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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922104

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To elucidate the underlying mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponin (PNS) on gastric epithelial cell injury and barrier dysfunction induced by dual antiplatelet (DA).@*METHODS@#Human gastric mucosal epithelial cell (GES-1) was cultured and divided into 4 groups: a control, a DA, a PNS+DA and a LY294002+PNS+DA group. GES-1 apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, cell permeability were detected using Transwell, level of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2), 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in supernatant were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), expression of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated-PI3K (p-PI3K), Akt, phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) were measured by Western-blot.@*RESULTS@#DA induced apoptosis and hyper-permeability in GES-1, reduced supernatant level of PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1α and VEGF (P<0.05). Addition of PNS reduced the apoptosis of GES-1 caused by DA, restored the concentration of PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1α and VEGF (P<0.05). In addition, PNS attenuated the alteration of COX-1 and COX-2 expression induced by DA, up-regulated p-PI3K/p-Akt, down-regulated RhoA and GSK-3β. LY294002 mitigated the effects of PNS on cell apoptosis, cell permeability, VEGF concentration, and expression of RhoA and GSK-3β significantly.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PNS attenuates the suppression on COX/PG pathway from DA, alleviates DA-induced GES-1 apoptosis and barrier dysfunction through PI3K/Akt/ VEGF-GSK-3β-RhoA network pathway.


Subject(s)
Cyclooxygenase 1 , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Humans , Panax notoginseng , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Saponins/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , rhoA GTP-Binding Protein
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921631

ABSTRACT

The effects of four natural organic soil amendments on the quality and pesticide residues of Panax notoginseng were investigated through field experiments and the suitable dosage ratio of each soil amendment was selected to provide a new idea for the pollution-free cultivation of P. notoginseng. The four natural organic soil amendments used in this study were Jishibao, Jihuo, Fudujing, and omnipotent nutrients, which were produced by mixed fermentation of aboveground parts of different plants, biological waste residue, and biochar. During the experiments, only four soil amendments were applied to P. notoginseng instead of any pesticides and fertilizers. The experiment was designed as four factors and three levels. There were three dosage gradients(low, medium, and high) for Jishibao(A), Jihuo(B), Fudujing(C), and omnipotent nutrients(D). When the dosage of one soil amendment changed, the do-sage of the other soil amendments remained medium. There were 10 groups in addition to the soil amendment-free group as control(CK). The results showed that the four soil amendments could significantly improve the growth environment of P. notoginseng and increase the seedling survival rate and saponin content of P. notoginseng. The seedling survival rates of the treatment groups increased by 8.24%-30.05% as compared with the control group. Furthermore, the content of pesticide residues in P. notoginseng was too low to be detected, and that of heavy metals in P. notoginseng was far lower than the specified content in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020). The optimal effect was achieved at medium dosage for all the soil amendments with the highest content of saponins, high seedling survival rate, and significantly reduced heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Panax notoginseng , Soil , Soil Pollutants/analysis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888034

ABSTRACT

To overview the systematic reviews of Panax notoginseng saponins in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction. CNKI, CBM, Wanfang, VIP, PubMed, Cochrane Library and EMbase databases were retrieved to collect the systematic reviews of the efficacy of P. notoginseng saponins in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction. The retrieval time was from the time of database establishment to January 2021. After two researchers independently screened out the literature and extracted the data, AMSTAR-2 scale was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included systematic reviews, GRADE system was used to grade the quality of evidences of the outcome indicators, and the efficacy evaluation was summarized. A total of 5 systematic reviews were included. AMSTAR-2 evaluation results showed that 3 items were relatively complete, while 4 items had a poor overall quality. P. notoginseng saponins combined with conventional Western medicine therapy was superior to single conventional therapy in the recovery of neurological function, enhancement of the total effective rate in clinic, and improvement of activities of daily living. GRADE evaluation results showed that the quality of evidence was from low quality to very low quality. In conclusion, in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction, P. notoginseng saponins can improve the clinical efficacy, with a good safety but a not high methodological quality and a low evidence quality. It is suggested that high-quality clinical studies shall be further carried out to provide evidence-based basis for the application of P. notoginseng saponins in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , Humans , Panax notoginseng , Saponins , Systematic Reviews as Topic
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878916

ABSTRACT

This study cloned the transcription factor gene PnbHLH which held an open reading frame of 966 bp encoding 321 amino acids. This study constructed the overexpression vector of transcription factor PnbHLH of Panax notoginseng. The combination of PnbHLH overexpression and RNAi of the key enzyme gene PnCAS involved in the phytosterol biosynthesis was achieved in P. notoginseng cells, thus exploring the biosynthetic regulation of P. notoginseng saponins(PNS) by the synergistic effect of PnbHLH overexpression and PnCAS RNAi. The results showed that the PnbHLH transcription factor interacted with the promoters of key enzyme genes PnDS, PnSS and PnSE in the biosynthetic pathway of PNS, and then regulated the expression levels of key enzyme genes and affected the biosynthesis of saponins indirectly. Further study indicated that the synergistic effect of PnbHLH overexpression and PnCAS RNAi was a more effective approach to regulate the biosynthesis of saponins. Compared with the wild type and PnCAS RNAi cells of P. notoginseng, the contents of total saponins and monomeric saponins(Rd, Rb_1, Re, Rg_1 and R_1) were increased to some extent in the cell lines of PnbHLH overexpression and PnCAS RNAi. This indicated that the two ways of forward regulation and reverse regulation of saponin biosynthesis showed superposition effect. This study explored a more rational and efficient regulation strategy of PNS biosynthesis based on the advantages of multi-point regulation of transcription factors as well as the down-regulation of by-product synthesis of saponins.


Subject(s)
Intramolecular Transferases , Panax notoginseng , RNA Interference , Saponins , Transcription Factors/genetics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878879

ABSTRACT

This paper established the identification technology of the main root origin of three-year-old spring Panax notoginseng aiming at providing theoretical basis for the protection and traceability of geographical indication products of P. notoginseng. Forty-four samples of three-year-old spring P. notoginseng from Guangxi Baise, Yunnan Wenshan, Yunnan new cultivating regions. The stable isotopic ratios of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen were determined by elemental analysis and stable isotope mass spectrometer. Combined with Duncan multiple comparative analysis, fisher discriminant analysis and sequential discriminant analysis, a origin discriminant model for the main root of three-year-old spring P. notoginseng was established for 3 production areas of P. notoginseng. The geographical climate and environment of three production areas of P. notoginseng are obviously different. From Guangxi Baise-Yunnan Wenshan-Yunnan new cultivating regions, the longitude, average annual temperature and annual precipitation gradually decrease, and the elevation and latitude are increasing. The results of multiple comparative analysis showed that there were significant or very signi-ficant differences in the δ~(13)C,δ~(15)N,δ~2H,δ~(18)O of the main roots of P. notoginseng in three regions. The results of fisher's discriminant analysis and sequential discriminant analysis showed that the correct discriminant rates of the main roots of P. notoginseng for three regions were 80.05%,76.47% and 90.91%, respectively, based on four stable isotope ratios, with an average of 84.09%. Using stable isotope fingerprint and chemometrics method, we can distinguish the origin of the main raw materials and products of P. notoginseng.


Subject(s)
China , Geography , Isotopes , Panax notoginseng , Seasons
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(1): e9085, Jan. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055483

ABSTRACT

Total Panax notoginseng saponin (TPNS) is the main bioactivity compound derived from the roots and rhizomes of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of TPNS in treating vascular neointimal hyperplasia in rats and its mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups, sham (control), injury, and low, medium, and high dose TPNS (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg). An in vivo 2F Fogarty balloon-induced carotid artery injury model was established in rats. TPNS significantly and dose-dependently reduced balloon injury-induced neointimal area (NIA) (P<0.001, for all doses) and NIA/media area (MA) (P<0.030, for all doses) in the carotid artery of rats, and PCNA expression (P<0.001, all). The mRNA expression of smooth muscle (SM) α-actin was significantly increased in all TPNS groups (P<0.005, for all doses) and the protein expression was significantly increased in the medium (P=0.006) and high dose TPNS (P=0.002) groups compared to the injury group. All the TPNS doses significantly decreased the mRNA expression of c-fos (P<0.001). The medium and high dose TPNS groups significantly suppressed the upregulation of pERK1/2 protein in the NIA (P<0.025) and MA (P<0.004). TPNS dose-dependently inhibited balloon injury-induced activation of pERK/p38MAPK signaling in the carotid artery. TPNS could be a promising agent in inhibiting cell proliferation following vascular injuries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Saponins/pharmacology , Carotid Artery Injuries/prevention & control , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Panax notoginseng/drug effects , Neointima/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Signal Transduction , Up-Regulation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Carotid Artery Injuries/etiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hyperplasia
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828423

ABSTRACT

This work describes the holistic fingerprinting method based on liquid chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detection(CAD) to profile non-saponin from water-soluble parts and determination of dencichine in Panax ginseng(PG), P. quinquefolium(PQ) and P. notoginseng(PNG). Sample extraction was carried out by water with ultra sonication for 30 min, which was eluted by Retain PEP for further analysis. The analysis was performed on a Hypercarb of porous graphitized carbon(3.0 mm×150 mm, 3 μm) column with acetonitrile and 0.1% perfluoropentanoic acid as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL·min~(-1). Temperature of evaporator and nitrogen pressure for CAD were set at 50 ℃and 60.1 psi(1 psi≈6.895 kPa), respectively. As a result, dencichine and other polar components had a good performance on resolution and retention. The correlation coefficient(R~2) of dencichine was 0.998 2 in the concentration from 0.019 2 to 0.48 μg·mL~(-1). Limit of quantitation calculated by signal to noise of 10 was 7.4 ng·mL~(-1), and the recovery ranged from 95.52% to 102.7%. Chemical profile of the water-soluble part from PG, PQ and PNG was similar holistically, while the relative content for dencichine and other partial components varied significantly. The proposed method was used for characteristic of chemical profiling for non-saponin from water-soluble part, and determination of dencichine in PG, PQ and PNG.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Amino Acids, Diamino , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Panax , Panax notoginseng , Plant Roots , Saponins , Water
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828070

ABSTRACT

According to the structure and effect differences of Panax notoginseng saponin components(PNSC), subcomponent division and network pharmacological characterization were conducted to provide a research basis for the medicinal properties of P.notoginseng saponin subcomponents and the technical design of unit preparations. PNSC were screened by the TCMSP database and subcomponents were classified according to systematic clustering. Then the subcomponents obtained were subjected to target prediction and attribution analysis by PharmMapper server, GeneCards, DisGeNET and HOME-NCBI-GENE database. A subcomponent target interaction network was constructed by using the STRING database. KEGG and GO enrichment analysis were performed on each subcomponent target using the DAVID database. The subcomponents-targets-pathways visualization network was constructed by Cytoscape. The subcomponent targets and pathways involved were compared to analyze the differences in anti-myocardial ischemic drug mechanisms and the rationality of subcomponent division. Eighteen compounds of PNSC were screened out, and classified into three subcomponents A, B, and C according to their properties, involving 67 targets and 17 common anti-myocardial ischemic pathways directly or indirectly related to myocardial ischemia. Subcomponent A had the highest number of targets and the target interaction was dense, possibly indicating its key role in the mechanism of pharmacodynamics. Subcomponents A, B, and C had similar basic structures, and KEGG and GO analysis showed that they all can enhance the heart function and protection of cardiomyocytes by inhibiting apoptosis, promoting angiogenesis and regulating inflammatory response to play the effect on myocardial ischemia. This study fully reflected the differences in the efficacy of various subcomponents in preventing and treating myocardial ischemia due to the different physical properties of P. notoginseng saponin subcomponents. To some extent, the differences in the efficacy of each subcomponent in the prevention and treatment of myocardial ischemia could verify the rationality of the division of P. notoginseng saponin subcomponents according to the structural properties, realizing the characterization of P. notoginseng saponin subcomponents based on structure and effect differences.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Coronary Artery Disease , Humans , Myocardial Ischemia , Panax notoginseng , Saponins
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828045

ABSTRACT

The molecular docking technology was used in this study to virtually screen the active anti-myocardial ischemic components in Panax notoginseng, clarify the compositions of the anti-myocardial ischemic component unit and the basis for pharmacological activity of P. notoginseng, and provide the basis for the acquisition of the component raw materials and the formulation design before the preparations. One hundred and nineteen compounds in P. notoginseng were collected by searching TCMSP to establish the ligand database, and TNF, IL1 B, NFKBIA, and NOS3 which were related with myocardial ischemia were selected to create the receptor database. Then Discovery Studio software LibDock module was used to dock the ligands and receptors, with the approved small-molecule drugs which were related to targets or the treatment of myocardial ischemia disease in the DrugBank as the reference, and the average scores of approved small-molecule drugs were set as the threshold. A total of 13 compounds with a score above the threshold and in the top ranking were virtually screened. The study showed that all the 13 components screened out were saponins, which constituted the main component unit of the anti-myocardial ischemic activity of P. notoginseng, namely the P. notoginseng saponin components. After the comparative analysis of the main active residues of the approved commercial drugs and P. notoginseng saponin components on each target, the similarity of their effects suggested that the P. notoginseng saponin components may have the same anti-myocardial ischemic efficacy as clinical drugs. The components of P. notoginseng which exerted anti-myocardial ischemic activity were mainly the saponin components. The preliminary screening of the active anti-myocardial ischemic components of P. notoginseng had been completed, which provided a certain reference for the development of anti-myocardial ischemic Chinese medicine component preparations.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Myocardial Ischemia , Panax notoginseng , Saponins
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828017

ABSTRACT

Ischemic stroke is the most common form of stroke and one of the main diseases leading to death and disability in the world. Its pathological process is complex and changeable as a result of the interaction of multiple pathological links, such as oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation. Traditional Chinese medicine Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma is the dried roots and rhizomes of Panax notoginseng. In clinic, it is mainly used for the treatment of diseases of cardio-cerebral system and vascular system. Recent studies have shown that total saponins of P. notoginseng, the main active ingredients of P. notoginseng against cerebral ischemia, are complex, and can interfere with the enzyme-promoted cascade reaction through multiple pathways, multiple links and multiple targets, so as to exert its physiological effect. Therefore, it has become a hotspot in studies for prevention and treatment of cerebral ischemia. At present, a great advance has been made in studies on the mechanism of anti-cerebral ischemia of P. notoginseng saponins, but more in-depth studies are needed because of its complex mechanism. Therefore, in this paper, a total of 165 kinds of P. notoginseng saponins were summarized, and simply divided into protopanaxadiol saponins(55 species), protopanaxadiol saponins(37 species) and special structural type saponins(73 species) according to their structural types, so as to provide reference for further studies of P. notoginseng saponins. In addition, the effect of P. notoginseng on cerebral ischemia is clear, but its mechanism remains to be further explored. This paper summarizes the mechanism of P. notoginseng saponins against cerebral ischemia in five aspects: antioxidant stress, reduction of apoptosis, reduction of inflammatory reaction, inhibition of calcium overload and protection of blood-brain barrier. Four kinds of drugs commonly used in the treatment of cerebral ischemia were summarized, in order to provide a theoretical basis for further development and utilization of P. notoginseng saponins in the treatment of cerebral ischemia.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Cerebral Infarction , Humans , Panax notoginseng , Rhizome , Saponins
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828015

ABSTRACT

Ginkgo biloba and Panax notoginseng are both herb medicines for cerebrovascular disease, and play an active role in treating ischemic cerebrovascular disease(ICVD). Their mechanisms of action include antioxidant stress, nerve protection, vascular protection. According to the comparative study of literatures, G. biloba has a certain protective effect from the early stage of free radical formation throughout the whole process of causing cell inflammation and apoptosis in antioxidant stress; while P. notoginseng has mainly anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis effects. In the nerve protection and repair of nerve damage caused by glutamate, both could promote neurogenesis, repair damaged axons and protect nerve cells. In addition, G. biloba could also relieve neurotoxicity caused by glutamate damage, while P. notoginseng have a unique effect in repairing blood-brain barrier(BBB) and blood vessel regeneration. In clinic, they are used as auxiliary drugs in combination with thrombolytic therapy, and play curative effects in alleviating inflammation, eliminating edema, improving the cure rate and the prognosis. For cerebral diseases caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, G. biloba could reduce inflammation and improve cognition. In addition, G. biloba could protect neurocyte by adjusting the secretion of dopamine in vivo, and has a certain effect on antidepressant diseases, which however needs further studies.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Drug Therapy , Ginkgo biloba , Humans , Panax notoginseng , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Therapeutic Uses , Plants, Medicinal
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827481

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Composition of Ophiopogon polysaccharide, Notoginseng total saponins and Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids (CONR) on myocardial apoptosis of diabetic atherosclerosis (DA) rabbits METHODS: Sixty male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 6 groups [control group, model group, CONR high-dose group (450 mg/kg), CONR medium-dose group (150 mg/kg), CONR low-dose group (50 mg/kg), and simvastatin group] by using a completely random method, 10 in each group. DA model was established by intravenously injected alloxan combined with high-fat diet and abdominal aortic balloon injury. After mediation for 10 weeks, fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (GHB), glycosylated serum protein (GSP), fructoseamine (FRA), aldose reductase (AR), advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in serum were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method; the expression of receptor of AGEs (RAGE) in myocardial tissue were observed by immunohistochemical method; and p-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl-2) protein expression in myocardial tissue were measured by Western blotting. The myocardial apoptosis was detected by TdT-mediated dUTPnick-end labeling (TUNEL) method, and apoptosis index (AI) was calculated.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, serum FBG, GHB, GSP, FRA, AR, AGEs and the expression of myocardium RAGE, p-JNK, caspase-3 proteins, as well as apoptosis index (AI) were significantly increased and bcl-2 protein was significantly decreased in the model group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the levels of serum FBG, GHB, GSP, FRA and AR showed a significant decline in CONR high- and medium-dose groups (P<0.01). FBG and GHB showed a significant decline in CONR low-dose group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the expression of serum AGEs and myocardium RAGE, p-JNK and caspase-3 protein as well as AI were significantly decreased and bcl-2 protein was significantly up-regulated in all treatment groups (P<0.01); high-dose CONR had the most significant effect on abovementioned indices compared with other treatment groups (P<0.01). Middle-dose CONR had better effect on serum AGEs compared with the low-dose group (P<0.01); middle-dose CONR and simvastatin groups had better effect on the expression of caspase-3, bcl-2 protein, myocardium apoptosis compared with the CONR low-dose group (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#CONR may effectively inhibit myocardial apoptosis on DA rabbits by intervening AGEs-RAGE and JNK, caspase-3, and bcl-2 protein expressions.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Pharmacology , Animals , Apoptosis , Atherosclerosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetic Angiopathies , Drug Therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Heart , Male , Ophiopogon , Chemistry , Panax notoginseng , Chemistry , Polysaccharides , Pharmacology , Rabbits , Saponins , Pharmacology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773649

ABSTRACT

Based on metabolomics,the metabolites of larvae zebrafish with overdose of Panax notoginseng saponins( PNS) were compared with those in normal group of larvae zebrafish to investigate the possible toxicity mechanism of overdose PNS in larvae zebrafish. An experimental animal model of long-term toxicity induced by PNS overdose was established by administering 1-6 dpf at low,medium and high doses of PNS,respectively. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry( UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) technique was combined with principal component analysis( PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis( OPLS-DA) to screen and identify biomarkers associated with toxicity,and then the MetaboAnalyst database was used to analyze metabolism-related pathways. The results showed that the metabolites of each group could be distinguished distinctly,and they deviated more from the normal group in a time and dose dependent manner. Twenty-nine potential biomarkers related to toxicity( VIP>1,P<0. 05) were identified preliminarily,mainly involving six metabolic pathways. From the metabonomics point of view,the toxicity mechanism of overdose PNS may be related to the disorders of lipid metabolism,amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Metabolism , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Energy Metabolism , Larva , Lipid Metabolism , Mass Spectrometry , Metabolomics , Panax notoginseng , Toxicity , Saponins , Toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Zebrafish
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773116

ABSTRACT

In this paper,ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry( UPLC-Q-TOFMS) technique was used to study the effects of steamed notoginseng on endogenous markers in plasma of rats with hemolytic anemia induced by N-acetyl phenyl hydrazine( APH). The aim was to find out the potential biomarkers and possible blood enriching mechanism of steamed notoginseng on hemolytic anemia rats. In the experiment,steamed notoginseng medicine pair( steamed notoginseng-ginseng)and compound medicines( Sanqi Yangxue Capsules) were used respectively to intervene in APH-induced hemolytic anemia model rats.Then blood routine indexes such as red blood cells( RBC),hemoglobin( Hb) and related organ indexes were determined. As compared with the blank group,the RBC and Hb levels in the model group were substantially decreased( P< 0. 01),while the liver and spleen organ indexes were increased( P< 0. 05). The results of blood routine and organ index demonstrated that the blood deficiency model was successfully established. Steamed notoginseng can significantly increase the RBC level of rats( P<0. 01),and the related indicators of each drug group had a trend of returning to normal levels,verifying the blood enriching effect of steamed notoginseng. The UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technique,principal component analysis( PCA) and partial least squares-discrimination analysis( PLS-DA) were used to analyze the metabolic profiles between the normal group and the model group. Twenty-six potential biomarkers for hemolytic anemia were screened in plasma. Nine metabolites such as retinol,L-valine,and arachidonic acid were down-regulated in the blood deficiency rats,and 17 metabolites such as protoporphyrin Ⅸ and niacinamide were up-regulated. The metabolic level of biomarkers could be changed to a normal state after rats were given with steamed notoginseng,drug pairs,and compound prescriptions. It can be speculated that steamed notoginseng may play a role of blood tonifying by improving biosynthesis of valine,leucine and isoleucine,as well as metabolic pathways such as retinol metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic , Drug Therapy , Animals , Biomarkers , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Panax notoginseng , Chemistry , Rats , Steam
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772088

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on the functional status of Kupffer cells (KCs) and immune environment after liver transplantation and explore the possible mechanisms.@*METHODS@#KCs were isolated from rats and assessed for phagocytic activity and viability using ink and Trypan blue staining. The cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone or in combination with PNS treatment at 0, 10 or 20 μmol/L. The expressions of the inflammatory factors and the oxidative stress products in the cells and the supernatant were assayed with Western blotting and ELISA; the expression of CD206 was detected using immunofluorescence assay, and the expressions of NF-κB and Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway proteins were detected using Western blotting. We established an orthotopic liver transplantation (LT) model in rats and assessed the effect of 200 mg/kg PNS on the graft function, inflammatory factors, pathology of the liver tissue, hepatocyte apoptosis and survival time of the rats in comparison with those in rats receiving a sham operation or PBS treatment following LT.@*RESULTS@#Treatment with PNS significantly lowered the levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress products and increased the levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and SOD in a concentration-dependent manner in the KCs ( < 0.05). Immunofluorescence assay showed that PNS treatment obviously increased the expression of CD206 in the KCs. PNS treatment also significantly reduced the expressions of IRAK4, p-IKK, p-IκB, p-p65 and Keap1 proteins and increased the expression levels of Nrf2 and ARE proteins in the KCs ( < 0.05). In the rat models of LT, PNS treatment significantly improved the liver graft function, lowered the expression of the pro-inflammatory factors, and reduced hepatocyte apoptosis as compared with PBS treatment. PNS treatment obviously alleviated pathological changes in the liver graft and significantly prolonged the survival time of the rats following LT ( < 0.05). In addition, injection of GdCl to block KC function resulted in severe acute graft rejection in the rats regardless of PNS treatment ( > 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#PNS can reduce inflammatory response and oxidative stress in activated KCs by inhibiting NF-κB and Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathways and promote the polarization of KCs into M2 phenotype to prolong the survival time of rats after LT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Graft Rejection , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1 , Liver , Liver Transplantation , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Panax notoginseng , Rats , Saponins
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776889

ABSTRACT

Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are the major components of Panax notoginseng, with multiple pharmacological activities but poor oral bioavailability. PNS could be metabolized by gut microbiota in vitro, while the exact role of gut microbiota of PNS metabolism in vivo remains poorly understood. In this study, pseudo germ-free rat models were constructed by using broad-spectrum antibiotics to validate the gut microbiota-mediated transformation of PNS in vivo. Moreover, a high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed for quantitative analysis of four metabolites of PNS, including ginsenoside F1 (GF1), ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2), ginsenoside compound K (GCK) and protopanaxatriol (PPT). The results showed that the four metabolites could be detected in the control rat plasma, while they could not be determined in pseudo germ-free rat plasma. The results implied that PNS could not be biotransformed effectively when gut microbiota was disrupted. In conclusion, gut microbiota plays an important role in biotransformation of PNS into metabolites in vivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Biotransformation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Feces , Microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Physiology , Ginsenosides , Blood , Male , Panax notoginseng , Chemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sapogenins , Blood , Saponins , Metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
17.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 317-325, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786428

ABSTRACT

Here, we designed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects on RAW264.7 cells and the immunosuppressive effects by evaluating interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in Jurkat T cells using a MeOH extract of Panax notoginseng roots. The results showed that the MeOH extract inhibited the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in a dose-dependent manner (IC₅₀ value of 7.08 µg/mL) and displayed effects on T cell activation at a concentration of 400 µg/mL. In efforts to identify the potent compounds, bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract and chemical investigation of its active CH₂Cl₂-, EtOAc-, and butanol-soluble fractions led to the successful isolation and identification of eleven compounds, including two polyacetylenes (1, 2), a steroid saponin (3), seven dammarane-type ginsenosides (4 – 10), and an oleanane-type ginsenoside (11). Among them, compound 11 was isolated from this plant for the first time. Compound 2 exhibited potent inhibitory effects on NO synthesis and an immunosuppressive effect with IC₅₀ values of 2.28 and 65.57 µM, respectively.


Subject(s)
Ginsenosides , Interleukin-2 , Nitric Oxide , Panax notoginseng , Panax , Plants , Polyacetylene Polymer , Saponins , T-Lymphocytes
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774545

ABSTRACT

To study the effects of fresh-cut drying methods on the appearance and internal components of Panax notoginseng, and explore the feasibility of fresh-cut drying methods of P. notoginseng, so as to provide more effective processing methods for the production of P. notoginseng slices and Chinese patent medicines. In this study, we have compared the effects of 6 different drying methods on drying time, drying rate, density, appearance and internal components of P. notoginseng roots. It takes about 453 h to dry by whole-root drying in the sun, with a long constant speed period and a slow drying rate, the time of whole-root drying at 50 ℃ was shortened by 61.6% compared with whole-root drying in the sun, which resulted in the decrease of density and poor appearance of the medicinal material with hollow and crack appeared in the xylem, while the drying time of fresh-cut drying method was reduced by 61.82% to 91.58% and the drying rate increased greatly, due to the relatively slow drying process in the sun or in the shade after fresh-cut, salting-out and whitening appeared on the surface, and the internal components were all decreased to some extent. The drying time of fresh-cut drying at 50 ℃ was 91.58% and 68.83% shorter than that of whole-root drying in the sun and at 50 ℃, respectively. When drying at 50 ℃ after fresh-cut, the appearance and content of internal components of the medicinal materials were better, the appearance was yellowish green, the cut sections were clear with uniform pore distribution, and the content of saponin components was increased by 7.24% compared with that of the whole-root drying at 50 ℃, When drying at 40 ℃, the surface of slices has salting-out and whitening spots, and the loss of dencichine and total sugar was large, but at 60 ℃, this high temperature made the rate of dehydration of slices was extremely fast, which led to severe cracking and fragmentation, and the loss of total sugar and alcohol extract was large. By vacuum freeze drying after fresh-cut, the structure of medicinal materials slices was loose, the density was greatly reduced, and the appearance was different from those recorded in traditional books. The contents of total saponin components and dencichine were increased by 16.51% and 22.54%, respectively, compared with traditional whole-root drying. The fresh-cut process method is feasible in the production of P. notoginseng slices. In production, it is recommended that drying at 50 ℃ after fresh-cut can make the medicinal materials better in appearance and content of internal components, which is convenient for the subsequent processing and industrial feeding extraction. For the purpose of internal contents, it is better to adopt freeze-drying after fresh-cut processing method.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Freeze Drying , Panax notoginseng , Plant Roots , Quality Control , Saponins
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771551

ABSTRACT

In the folk medicine, it was believed that the raw Sanqi could remove blood stasis, swelling and pain, while the cooked Sanqi could replenish blood. This article began with the first record of Sanqi in ancient herbal medicine literature, and the nature, flavor and efficacy of Sanqi, then listed the processing methods and usage of Sanqi recorded in ancient herbal medicine literature, and compared with the modern processing methods. The results showed that the processing methods of raw Sanqi included making powder, chewing, vinegar grinding and wine grinding, in which the method of making powder was still in use, and there were particle size requirements on the Sanqi powder listed in most modern preparation specifications. The processing methods of cooked Sanqi included baking, frying and steaming, in which the method of steaming was still in use, but had some changes. The new processing method was frying with edible oil. The results clarify the history of the processing of Sanqi, and provide a reference for the research and application of the processing methods of raw and cooked Sanqi.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Panax notoginseng
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812131

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to prepare and compare bio-adhesive pellets of panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) with hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), chitosan, and chitosan : carbomer, explore the influence of different bio-adhesive materials on pharmacokinetics behaviors of PNSbio-adhesive pellets, and evaluate the correlation between in vivo absorption and in vitro release (IVIVC). In order to predict the in vivo concentration-time profile by the in vitro release data of bio-adhesive pellets, the release experiment was performed using the rotating basket method in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. The PNS concentrations in rat plasma were analyzed by HPLC-MS-MS method and the relative bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using Kinetica4.4 pharmacokinetic software. Numerical deconvolution method was used to evaluate IVIVC. Our results indicated that, compared with ordinary pellets, PNS bio-adhesive pellets showed increased oral bioavailability by 1.45 to 3.20 times, increased C, and extended MRT. What's more, the release behavior of drug in HPMC pellets was shown to follow a Fickian diffusion mechanism, a synergetic function of diffusion and skeleton corrosion. The in vitro release and the in vivo biological activity had a good correlation, demonstrating that the PNS bio-adhesive pellets had a better sustained release. Numerical deconvolution technique showed the advantage in evaluation of IVIVC for self-designed bio-adhesive pellets with HPMC. In conclusion, the in vitro release data of bio-adhesive pellets with HPMC can predict its concentration-time profile in vivo.


Subject(s)
Acrylic Resins , Adhesives , Animals , Chitosan , Drug Carriers , Drug Liberation , In Vitro Techniques , Intestinal Absorption , Male , Methylcellulose , Panax notoginseng , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Metabolism , Pharmacokinetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saponins , Metabolism , Pharmacokinetics
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