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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929268

ABSTRACT

The dry root and rhizome of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey has garnered much interest owing to its medicinal properties against diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was used to illustrate the therapeutic mechanisms of ginseng extract on the serum and urinary metabolic profiles in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) rats. Pharmacological and renal parameters in response to the administration of ginseng were also evaluated. In total, 16 serum endogenous metabolites and 14 urine endogenous metabolites, including pyruvic acid, indoleacetic acid, and phenylacetylglycine, were identified as potential biomarkers for diabetes. Pathway enrichment and network analysis revealed that the biomarkers modulated by ginseng were primarily involved in phenylalanine and pyruvate metabolism, as well as in arginine biosynthesis. Moreover, the levels of several renal injury-related biomarkers in T1DM rats were significantly restored following treatment with ginseng. The administration of the extract helped maintain tissue structure integrity and ameliorated renal injury. The findings suggest that the regulatory effect of ginseng extract on T1DM involves metabolic management of diabetic rats, which subsequently attenuates T1DM-induced early renal dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Kidney , Metabolomics/methods , Panax/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928071

ABSTRACT

Panacis Quinquefolii Radix is the dry root of Panax quinquefolium, which is a perennial plant of Araliaceae. The plant has a long growth cycle and serious growth barrier problem, which leads to the use of pesticides. As a result, the pesticide residues in Panacis Quinquefolii Radix are arousing great concern. This paper reviews the research findings on the investigation, detection methods, content analysis and risk assessment of pesticide residues in Panacis Quinquefolii Radix since 1993, and compares the pesticide residue limit standards of different countries and regions. The pesticide residues in Panacis Quinquefolii Radix have been changing from organochlorines with high toxicity to triazines and triazoles with low toxicity. The pesticide residues are generally low, while the pollution of pentachloronitrobenzene and other pesticides still exist. The detection method has evolved from chromatography to chromatography-mass spectrometry. There are no reports of health risks caused by pesticide residues of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix. Pesticide residue is a major factor restricting the sound development of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix industry in China. Therefore, we suggest to improve the registration of pesticides applied to the plant, popularize mature ecological planting mode and supporting technology, and strengthen the research on the risk assessment and limit standard of pesticide residue in Panacis Quinquefolii Radix.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Ginsenosides/analysis , Mass Spectrometry , Panax/chemistry , Pesticide Residues/analysis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928070

ABSTRACT

Panax ginseng, a perennial herb, is prone to diseases and insect pests in the growth process, which are primarily prevented and treated by pesticides. However, due to the lack of standardization in the types, frequencies, and doses of pesticides, pesticide residues have become the main exogenous pollutants of P. ginseng. To explore the risk of pesticide residues in P. ginseng, this paper summarized and analyzed the common pesticide residues in P. ginseng, detection techniques, and pesticide residue limit stan-dards based on the published literature in recent years. The results revealed that the main pesticide residues in P. ginseng were organochlorine pesticides, such as tetrachloronitrobenzene, pentachloronitrobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene, and the detection techniques were dominated by gas chromatography(GC), liquid chromatography(LC), or those combined with mass spectrometry(MS). Because of the long half-life and difficulty in degradation, organochlorine pesticides have become the main factor affecting the export of P. ginseng. It is worth mentioning that P. ginseng has been classified as food in Japan, South Korea, the European Union, and other countries, and the standards of pesticide residues and limits are stricter than those in China. The quality and safety of P. ginseng are prerequisites for the efficacy of Chinese medicine and the development of traditional Chinese medicine. The formulation of scientific and effective standards for pesticide application and limits would promote the high-quality development of the P. ginseng industry.


Subject(s)
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/analysis , Panax/chemistry , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928044

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effects of different magnesium supply levels on the growth, nutrient absorption and distribution, and quality of Panax quinquefolium, and to determine the optimum content of exchangeable magnesium in soil. Three-year-old plants of P. quinquefolium were used in this study, and eight magnesium supply gradients(CK, Mg1-Mg7) were designed for indoor pot experiment(cultivation in soil). The plant growth indexes, nutrient element content in soil and plant, and root saponin content were determined at the end of the growth period. The correlation analysis of nutrient element content in aboveground and underground parts of P. quinquefolium showed significantly negative correlations of magnesium-calcium, magnesium-potassium, and magne-sium-manganese. With the increase in magnesium supply level, the biological absorption coefficient of magnesium increased, while that of total nitrogen, potassium, iron, and manganese decreased; the biological transfer coefficient of magnesium decreased, while that of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, iron, and manganese increased. The saponin content was analyzed by principal component analysis, which showed the comprehensive score in the order of Mg4(2.537), Mg2(1.001), Mg3(0.600), Mg1(0), Mg7(-0.765), CK(-0.825), Mg6(-0.922), and Mg5(-1.663). The partial least squares-path modeling(PLS-PM) showed that the correlation coefficients of exchangeable magnesium and pH with quality were-0.748 and-0.755, respectively, which were significant. Magnesium-calcium, magnesium-potassium, and magnesium-manganese showed antagonism in the nutritional physiology of P. quinquefolium. Excessive application of magnesium can lead to the imbalance of nutrient elements in P. quinquefolium. The content of exchangeable magnesium in soil suitable for the quality formation of P. quinquefolium was 193.34-293.34 mg·kg~(-1). In addition to exchangeable magnesium, pH was also important to the quality formation of P. quinquefolium. Therefore, exchangeable magnesium and pH could be regarded as monitoring factors for the quality formation of P. quinquefolium.


Subject(s)
Magnesium , Nutrients , Panax/chemistry , Phosphorus , Soil/chemistry
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927909

ABSTRACT

Panax quinquefolium, as a common precious medicinal plant, has complex chemical components and unique pharmacological activities, which can play a healthcare role in the human body. With the deepening of research, the application of P. quinquefolium has become increasingly extensive. This paper summarized the research progress of the saponins isolated and identified from diffe-rent parts of P. quinquefolium, the structural classification and pharmacological activities of the saponins, and the quality control of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix. Further, this paper put forward the urgent problems to be solved in the development of P. quinquefolium. It is hoped to lay a foundation for the further study and provide reference for the research direction of P. quinquefolium.


Subject(s)
Ginsenosides , Humans , Panax/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Quality Control , Saponins/pharmacology
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921779

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of extract of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, and Chuanxiong Rhizoma(hereinafter referred to as GNS) on the SIRT1-autophagy pathway of endothelial cell senescence induced by hydrogen peroxide(H_2O_2). To be specific, vascular endothelial cells were classified into the blank control group(control), model group(model), model + DMSO group(DMSO), resveratrol group(RESV), and GNS low-dose(GNS-L), medium-dose(GNS-M), and high-dose(GNS-H) groups. They were treated with H_2O_2 for senescence induction except the control. After intervention of cells in each group with corresponding drugs for 24 h, cell growth status was observed under an inverted microscope, and the formation of autophagosome under the transmission electron microscope. In addition, the changes of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β(LC3 B) were detected by immunofluorescence staining. The autophagy flux was tracked with the autophagy double-labeled adenovirus(mRFP-GFP-LC3) fusion protein. Dansylcadaverine(MDC) staining was employed to determine the autophagic vesicles, and Western blot the expression of sirtuin 1(SIRT1), ubiquitin-binding protein p62, and LC3Ⅱ. After H_2O_2 induction, cells demonstrated slow growth, decreased adhesion ability, raised number of SA-β-gal-stained blue ones, a certain number of autophagosomes with bilayer membrane and secondary lysosomes in the cytoplasm, and slight rise of autophagy flux level. Compared with the model group, GNS groups showed improved morphology, moderate adhesion ability, complete and smooth membrane, decreased SA-β-gal-stained blue cells, many autophagosomes, autophagic vesicles, and secondary lysosomes in the cytoplasm, increased autophagolysosomes, autophagy flux level, and fluorescence intensity of LC3 B and MDC, up-regulated expression of SIRT1 and LC3Ⅱ, and down-regulated expression of p62, suggesting the improvement of autophagy level. GNS can delay the senescence of vascular endothelial cells. After the intervention, the autophagy flux and related proteins SIRT1, LC3Ⅱand p62 changed significantly, and the autophagy level increased significantly. However, EX527 weakened the effect of Chinese medicine in delaying vascular senescence. GNS may delay the senescence of vascular endothelial cells through the SIRT1 autophagy pathway.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Cells, Cultured , Cellular Senescence , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Hydrogen Peroxide , Panax/chemistry , Sirtuin 1/genetics
7.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 26: 20-26, Mar. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009753

ABSTRACT

Background: Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite in ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture can reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of species of ginsenosides is reduced and their contents are lower in the adventitious roots of ginseng than in the roots of ginseng cultivated in the field. Results: In this study, 147 strains of ß-glucosidase-producing microorganisms were isolated from soil. Of these, strain K35 showed excellent activity for converting major ginsenosides into rare ginsenosides, and a NCBI BLAST of its 16S rDNA gene sequence showed that it was most closely related to Penicillium sp. (HQ608083.1). Strain K35 was used to ferment the adventitious root extract, and the fermentation products were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the content of the rare ginsenoside CK was 0.253 mg mL-1 under the optimal converting conditions of 9 d of fermentation at pH 7.0 in LL medium, which was significantly higher than that in the adventitious roots of ginseng. Conclusion: These findings may not only solve the problem of low productivity of metabolite in ginseng root culture but may also result in the development of a new valuable method of manufacturing ginsenoside CK.


Subject(s)
beta-Glucosidase/metabolism , Plant Roots/metabolism , Ginsenosides/metabolism , Panax/metabolism , Penicillium , Biotransformation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Plant Roots/chemistry , Bioreactors , Ginsenosides/isolation & purification , Fermentation , Panax/growth & development , Panax/chemistry
8.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 51(3): 255-260, Jul-Sep/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723856

ABSTRACT

Objectives Panax ginseng, Camellia sinensis and bezafibrate were compared for their lipid-lowering, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as potential agents to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Methods Fifty Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: G1 (feed with standard diet); G2 (feed with high-fat diet with 58% of energy from fat); G3 (high-fat diet + standardized Panax ginseng extract at 100 mg/kg/day); G4 (high-fat diet + standardized Camellia sinensis extract at 100 mg/kg/day); and G5 (high-fat diet + bezafibrate at 100 mg/kg/day), given by gavage. The animals were sacrificed eight weeks later and blood was collected for glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase determinations. The score system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was used to analyse the liver samples. Results and conclusions High-fat diet resulted in a significant increase in animal body weight, biochemical changes and enzymatic elevations. Steatosis, inflammation and hepatocellular ballooning scores were significant high in this group. The biochemical and histological variables were statistically similar in the bezafibrate group and control group. Treatment with Panax ginseng extract prevented obesity and histological features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (steatosis and inflammation) compared to high-fat diet. Camellia sinensis showed a less effective biochemical response, with small reduction in steatosis and inflammation but lower ballooning scores. .


Objetivos Panax ginseng, Camellia sinensis e bezafibrato foram comparados por suas propriedades hipolipemiantes, antioxidantes e anti-inflamatórias, como potenciais agentes capazes de prevenir a doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica e sua progressão para esteato-hepatite não alcoólica. Métodos Cinqüenta ratos Wistar foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em cinco grupos: G1 (alimentados com dieta padrão); G2 (alimentados com dieta hipercalórica com 58% de energia a partir de gordura); G3 (dieta rica em gordura + extrato padronizado Panax ginseng em 100 mg / kg / dia); G4 (dieta rica em gordura + extrato de Camellia sinensis padronizado a 100 mg / kg / dia); e G5 (dieta rica em gordura + bezafibrato, a 100 mg / kg / dia), administrado via oral. Os animais foram sacrificados após oito semanas e o sangue foi coletado para determinação da glicose, insulina, colesterol, triglicérides, AST, ALT, fosfatase alcalina e gama-glutamil transferase. O sistema NAS de pontuação para doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica foi utilizado para analisar as amostras de fígado. Resultados e conclusões A dieta hipercalórica resultou em um aumento significativo no peso corporal dos animais, associado a alterações bioquímicas e elevações enzimáticas. Os escores de esteatose, inflamação e balonização hepatocelular foram significativamente mais elevados neste grupo. As variáveis bioquímicas e histológicas foram estatisticamente semelhantes entre os grupos bezafibrato e controle. O uso do extrato do Panax ginseng esteve associado a um menor ganho de peso dos animais, em média, bem como a menores índices nos escores de esteato-hepatite (esteatose e inflamação) em comparação com o grupo apenas alimentado com dieta hipercalórica. No grupo ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Fibric Acids/administration & dosage , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/prevention & control , Panax/chemistry , Phytotherapy/methods , Tea/chemistry , Disease Progression , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-92907

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate whether administration of IH901, a ginseng intestinal metabolite, ameliorates exercise-induced oxidative stress while preserving antioxidant defense capability in rat skeletal muscles and lung. Eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats per group were randomly assigned to the resting control, exercise control, resting with IH901 (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) consumption (R/IH901), or exercise with IH901 (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) consumption (E/IH901) group. The trained groups ran 35 min 2 days/week for 8 weeks. To analyze the IH901-training interaction, serum biochemical analysis, lipid peroxidation, citrate synthase, protein oxidation, antioxidant and superoxide dismutase in skeletal muscles and lung tissue were measured. Compared to the exercise control group, animals that consumed IH901 had significantly increased exercise endurance times (p < 0.05) and decreased plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels (p < 0.05), while those in the E/IH901 groups had increased citrate synthase and anti-oxidant enzymes and decreased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation (p < 0.05). In conclusion, IH901 consumption in aging rats after eccentric exercise has beneficial effects on anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities through down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation and up-regulation of anti-oxidant enzymes.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Lung/drug effects , Male , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Panax/chemistry , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sapogenins/administration & dosage , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178282

ABSTRACT

Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a functional food and has been well known for keeping good health due to its anti-fatigue and immunomodulating activities. However, there is no data on Korean red ginseng for its preventive activity against acute respiratory illness (ARI). The study was conducted in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in healthy volunteers (Clinical Trial Number: NCT01478009). Our primary efficacy end point was the number of ARI reported and secondary efficacy end point was severity of symptoms, number of symptoms, and duration of ARI. A total of 100 volunteers were enrolled in the study. Fewer subjects in the KRG group reported contracting at least 1 ARI than in the placebo group (12 [24.5%] vs 22 [44.9%], P = 0.034), the difference was statistically significant between the two groups. The symptom duration of the subjects who experienced the ARI, was similar between the two groups (KRG vs placebo; 5.2 +/- 2.3 vs 6.3 +/- 5.0, P = 0.475). The symptom scores were low tendency in KRG group (KRG vs placebo; 9.5 +/- 4.5 vs 17.6 +/- 23.1, P = 0.241). The study suggests that KRG may be effective in protecting subjects from contracting ARI, and may have the tendency to decrease the duration and scores of ARI symptoms.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Chemical Analysis , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Panax/chemistry , Placebo Effect , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Roots/chemistry , Republic of Korea , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 10(6): 491-499, ene. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-618845

ABSTRACT

To focus on the current evidence on the anxiolytic activity of Panax ginseng C.A Meyer. Recent studies showed the anxiolytic effects of the constituents of the roots of this species. Triterpenoid saponins of ginseng known as ginsenosides, are the active chemical components of the roots of this plant likely related to its anxiolytic activity. The interaction of these components with ligands of GABA receptor, increasing its affinity for the receptor, decreased production of mRNA catabolic enzyme (Abat) and this inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA transporter (GAT1) are related events so far to the anxiolytic effect of ginseng.Both the white ginseng and red ginseng have anxiolytic properties.


Estudo enfoca as atuais evidências sobre a atividade ansiolítica do Panax ginseng C.A Meyer. Recentes pesquisas evidenciaram os efeitos ansiolíticos dos constituintes das raízes desta espécie. Saponinas triterpenóides de ginseng, conhecidos como ginsenosídeos, são os componentes químicos ativos das raízes desta planta relacionados à sua provável atividade ansiolítica. A interação destes constituintes com ligantes do receptor GABA, aumentando a sua afinidade pelo receptor, a diminuição da produção de RNAm da enzima catabólica (Abat) deste neurotransmissor inibitório e do transportador GABA (GAT1) são eventos relacionados até o momento ao efeito ansiolítico do ginseng. Tanto o ginseng branco como o ginseng vermelho apresentam propriedades ansiolíticas.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/drug therapy , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Panax/chemistry , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Plant Roots/chemistry , Saponins/pharmacology
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150652

ABSTRACT

Ginseng has always been the typical export item in Korean history. Until the 18th century, exporting ginseng was wild ginseng from the mountains. Since the 19th century, exporting ginseng became red ginseng, which was red due to steaming and drying process. Red ginseng was produced by Gaesung merchants, so that these merchants were able to gain the control of the output. Gaesung merchants of the 19th century exported red ginseng to China and made huge economic success. However, when the Korean Empire and Japanese colonical government established red ginseng monopoly, it essentially blocked Gaesung traders from manufacturing and exporting any further of its prized commodity. Then, the traders turned to sun-dried white ginseng as a substitute to red ginseng. As a result, white ginseng production dramatically increased after 1914, which in turn made Gaesung merchants newly aware of the commercial value of white ginseng, which was previously ignored. The traders made good use of the traditional medicine herb market, which opened annually, to promote the expansion of white ginseng sales. Moreover, the merchants also adopted modern marketing techniques, as they founded companies to handle solely white ginseng sales, refreshed packaging to raise commodity values, and made an effort in advertising and mail order sales. Due to such endeavors, demand for white ginseng grew exponentially both in domestic and foreign markets, which generated steady growth of white ginseng prices despite the rapid increase of its supply. This phenomenon naturally brought about the rich economic accomplishments of Gaesung merchants. Through the white ginseng sales activities of Gaesung merchants in post-1910s era, two facts can be newly uncovered. First, the mass consumption of white ginseng today in Korean society took a full-scale step after the 1910s. Second, it was a widely-held view that during the Japanese rule, majority of Korean traditional merchants were economically ruined, while a small minority collaborated with the colonical government to obtain economic success. However, Gaesung merchants in 1910s successfully commercialized white ginseng not with the aid of the Japanese but with their own efforts alone. Such fact reveals that there were other types of traditional merchants during the Japanese colonial period who cannot be explained with the common theory.


Subject(s)
Commerce/history , History, 20th Century , Panax/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126340

ABSTRACT

An acidic polysaccharide of Panax ginseng (APG), so called ginsan is known to have important immunomodulatory activities. It was recently reported that APG has radioprotective effects in mice but the detailed mechanism was not fully elucidated. This study examined the effects of APG on bone marrow cells (BMs). The phenotypical and functional changes in APG-treated BMs after gamma radiation were studied. The benefit of APG on BMs damaged by gamma radiation was determined by measuring the cell viability. Using 2 different assays, a pretreatment with APG significantly increased the viability of BMs against gamma radiation. APG-treated BMs had a significantly higher amount of IL-12, which is a major cytokine for immune responses, compared with the medium-treated BMs. The expression of MHC class II molecules of APG-treated BMs was also increased, and APG-treated BMs showed significantly higher levels of allogeneic CD4+ T lymphocyte proliferation. Furthermore, APG-treated mice had a larger number of BMs after gamma radiation than the control mice, and the BMs of APG-treated mice were successfully cultured into dendritic cells, which are the representative antigenpresenting cells. Overall, this study shows that APG alters the phenotype of BMs, increases the viability and alloreactivity of BMs after gamma radiation both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, APG may be a good candidate radioprotective agent for BMs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Marrow Cells/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Cell Survival/radiation effects , Flow Cytometry , Gamma Rays , Interleukin-12/biosynthesis , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Panax/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 37(12): 1863-1871, Dec. 2004. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-388061

ABSTRACT

Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white) and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg) was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group). The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20 percent (P < 0.05) after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74 percent (P < 0.05) by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Mitochondria, Muscle/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Panax/chemistry , /metabolism , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Citrate (si)-Synthase/metabolism , Glutathione/drug effects , Glutathione/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Mitochondria, Muscle/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147191

ABSTRACT

The failure to improve the five-year survival rate of cancer patients, from one in three in the 1960s to one in two in the 1970s, stimulated awareness of the importance of primary prevention of cancer. Korean investigators carried out extensive long-term anticarcinogenicity experiments with 2000 newborn mice to investigate whether Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer inhibited carcinogenesis induced by several chemical carcinogens in 1978. There was a 22% decrease (p<0.05) in the incidence of urethane induced lung adenoma by the combined use of red ginseng extract. In the group sacrificed at 56 weeks after the treatment with aflatoxin B1, the incidence of hepatoma significantly decreased to 75% by the addition of red ginseng extract (p<0.05). The result showed that natural products can provide hope for human cancer prevention. By the newly established '9 week medium-term anticarcinogenicity test model of lung tumors in mice' (Yun's model), we confirmed significant anticarcinogenic effects of powders and extracts of the 6- yr-old dried fresh ginseng, 5- and 6-yr old white ginsengs, and 4-, 5-, and 6-yr old red ginseng. We also demonstrated that the anticarcinogencity of ginseng was more prominent in aged or heat treated extracts of ginseng and red ginseng made by steaming. To investigate the active components for cancer prevention, several fractions of 6-yr old fresh ginseng and red ginseng, four semi-synthetic ginsenoside Rh1, Rh2, Rg3 and Rg5, major saponin components in red ginseng, were prepared. Among the ginsenosides, Rg3 and Rg5 showed statistically significant reduction of lung tumor incidence and Rh2 had a tendency of decreasing the incidence. Ginsenoside Rg3, Rg5 and Rh2 were found to be active anticarcinogenic compounds. Rg3, Rg5 and Rh2 are active components in red ginseng, and they prevent cancer either singularly or synergistically.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anticarcinogenic Agents , Disease Models, Animal , Chemical Fractionation , Humans , Korea , Mice , Molecular Structure , Panax/chemistry , Plant Extracts/analysis , Time Factors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147189

ABSTRACT

More than 25 dammarane-type tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins have been isolated from ginseng, the root and rhizome of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae). The genuine sapogenins of those saponins, 20(S)-protopanaxa-diol and -triol, were identified as 20(S) 12beta-hydroxy-and 20(S) 6alpha,12beta-dihydroxy-dammarenediol-II, respectively. There are two types of preparations from ginseng: white ginseng prepared by drying after peelling off and red ginseng prepared by steaming and drying. Some partly deglycosylated saponins such as ginsenoside Rh-1, Rh-2, and Rg-3 are obtained from red ginseng as artifacts produced during steaming. Several workers studied the metabolic transformation by human intestinal bacteria after oral administration of ginsenoside Rb-1 and Rb-2 and found that the stepwise deglyco-sylation yielded compound K and finally 20(S)-protopanaxadiol. Ginsenoside Rg-1 was converted into 20(S)-protopanaxatriol via ginsenoside Rh-1. Yun et al. in Korea conducted the epidemiological case-control studies of ginseng and suggested its cancer preventing activities. Kitagawa et al. demonstrated in vitro that ginsenosides, especially 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg-3, specifically inhibited cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Azuma et al. found that ginsenoside Rb-2 inhibited tumor angiogenesis, and Kikuchi et al. reported that ginsenoside Rh-2 inhibited the human ovarian cancer growth in nude mice. Recently, ginsenoside Rg-3 was produced as an anti-angiogenic anti-cancer drug in China. The aforementioned reports suggest that less glycosylated protopanaxadiol derivatives are effective in cancer prevention. Apart from Ginseng tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins, some oleanane-type pentacyclic triterpenoid compounds showed the anti-carcinogenic activity in the two-stage anti-cancer-promotion experiments in vitro and in vivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Structure , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Panax/chemistry , Sapogenins/chemistry , Saponins/chemistry , Triterpenes/chemistry
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192957

ABSTRACT

Panax ginseng roots have long been used as a medicinal herb in oriental countries. We have investigated anti-proliferative effects of lipid soluble Panax ginseng components on human renal cancer cell lines. Petroleum ether extract of Panax ginseng roots (GX-PE) or its partially purified preparation (7:3 GX) was added to cultures of three human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines, A498, Caki-1, and CURC II. Proliferation of RCC cells was estimated by a [3H]thymidine incorporation assay and cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry. GX-PE, 7:3 GX, panaxydol and panaxynol inhibited proliferation of all three RCC cell lines in a dose dependent manner in vitro with an order of potency, 7:3 GX > panaxydol > panaxynol = GX-PE. Additive effect of interleukin 4 was also demonstrated, most prominently in Caki-1 which responded poorly to GX-PE alone. Analysis of cell cycle in CURC II and Caki-1 treated with GX-PE demonstrated increase in G1 phase population and corresponding decrease in S phase population. The present study demonstrated that proliferation of human RCC cell lines were inhibited by lipid soluble components of Panax ginseng roots by blocking cell cycle progression at G1 to S phase transition.


Subject(s)
Alkanes , Alkynes/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/drug therapy , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Fatty Alcohols/therapeutic use , Panax/therapeutic use , Panax/chemistry , Humans , Interleukin-4/therapeutic use , Kidney Neoplasms/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Roots/therapeutic use , Plant Roots/chemistry
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