humanos, una mayor participación y promover el rescate de su cultura. La elaboración de este artículo tiene como propósito examinar, desde la literatura, el contexto de los grupos indígenas en la pandemia del COVID-19 y resaltar las pautas establecidas por los organismos internacionales para ser implementadas en esta situación durante el año 2020. Se revisaron informes y documentos, para conocer las directrices a cumplir por los gobiernos, medios de comunicación y población en general ante la pandemia, resaltando el trato igualitario en la dotación de los recursos logísticos y humanos necesarios para el control y mitigación del virus COVID-19 en los territorios indígenas.


Abstract At the international level, there is a considerable population of indigenous groups that in the course of time are disappearing in some areas due to factors related to the right to their lands and resources, thus exacerbating their socioeconomic and health situation, which are aspects that disrupt the human rights of indigenous peoples. The cultural dimension of indigenous groups is reflected in their individual, community and societal actions. Hence, the United Nations Fund promotes the annual international celebration on August 9, highlighting respect for human rights and greater participation of indigenous groups to rescue their culture. The development of this work aims at examining the context of indigenous groups in the COVID-19 pandemic, and highlighting the guidelines established by international organizations that should be implemented in this situation during 2020. Hence, a review of the reports has been carried out to know the guidelines, to be met by governments, the media and the general population in the face of pandemics, which take into account equal treatment in the provision of logistical and human resources needed for the control and mitigation of the COVID 19 virus in indigenous territories.


RESUMO: A nível internacional, há populações consideráveis de grupos indígenas que, ao longo do tempo, em algumas áreas estão desaparecendo, devido a fatores relacionados ao direito às suas terras e recursos, desfavorendo assim sua situação socioeconômica e de saúde. A dimensão cultural dos grupos indígenas se reflete em suas ações individuais, comunitárias e sociais, que é como o Fundo das Nações Unidas promove o 9 de agosto como o dia da celebração internacional dos povos indígenas, para destacar o respeito pelos seus direitos humanos e maior participação, pelo resgate de sua cultura. A elaboração deste trabalho que visa examinar a partir da literatura, o contexto dos grupos indígenas na pandemia COVID-19, e destacar as diretrizes estabelecidas por organismos internacionais a serem implementadas nesta situação durante o ano de 2020, de modo que foi realizada uma revisão de relatórios e documentos, para conhecer as diretrizes a serem cumpridas pelos governos, mídia e população em geral diante da pandemia, destacando o tratamento igualitário na oferta de recursos logísticos e humanos necessários para o controle e mitigação do vírus COVID-19 em territórios indígenas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pandemics , Indigenous Peoples , COVID-19/ethnology , Panama , Health of Indigenous Peoples , Human Rights
2.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 21, 2021. 39 p. ilus..
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178267

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, se reportan 3.689 pacientes (1,0%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 374 pacientes (0,1%) se encuentran hospitalizados (317 en sala general y 57 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 350.347 (97,2%) casos como recuperados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Panama/epidemiology
3.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 6, 2021. 31 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152192

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, se reportan 4.329 pacientes (1,2%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 493 pacientes (0,1%) se encuentran hospitalizados (430 en sala general y 63 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 345.120 (96,9%) casos como recuperados


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Panama/epidemiology
4.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mar. 10, 2021. 46 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151141

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, se reportan 6.487 pacientes (1,9%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 847 pacientes (0,2%) se encuentran hospitalizados (717 en sala general y 130 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 331.233 (96,2%) casos como recuperados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Panama/epidemiology
5.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mar. 24, 2021. 36 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151433

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, se reportan 4.664 pacientes (1,3%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 720 pacientes (0,2%) se encuentran hospitalizados (622 en sala general y 98 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 339.239 (96,7%) casos como recuperados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Panama/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data
6.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; feb. 24, 2021. 41 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151140

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, se reportan 9.145 pacientes (2,7%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 1.344 pacientes (0,4%) se encuentran hospitalizados (1.149 en sala general y 195 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 319.821 (95,2%) casos como recuperados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Panama/epidemiology
7.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; feb. 9, 2021. 41 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151139

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, se reportan 28.827 pacientes (8,8%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 2.058 pacientes (0,8%) se encuentran hospitalizados (1.844 en sala general y 214 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 290.124 (88,9%) casos como recuperados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Panama/epidemiology
8.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ene. 27, 2021. 53 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151138

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, se reportan 44.500 pacientes (14,3%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 2.586 pacientes (0,8%) se encuentran hospitalizados (2.370 en sala general y 216 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 259.095 (83,2%) casos como recuperados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Panama/epidemiology
9.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ene. 13, 2021. 32 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151137

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, se reportan 53.115 pacientes (19,0%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 2.482 pacientes (0,9%) se encuentran hospitalizados (2.257 en sala general y 225 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 219.144 (78,5%) casos como recuperados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Panama/epidemiology
10.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; Ene. 20, 2021. 23 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150952

ABSTRACT

Este documento es una guía para apoyar a los comunicadores de salud pública, es decir del Ministerio de Salud y de la Caja de Seguro Social, y al Estado en la preparación y ejecución de una estrategia de comunicación sobre vacunas, incluida la planificación para cada fase del despliegue y para públicos específicos, para la cual la OPS/OMS en Panamá estaría brindando apoyo y asesoría técnica en su implementación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Communication , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Panama
11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(1): 101038, jan., 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249296

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important causative agent of nosocomial infections. As pathogen, P. aeruginosa is of increasing clinical importance due to its ability to develop high-level multidrug resistance (MDR). Methods: The aim of the present study was to better understand the intrinsic virulence of circulating strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, by surveying and characterizing the antibiotic resistance profiles and prevalence of virulence factors in 51 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from children admitted to Hospital del Niño-Panamá during the period of October 2016 until March 2017. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were assessed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration for 12 antibiotics against P. aeruginosa clinical isolates using the VITEK system (https://www.biomerieux.com). Additionally, all isolates were examined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the presence of components of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump system (mexABR) and pyoverdine receptor genes and betalactamases resistance genes (ESBL) using gene-specific primers. Results: A total of 51 pyoverdine producing clinical isolates were analyzed, all of which expressed resistance genes such as genes of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump system (mexABR) and pyoverdine receptor genes (fpvA). Out of 51 MDR isolates, 22 were ESBL producers. The most common ESBL gene was blaTEM expressed by 43% of the isolates. The isolates tested in this study showed increased resistance to antibiotics in the following categories: (i) penicillins (ampicillin (69%), piperacillin (22%); (ii) pyrimethamines (trimethoprim, 65%); (iii) nitrofurans (nitrofurantoin, 63%), and (iv) third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime (53%). These results underscore a high prevalence of MDR amongst clinical isolates from Panama. Conclusions: The present study indicates that prevalence of BlaTEM-carrying strains is increasing with subsequent multidrug resistance in Panamá and as well reported worldwide. The virulent factors identified in this study provide valuable information regarding the prevalence of resistance genes and their potential impact on treatments that exploit the unique physiology of the pathogen. To prevent further spread of MDR, the proportions of resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa should be constantly evaluated on healthcare institutions of Panamá. More importantly, this information can be used to better understand the evolution and dissemination of strains hoping to prevent the development of resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Future studies quantifying the expression of these virulent genes will emphasize on the acquisition of multidrug resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection , Panama , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Membrane Transport Proteins/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Hospitals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200572, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The genetic heterogeneity of Leishmania parasites is a major factor responsible for the wide variety of Leishmania-associated manifestations. Consequently, understanding the genetic make-up of Leishmania species using suitable molecular markers is an important component of realising local and regional scale disease risk. The cytochrome b (cytb) is frequently used to type New World Leishmania species. However, its potential to discriminate Leishmania species and variants requires further evaluation. OBJECTIVES To explore the capacity of cytb gene to identify New World Leishmania species and variants and to develop an approach able to type local Leishmania species and variants. METHODS We retrieved 360 partial and complete Leishmania cytb gene sequences publicly available in GenBank database to study all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the cytb gene that differentiate New World Leishmania species. This information was used to develop an approach based upon the polymorphisms found in a DNA segment of 948bp. We also compared the typing results found with this technique with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) profiling obtained using HSP70 gene as target. One hundred Panamanian isolates were used to both typed Leishmania species and assess local genetic variability. FINDINGS We found complete agreement between our cytb approach and the PCR-RFLP profiling method based on HSP70 for Leishmania species identification. Ninety-two isolates were identified as L. panamensis, although other Viannia species were found circulating at a lower frequency. Three L. panamensis haplotypes were identified in Panamanian provinces. We also provide an initial report of L. guyanensis haplotypes circulating in Panama. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Cytb gene sequence encompasses key main SNPs that aid to identify Leishmania species. The cytb approach developed with this information was able to identify and assess genetic variability of local Leishmania species found in this study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous , Leishmania/genetics , Panama , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Cytochromes b/genetics
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35(supl.1): e054, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249388

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dental caries remains highly prevalent in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LACC). However, this disease can be controlled through interventions that implement evidence-based strategies in an affordable manner and that target all population groups instead of the most affluent only. Therefore, the aim of this report was to summarize the main scientifically documented community interventions and strategies based on restriction of sugars consumption, use of fluoride, and the use of occlusal sealants for caries control in LACC. A critical literature review was carried out in a systematic manner that included defined search strategies, independent review of the identified publications, and compilation of results in this report. Three systematic searches were conducted using the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases to identify studies related to community interventions and strategies for caries control in LACC. Of the 37 publications identified, twenty-six focused on fluoride use, eight on occlusal sealant use, and three on the restriction of sugar consumption. Documented community interventions for sugars restriction were scarce in the region and were based on food supplementation, sugar replacement, and education. Thus, local and/or national policies should prioritize investment in upstream, coherent, and integrated population-wide policies such as taxes on sugary drinks and stronger regulation of advertising and promotion of sugary foods and drinks mainly targeting children. The main fluoride-based strategies used drinking water, refined domestic salt, cow milk, toothpaste and, to a lesser extent, mouth-rinses, acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gels, and varnishes to deliver fluoride to the population. Evidence of fluoride use was seen in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Studies reporting the use of occlusal sealants were mainly located in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru, Mexico, and Venezuela. Community interventions restricting sugar consumption should be implemented at the individual level and through public policies. The use of fluoride must be monitored at the local, regional, and national levels so as to achieve maximum anti-caries effect while also minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis. Moreover, fluoridated water and salt programs, used as a mutually exclusive community level strategy for caries control, should expand their benefits to reach non-covered areas of the LACC while also simultaneously providing adequate surveillance of the fluoride concentration delivered to the population. Regulating the concentration of soluble fluoride (for anti-caries effect) in dentifrice formulations is also necessary in order to provide the population with an effective strategy for disease control. Targeting culturally appropriate, economically sustainable caries control interventions to rural populations and native ethnic groups such as indigenous people, quilombolas (African-origin), and riverside Amazonian people remains a crucial challenge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Panama , Peru , Argentina , Uruguay , Brazil , Chile , Colombia , Caribbean Region , Dental Caries Susceptibility , Guatemala , Latin America/epidemiology , Mexico , Nicaragua
14.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; dic. 29, 2020. 31 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151136

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, se reportan 39.520 pacientes (17,1%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 2.031 pacientes (0,9%) se encuentran hospitalizados (1.848 en sala general y 183 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 185.966 (80,4%) casos como recuperados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Panama/epidemiology
15.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; dic. 15, 2020. 30 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151135

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, se reportan 26.114 pacientes (13,5%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 1.432 pacientes (0,7%) se encuentran hospitalizados (1.244 en sala general y 188 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo - UCI). Se informan 162.105 (84%) casos como recuperados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Panama/epidemiology
16.
Rev. ADM ; 77(6): 312-315, nov.-dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151256

ABSTRACT

La respuesta a la infección viral produce un estado de trombosis o hipercoagulabilidad que, unido a la inflamación de las células endoteliales, puede generar disfunción plaquetaria y predisposición a la formación de trombos que, aunque con frecuencia son más venosos, también pueden aparecer en el sistema arterial y producir infartos a cualquier nivel así como tromboembolia e hipertensión pulmonar. Estas manifestaciones han sido captadas hospitalariamente y al egreso de los pacientes detectados por SARS-CoV-2 habiendo ya cumplido el tiempo establecido de virulencia. Los criterios diagnósticos de respuesta inmunológica trombótica asociada a COVID-19 (RITAC) ayudan a seleccionar al paciente que está predispuesto a esta condición; a esto se añade que el paciente ya tiene un diagnóstico de infección por SARS-CoV-2 (AU)


The response to viral infection produces a prothrombotic state of hypercoagulability , united with an inflammation of endothelial cells, It can generate platelet dysfunction and predisposition to the formation of thrombus, that, although, are more frequently venous, Also, it can appear in the arterial system and cause heart attacks at any level; thromboembolism and pulmonary hypertension, as well. These manifestations have been captured hospitably and with the egress of patients detected by SARS-CoV-2. The diagnostic criteria of RITAC (abbreviation in Spanish of Thrombotic Immune Response Associated to COVID-19), help to select the patient who is predisposed to this condition; adding that the patient already has a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral , Thrombosis , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus , Panama , Pulmonary Embolism , Dental Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data
17.
s,l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; nov. 15, 2020. 37 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129656

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, se reportan 17.582 pacientes (12,0%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 828 pacientes (0,6%) se encuentran hospitalizados (675 en sala general y 153 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 125.370 casos (85,5%) como recuperados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Panama/epidemiology
18.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; nov. 29, 2020. 37 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140191

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, se reportan 16.915 pacientes (10,3%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 1.138 pacientes (0,7%) se encuentran hospitalizados (987 en sala general y 151 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo - UCI). Se informan 143.616 casos (87,2%) como recuperados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Panama/epidemiology
19.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; nov. 24, 2020. 34 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129826

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, se reportan 14.938 pacientes (9,7%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 926 pacientes (0,6%) se encuentran hospitalizados (780 en sala general y 146 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 135.962 casos (87,8%) como recuperados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Epidemiological Monitoring , Panama/epidemiology
20.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; nov. 08, 2020. 36 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128605

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, se reportan 18.122 pacientes (13,0%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 837 pacientes (0,6%) se encuentran hospitalizados (681 en sala general y 156 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 117.770 casos (84,4%) como recuperados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , Panama/epidemiology
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