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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888106

ABSTRACT

The longevity mechanism of ginseng(Panax ginseng) is related to its strong meristematic ability. In this paper, this study used bioinformatic methods to identify the members of the ginseng TCP gene family in the whole genome and analyzed their sequence characteristics. Then, quantitative real-time fluorescent PCR was performed to analyze the TCP genes containing elements rela-ted to meristem expression in the taproots, fibrous roots, stems, and leaves. According to the data, this study further explored the expression specificity of TCP genes in ginseng tissues, which facilitated the dissection of the longevity mechanism of ginseng. The ginseng TCP members were identified and analyzed using PlantTFDB, ExPASy, MEME, PLANTCARE, TBtools, MEGA and DNAMAN. The results demonstrated that there were 60 TCP gene family members in ginseng, and they could be divided into two classes: Class Ⅰ and Class Ⅱ, in which the Class Ⅱ possessed two subclasses: CYC-TCP and CIN-TCP. The deduced TCP proteins in ginseng had the length of 128-793 aa, the isoelectric point of 4.49-9.84 and the relative molecular mass of 14.2-89.3 kDa. They all contained the basic helix-loop-helix(bHLH) domain. There are a variety of stress response-related cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of ginseng TCP genes, and PgTCP20-PgTCP24 contained the elements associated with meristematic expression. The transcription levels of PgTCP20-PgTCP24 were high in fibrous roots and leaves, but low in stems, indicating the tissue-specific expression of ginseng TCP genes. The Class Ⅰ TCP members which contained PgTCP20-PgTCP23, may be important regulators for the growth and development of ginseng roots.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Multigene Family , Panax/metabolism , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 26: 20-26, Mar. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009753

ABSTRACT

Background: Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite in ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture can reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of species of ginsenosides is reduced and their contents are lower in the adventitious roots of ginseng than in the roots of ginseng cultivated in the field. Results: In this study, 147 strains of ß-glucosidase-producing microorganisms were isolated from soil. Of these, strain K35 showed excellent activity for converting major ginsenosides into rare ginsenosides, and a NCBI BLAST of its 16S rDNA gene sequence showed that it was most closely related to Penicillium sp. (HQ608083.1). Strain K35 was used to ferment the adventitious root extract, and the fermentation products were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the content of the rare ginsenoside CK was 0.253 mg mL-1 under the optimal converting conditions of 9 d of fermentation at pH 7.0 in LL medium, which was significantly higher than that in the adventitious roots of ginseng. Conclusion: These findings may not only solve the problem of low productivity of metabolite in ginseng root culture but may also result in the development of a new valuable method of manufacturing ginsenoside CK.


Subject(s)
beta-Glucosidase/metabolism , Plant Roots/metabolism , Ginsenosides/metabolism , Panax/metabolism , Penicillium , Biotransformation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Plant Roots/chemistry , Bioreactors , Ginsenosides/isolation & purification , Fermentation , Panax/growth & development , Panax/chemistry
3.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 14(1): 34-42, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-644611

ABSTRACT

Ginkgo biloba e Panax ginseng são plantas utilizadas na medicina tradicional. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a histologia gonadal de ratos machos e fêmeas Wistar submetidos aos tratamentos com o extrato de G. biloba (120 mg kg-1) ou P. ginseng (200 mg kg-1), e avaliar os parâmetros reprodutivos e fetais das ratas tratadas com as plantas. O grupo controle recebeu solução fisiológica 0,9%. Os tratamentos foram efetuados por via oral através de gavage, duas vezes ao dia, durante quinze dias consecutivos. Após este período, machos (n=18) e fêmeas (n=18) foram sacrificados e as gônadas coletadas, pesadas e processadas para avaliação microscópica. Outras fêmeas (n=18) foram acasaladas com machos não tratados para avaliação da fertilidade e produtos da gestação. Os resultados indicaram que o peso dos órgãos reprodutivos masculino e feminino não foi afetado pelos tratamentos. A estrutura gonadal dos machos e fêmeas mostrou o mesmo padrão histológico nos três grupos experimentais. O tratamento materno pré-gestacional com os extratos não promoveu alterações no desempenho reprodutivo das matrizes e nos parâmetros fetais. Concluiu-se que o extrato de P. ginseng ou G. biloba não causou toxicidade reprodutiva em ratos machos e fêmeas.


Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng are plants used in the traditional medicine. The aim of study was to analyse the gonadal histology of the Wistar male and female rats submitted to the treatments with extract of G. biloba (120 mg kg-1) or P. ginseng (200 mg kg-1), and to evaluate the reproductive and fetal parameters of female rats treated with the plants. The control group received physiological solution 0.9%. The treatments were administered by oral gavage, twice/day, during fifteen consecutive days. After this period, male (n=18) and female rats (n=18) were sacrificed and the gonads collected, weighed and processed for microscopic evaluation. Another females (n=18) were matted with not treated males for evaluation of fertility and pregnancy outcome. The results indicated that the male and feminine reproductive organs weight was not affected by treatments. The gonadal structure of male and female rats showed same histologic pattern in the three experimental groups. The pre-gestational treatment with the extracts not promoted alterations in the reproductive performance of dams and in the fetal parameters. It was concluded that the extract of P. ginseng or G. biloba not presented reproductive toxicity in the male and female rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Ginkgo biloba/metabolism , Gonads/abnormalities , Plant Extracts/analysis , Ovary , Panax/metabolism , Reproduction , Testis
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147187

ABSTRACT

The anticarcinogenic effects and mechanisms of the biotechnological drugs of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Russia, bioginseng, panaxel and panaxel- 5, were studied. Bioginseng was produced from a tissue culture of ginseng root cultured on standard medium, whereas panaxel and panaxel-5 were produced from ginseng tissue root cultures using standard mediums enriched with 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide and 1-hydroxygermatran-monohydrate respectively. All three ginseng drugs inhibited the development of mammary tumors induced by intramammary injections of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in rats, the development of the brain and spinal cord tumors induced by transplacental administration of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) in rats, and the development of uterine, cervical and vaginal tumors induced by intravaginal applications of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in mice. The ginseng drugs induced the cytotoxic activity of macrophages in mice, enhanced T-lymphocyte rosette formation in guinea pigs exposed to cyclophosphamide, and stimulated the production of thyroid hormones in rats. These mechanisms may contribute to the anticarcinogenic action of the ginseng drugs. The organic germanium compounds present in panaxel and panaxel-5 did not potentiate the anticarcinogenic or immuno- stimulatory effects as much as biogeinseng. Preliminary clinical trials with panaxel and bioginseng were carried out in patients with precancerous lesions of the esophagus and endometrium. Panaxel was found to have a strong therapeutic effect in patients suffering from chronic erosive esophagitis. Bioginseng induced the regression of adenomatous-cystic hyperplasia of the endometrium in some patients. Thus, we conclude that the drugs of ginseng appear to hold considerable promise for future cancer chemoprevention.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/chemically induced , Adult , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/therapeutic use , Cells, Cultured , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/chemically induced , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic , Disease Models, Animal , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Endometrium/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagus/pathology , Estradiol/blood , Female , Fibroadenoma/chemically induced , Humans , Macrophages, Peritoneal/cytology , Male , Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/chemically induced , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neoplasms, Experimental/chemically induced , Nervous System Neoplasms/chemically induced , Panax/metabolism , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Rats , Culture Techniques , Uterine Neoplasms/chemically induced , Vaginal Neoplasms/chemically induced
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 261-265, 1987.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12646

ABSTRACT

Ginseng has been believed to be a powerful tonic by oriental people for a long time and is one of the most popular folk medicine in oriental countries. Intraperitoneal injection of ginseng into rats and mice has been reported to Increase the rates of hepatic RNA and protein synthesis, increase proliforation of rough RES of liver, and enhance alcohol metabolism. We have carried out a study to see the effects of red ginseng powder and extract on in vivo and in vitro metabolism of enflurane and methoxyflurane in male Fisher 344 rats. Red ginseng powder was dissolved in deionized water and dosed for two weeks ad libitum in rats. Hepatic microsomes were prepared and oxidative defluorination of enflurane and methoxyflurane were measured in vitro. Using red ginseng extract, studies were done of both acute and chronic treatment in rats. In chronic experiments, they were dosed with several dosages three times a day for three days; on the fourth day enflurane was administered i.p. and one hour later fluoride levels were mesured in plasma and hepatic microsomes were prepared for in vitro studies as above. In the acute experiment enflurane was administered intraperitoneally eighteen hours after single oral dosage of ginseng and plasma defluorination was measured. There were no statistically significant differences in hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 content or defluorination of enflurane and methoxyflurane between control and experimental groups using either red ginseng extract or powder. The results showed that ginseng ingestion did not affect the metabolism of enflurane and methoxyflurane.


Subject(s)
Animals , Enflurane/metabolism , Male , Methoxyflurane/metabolism , Panax/metabolism , Plants, Medicinal , Rats , Rats, Inbred F344
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