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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888106

ABSTRACT

The longevity mechanism of ginseng(Panax ginseng) is related to its strong meristematic ability. In this paper, this study used bioinformatic methods to identify the members of the ginseng TCP gene family in the whole genome and analyzed their sequence characteristics. Then, quantitative real-time fluorescent PCR was performed to analyze the TCP genes containing elements rela-ted to meristem expression in the taproots, fibrous roots, stems, and leaves. According to the data, this study further explored the expression specificity of TCP genes in ginseng tissues, which facilitated the dissection of the longevity mechanism of ginseng. The ginseng TCP members were identified and analyzed using PlantTFDB, ExPASy, MEME, PLANTCARE, TBtools, MEGA and DNAMAN. The results demonstrated that there were 60 TCP gene family members in ginseng, and they could be divided into two classes: Class Ⅰ and Class Ⅱ, in which the Class Ⅱ possessed two subclasses: CYC-TCP and CIN-TCP. The deduced TCP proteins in ginseng had the length of 128-793 aa, the isoelectric point of 4.49-9.84 and the relative molecular mass of 14.2-89.3 kDa. They all contained the basic helix-loop-helix(bHLH) domain. There are a variety of stress response-related cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of ginseng TCP genes, and PgTCP20-PgTCP24 contained the elements associated with meristematic expression. The transcription levels of PgTCP20-PgTCP24 were high in fibrous roots and leaves, but low in stems, indicating the tissue-specific expression of ginseng TCP genes. The Class Ⅰ TCP members which contained PgTCP20-PgTCP23, may be important regulators for the growth and development of ginseng roots.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Multigene Family , Panax/metabolism , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888068

ABSTRACT

In this study, the colonization, diversity and relative abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(AMF) in the roots of Panax quinquefolius in different habitats of Shandong province were analyzed by staining-microscopy and high-throughput sequencing. The data were analyzed by bioinformatics tools and statistical software. The results showed that the roots of P. quinquefolius in different habitats were colonized by AMF with different rates and intensities. The AMF in roots of P. quinquefolius belong to three genera, three families, three orders, one class and one phylum. At the level of order, the AMF mainly included Paraglomerales(52.48%), Glomerales(25.60%) and Archaeosporales(3.08%). At the level of family, the AMF were dominated by Paraglomeraceae(52.48%), Glomeraceae(18.94%) and Claroideoglomeraceae(3.05%). At the level of genus, Paraglomus(51.46%), Glomus(20.01%) and Claroideoglomus(3.52%) accounted for a large proportion, of which Paraglomus and Glomus were dominant. Cluster analysis showed that the AMF in roots of P. quinquefolius with close geographical locations could be clustered together. In this study, the diversity and dominant germplasm resources of AMF in roots of P. quinquefolius cultivated in the main producing areas were identified, which provi-ded basic data for revealing the quality formation mechanism of P. quinquefolius medicinal materials from the perspective of environment.


Subject(s)
Fungi , Glomeromycota , Humans , Mycorrhizae/genetics , Panax , Plant Roots , Soil Microbiology
3.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 537-544, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922525

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Mitophagy is known to contribute towards progression of Parkinson's disease. Korean red ginseng (KRG) is a widely used medicinal herb in East Asia, and recent studies have reported that KRG prevents 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP@*METHODS@#SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with KRG for 24 h, and subsequently exposed to MPP@*RESULTS@#MPP@*CONCLUSION@#KRG effectively prevents MPP


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium/toxicity , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Mitochondria , Mitophagy , Panax , Reactive Oxygen Species
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879186

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH) was induced by high-sugar and high-fat diet in mice to investigate the intervention effect of total saponins from Panax japonicus(TSPJ) and explore its possible mechanism. Mice were fed with high-sugar and high-fat diet to establish NASH model, and intervened with different doses of TSPJ(15, 45 mg·kg~(-1)). The animals were fed for 26 weeks. The histomorphology and pathological changes of liver tissues were observed by HE staining. The transcriptional expression levels of miR-199 a-5 p, autophagy related gene 5(ATG5) and inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) in mouse liver were measured by quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR). Western blot was used to detect the expression of autophagy-related proteins ATG5, P62/SQSTM1(P62), and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3(LC3)-I/Ⅱ proteins in mouse liver. The expression of P62 protein was detected by immunofluorescence staining. In order to verify the targeting regulation relationship between miR-199 a-5 p and ATG5, miR mimic/inhibitor NC and miR-199 a-5 p mimic/inhibitor were transfected into Hepa 1-6 cells, and the expression of ATG5 mRNA and protein was detected. pMIR-reportor ATG5-3'UTR luciferase reporter gene plasmid was constructed and co-transfected with miR mimic/inhibitor NC and miR-199 a-5 p mimic/inhibitor into Hepa 1-6 cells to detect luciferase activity. In vivo, HE staining in the model group showed typical fatty degeneration and inflammatory infiltration, with increased expression of miR-199 a-5 p and decreased expression of ATG5 mRNA and protein. The expression of autophagy-associated protein P62 increased significantly, the ratio of LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ decreased, and the transcriptional expression of inflammatory factors increased significantly. After the intervention by TSPJ, the pathological performance of liver tissue was significantly improved, the expression of miR-199 a-5 p decreased and the expression of ATG5 mRNA and protein increased, the expression of autophagy-associated protein P62 decreased significantly, the ratio of LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ increased, and the transcriptional expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α decreased significantly. In vitro, it was found that the expression of ATG5 mRNA and protein and luciferase activity decreased significantly in miR-199 a-5 p overexpression cells, while after inhibition of miR-199 a-5 p expression, the expression level of ATG5 mRNA and protein and luciferase activity increased. The results showed that TSPJ can improve NASH in mice fed with high-sugar and high-fat diet, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of miR-199 a-5 p/ATG5 signal pathway, the regulation of autophagy activity and the improvement of inflammatory response of NASH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Autophagy-Related Protein 5 , Mice , MicroRNAs/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Panax , Saponins/pharmacology
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879110

ABSTRACT

The ecological environment is closely related to the growth and quality of authentic medicinal materials. Ginseng is very strict with its natural environment and grows mostly in the damp valleys of forests, and the appearance and chemical composition of ginseng under different growth environments are very different. This article reviews the effects of different ecological factors(including light, temperature, altitude, moisture, soil factors, etc.)on the appearance and chemical composition(mainly ginsenosides) of ginseng. Through systematic review, it is found that soil physical factors are the most important ecological factors that affect the appea-rance of ginseng, and soil bulk density plays a key role; temperature affects ginsenosides in ginseng medicinal materials The dominant ecological factors for the accumulation of chemical ingredents; strong light, high altitude, high soil moisture, low soil nutrient and strong acid soil can influence the accumulation of secondary metabolites in ginseng. Environmental stress can also stimulate the formation and accumulation of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants. Appropriate low temperature stress, high or low water stress, acid or alkali stress can also promote the accumulation of ginsenosides. This article systematically reviews the ecological factors that affect the appearance and chemical composition of ginseng, and clarifies the dominant ecological factors and limiting factors for the formation of ginseng's appearance and quality, as well as beneficial environmental stress factors, in order to provide a theoretical basis for ginseng ecological planting and ginseng quality improvement.


Subject(s)
Forests , Ginsenosides , Panax , Plants, Medicinal , Soil
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879052

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect of serum containing ginseng and Moutan Cortex on human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVEC) injured with hydrogen peroxide(H_2O_2). HUVEC injured with H_2O_2 were divided into 6 groups, namely blank group, model group, ginsenoside(TGG) group, total glucosides of Moutan Cortex(TGM) group, paeonol(P) group and TGG+TGM+P group. After 24 hours of co-culture with H_2O_2, the activities of succinate dehydrogenase(SDH) and Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATP were detected by microenzyme labeling. The apoptosis rate, intracellular Ca~(2+) concentration, reactive oxygen species(ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential(JC-1) were detected by flow cytometry. The expressions of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome C, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were detected by Western blot. The results showed that H_2O_2 could significantly damage HUVEC, decrease the activity of SDH and Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATP(P<0.01), while could increase the apoptosis+necrosis rate, JC-1 decline rate, ROS increase rate and Ca~(2+) concentration increase rate(P<0.01). Serum containing ginseng and Moutan Cortex could increase the activities of SDH and Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATP to different degrees, decrease the apoptosis+necrosis rate, JC-1 decline rate, ROS increase rate and Ca~(2+) concentration increase rate(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and down-regulate the protein expressions of Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, cytochrome C, and up-regulate the protein expression of Bcl-2. The results showed that serum containing ginseng and Moutan Cortex has a protective effect on vascular endothelial cell injury induced by ROS, and its mechanism may be related to the improvement of mitochondrial function and the inhibition of the activation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Paeonia , Panax , Reactive Oxygen Species
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879047

ABSTRACT

In this experiment, ultra high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was used to analyze and identify chemical constituents of Ginseng-Douchi(GD) compound fermentation, and explore the conversion rules of ginsenosides and soybean isoflavones after compound fermentation. Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) was adopted, with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution(A)-0.1% formic acid acetonitrile solution(B) as mobile phase for gradient elution; electrospray ion source(ESI) was used to collect data in positive and negative ion modes; according to the exact mass number, the secondary spectrum comparison of the database and the existing literature reports, Peakview 2.0/masterview 1.0 software was used to determine the common ion structure formula. Finally, a total of 133 chemical constituents were analyzed and identified from the GD. Ginseng saponins and isoflavone glycosides were significantly converted after fermentation. Among them, peak areas of prototype ginsenosides Rk_3, Rh_1, Rh_2, Rh_3, daidzin, glycitin and genistin decreased significantly; whereas peak areas of se-condary ginsenoside Rb_1, Rb_2, Rk_1, glycitein, genistein and daidzein increased significantly. In this experiment, liquid-mass spectrometry technique was used to investigate the conversion of active ingredients of GD compound fermented products after co-fermentation, so as to provide a scientific basis for elucidating pharmacodynamics material basis and quality control.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fermentation , Panax , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921715

ABSTRACT

This study adopted ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-QTOF-MS)-based untargeted metabolomic approaches for exploring the changes in endogenous metabolites of rat serum related to property differences between ginseng and American ginseng. Then the action mechanisms of them with warm and cool properties and the effects of processing on their property changes were investigated. Based on principal component analysis(PCA), the differences in metabolite profiles between ginseng, red ginseng, American ginseng, and red American ginseng were compared. After that, 16 potential differential endogenous biomarkers were identified by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) and online database searching. And the related metabolic pathways were systematically analyzed. By comparing content variations of these 16 potential differential endogenous biomarkers, we have found that 10 potential differential biomarkers were responsible for the warm property of ginseng and red ginseng, and 9 were related to the cool property of American ginseng and red American ginseng. As demonstrated by in-depth analysis of related metabolic pathways of differential biomarkers, ginseng and American ginseng mainly played a role in regulating the energy metabolism of amino acid, glycolysis, and fatty acids, during which they exhibited differences in property. The comparison of content variations of these differential endogenous between groups revealed that the energy metabolism of red ginseng group was stronger than that of ginseng group, consistent with the traditional processing theory that the warming and tonifying effects of ginseng could be enhanced after processing. The property of red American ginseng was similar to that of American ginseng, both cool in property, but American ginseng was cooler than red American ginseng. It can be seen that non-targeted metabolomic approaches can be utilized to study mechanisms underlying property differences of Chinese medicines and the effects of processing on their property changes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Mass Spectrometry , Metabolomics , Panax , Rats
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921644

ABSTRACT

Compound Renshen Buqi Granules have been widely used to treat chronic heart failure(CHF) due to Qi deficiency and blood stasis, but the mechanism of action remains unclear. This paper explored the pathogenesis of CHF due to Qi deficiency and blood stasis and the intervention mechanism of Compound Renshen Buqi Granules based on quantitative proteomics for uncovering the biological basis. SD rats were divided into the normal control(N) group, normal+Compound Renshen Buqi Granules(ND) group, model(M) group, model+Compound Renshen Buqi Granules(D) group, and positive control(Y) group. The rat model of CHF due to Qi deficiency and blood stasis was established by ligation of the left anterior descending(LAD) coronary artery and chronic sleep deprivation. The rats in the ND group and D group were provided with Compound Renshen Buqi Granules, while those in the Y group received valsartan. Six weeks later, the serum was sampled and the data-dependent acquisition(DDA) was employed for the non-targeted quantitative proteomics analysis of the differences in protein expression among groups, followed by the targeted analysis of differentially expressed proteins(DEPs) generated by data-independent acquisition(DIA). Compared with the N group, the rats in the M group pre-sented with decreased body weight, grip strength, and pulse amplitude and increased RGB value on the tongue surface. The pathomorphological examination revealed inflammatory cell infiltration, cell degeneration and necrosis, tissue fibrosis, etc. After the intervention with Compound Renshen Buqi Granules, multiple indicators were reversed. As demonstrated by proteomics results, there were 144 and 111 DEPs found in the M group and ND group in comparison with the N group. Compared with the M group, 107 and 194 DEPs were found in the D group and the Y group, respectively. Compared with the ND group, 119 DEPs were detected in the D group. As illustrated by DIA-based verification, the quantitative results of six proteins in each group were consistent with those by DDA. The syndrome indicators and pathomorphological examination results demonstrated that the protein expression profile of rats with CHF due to Qi deficiency and blood stasis changed obviously. However, Compound Renshen Buqi Granules were able to reverse the differential expression of immune proteins to regulate CHF of Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome, which has provided clues for figuring out the pathogenesis of CHF due to Qi deficiency and blood stasis and the intervention mechanism of Compound Renshen Buqi Granules.


Subject(s)
Animals , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Panax , Proteomics , Qi , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921779

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, and Chuanxiong Rhizoma(hereinafter referred to as GNS) on the SIRT1-autophagy pathway of endothelial cell senescence induced by hydrogen peroxide(H_2O_2). To be specific, vascular endothelial cells were classified into the blank control group(control), model group(model), model + DMSO group(DMSO), resveratrol group(RESV), and GNS low-dose(GNS-L), medium-dose(GNS-M), and high-dose(GNS-H) groups. They were treated with H_2O_2 for senescence induction except the control. After intervention of cells in each group with corresponding drugs for 24 h, cell growth status was observed under an inverted microscope, and the formation of autophagosome under the transmission electron microscope. In addition, the changes of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β(LC3 B) were detected by immunofluorescence staining. The autophagy flux was tracked with the autophagy double-labeled adenovirus(mRFP-GFP-LC3) fusion protein. Dansylcadaverine(MDC) staining was employed to determine the autophagic vesicles, and Western blot the expression of sirtuin 1(SIRT1), ubiquitin-binding protein p62, and LC3Ⅱ. After H_2O_2 induction, cells demonstrated slow growth, decreased adhesion ability, raised number of SA-β-gal-stained blue ones, a certain number of autophagosomes with bilayer membrane and secondary lysosomes in the cytoplasm, and slight rise of autophagy flux level. Compared with the model group, GNS groups showed improved morphology, moderate adhesion ability, complete and smooth membrane, decreased SA-β-gal-stained blue cells, many autophagosomes, autophagic vesicles, and secondary lysosomes in the cytoplasm, increased autophagolysosomes, autophagy flux level, and fluorescence intensity of LC3 B and MDC, up-regulated expression of SIRT1 and LC3Ⅱ, and down-regulated expression of p62, suggesting the improvement of autophagy level. GNS can delay the senescence of vascular endothelial cells. After the intervention, the autophagy flux and related proteins SIRT1, LC3Ⅱand p62 changed significantly, and the autophagy level increased significantly. However, EX527 weakened the effect of Chinese medicine in delaying vascular senescence. GNS may delay the senescence of vascular endothelial cells through the SIRT1 autophagy pathway.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Cells, Cultured , Cellular Senescence , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Hydrogen Peroxide , Panax/chemistry , Sirtuin 1/genetics
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828423

ABSTRACT

This work describes the holistic fingerprinting method based on liquid chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detection(CAD) to profile non-saponin from water-soluble parts and determination of dencichine in Panax ginseng(PG), P. quinquefolium(PQ) and P. notoginseng(PNG). Sample extraction was carried out by water with ultra sonication for 30 min, which was eluted by Retain PEP for further analysis. The analysis was performed on a Hypercarb of porous graphitized carbon(3.0 mm×150 mm, 3 μm) column with acetonitrile and 0.1% perfluoropentanoic acid as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL·min~(-1). Temperature of evaporator and nitrogen pressure for CAD were set at 50 ℃and 60.1 psi(1 psi≈6.895 kPa), respectively. As a result, dencichine and other polar components had a good performance on resolution and retention. The correlation coefficient(R~2) of dencichine was 0.998 2 in the concentration from 0.019 2 to 0.48 μg·mL~(-1). Limit of quantitation calculated by signal to noise of 10 was 7.4 ng·mL~(-1), and the recovery ranged from 95.52% to 102.7%. Chemical profile of the water-soluble part from PG, PQ and PNG was similar holistically, while the relative content for dencichine and other partial components varied significantly. The proposed method was used for characteristic of chemical profiling for non-saponin from water-soluble part, and determination of dencichine in PG, PQ and PNG.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Amino Acids, Diamino , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Panax , Panax notoginseng , Plant Roots , Saponins , Water
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828064

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to observe the changes of intestinal flora in vascular aging mice, in order to explore the relationship between vascular aging and intestinal flora and the effects of extracts of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma on intestinal flora of vascular aging mice. A model of vascular aging in mice was induced through intrape-ritoneal injection with streptozotocin(STZ) combined with high-fat diet. Biochemical detection was performed on serum cholesterol(CHO), triglyceride(TG), high-density liptein cholesterol(HDL-C), low-density liptein cholesterol(LDL-C) and blood glucose(GLU). HE staining was used to detect mice thoracic aorta morphology, and the expressions of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2 A(p16) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 A(p21) protein in mice thoracic aorta were detected by Western blot. The 16 S rDNA gene of mice intestinal flora was detected by Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing technology to explore the changes of intestinal flora in each group. The results demonstrated that the GLU level in low-dose and high-dose TCM groups decreased, but with unobvious changes in blood lipid indexes. Metformin could significantly decrease the levels of GLU(P<0.01), CHO and LDL-C in mice(P<0.05). Intravascular injury was not obvious in each drug group, and the expressions of p16 and p21 protein were significantly decreased(P<0.05). The intestinal flora of each group was mainly composed of Firmicutes(F) and Bacteroidetes(B) at the level of the phylum, but the B/F ratio was different from that of the youth group and the blank control group. The B/F ratio of the model group was significantly lower(P<0.01), and compared with the model group, the B/F ratio of the high-dose group and the metformin group was signi-ficantly higher(P<0.05). There were dominant and differential floras in the intestine of each group of mice. The results showed that extracts of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma could improve the intestinal flora structure and create a good intestinal environment by increasing the B/F ratio, which provides a new possible pathway for lowering blood glucose and blood lipids and delaying vascular aging.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Glucose , Lipids , Mice , Panax
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828051

ABSTRACT

Ethylene responsive factor(ERF), one of the largest families of transcriptional factors in plants, plays a key role in se-condary metabolism of herbal plants. To analyze the expression of ERF family genes, the heat map clustering method was used by analyzing the ginseng transcriptomes of different parts and different growth years. The contents of ginsenosides Rg_1, Re and Rb_1 in various concentrations of MeJA-treated ginseng adventitious roots were determined by UPLC-MS/MS method. The expression of key genes of ginsenoside biosynthesis(DDS, CYP716A47, CYP716A53v2) and ERF family genes in MeJA-treated ginseng adventitious roots were determined by using real-time quantitative PCR. Pearson correlation was adopted to analyze the gene expression pattern of DDS, CYP716A47, CYP716A53v2 gene and ERF family. The results showed that the content of ginseng diol ginsenoside Rb_1 in ginseng adventitious roots treated with different concentrations of MeJA increased, and the content of ginseng triol ginsenoside Rg_1 and Re decreased. It is consistent with the increase of DDS and CYP716A47 expression and the decrease of CYP716A53v2 gene expression. The expression of ERF003, ERF118 and ERF012 genes was significantly positively correlated with CYP716A53v2, but negatively correlated with DDS. While the expression of ERF1B was significantly negatively correlated with CYP716A47.It is proved that ERF003, ERF118 and ERF012 were likely to inhibit the expression of DDS and promote the expression of CYP716A53v2, and ERF1B was likely to inhibit CYP716A47. This work could provide theoretical basis of ERF functional verification of regulating the biosynthesis of ginsenosides.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Ginsenosides , Panax , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Transcription Factors
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827980

ABSTRACT

In this study, the infection of root arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF of Panax quinquefolium in Shandong province was investigated, and the distribution characteristics and infection regularity of AMF were found out. The AMF of P. quinquefolium roots in different habitats was examined by alkali dissociation-trypickin blue staining method to study the infection rate and infection intensity. The contents of ginsenoside(Rb_1, Re, Rg_1, Rb_2, Rd and Rh_1) in the roots of P. quinquefolium was determined by HPLC. The experimental data were SPSS 17.0 statistical software for One-way analysis of variance, cluster analysis and correlation analysis. The results showed that the AMF infection in roots of P. quinquefolium, and there were obvious structures such as hyphae, arbuscular branches and vesicles, and the AMF infection rate and infection intensity showed obvious spatial and temporal heterogeneity with the growth age and origin of P. quinquefolium. The infection rate of AMF in roots of P. quinquefolium from 1 to 3 years increased significantly with the increase of growth years(P<0.05). The infection intensity and infection rate of P. quinquefolium showed a similar change trend, the AMF infection rate and infection intensity reached the highest level in the third year. Cluster analysis showed that the infection rates of roots of P. quinquefolium in similar geographical locations could be clustered together. Correlation analysis showed that the AMF infection rate of P. quinquefolium root was significantly positively correlated with the infection intensity, and the AMF infection rate and infection intensity were significantly positively correlated with the contents of ginsenoside Rg_1, Re and Rb_1. This study explored the distribution characteristics and regularity of AMF in roots of P. quinquefolium under the protected cultivation conditions, and provided basic data for ecological cultivation of P. quinquefolium and research and development of biological bacterial fertilizer.


Subject(s)
Fertilizers , Fungi , Ginsenosides , Mycorrhizae , Panax , Plant Roots
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827466

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of hydrogen-rich Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) water (HRGW) mixture on the spermatogenesis and sperm motility of mice of different ages.@*METHODS@#Eighty young (3 month-old) and aged (12 month-old) male mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n =10 per group) including control group, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) group (10 mL/kg daily), KRG group (50 mg/kg daily) and HRGW group (10 mL/kg and 50 mg/kg daily) by an oral zoned needle for 4 weeks. Sperm count and motility were measured using sperm suspension released from cauda epididymis. Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in serum have also been estimated. Tubular changes were examined through histological hematoxylin and eosin staining. Expression of antioxidation (PPx3, PPx4, GSTm5 and GPx4), spermatogenesis (inhibin-a, neptin-2 and CREM), antiaging (SIRT1 and SIRT2), and angiogenesis [visfatin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] related genes were examined through real-time polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#HRW and KRG treatment stimulated spermatogenesis followed by increasing sperm production and sperm motility (P <0.05). These effects were strengthened synergistically by a HRGW mixture (P <0.05 or P <0.01). HRGW greatly increased the expressions of antioxidation, antiaging, spermatogenesis related genes and VEGF especially in aged mice (P <0.05). Serum testosterone and FSH levels also increased, while serum ROS level decreased (all P <0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#HRGW increases sperm production and motility by enhancing antioxidation and stimulating spermatogenesis and sex hormone production, particularly in aged mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hydrogen , Pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Panax , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Republic of Korea , Sperm Motility , Spermatogenesis , Water
16.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 317-325, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786428

ABSTRACT

Here, we designed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects on RAW264.7 cells and the immunosuppressive effects by evaluating interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in Jurkat T cells using a MeOH extract of Panax notoginseng roots. The results showed that the MeOH extract inhibited the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in a dose-dependent manner (IC₅₀ value of 7.08 µg/mL) and displayed effects on T cell activation at a concentration of 400 µg/mL. In efforts to identify the potent compounds, bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract and chemical investigation of its active CH₂Cl₂-, EtOAc-, and butanol-soluble fractions led to the successful isolation and identification of eleven compounds, including two polyacetylenes (1, 2), a steroid saponin (3), seven dammarane-type ginsenosides (4 – 10), and an oleanane-type ginsenoside (11). Among them, compound 11 was isolated from this plant for the first time. Compound 2 exhibited potent inhibitory effects on NO synthesis and an immunosuppressive effect with IC₅₀ values of 2.28 and 65.57 µM, respectively.


Subject(s)
Ginsenosides , Interleukin-2 , Nitric Oxide , Panax notoginseng , Panax , Plants , Polyacetylene Polymer , Saponins , T-Lymphocytes
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774598

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of total saponins from Panax japonicus( SPJ) on cognitive decline of natural aging rats and its mechanism. Thirty male SD rats of eighteen month old were randomly divided into three groups: aged group,10 mg·kg~(-1) SPJ-treated group and 30 mg·kg~(-1) SPJ-treated group. The SPJ-treated groups were given SPJ at the dosages of 10 mg·kg~(-1) and 30 mg·kg~(-1),respectively,from the age of 18 to 24 months. Aged group were lavaged the same amount of saline,10 six-month-old rats were used as control group,with 10 rats in each group. The open field test,novel object recognition and Morris water maze were performed to detect the changes of cognitive function in each group. The changes of synaptic transmission of long-term potentiation( LTP) in hippocampal CA1 region were detected by field potential recording. Western blot was used to detect the protein levels of NLRP3,ASC,caspase-1 and the changes of Glu A1,Glu A2,CAMKⅡ,CREB and phosphorylation of CAMKⅡ,CREB in each group.The results showed that SPJ could improve the decline of cognitive function in aging rats,reduce the damage of LTP in the hippocampal CA1 region of aged rats,and decrease the expression of NLRP3,ASC,caspase-1 in aging rats. At the same time,SPJ could enhance the membrane expression of AMPA receptor( Glu A1 and Glu A2),and increase the expression of p-CAMKⅡand p-CREB in aging rats.SPJ could improve cognitive decline of natural aging rats,and its mechanism may be related to regulating NLRP3 inflammasome,thus regulating the membrane expression of AMPA receptor,and enhancing the expression phosphorylation of CAMKⅡ and CREB.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Physiology , Cognition , Inflammasomes , Metabolism , Long-Term Potentiation , Male , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Metabolism , Panax , Chemistry , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saponins , Pharmacology
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774552

ABSTRACT

The study aims at taking risk assessment of pesticide residues in ginseng and high risk pesticides were picked up in order to provide a scientific basis for the establishment of maximum residue limits(MRLs) for pesticides in ginseng. Residues of 246 pesticides in 80 ginseng samples collected from different place were detected by GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS method. Acute and chronic intake risks were evaluated by using deterministic approach, and the matrix ranking developed by the Veterinary Residues Committee of the United Kingdom was referred to assess risk score of pesticides. The 25 kinds of pesticide residues were detected in ginseng samples, the detection rate of quintozene(PCNB) was 78%, which was the most frequently detectable pesticide. The chronic dietary intake risks of 25 pesticide residues expressed as %ADI were 0.00%-2.6%, and their acute dietary intake risks expressed as %ARfD were 0.00%-104.2%. Among them the acute dietary intake risks of PCNB was 104%,which was the highest. The 25 pesticides were divided into 3 groups by risk score, high risk group(4 pesticides), medium risk group(6 pesticides), and low risk group(15 pesticides). Hexachlorobenzene, phorate, PCNB and BHC were classified as high risk group. It is necessary and effective to establish the limit of residual organic chlorine in ginseng from Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2015 edition). MRLs for PCNB and hexachlorobenzene in ginseng were proposed to be revised based on the results of risk assessment.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Panax , Chemistry , Pesticide Residues , Risk Assessment , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773261

ABSTRACT

The study is aimed to explore the effect of soil moisture content on ginsenoside biosynthesis and explain its mechanism from the perspectives of antioxidant enzyme system and gene expression of key enzymes in the pathway of ginsenoside synthesis. In the study,two years old Panax ginseng was used as the experimental material and three moisture gradient,40% of saturated water content( W1),60%( W2),80%( W3) were set up. The content of 11 monomeric saponins were determined by HPLC. With GAPDH as a reference gene,six key enzymes( HMGR,SS,β-AS,CYP716 A47,CYP716 A52 v2,CYP716 A53 v2) in ginseng saponin synthesis pathway expression were analyzed by fluorescent quantitative PCR and the activities of superoxide dismutase( SOD),peroxidase( POD),catalase( CAT) activity and MDA content were also determined. With the increase of soil water,the content of ginseng saponin and biomass showed an increasing trend. PPD( Rb1,Rc,Rb2,Rd,Rh2,Rb3,Rg3),PPT( Rg1,Re,Rf) ginsenoside,Ro and total ginsenoside reached the maximum value on August 30,were 9.92,5.48,0.63 mg·g-1,respectively. During the whole regulation period,the antioxidant activity of W3 was greater than that of W1,and the MDA content was less than that of W1. At W3,expression levels of β-AS,CYP716 A47 and CYP716 A53 v2 showed an increasing trend,while HMGR and SS genes showed relatively stable expression levels under various water conditions. According to the correlation analysis,HMGR and SS genes in the W3 treatment group were significantly positively correlated with PPD,PPT ginsenoside and Ro,CYP716 A52 v2 gene was significantly positively correlated with Ro,and CYP716 A47 gene was significantly positively correlated with PPD ginsenoside. There was a significant positive correlation between β-AS gene and PPD ginsenoside in W1 and W2 treatment. Therefore,W3 is the optimum moisture content,ginseng total saponins and monomer saponin content is the highest,the gene closely correlation with content of saponins and more conducive to the accumulation of ginsenosides.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Ginsenosides , Panax , Physiology , Water , Physiology
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773231

ABSTRACT

This project is to investigate the chemical constituents of ginsenosides from the flower buds of Panax ginseng. The compounds were isolated by using a variety of chromatographic methods including Diaion HP-20,silica gel,MCI gel and semi-preparative HPLC chromatography. Their structures were identified by NMR,and MS data. As a result,32 compounds were isolated from the extract of P. ginseng flower buds,and identified as ginsenoside Rk_3( 1),ginsenoside Rh_4( 2),ginsenoside Rh_8( 3),pseudoginsenoside Rc_1( 4),ginsenoside Rc( 5),ginsenoside Rb_2( 6),ginsenoside Rg_6( 7),20( E)-ginsenoside F_4( 8),ginsenoside Rb_1( 9),vinaginsenoside R_(16)( 10),ginsenoside Rh_6( 11),vinaginsenoside R_3( 12),5,6-didehydro-ginsenoside Rd( 13),vinaginsenoside R_4( 14),vinaginsenoside R_8( 15),ginsenoside Rf( 16),notoginsenoside E( 17),ginsenoside Ⅲ( 18),3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3β,7β,12β,20 S-tetrahydroxydammar-5( 6),24-diene-20-O-β-D-glucopyranoside( 19),20( S)-ginsenoside Rg_2( 20),20( R)-ginsenoside Rg_2( 21),notoginsenoside R_2( 22),ginsenoside F_2( 23),quinquenoside I( 24),ginsenoside M_1( 25),quinquenoside L_(10)( 26),ginsenoside Rh_5( 27),ginsenoside Rg_5( 28),ginsenoside Rk_1( 29),20( R)-ginsenoside Rg_3( 30),oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-( 1→2)-β-D-( 6'-methyl ester)-glucuronopyranoside( 31) and ginsenoside MC( 32). Among them,compounds 10,12,13,15,19,22,24,31 and 32 were isolated from P. ginseng for the first time,and compound 19 was a genuine ginsenoside firstly obtained by separation and identification,with NMR data that were also reported. Compounds 1-3,7,8,23,25-30 were isolated from P. ginseng flower buds for the first time.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flowers , Chemistry , Ginsenosides , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Panax , Chemistry , Saponins
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