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1.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 36(3): 148-153, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1129868

ABSTRACT

La pancreatitis aguda o crónica puede resultar en lesiones del conducto pancreático, además, la corrosión por el jugo pancreático puede provocar la ruptura de la pared vascular periférica, lo que conduce a hemosuccus pancreático (HP) definido como el sangrado del conducto pancreático a través de la ampolla de Vater. El sangrado suele ser intermitente, repetitivo y, a menudo, no lo suficientemente grave, como para causar inestabilidad hemodinámica. La mayoría de los pacientes tiene antecedentes de enfermedades pancreáticas originales y cuando esto no se cumple, debe incluirse en el diagnóstico diferencial para alcohólicos crónicos con hemorragia digestiva alta intermitente. Presentamos una forma clínica atípica en un paciente masculino de 55 años de edad, con antecedentes de HTA, alcoholismo y aneurisma de la aorta abdominal, quien consultó por dolor tipo cólico en abdomen superior, náuseas y vómitos; luego se asoció disminución del estado de conciencia, alternando con episodios de agitación psicomotriz y primo convulsión generalizada. Una vez ingresado, sucedieron varios episodios de melena. La tomografía abdominal mostró aumento de tamaño y densidad (unidades hounsfield de 58-61) en cabeza y cuerpo del páncreas, por lo que se realizó una angiografía abdominal con protocolo de páncreas y se evidenció doble lesión aneurismática de la arteria esplénica y la arteria gástrica. Falleció en el postoperatorio(AU)


Acute or chronic pancreatitis can result in lesions of the pancreatic duct; in addition, corrosion by the pancreatic juice can cause the rupture of the peripheral vascular wall, which leads to pancreatic hemosuccus defined as bleeding from the pancreatic duct through the Vater ampulla. Bleeding is often intermittent, repetitive, and often not severe enough to cause hemodynamic instability. Most of the cases have a history of strictly pancreatic original diseases, when this is not the case, the PH should be included in the differential diagnosis for chronic alcoholics with intermittent upper gastrointestinal bleeding, We report here an atypical presentation in a 55-year-old male patient with a history of hypertension, alcoholism and an abdominal aortic aneurysm. He consulted for colicky abdominal pain in the upper abdomen, nausea and vomiting; subsequently he presented decreased consciousness, alternating with episodes of psychomotor agitation and generalized seizures. Once hospitalized he had several bouts of melena. The abdominal tomography showed an increase in the size and density (hounsfield units of 58-61) of the head and body of the pancreas. An abdominal angiography with a pancreas protocol was performed, which evidenced a double aneurismal lesion of the splenic and gastric arteries. The patient died after surgery(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Ducts/physiopathology , Pancreatitis/pathology , Alcoholism/complications , Hemorrhage , Pancreatic Juice , Endoscopy , Vascular System Injuries , Internal Medicine
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785434

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula's definition of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) has recently been updated. This study aimed to identify risk factors for POPF in patients having pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and to generate a nomogram to predict POPF.METHODS: Data on 298 patients who underwent PD from March 2012 to October 2017 was retrospectively reviewed and POPF statuses were redefined. A nomogram was constructed using data from 220 patients and validated using the remaining 78 patients. Independent risk factors for POPF were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. A predictive nomogram was established based on the independent risk factors and was compared with existing models.RESULTS: Texture of the pancreas, size of the main pancreatic duct, portal vein invasion, and definitive pathology were the identified risk factors. The nomogram had a C-index of 0.793 and was internally validated. The nomogram performed better (C-index of 0.816) than the other most cited models (C-indexes of 0.728 and 0.735) in the validation cohort. In addition, the nomogram can assign patients into low- (less than 10%), intermediate- (10% to 30%), and high-risk (equal or higher than 30%) groups to facilitate personalized management.CONCLUSION: The nomogram accurately predicted POPF in patients having PD.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Nomograms , Pancreas , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatic Fistula , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Pathology , Portal Vein , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
5.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 34(1): 73-75, ene.-mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003840

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se presenta el caso de un paciente con pancreatitis crónica y hallazgo de lesión quística en el ducto pancreático principal, a quien se le realizó colangioscopia directa tipo Spyglass y se encontró un gran cálculo impactado a nivel de la cabeza del páncreas, condicionando una formación pseudoquística. Se realizó litotricia láser y se logró la extracción en su totalidad, con lo cual se logró la remisión sintomática.


Abstract We present the case of a patient with chronic pancreatitis. After finding a cystic lesion in the main pancreatic duct, the patient underwent direct cholangioscopy using the SpyGlass DS System. A large impacted calculus and pseudocyst formation was found in the head of the pancreas. Laser lithotripsy was used to extract the entire calculus and symptomatic remission was achieved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pancreatic Ducts , Calculi , Lithotripsy, Laser , Pancreatitis, Chronic
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(8): e8522, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011609

ABSTRACT

Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) is associated with high risk of epithelial atypical growth and malignant transformation of the bile duct or gallbladder. However, overall changes in genetic expression have not been examined in children with PBM. Genome-wide expression was analyzed using peripheral blood samples from 10 children with PBM and 15 pediatric controls. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using microarray. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted using Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses. The top 5 in the up-regulated genes in PBM were verified with qRT-PCR. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was conducted to evaluate the predictive accuracy of selected genes for PBM. The microarray experiments identified a total of 876 DEGs in PBM, among which 530 were up-regulated and the remaining 346 were down-regulated. Verification of the top 5 up-regulated genes (TYMS, MYBPC1, FUT1, XAGE2, and GREB1L) by qRT-PCR confirmed the up-regulation of MYBPC1 and FUT1. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested that FUT1 and MYBPC1 up-regulation could be used to predict PBM, with the area under the curve of 0.873 (95%CI=0.735−1.000) and 0.960 (95%CI=0.891−1.000), respectively. FUT1 and MYBPC1 were up-regulated in children with PBM, and could be used as potential biomarkers for PBM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pancreatic Ducts/abnormalities , Bile Ducts/abnormalities , Up-Regulation/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Fucosyltransferases/genetics , Bile Duct Neoplasms/etiology , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Microarray Analysis , Dilatation, Pathologic/complications , Dilatation, Pathologic/congenital , Gallbladder Neoplasms/etiology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719722

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of contrast enhanced pancreatic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in resectability and prognosis evaluation after staging computed tomography (CT) in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2005 to December 2012, 298 patients were diagnosed to have potentially resectable stage PDA on CT. Patients were divided into CT+MR (patients underwent both CT and MRI; n=216) and CT only groups (n=82). Changes in resectability staging in the CT+MR group were evaluated. The overall survival was compared between the two groups. The recurrence-free survival and median time to liver metastasis after curative surgery were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Staging was changed from resectable on CT to unresectable state on MRI in 14.4% of (31 of 216 patients) patients of the CT+MR group. The overall survival and recurrence-free survival rates were not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.162 and p=0.721, respectively). The median time to liver metastases after curative surgery in the CT+MR group (9.9 months) was significantly longer than that in the CT group (4.2 months) (p=0.011). CONCLUSION: Additional MRI resulted in changes of resectability and treatment modifications in a significant proportion of patients who have potentially resectable state at CT and in prolonged time to liver metastases in patients after curative surgery. Additional MRI to standard staging CT can be recommended for surgical candidates of PDA.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Humans , Liver , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pancreatic Ducts , Prognosis , Survival Rate
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Determining the cause of suspected biliary stricture is often challenging in clinical practice. We aimed to compare the diagnostic yields of endoscopic ultrasound-guided tissue sampling (EUS-TS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-guided tissue sampling (ERCP-TS) in patients with suspected biliary stricture at different primary lesions. METHODS: We enrolled patients who underwent same-session EUS- and ERCP-TS for the evaluation of suspected biliary stricture. Forceps biopsy and/or brush cytology of intraductal lesions and fine-needle aspiration for solid mass lesions were performed during ERCP and EUS, respectively. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-five patients treated at our institution between January 2011 and September 2016, were initially considered for the study. However, 32 patients were excluded due to loss of follow-up (n=8) and ERCP-TS on the pancreatic duct (n=20) or periampullary lesions (n=4). Of the 93 patients included, 86 had a malignant tumor including cholangiocarcinoma (n=39), pancreatic cancer (n=37), and other malignancies (n=10). Seven patients had benign lesions. EUS-TS had higher rate of overall diagnostic accuracy than ERCP-TS (82.8% vs. 60.2%, p=0.001), and this was especially true for patients with a pancreatic lesion (84.4% vs. 51.1%, p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: EUS-TS was found to be superior to ERCP-TS for evaluating suspected biliary strictures, especially those caused by pancreatic lesions.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Constriction, Pathologic , Diagnosis , Endosonography , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Surgical Instruments
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760177

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic calculi associated with chronic pancreatitis lead to severe abdominal pain, which significantly reduces the quality of life of patients. Pancreatic calculi, especially those that obstruct the main pancreatic duct and cause abdominal pain, are considered to be treated. First, if pancreatic calculi are located in the head or body and the size is less than 5 mm, endoscopic removal can be attempted. If the size is greater than 5 mm, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy may be performed first, and subsequent endoscopic removal may be considered depending on the results. If such treatment fails, pancreatoscopic lithotripsy or surgery should be considered. Pancreatic duct stenting may be used as a bridge therapy during this process.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Calculi , Head , Humans , Lithotripsy , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Quality of Life , Stents
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic cancer (PC) patients have poor prognoses because this cancer is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage and the therapeutic options are limited. We examined the potential of metabolic profiling for early diagnosis and identification of potential therapeutic targets. METHODS: Ten patients and 10 healthy volunteer controls older than 20 years of age were enrolled between May and December 2015. The patients were confirmed to have pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cytologically or histologically. Blood plasma samples were derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Untargeted GC-MS data were analyzed using statistical methods, including Wilcoxon rank-sum test and principal component analyses. RESULTS: L-lysine was 1.36-fold higher in patients than in healthy controls (p<0.05). L-leucine was 0.63-fold lower (p<0.01) and palmitic acid was 0.93-fold lower (p<0.5) in patients than in controls. Orthogonal partial least squared-discriminant analysis revealed significant differences between the patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the metabolic profiles of patients with PC are distinct from those of the healthy population. Further studies are required to develop methods for early diagnosis and identify therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Early Diagnosis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Korea , Leucine , Lysine , Metabolome , Palmitic Acid , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Plasma , Principal Component Analysis , Prognosis
12.
Gut and Liver ; : 683-689, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is associated with an extremely poor prognosis. This study assessed the genetic diversity among patients with PDA and compared their mutational profiles before and after treatment. METHODS: Tumors and matched blood samples were obtained from 22 PDA patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. The somatic mutations were analyzed with comprehensive cancer gene panel (CCP). In addition, the biopsy samples obtained at diagnosis and the surgically resected samples after treatment were compared for seven patients. The CCP provided formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sample-compatible multiplexed target selection for 409 genes implicated in cancer. RESULTS: Assessments of the MLH1, MLH3, MSH2, and PMS2 genes showed that the four patients with the highest relative burdens of mutations harbored somatic mutations in at least three of these genes. Genes in the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (KMT2) family, such as KMT2D, KMT2A, and KMT2C, were frequently mutated in tumor samples. Survival was worse in patients with ARID1A gene mutations than those without ARID1A gene mutations. Mutation patterns were compared between tissue samples before and after neoadjuvant treatment in seven patients who underwent surgical resection. The allelic fraction of mutations in KRAS codon 12 was lower in the surgically resected samples than in the endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy samples of six patients. The number of mutant alleles of the histone lysine methyltransferase gene WHSC1 also decreased after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that tumor tissue from PDA patients is genetically diverse and suggest that ARID1A mutations may be a potential prognostic marker for PDA.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Alleles , Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Codon , Diagnosis , Genes, Neoplasm , Genetic Variation , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Prognosis
13.
Gut and Liver ; : 461-470, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been considered extremely rare in East Asia. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence, clinical characteristics and radiological findings of type 2 AIP highlighting patients presenting as acute pancreatitis in a single center. METHODS: Type 2 AIP patients were classified according to International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria. Radiological findings were compared between type 2 AIP presenting as acute pancreatitis and gallstone pancreatitis. RESULTS: Among 244 patients with AIP, 27 (11.1%) had type 2 AIP (definite, 15 [55.5%] and probable 12 [44.5%]). The median age of patients with type 2 AIP was 29 years (interquartile range, 20 to 39 years). Acute pancreatitis was the most common initial presentation (n=17, 63%) while obstructive jaundice was present in only one patient. Ulcerative colitis (UC) was associated with type 2 AIP in 44.4% (12/27) of patients. Radiological pancreatic imaging such as delayed enhancement of diffusely enlarged pancreas, homogeneous enhancement of focal enlargement/mass, absent/minimal peripancreatic fat infiltration or fluid collection, and multifocal main pancreatic duct narrowings were helpful for differentiating type 2 AIP from gallstone pancreatitis. During follow-up (median, 32.3 months), two patients (2/25, 8%) experienced relapse. CONCLUSIONS: In South Korea, type 2 AIP is not as rare as previously thought. Overall, the clinical profile of type 2 AIP was similar to that of Western countries. Type 2 AIP should be considered in young UC patients with acute pancreatitis of uncertain etiology.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Consensus , Far East , Follow-Up Studies , Gallstones , Humans , Jaundice, Obstructive , Korea , Pancreas , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatitis , Prevalence , Recurrence
14.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 334-339, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We applied a back light system (BLS) with a magnifying glass to improve the ability to assess the adequacy of specimen sampling using endosonography. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy of the BLS in sampling of specimens by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of solid pancreatic masses. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, crossover, single-center clinical trial. An endosonographer evaluated adequacy on gross visual inspection and identified whitish specimen sampling sites with and without the BLS according to a randomization sequence in the first and second passes with a 25-G needle. On cytological evaluation, the presence of well-defined pancreatic ductal epithelium was evaluated by a cytopathologist who was blinded to any clinical information. RESULTS: A total of 80 consecutive patients were eligible during the study period. Adequacy was observed for 52 specimens (65%) with the BLS and 54 (68%) without the BLS (p=0.88). In assessment of specimen adequacy on gross examination, only fair agreement was observed both with and without BLS (kappa score 0.40 and 0.29, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The BLS did not influence the ability to identify specimen sampling sites or reliable assessment of specimen site adequacy using gross visual inspection.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Cross-Over Studies , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Endosonography , Epithelium , Glass , Humans , Needles , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Prospective Studies , Random Allocation
15.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 382-386, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763447

ABSTRACT

A gangliocytic paraganglioma is a benign tumor of the digestive system with a very low incidence. The tumor is histopathologically characterized by a triphasic pattern consisting of epithelioid, ganglion, and spindle-shaped Schwann cells. In most cases, it occurs in the second portion of the duodenum near the ampulla of Vater. We report a case of a gangliocytic paraganglioma occurring at the minor duodenal papilla (a rare location) with a concurrent adenoma of the ampulla of Vater. Both lesions were treated simultaneously using endoscopic resection. Additionally, we have presented a literature review.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Ampulla of Vater , Digestive System , Duodenum , Ganglion Cysts , Incidence , Pancreatic Ducts , Paraganglioma , Schwann Cells
18.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 588-597, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the predictive value of localized stenosis of the main pancreatic duct (MPD) for early detection of pancreatic cancer.METHODS: Among 689 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde pancreatography from January 2008 to September 2018, 19 patients with MPD findings were enrolled. These patients showed findings for indicating suspicious pancreatic cancer at an early stage (FiCE); FiCE was defined as a single, localized stenosis in the MPD without a detectable mass (using any other imaging methods) and without other pancreatic diseases, such as definite chronic pancreatitis, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, and autoimmune pancreatitis. Final diagnoses were established by examining resected specimens or through follow-up examinations after an interval of >5 years.RESULTS: Among 19 patients with FiCE, 11 underwent surgical resection and 8 were evaluated after a >5-year observation period. The final diagnosis of the MPD stenosis was judged to be pancreatic cancer in 9 patients (47%), including 3 with intraepithelial cancer, and to be a non-neoplastic change in 10. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of preoperative pancreatic juice cytology were 75%, 100%, and 88%, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: The predictive value of FiCE for pancreatic cancer prevalence was 47%. Histological confirmation with pancreatic juice cytology is necessary before surgical resection.


Subject(s)
Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Constriction, Pathologic , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mucins , Pancreatic Diseases , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatic Juice , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Prevalence , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 598-605, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: For the treatment of malignant biliary obstruction, endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) has been widely accepted as a standard procedure. However, post-ERBD complications can affect the lives of patients. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictive factors for these complications, including the patient’s status, cancer status, and stent type.METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis conducted in a single tertiary hospital from January 2007 to July 2017. The following variables were evaluated: sex, age, body mass index, cancer type, history of pancreatitis, gallbladder stone, previous biliary stenting, precut papillotomy, stent type, contrast injection into the pancreatic duct or gallbladder, cystic duct invasion by the tumor, and occlusion of the cystic duct orifice by a metal stent.RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that contrast injection into the pancreatic duct was a risk factor for pancreatitis. Patients with a history of bile drainage showed a lower risk of pancreatitis. For cholecystitis, the analysis revealed contrast injection into the gallbladder and cystic duct invasion by the tumor as important predictive factors. Metal stents showed a greater risk of post-procedure pancreatitis than plastic stents, but did not affect the incidence of cholecystitis.CONCLUSIONS: Considering that contrast injection is the most important factor for both complications, a careful approach by the physician is essential in preventing the occurrence of any complications. Further, choosing the type of stent is an important factor for patients at a risk of post-procedure pancreatitis.


Subject(s)
Bile , Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic , Body Mass Index , Cholecystitis , Cystic Duct , Drainage , Gallbladder , Humans , Incidence , Multivariate Analysis , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatitis , Plastics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stents , Tertiary Care Centers
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762690

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The 2017 international consensus guidelines (ICG) for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas were recently released. Important changes included the addition of worrisome features such as elevated serum CA 19-9 and rapid cyst growth (>5 mm over 2 years). We aimed to clinically validate the 2017 ICG and compare the diagnostic performance between the 2017 and 2012 ICG. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. During January 2000–January 2017, patients who underwent complete surgical resection and had pathologic confirmation of branch-duct or mixed-type IPMN were included. To evaluate diagnostic performance, the areas under the receiver operating curves (AUCs) were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 448 patients were included. The presence of mural nodule (hazard ratio [HR], 9.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.60–18.09; P = 0.001), main pancreatic duct dilatation (>5 mm) (HR, 5.32; 95% CI, 2.67–10.60; P = 0.001), thickened cystic wall (HR, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.51–7.63; P = 0.003), and elevated CA 19-9 level (>37 unit/mL) (HR, 5.25; 95% CI, 2.05–13.42; P = 0.001) were significantly associated with malignant IPMN. Malignant lesions showed a cyst growth rate >5 mm over 2 years more frequently than benign lesions (60.9% vs. 29.7%, P = 0.012). The AUC was higher for the 2017 ICG than the 2012 ICG (0.784 vs. 0.746). CONCLUSION: The new 2017 ICG for IPMN is clinically valid, with a superior diagnostic performance to the 2012 ICG. The inclusion of elevated serum CA 19-9 level and cyst growth rate to the 2017 ICG is appropriate.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal , Cohort Studies , Consensus , Dilatation , Humans , Mucins , Pancreas , Pancreatic Ducts , Retrospective Studies
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