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1.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 8-8, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Owing to shortage of surgical and N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) during the COVID-2019 pandemic, various masks were developed to prevent infection. This study aimed to examine the inward leakage rate (ILR) of sealed face masks and modified surgical masks using a quantitative fit test and compared it with the ILR of unmodified N95 FFRs.@*METHODS@#We conducted paired comparisons of ILRs of bent nose-fit wire masks, double masks, and N95 FFRs from October to December 2021. To measure the protective effectiveness of masks, participants wore masks, and the number of particles outside and inside the mask were measured. The ILR was based on the percentage of particles entering the mask using a fit tester.@*RESULTS@#We enrolled 54 participants (20 men and 34 women) in this study. The median ILR for surgical masks without and with a W-shaped bend in the nose-fit wire were 96.44% and 50.82%, respectively. The nose-fit wire adjustment reduced the ILR of surgical masks by a mean of 28.57%, which was significantly lower than the ILR without adjustment (P < 0.001). For double masks, with surgical or polyurethane masks on top of the W-shaped mask, the ILR did not differ significantly from that of N95. Although the filtration performance of double surgical masks matched that of N95 masks, their ILR was notably higher, indicating that double masks do not provide equivalent protection.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Wearing N95 masks alone is effective in many cases. However, surgical mask modifications do not guarantee consistent effectiveness. Properly selected, sealed masks with a good fit overcome leakage, emphasizing their crucial role. Without evidence, mask-wearing may lead to unexpected infections. Education based on quantitative data is crucial for preventing adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , N95 Respirators , COVID-19/epidemiology , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Protective Devices , Materials Testing , Equipment Design , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control
2.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(1): 23-31, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is associated with morbidity, hospitalizations, absenteeism, and mortality among healthcare workers (HCW). AIM: To evaluate the seroconversion rate in HCW exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in the early pandemic phase in 2020 at a regional reference hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred seventy-nine HCW working at a regional hospital were invited to a longitudinal study performed between April-July 2020. A serological analysis by ELISA IgG for viral nucleoprotein and protein S with a secondary analysis by ELISA IgG protein S1/S2 for samples with positive or doubtful result was carried out together with a complementary online survey to inquire about occupational or community exposures to SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Two cases with baseline infection were detected (1.1%, one symptomatic and one asymptomatic) and no cases of seroconversion were detected. During the study period, there were 136 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, and regional weekly COVID-19 incidence ranged from 2.7 to 24.4 per 100,000 inhabitants. No SARS-CoV-2 cases were detected by PCR among 27 HCW who consulted for respiratory symptoms in the period. Online surveys confirmed direct care of COVID-19 patients and also detected a high degree of unprotected social interaction at work. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of seroconversion in this group of HCW exposed to the risk of infection by SARS-CoV-2 during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Personal protective equipment and other measures used by the HCW were extremely useful for their protection in the initial phase of the pandemic.


ANTECEDENTES: La pandemia de SARS-CoV-2 está asociada a morbilidad, hospitalizaciones, ausentismo y mortalidad entre el personal de salud (PS). OBJETIVO: Evaluar la tasa de seroconversión en el PS expuesto al SARS-CoV-2 en la fase pandémica inicial el 2020 en un hospital regional de referencia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Ciento setenta y nueve trabajadores de la salud fueron invitados a un estudio longitudinal realizado entre abril-julio de 2020. Se efectuó un análisis serológico por ELISA IgG para nucleoproteína viral y proteína S con un análisis secundario por ELISA IgG proteína S1 / S2 para muestras con resultado positivo o dudoso junto a encuestas complementarias en línea para preguntar sobre exposiciones ocupacionales o comunitarias al SARS-CoV-2. RESULTADOS: Se detectaron dos casos con infección basal (1,1%, uno sintomático y uno asintomático) sin casos de seroconversión. Durante el período de estudio, hubo 136 pacientes hospitalizados con COVID-19, y la incidencia semanal regional de COVID-19 osciló entre 2,7 y 24,4 por 100.000 habitantes. No se detectaron casos de SARS-CoV-2 por PCR entre los 27 funcionarios que consultaron por síntomas respiratorios en este período. Las encuestas en línea confirmaron la atención directa de los pacientes con COVID-19 y también detectaron un alto grado de interacción social desprotegida en el trabajo. CONCLUSIONES: No hubo evidencia de seroconversión en un grupo de funcionarios expuestos al riesgo de infección por SARS-CoV-2 durante el inicio de la pandemia de COVID-19. Los equipos de protección personal y otras medidas utilizadas por el PS fueron de suma utilidad para su protección en la fase inicial de la pandemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G , Longitudinal Studies , Health Personnel , Pandemics/prevention & control , Seroconversion
3.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(1): 61-71, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515422

ABSTRACT

Background: Aging increases the vulnerability to diseases and environmental changes such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Telehealth and tele-education are vital to prevent the deleterious effects of prolonged confinement, and to train the community, and constantly rotating medical students and health professionals. Aim: To assess the perception and impact of an online course about healthy aging aimed at the community and health care professionals. Material and Methods: An open online one-day course to promote healthy aging was carried out. A cross-sectional online survey about the course was answered by 386 attendants and a knowledge test was applied to 114 people. Results: Seventy-five percent of respondents attended the course synchronously. Of these, 79% were women, 20% were older people and 53% were caregivers of an older person. All respondents acquired new knowledge and were willing to participate again. The frequency of interest about self-care is three times greater than about caring for another person, In an older person, the interest is 101 more times about self-care than caring for another person. Ninety five percent of respondents felt more active and 84% felt more accompanied. Conclusions: The course facilitated access to information on the promotion of active and healthy aging in the community with a favorable perception and a positive impact. The coverage for older people with a digital gap should be improved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Students, Medical , Telemedicine , Education, Distance , Healthy Aging , Self Care , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pandemics/prevention & control
4.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(1): 149-160, Jan-Abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414818

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os efeitos do distanciamento social à saúde psicossocial da pessoa idosa no período da pandemia da COVID-19. Metodologia: Estudo revisão integrativa, realizado entre abril e Setembro de 2022, documentos dispo- nível como artigos científicos; ano de publicação 2020 a 2022. Os critérios de exclusão foram artigos de revisão, arquivos do tipo dissertação e teses. A pesquisa incluiu 47 do- cumentos; posteriormente foi realizada leitura crítica e reflexiva dos assim, estabeleceu- se a amostra de 11 artigos. Resultados e Discussão: Mediante todas as medidas tomadas para conter a pandemia, o distanciamento social é a estratégia até então mais eficiente para evitar a disseminação do vírus. Entretanto, as evidências mostram que o mesmo pode trazer prejuízos de natureza psicológica e psicossomática à população, principalmente à população idosa, que é um dos grupos de risco para contágio da doença. Além disso, pode provocar hábitos como o sedentarismo e inatividade física, condições que também são atreladas ao desenvolvimento de doenças físicas, mentais e, consequentemente, ao risco de morte em populações vulneráveis. Conclusão: Trata-se de um fenômeno social com- plexo e que exige atenção das entidades prestadoras de serviço à comunidade idosa, assim como os gestores e familiares. Desse modo, as linhas de cuidado devem se basear nas respostas em rede, que realizam esforços intersetoriais que envolvem políticas públicas de saúde, apoio do estado, assistência social, seguridade e justiça em ação das proteções de direitos, instituídos no Estatuto do Idoso.


The objective of this work was to analyze the effects of social distancing on the psychosocial health of the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology: Integrative review study, carried out between April and September 2022, documents available as scientific articles; year of publication 2020 to 2022. Exclusion criteria were review articles, dissertation and theses type files. The research included 47 documents; later, a critical and reflective reading of the articles was carried out, thus, a sample of 11 articles was established. Results and Discussion: Through all the measures taken to contain the pandemic, social distancing is the most efficient strategy so far to prevent the spread of the virus. However, evidence shows that it can bring psychological and psychosomatic damage to the population, especially the elderly population, which is one of the risk groups for contagion of the disease. In addition, it can cause habits such as physical inactivity and physical inactivity, conditions that are also linked to the development of physical and mental illnesses and, consequently, to the risk of death in vulnerable populations. Conclusion: It is a complex social phenomenon that requires attention from entities providing services to the elderly community, as well as managers and family members. In this way, the lines of care must be based on network responses, which carry out intersectoral efforts that involve public health policies, state support, social assistance, security and justice in action of the protections of rights, established in the Statute of the Elderly.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar los efectos del distanciamiento social en la salud psicosocial de los ancianos durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Metodología: Estudio de revisión integradora, realizado entre abril y septiembre de 2022, documentos disponibles como artículos científicos; año de publicación 2020 a 2022. Los criterios de exclusión fueron artículos de revisión, archivos tipo disertación y tesis. La investigación incluyó 47 documentos; posteriormente, se realizó una lectura crítica y reflexiva de los artículos, así, se estableció una muestra de 11 artículos. Resultados y Discusión: A través de todas las medidas tomadas para contener la pandemia, el distanciamiento social es la estrategia más eficiente hasta el momento para prevenir la propagación del virus. Sin em- bargo, la evidencia muestra que puede traer daños psicológicos y psicosomáticos a la población, especialmente a la población anciana, que es uno de los grupos de riesgo de contagio de la enfermedad. Además, puede provocar hábitos como la inactividad física y el sedentarismo, condiciones que también están relacionadas con el desarrollo de enfer- medades físicas y mentales y, en consecuencia, con el riesgo de muerte en poblaciones vulnerables. Conclusiones: Se trata de un fenómeno social complejo que requiere atención por parte de las entidades prestadoras de servicios a la comunidad de adultos mayores, así como de los gestores y familiares. De esta forma, las líneas de atención deben basarse en respuestas en red, que realicen esfuerzos intersectoriales que involucren políticas públicas de salud, apoyo estatal, asistencia social, seguridad y justicia en acción de las protecciones de derechos, establecidas en el Estatuto del Anciano.


Subject(s)
Aged/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Psychosocial Support Systems , Physical Distancing , Review Literature as Topic , Health of the Elderly , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , COVID-19/psychology
5.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 407-412, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010958

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a massive impact on global social and economic development and human health. By combining traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with modern medicine, the Chinese government has protected public health by supporting all phases of COVID-19 prevention and treatment, including community prevention, clinical treatment, control of disease progression, and promotion of recovery. Modern medicine focuses on viruses, while TCM focuses on differential diagnosis of patterns associated with viral infection of the body and recommends the use of TCM decoctions for differential treatment. This differential diagnosis and treatment approach, with its profoundly empirical nature and holistic view, endows TCM with an accessibility advantage and high application value for dealing with COVID-19. Here, we summarize the advantage of and evidence for TCM use in COVID-19 prevention and treatment to draw attention to the scientific value and accessibility advantage of TCM and to promote the use of TCM in response to public health emergencies. Please cite this article as: Huang M, Liu YY, Xiong K, Yang FW, Jin XY, Wang ZQ, Zhang JH, Zhang BL. The role and advantage of traditional Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(5): 407-412.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diagnosis, Differential , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control
6.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 1-1, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Healthcare workers (HCWs) employed personal protective equipment (PPE) during the COVID-19 pandemic, crucial to protecting themselves from infection. To highlight the efficacy of PPE in preventing environmental infection among HCWs, a systematic review was conducted in line with PRISMA guidance.@*METHODS@#A search of the PubMed and Web of Science databases was conducted from January 2019 to April 2021 using pre-defined search terms. Articles were screened by three researchers. The approved papers were read in full and included in this review if relevance was mutually agreed upon. Data were extracted by study design and types of PPEs.@*RESULTS@#47 of 108 identified studies met the inclusion criteria, with seven reviews and meta-analyses, seven cohort, nine case-control, fifteen cross-sectional studies, four before and after, four case series, and one modeling studies. Wearing PPE offered COVID-19 protection in HCWs but required adequate training. Wearing surgical masks provided improved protection over cloth masks, while the benefit of powered air-purifying respirators is less clear, as are individual gowns, gloves, and/or face shields.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Wearing PPE, especially facial masks, is necessary among HCWs, while training in proper use of PPE is also important to prevent COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Personal Protective Equipment , Health Personnel
7.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 148-150, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971171

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a huge impact on the global medical, political and economic fields. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic, our understanding of the impact of COVID-19 has grown exponentially. Recently, the COVID-19 epidemic has changed rapidly in China, and there has been controversy over how to carry out surgical operations for patients with lung neoplastic lesions. Some studies have shown that lung cancer patients undergoing surgery are more likely to experience respiratory failure and perioperative death after contracting COVID-19 than the general population, however, delays in cancer treatment are also associated with increased mortality among these patients. In particular, the novel coronavirus Omikron variant has a higher transmissibility and may escape the immunity obtained through the previous novel coronavirus infection and vaccination. In order to minimize the risk of novel coronavirus infection in surgical patients, it is necessary to develop new treatment guidelines, expert consensus and preventive measures. However, the current rapid change of the epidemic situation has led to insufficient time and evidence to develop guidelines and consensus. Therefore, thoracic surgeons need to evaluate specific patient populations at higher risk of severe complications before surgery and weigh the benefit of surgical treatment against the risk of novel coronavirus infection. We try to give some recommendations on lung surgery during the current domestic epidemic situation based on the guidelines and consensus of oncology and thoracic surgery organizations in different regions on lung surgery.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Multiple Pulmonary Nodules , Pandemics/prevention & control , Lung
8.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 1-4, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971031

ABSTRACT

Since the global pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2020, the virus has been evolving through mutations to acquire enhanced infectivity but reduced virulence. With a wide vaccination coverage among Chinese population, China is entering a new stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection control. The Working Group for the Prevention and Control of Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 Infection in the Perinatal Period of the Editorial Committee of Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics released the first and second editions of perinatal and neonatal management plan for prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 infection in January and March 2020, respectively. In order to follow up new prevention and control needs, it is necessary to update the management plan to better guide clinical practice. Therefore, the Working Group formulated the 3rd-edition plan.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Virulence
9.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 562-575, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982577

ABSTRACT

The Omicron family of SARS-CoV-2 variants are currently driving the COVID-19 pandemic. Here we analyzed the clinical laboratory test results of 9911 Omicron BA.2.2 sublineages-infected symptomatic patients without earlier infection histories during a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Shanghai in spring 2022. Compared to an earlier patient cohort infected by SARS-CoV-2 prototype strains in 2020, BA.2.2 infection led to distinct fluctuations of pathophysiological markers in the peripheral blood. In particular, severe/critical cases of COVID-19 post BA.2.2 infection were associated with less pro-inflammatory macrophage activation and stronger interferon alpha response in the bronchoalveolar microenvironment. Importantly, the abnormal biomarkers were significantly subdued in individuals who had been immunized by 2 or 3 doses of SARS-CoV-2 prototype-inactivated vaccines, supporting the estimation of an overall 96.02% of protection rate against severe/critical disease in the 4854 cases in our BA.2.2 patient cohort with traceable vaccination records. Furthermore, even though age was a critical risk factor of the severity of COVID-19 post BA.2.2 infection, vaccination-elicited protection against severe/critical COVID-19 reached 90.15% in patients aged ≽ 60 years old. Together, our study delineates the pathophysiological features of Omicron BA.2.2 sublineages and demonstrates significant protection conferred by prior prototype-based inactivated vaccines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Vaccination
10.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 57: 77, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522864

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Flattening the curve was the most promoted public health strategy worldwide, during the pandemic, to slow down the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and, consequently, to avoid overloading the healthcare systems. In Brazil, a relative success of public policies was evidenced. However, the association between public policies and the "flatten the curve" objectives remain unclear, as well as the association of different policies to reach this aim. This study aims to verify if the adoption of different public policies was associated with the flattening of the infection and death curves by covid-19 first wave in 2020. METHODS Data from the Sistema de Informação da Vigilância Epidemiológica da Gripe (Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance Information System - SIVEP-Gripe) and the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics - IBGE) were used to compute standardized incidence and mortality rates. The Oxford Covid-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT) was used to obtain information about governmental responses related to the mitigation of pandemic effects, and the Human Development Index (HDI) was used as a measure of socioeconomic status. A non-linear least-square method was used to estimate parameters of the five-parameter sigmoidal curve, obtaining the time to reach the peak and the incremental rate of the curves. Additionally, ordinary least-square linear models were used to assess the correlation between the curves and the public policies adopted. RESULTS Out of 51 municipalities, 261,326 patients had SARS-CoV-2 infection. Stringency Index was associated with reducing covid-19 incremental incidence and death rates,in addition to delaying the time to reach the peak of both pandemic curves. Considering both parameters, economic support policies did not affect the incidence nor the mortality rate curves. CONCLUSION The evidence highlighted the importance and effectiveness of social distancing policies during the first year of the pandemic in Brazil, flattening the curves of mortality and incidence rates. Other policies, such as those focused on economic support, were not effective in flattening the curves but met humanitarian and social outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Policy , Communicable Disease Control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Mortality , Pandemics/prevention & control
11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 689-693, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985548

ABSTRACT

A crucial lesson gained through the pandemic preparedness and response to COVID-19 is that all measures for epidemic control must be law-based. The legal system is related not only to public health emergency management per se but also to all aspects of the institutional supporting system throughout the lifecycle. Based on the lifecycle emergency management model, this article analyses the problems of the current legal system and the potential solutions. It is suggested that the lifecycle emergency management model shall be followed to establish a more comprehensive public health legal system and to gather the intelligence and consensus of experts with different expertise, including epidemiologists, sociologists, economists, jurist and others, which will collaboratively promote the science-based legislation in the field of epidemic preparedness and response for the establishment of a comprehensive legal system for public health emergency management and with Chinese characteristics.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , Emergencies , Disaster Planning
12.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1096-1104, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985519

ABSTRACT

Ongoing global pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has promoted the unprecedented rapid development and large-scale rolling out of different platform-based COVID-19 vaccines worldwide. How to effectively respond to the expected scale increasing adverse events after vaccination campaign of COVID-19 vaccines is a common problem faced by the world. A lot of countries and regions around the world have arranged in advance at different levels, optimizing the original vaccine safety monitoring system from the perspectives of strengthening the foundation and capabilities, promoting internal and external cooperation, upgrading methods, as well as improving transparency and public communication, which has ensured the good and efficient operation of the system and can provide reference for the construction of relevant fields in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects
13.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1082-1095, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985477

ABSTRACT

During the global efforts to prevent and control the COVID-19 pandemic, extensive research and development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines using various technical approaches have taken place. Among these, vaccines based on adenovirus vector have gained substantial knowledge and experience in effectively combating potential emerging infectious diseases, while also providing novel ideas and methodologies for vaccine research and development (R&D). This comprehensive review focuses on the adenovirus vector technology platform in vaccine R&D, emphasizing the importance of mucosal immunity induced by adenoviral vector-based vaccine for COVID-19 prevention. Furthermore, it analyzes the key technical challenges and obstacles encountered in the development of vaccines based on the adenovirus vector technology platform, with the aim of providing valuable insights and references for researchers and professionals in related fields.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Adenoviridae/genetics , Technology
14.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 284-289, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009491

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Nosocomial infection is a major threat to the health care system and patient welfare. After the pandemic, new protocols were established in hospitals and communities to protect against the transmission of COVID-19, which may have changed the incidence of nosocomial transmission. This study was conducted to compare the incidence of nosocomial infection before and after the COVID-19 pandemic.@*METHODS@#This was a retrospective cohort study performed on trauma patients who were admitted, from May 22, 2018 to November 22, 2021, to the largest level-1 trauma center in Shiraz, Iran (Shahid Rajaei Trauma Hospital). All the trauma patients over 15 years old admitted during the study time were included in this study. Individuals who were declared dead upon arrival were excluded. Patients were evaluated in 2 periods: before the pandemic (May 22, 2018 - February 19, 2020) and after the pandemic (February 19, 2020 - November 22, 2021). Patients were assessed based on demographic information (age, gender, length of hospital stay, and patient outcome), the occurrence of hospital infection, and the type of infection. The analysis was done using SPSS version 25.@*RESULTS@#Overall, 60,561 patients were admitted, with a mean age of 40 years. Nosocomial infection was diagnosed in 4.00% (n = 2423) of all admitted patients. The incidence rate of post-COVID-19 hospital-acquired infections decreased by 16.28% (p < 0.001) when compared to before the pandemic; in contrast, surgical site infection (p < 0.001) and urinary tract infection (p = 0.043) were responsible for this change, while hospital-acquired pneumonia (p = 0.568) and bloodstream infection (p = 0.156) were not significantly different. Overall mortality was 1.79%, while 28.52% of all patients with nosocomial infections died. During the pandemic, there was a 25.78% increase (p < 0.001) in the overall incidence rate of mortality, which was also observed among patients with nosocomial infections (17.84%).@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of nosocomial infection has decreased during the pandemic, possibly due to the use of more personal protective equipment and modified protocols after the outbreak. This also explains the difference in the change in incidence rates of nosocomial infection subtypes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Adolescent , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Infection Control
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(12): 1664-1673, dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515398

ABSTRACT

The article presents the main impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the health status of older people, systematizing the information about the direct impact of the pandemic in terms of number of cases, hospitalizations, deaths, the policies implemented for the prevention and management of COVID-19 in older people and the indirect impact of the two years of pandemic. Adopting a broad definition of health, the need to monitor and recover health care of older people is highlighted. The recovery of their functionality and mental health must be emphasized. The policies towards institutionalized older people must be revised. These areas should be the focus of health care policies for older people in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Health Status , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Functional Status , Health Policy
16.
Educ. med. super ; 36(4)dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1514063

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La bioseguridad y el autocuidado son dos prácticas importantes en el proceso de formación. Estas deben reforzarse permanentemente, ya que se relacionan de manera directa no solo con el riesgo de infecciones, sino con la calidad de la atención. Objetivo: Identificar la evidencia científica sobre los procesos de formación en bioseguridad y autocuidado en el marco de la pandemia. Métodos: Se hizo una revisión de la literatura científica publicada entre 2016 y 2020 sobre medidas de bioseguridad y autocuidado. La búsqueda se realizó en español, inglés y portugués, en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, Pubmed, Science Direct y el motor de búsqueda de Google Académico. Se aplicó la metodología PRISMA y se evaluaron en total 25 artículos científicos. Resultados: El año 2020 tuvo mayor frecuencia. La generalidad de los estudios se realizó en el contexto universitario en programas de salud. La higiene de las manos y el uso de guantes fueron las medidas de bioseguridad más informadas; mientras que las medidas de precaución se conocen e implementan. Las publicaciones denotan moderado conocimiento en cuanto a prevención de factores de riesgos biológicos, especialmente en prácticas clínicas. Conclusiones: En los procesos de formación debe tenerse en cuenta la relevancia de reforzar las medidas de bioseguridad y autocuidado para favorecer el ejercicio profesional. Es importante diseñar y repensar estos procesos, tanto en docentes como estudiantes, a través de nuevos métodos y cambios curriculares. La salud mental puede verse afectada no solo por la situación, sino por desconocimiento, miedo a infectarse y sobrecarga laboral(AU)


Introduction: Biosafety and self-care are two important practices in the training process. These should be permanently reinforced, since they are directly related not only to the risk of infections, but also to the quality of care. Objective: To identify the scientific evidence on the biosafety and self-care training processes in the context of the pandemic. Methods: A review of the scientific literature published between 2016 and 2020 on biosafety and self-care measures was carried out. The search was performed in Spanish, English and Portuguese, in the Virtual Health Library, PubMed, Science Direct, and the Google Scholar search engine. The PRISMA methodology was applied and a total of 25 scientific articles were assessed. Results: The year 2020 had the highest frequency. Most of the studies were carried out in the university context in health programs. Hand hygiene and glove-wearing were the most reported biosafety measures, while warning measures are known and implemented. The publications are indicative of moderate knowledge regarding prevention of biological risk factors, especially in clinical practices. Conclusions: The relevance of reinforcing biosafety and self-care measures to favor professional practice should be taken into account in training processes. It is important to design and rethink these processes, both in professors and students, through new methods and curricular changes. Mental health may be affected not only by the situation, but also by ignorance, fear of infection and work overload(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Professional Practice/trends , Self Care/methods , Clinical Clerkship/methods , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Universities , Vocational Education/trends , Biological Factors , Pandemics/prevention & control
17.
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(10): 1325-1333, oct. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The adoption of sanitary measures due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic hampered teaching and learning methods in medicine. AIM: To communicate the results of a wound suture training workshop, based on the Basic Procedural Skills Training methodology and adapted to the pandemic context. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred fourteen students were randomized in small groups due to sanitary measures and trained with a modification of the Basic Procedural Skills Training methodology. An informed consent was obtained from every student. The suturing skills were evaluated before and after the intervention with "The Objective Structured Assessment Of Technical Skills" (OSATS) instrument. The perception of the workshop and the implementation of the COVID-19 prevention measures were also evaluated. RESULTS: The students showed a statistically significant improvement after the intervention. In the OSATS verification list, the average score increased from 4.5 to 8.6 (p < 0.01). In the OSATS global scale, the average score increased from 13.0 to 25.3 (p < 0.01). The perception of the workshop and the prevention measures were well evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Despite all the limitations of the pandemic context, we achieved a significant improvement after the intervention and a very good perception by the students.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Medical , COVID-19 , Clinical Competence , Educational Measurement/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1376-1397, set-dez. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414509

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new coronavirus originating from the city of Wuhan in China started an epidemic that brought many countries into chaos and despair. SARS-CoV-2, as identified, gave rise to the severe acute respiratory syndrome called COVID-19. Its transmission happens through droplets of saliva, hand or contaminated surfaces. Since its discovery, COVID-19 has led many to death, therefore, researchers from around the world have joined efforts to develop strategies to contain the virus. In this race, drugs such as Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine have become possible options for showing an antiviral effect, however, studies contest their efficiency, generating uncertainties. Therefore, other alternatives have been investigated in this context, and the study of medicinal plants has been the target of research for the treatment of COVID-19 in search of bioactive natural products that can exert an antiviral action. The study aimed to analyze the published literature on COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) and its relationship with medicinal plants. Bibliographical survey. So far, no specific treatment against the disease has been found, only supportive, with drugs that aim to improve the individual's immune system and ensure that the virus does not replicate, for example, there are options such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir and convalescent plasma. On the other hand, studies have revealed that medicinal plants such as garlic, among others, showed efficiency in modulating proteins with a view to preventing viral replication and improving immunity against COVID-19. So far, there are no drugs that are completely safe and have been shown to have activity against the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). However, medicinal plants can contribute to the development of specific therapies against SARS-CoV-2 in a safe and effective way.


Em dezembro de 2019, um novo coronavírus originário da cidade de Wuhan, na China, iniciou uma epidemia que levou muitos países ao caos e ao desespero. O SARS-CoV-2, conforme identificado, deu origem à síndrome respiratória aguda grave chamada COVID-19. Sua transmissão acontece através de gotículas de saliva, mãos ou superfícies contaminadas. Desde sua descoberta, o COVID-19 levou muitos à morte, por isso, pesquisadores de todo o mundo uniram esforços para desenvolver estratégias para conter o vírus. Nesta corrida, medicamentos como Cloroquina e Hidroxicloroquina tornaram-se opções possíveis por apresentarem efeito antiviral, porém, estudos contestam sua eficiência, gerando incertezas. Portanto, outras alternativas têm sido investigadas nesse contexto, e o estudo de plantas medicinais tem sido alvo de pesquisas para o tratamento da COVID- 19 em busca de produtos naturais bioativos que possam exercer ação antiviral. O estudo teve como objetivo analisar a literatura publicada sobre COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) e sua relação com plantas medicinais. Levantamento bibliográfico. Até o momento, não foi encontrado nenhum tratamento específico contra a doença, apenas de suporte, com medicamentos que visam melhorar o sistema imunológico do indivíduo e garantir que o vírus não se replique, por exemplo, há opções como cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina, remdesivir e convalescença plasma. Por outro lado, estudos revelaram que plantas medicinais como o alho, entre outras, mostraram eficiência na modulação de proteínas visando prevenir a replicação viral e melhorar a imunidade contra a COVID-19. Até o momento, não existem medicamentos completamente seguros e que tenham demonstrado atividade contra o novo coronavírus (SARS-CoV-2). No entanto, as plantas medicinais podem contribuir para o desenvolvimento de terapias específicas contra o SARS-CoV-2 de forma segura e eficaz.


En diciembre de 2019, un nuevo coronavirus originario de la ciudad de Wuhan, en China, inició una epidemia que sumió a muchos países en el caos y la desesperación. El SARS-CoV- 2, tal y como fue identificado, dio lugar al síndrome respiratorio agudo severo denominado COVID-19. Su transmisión se produce a través de gotitas de saliva, de las manos o de superficies contaminadas. Desde su descubrimiento, el COVID-19 ha llevado a muchos a la muerte, por lo que investigadores de todo el mundo han aunado esfuerzos para desarrollar estrategias de contención del virus. En esta carrera, fármacos como la Cloroquina y la Hidroxicloroquina se han convertido en posibles opciones por mostrar un efecto antiviral, sin embargo, los estudios refutan su eficacia, generando incertidumbres. Por lo tanto, otras alternativas han sido investigadas en este contexto, y el estudio de las plantas medicinales ha sido el objetivo de la investigación para el tratamiento de COVID-19 en busca de productos naturales bioactivos que puedan ejercer una acción antiviral. El estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la literatura publicada sobre el COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) y su relación con las plantas medicinales. Estudio bibliográfico. Hasta el momento, no se ha encontrado un tratamiento específico contra la enfermedad, sólo de soporte, con fármacos que buscan mejorar el sistema inmunológico del individuo y asegurar que el virus no se replique, por ejemplo, existen opciones como la cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina, remdesivir y plasma convaleciente. Por otro lado, estudios han revelado que plantas medicinales como el ajo, entre otras, mostraron eficacia en la modulación de proteínas con vistas a impedir la replicación viral y mejorar la inmunidad contra el COVID-19. Hasta el momento, no existen medicamentos que sean completamente seguros y que hayan demostrado tener actividad contra el nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Sin embargo, las plantas medicinales pueden contribuir al desarrollo de terapias específicas contra el SARS-CoV-2 de forma segura y eficaz.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/antagonists & inhibitors , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Pandemics/prevention & control , Garlic/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
19.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(5): 1-9, nov. 23, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1435331

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Chlorine, ethyl alcohol, and quaternary ammonium are disinfectants with antiviral activity against SARS-Cov2. However, there are no previous reports of their use and handling for cleaning and disinfection in dental offices. Objetive: To determine the use and management of disinfectants in critical and non-critical areas used by dentists in San Luis Potosí, Mexico, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods: A validated cross-sectional survey was applied online to 100 dentists in San Luis Potosí between February and June 2021. Participants were informed about the handling of personal data according to the standard DOF regulations (DOF 07-05-2010). Results: A total of 100 dentists were included in the study, 63% female and 37% male, with a mean age of 26 years. The most widely used disinfectants during the pandemic in critical areas were Lysol® and 0.1% sodium hypochlorite in non-critical areas. Eighty-five percent of dentists know the adverse effects of inappropriate use of disinfectants, 72% did not have any sign or symptom associated with the use of disinfectants. The most used protection barrier was gloves (97%). Sixty-seven per cent of dentists disposed of disinfectant waste down the drain. Conclusion: Sodium hypochlorite and quaternary ammonium compounds and/or ethanol are used to clean non-critical and critical areas in dental offices. However, appropriate measures for their management are not adopted. It is necessary to implement educational strategies to improve the use and management of disinfectants in dental practice.


Introducción: Cloro, alcohol etílico y amonio cuaternario son desinfectantes que muestran actividad antiviral contra el SARS-Cov2, sin embargo, no existen reportes previos de su uso y manejo para la limpieza y desinfección en clínicas dentales. Objetivo: Determinar el uso y manejo de los desinfectantes en áreas críticas y no críticas empleados por los odontólogos en San Luis Potosí durante la COVID-19. Material y Métodos: Encuesta transversal validada y aplicada on-line a 100 odontólogos de San Luis Potosí durante febrero-junio 2021. Se informó a los participantes sobre el manejo de datos personales de acuerdo a la norma (DOF 05-07-2010). Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 100 odontólogos, 63% del sexo femenino y 37% del sexo masculino, con una edad promedio de 26 años. Los desinfectantes más utilizados durante la pandemia en las áreas críticas fueron el Lysol® y el hipoclorito de sodio al 0.1% en áreas no críticas. El 85% de los odontólogos conocen los efectos adversos del uso inadecuado de los desinfectantes, 72% no tuvieron algún signo o síntoma asociado al uso de desinfectantes. La barrera de protección más utilizada fueron los guantes (97%). El 67% de los odontólogos eliminó los desechos de desinfectantes por la coladera. Conclusión: Para la limpieza de las áreas no críticas y críticas en las clínicas dentales se utilizan el hipoclorito de Sodio y compuestos de amonio cuaternario y/o etanol, sin embargo, no se utilizan las medidas adecuadas para su manejo. Es necesario implementar estrategias educativas para mejorar el uso y manejo de desinfectantes en la práctica dental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Infection Control/methods , Dentists , Disinfectants , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disinfectants/adverse effects , Mexico/epidemiology
20.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1149-1162, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414432

ABSTRACT

A depressão é uma doença grave que atinge a população em geral, estudos epidemiológicos estimam que a prevalência da depressão ao longo da vida no Brasil está em torno de 15,5%. Os fatores que desencadeiam o aparecimento da depressão incluem fatores sociais, psicológicos, biológicos e também fatores externos específicos como eventos estressantes, solidão, consumo de álcool e drogas, doenças crônicas e dar á luz (depressão pós-parto). O objetivo da presente pesquisa consistiu em realizar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre as principais plantas medicinais com ação antidepressiva. A ansiedade vem se tornando um dos principais problemas da atualidade, sendo intensificada pela pandemia causada pelo coronavírus, onde constatou-se que durante o pico da pandemia onde os casos confirmados de COVID-19 no Brasil ascenderam de 45.757 para 330.890, e as mortes, de 2.906 para 21.048, o sentimento de tristeza/depressão atingiu 40% dos adultos brasileiros. Os sintomas de depressão podem ser amenizados quando a disponibilidade sináptica de monoaminas são aumentadas, e esse aumento pode ocorrer através da diminuição da metabolização desses neurotransmissores. Neste sentido, busca-se através da farmacoterapia a utilização de antidepressivos que disponibilizem as monoaminas na fenda sináptica. A escolha do fármaco é feita com base nos sintomas da depressão e na boa resposta a uma determinada classe de antidepressivos. Em fevereiro de 2009 o Ministério da saúde lançou a Relação Nacional de Plantas Medicinais de Interesse ao SUS (RENISUS), contendo 71 espécies vegetais que são distribuídas de forma in natura nas unidades básicas de saúde (UBS). Destas, somente três espécies apresentam efeito antidepressivo e ansiolítico comprovados na literatura sendo Matricharia chamomilla, Erytrinum mulungu e a Passiflora incarnata que também fazem parte da RENISUS. Além destas, outras espécies como a Melissa officinalis, Lippia alba, Valeriana officinalis e Piper methysticum são utilizadas pela população para tratar ansiedade, insônia e depressão, sugerindo desta forma que estas espécies sejam incluídas na RENISUS.


Depression is a serious disease that affects the general population, epidemiological studies estimate that the prevalence of depression throughout life in Brazil is around 15.5%. The factors that trigger the onset of depression include social, psychological, biological and also specific external factors such as stressful events, loneliness, alcohol and drug consumption, chronic diseases and giving birth (postpartum depression). The objective of the present research was to carry out a literature review on the main medicinal plants with antidepressant action. Anxiety has become one of the main problems of today, being intensified by the pandemic caused by the coronavirus, where it was found that during the peak of the pandemic where confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Brazil rose from 45,757 to 330,890, and deaths, from 2,906 to 21,048, the feeling of sadness/depression reached 40% of Brazilian adults. Symptoms of depression can be alleviated when synaptic availability of monoamines is increased, and this increase can occur through decreased metabolization of these neurotransmitters. In this sense, the use of antidepressants that make monoamines available in the synaptic cleft is sought through pharmacotherapy. The choice of drug is based on symptoms of depression and good response to a particular class of antidepressants. In February 2009, the Ministry of Health launched the National List of Medicinal Plants of Interest to the SUS (RENISUS), containing 71 plant species that are distributed in natura form in basic health units (UBS). Of these, only three species have antidepressant and anxiolytic effects proven in the literature, being Matricharia chamomilla, Erytrinum mulungu and Passiflora incarnata, which are also part of RENISUS. In addition to these, other species such as Melissa officinalis, Lippia alba, Valeriana officinalis and Piper methysticum are used by the population to treat anxiety, insomnia and depression, thus suggesting that these species are included in RENISUS.


Los estudios epidemiológicos estiman que la prevalencia de la depresión a lo largo de la vida en Brasil es de alrededor del 15,5%. Los factores que desencadenan la aparición de la depresión son sociales, psicológicos, biológicos y también factores externos específicos, como los acontecimientos estresantes, la soledad, el consumo de alcohol y drogas, las enfermedades crónicas y el parto (depresión posparto). El objetivo de esta investigación fue realizar una revisión bibliográfica sobre las principales plantas medicinales con acción antidepresiva. La ansiedad se ha convertido en uno de los principales problemas de la actualidad, intensificándose por la pandemia causada por el coronavirus, donde se encontró que durante el pico de la pandemia donde los casos confirmados de COVID-19 en Brasil aumentaron de 45.757 a 330.890, y las muertes, de 2.906 a 21.048, el sentimiento de tristeza/depresión alcanzó el 40% de los adultos brasileños. Los síntomas de la depresión pueden aliviarse cuando se aumenta la disponibilidad sináptica de las monoaminas, y este aumento puede producirse mediante una disminución de la metabolización de estos neurotransmisores. En este sentido, se busca a través de la farmacoterapia el uso de antidepresivos que hagan disponibles las monoaminas en la hendidura sináptica. La elección del fármaco se hace en función de los síntomas de la depresión y de la buena respuesta a una clase concreta de antidepresivos. En febrero de 2009, el Ministerio de Salud lanzó la Lista Nacional de Plantas Medicinales de Interés para el SUS (RENISUS), que contiene 71 especies de plantas que se distribuyen in natura en unidades básicas de salud (UBS). De ellas, sólo tres especies tienen efectos antidepresivos y ansiolíticos probados en la literatura: Matricharia chamomilla, Erytrinum mulungu y Passiflora incarnata, que también forman parte del RENISUS. Además de éstas, otras especies como Melissa officinalis, Lippia alba, Valeriana officinalis y Piper methysticum son utilizadas por la población para tratar la ansiedad, el insomnio y la depresión, lo que sugiere que estas especies se incluyan en el RENISUS.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/drug effects , Unified Health System , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Valerian/drug effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Kava/drug effects , Passiflora/drug effects , Matricaria/drug effects , Melissa/drug effects , Lippia/drug effects , Depression/drug therapy , Drug Therapy , Emotions/drug effects , Erythrina/drug effects , Pandemics/prevention & control , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
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