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1.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 30(109): 30-37, 20220000. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1392512

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infección por VIH continúa siendo un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. Las restricciones tomadas durante la pandemia por COVID-19 podrían afectar el alcance de las metas 95-95-95 propuestas por ONUSIDA. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el impacto de la pandemia por COVID-19 en la realización de pruebas rápidas de VIH en un hospital general de agudos.Métodos: Análisis retrospectivo de los datos de pacientes mayores de 16 años, de ambos sexos, que se realizaron una prueba rápida de VIH durante la pandemia por COVID-19 vs. el período previo.Resultados: De 611 tests, 473 (77,4%) corresponden al período prepandémico y 138 (22,6%) al pandémico. La mediana de edad (rango intercuartílico) fue 32 años (24-40); sexo masculino 386 (63,2%), sin diferencias significativas. Durante el período prepandémico los motivos de testeo fueron control de salud 47,6% (n=225) y situaciones de riesgo/síntomas 52,4% (n=248), mientras que en el período pandémico fueron control de salud 27,5% (n=38) y situaciones de riesgo/síntomas 72,5% (n=100) respectivamente, p=0.0001. Tests positivos: 5,7% (n=27) vs. 8,7% (n=12), p=0.28. Las medianas de recuento de linfocitos T CD4+ y carga viral fueron: 327 cel/uL (135-718) y 66300 copias/mL (5260-192000), sin diferencias significativas.Conclusiones: La cantidad de testeos realizados durante la pandemia corresponde a un tercio de los realizados durante el período previo, con un descenso en aquellos motivados por controles de salud, evidenciando el impacto de la pandemia en el diagnóstico de VIH


INTRODUCTION: HIV infection remains as a public health worldwide problem. The restrictions taken during the COVID-19 pandemic could have affected the scope of the 95-95-95 goals proposed by UNAIDS. The aim of this work is to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the performance of rapid HIV tests in an Acute General Hospital.METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data from patients over 16 years old, of both sexes, who underwent a rapid HIV test during the COVID-19 pandemic vs. the previous period.RESULTS: Of 611 tests, 473 (77.4%) correspond to the pre-pandemic period and 138 (22.6%) to the pandemic. The median age (interquartile range) was 32 years old (24-40); male sex 386 (63.2%), without significant differences. During the pre-pandemic vs pandemic period, the reasons for testing were: health control 47.6% (n=225) and risk situations/symptoms 52.4% (n=248), vs 27.5% (n= 38) and 72.5% (n=100) respectively, p=0.0001. Positive tests: 5.7% (n=27) vs 8.7% (n=12), p=0.28. The median CD4+ T lymphocyte count and viral load were: 327 cells/uL (135-718) and 66,300 copies/mL (5,260-192,000), with no significant differences.CONCLUSIONS: The number of tests carried out during the pandemic equals to a third of those performed during the previous period, with a decrease in those motivated by health controls; evidencing the impact of the pandemic on the diagnosis of HIV


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Retrospective Studies , Early Diagnosis , Pandemics/prevention & control , HIV Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control
2.
Medwave ; 22(5): e8741, jun.-2022.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378544

ABSTRACT

En marzo 2020 se despliega la primera versión de EPIVIGILA en un ambiente productivo, plataforma de integración tecnológica de vigilancia epidemiológica nacional para enfermedades de notificación obligatoria (a pocos días del caso 1 de COVID- 19 local). Anteriormente, Chile usaba un proceso manual que probablemente hubiese fracasado ante un volumen máximo superior a 38 000 notificaciones diarias, en un país con 18 millones de habitantes, de geografía larga y angosta y gobernanza centralizada. El objetivo del trabajo es relevar la importancia que tiene en el manejo de la pandemia el sistema nacional de vigilancia electrónico EPIVIGILA. La principal fortaleza del sistema es su capacidad de adaptación a las necesidades de información fidedigna, precisa, oportuna y en tiempo real. EPIVIGILA fue capaz de incluir, en el curso de las circunstancias, distintos flujos, actores, datos y funcionalidades con altas expectativas de exactitud. Ello permitió que las autoridades pudieran evaluar el impacto de las medidas implementadas para el manejo y control de la pandemia. Su versatilidad posiciona a esta plataforma entre las pocas en el mundo que opera datos nacionales en una pandemia con un alto nivel de granularidad en un único sistema. En Chile, EPIVIGILA es la principal fuente de información para los reportes diarios, informes epidemiológicos y datos publicados en sitios web gubernamentales sobre COVID- 19. Así, el uso de sistemas electrónicos muestran ser un soporte fundamental para la salud pública, porque el registro y procesamiento de los datos genera información clara, confiable y oportuna, contribuyendo a que las autoridades puedan tomar decisiones orientadas a disminuir la propagación de enfermedades transmisibles, evitar muertes y mejorar la calidad de vida de la población.


In March 2020, the first version of EPIVIGILA was deployed in a productive environment a few days after the first local case of COVID- 19. This system is a technological integration plat-form for national epidemiological surveillance of notifiable diseases. Previously, Chile used a manual process that would probably have failed with a peak volume of more than 38 000 daily notifications; in a country with 18 million inhabitants, long and narrow geography, and centralized governance. This work highlights the importance of the national electronic surveillance system ­ EPIVIGILA ­ in managing the pandemic. The system's main strength is its ability to adapt to the needs of reliable, precise, timely, and real- time information. EPIVIGILA was able to include, under the circumstances, different flows, actors, data, and functionalities with high expectations of accuracy. This valuable information allowed the authorities to assess the impact of the measures to manage and control the pandemic. Its versatility positions this platform among the few globally that operates national data with a high level of granularity in a single system through a pandemic. In Chile, EPIVIGILA is the primary source of information for daily reports, epidemiological reports, and data published on government websites about COVID- 19. Thus, electronic systems prove fundamental for public health because the recording and processing of data generate clear, reliable, and timely information, helping authorities make decisions to reduce the spread of infectious diseases, prevent deaths, and improve the population's quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Public Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 93-104, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397752

ABSTRACT

The Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the beta coronavirus family, it is the cause of the COVID-19 disease and the pandemic that has revolutionized and challenged the medical research profession and health systems around the world. With the first coronavirus SARS-CoV, the important role of the angiotensin 2-converting enzyme (ACE2) in the pathophysiology of the disease caused by the virus was discovered, a discovery that would lay the foundations on which research on the new coronavirus is based. The virus is capable of producing disease with a wide spectrum of clinical presentation, from asymptomatic patients to patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring admission to intensive care units (ICU). The most commonly described symptoms are fever, cough, myalgia, and dyspnea. However, and with advances in the knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 infection, it has been discovered that gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are frequent and have been associated with severe disease. Viral RNA has been found in feces, urine, blood, and other fluids, which could mean that there are other routes of infection that have not been considered a threat by the medical community until now. In this article, an updated bibliographic review of this topic is presented, with articles selected from the PubMed platform.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pancreatitis , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Acute Disease , Gastrointestinal Tract , Kobuvirus , Feces , Fever/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(3): 969-978, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364705

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o impacto da pandemia de COVID-19 nos valores de vacinação para as imunizações voltadas a indivíduos com menos de um ano de vida no Brasil. Analisou-se os valores de cobertura vacinal, em território nacional, de dez vacinas presentes no calendário do Programa Nacional de Imunizações (PNI) durante os últimos oito anos (2013-2020). Esse é um estudo ecológico e todos os dados foram extraídos do PNI. Comparativamente aos anos prévios, em 2020 registrou-se o menor valor de cobertura vacinal da média do conjunto das vacinas estudadas, 75,07%, enquanto em 2019 esse mesmo índice ficou em 84,44%, resultando em uma queda de 11,10% entre esses dois períodos. Além disso, no ano da pandemia, das dez vacinas analisadas, nove registraram o seu menor valor histórico de cobertura, todas estando a no mínimo 14 pontos percentuais abaixo da meta do Ministério da Saúde. Embora já houvesse uma tendência de queda na cobertura vacinal, por diversos motivos, o presente estudo demonstra que os valores registrados em 2020 foram significativamente menores, fenômeno também registrado em outros países. Portanto, mesmo não conseguindo afirmar que a pandemia de COVID-19 e as medidas de distanciamento sejam as causas da queda dos valores de imunização, podemos inferir que há uma associação.


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the vaccination numbers for immunization geared toward individuals under 12 months of age in Brazil. This study analyzed the numbers of the nationwide vaccination coverage of ten vaccines present in the calendar from the National Immunization Program (NIP) over the past eight years (2013-2020). This is an ecological study, and all data were taken from the NIP. In comparison to the previous years, 2020 recorded the lowest figures of vaccination coverage (VC) of the average of the group of studied vaccines - 79.07% - while in 2019, this same index was 84.44%, resulting in a drop of 11.10% between these two periods. Moreover, during the year of the pandemic, of the ten analyzed vaccines, nine recorded their lowest historical VC figures, all of which were at least 14 percentage points below the goals set by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MS, in Portuguese). Although there had already been a tendency toward a decline in VC, for various reasons, the present study illustrates that the numbers recorded in 2020 were significantly lower, a phenomenon also reported in other countries. Therefore, although it is impossible to affirm that the COVID-19 pandemic and its distancing measures are the causes for the drop in the immunization numbers, it can be inferred that there is indeed an association.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Vaccination , Immunization Programs , Vaccination Coverage
6.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 305-309, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366034

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Meningitis is listed as one of the diseases requiring compulsory notification in Brazil. It can affect all age groups and also has no seasonality. Cases can be recorded in all months of the year and in all states of Brazil. Despite its importance, the obligation of immediate notification may have been compromised by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on compulsory notifications of meningitis in Brazil and its states during the first wave of the pandemic. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was an ecological study involving all confirmed cases of meningitis in Brazil, in its regions and in its states. METHODS: Data for the months from 2015 to 2020 were obtained from the database of the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN), in the Department of Informatics of the National Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS). The P-score was used to obtain the percentage change in the numbers of cases reported in 2020. RESULTS: A 45.7% reduction in notifications of meningitis in Brazil was observed. Regarding the regions and the states, with the exception of Roraima, all of them showed a negative P-score, with decreasing curves each month. CONCLUSION: The pandemic caused a negative impact on meningitis notifications in Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Meningitis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Pandemics/prevention & control
7.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e57231, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367678

ABSTRACT

Aim of the present study was to assess physical activity, nutrition and psychological status of the population during lockdown due to covid-19. Online survey was conductedamong 534 participants within the age range of 16-78 years using convenient sampling. Participantsfrom varied regions within India and abroad were enrolled for the present study. Volunteered participants were solicited to take part in a survey that has to be carried out by filling an online questionnaire form available to them as a URL link in the invitation through WhatsApp/Messenger. The gathered data has been compiled, coded and cleaned using Microsoft Excel. Analysis has been carried out employing descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS 17.0.Majority of participants in the studied population showed significant change in their nutrition and physical activity status due to lockdown. Covid-19 lockdown did limit their daily activities. It also had impacted their psychological status.The current investigation accentuates the need to pursue suitable life style for the maintenance of optimum metabolism and physiology. Sticking to more regular timetable of meals, effective management of stress levels and continued physical activity during the quarantine and in all the following phases of living is desirable.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Mental Health , Feeding Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sleep , Social Behavior , Pandemics/prevention & control , Diet, Healthy/psychology , Interpersonal Relations , Life Style
8.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 21: e58841, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1384531

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: realizar a tradução, adaptação cultural e validação da Reason of Using Face Mask Scale entre brasileiros. Métodos: estudo metodológico realizado entre abril e maio de 2020 mediante as seguintes etapas: tradução; síntese das traduções; retrotradução; comitê de juízes; pré-teste e avaliação das propriedades psicométricas. A coleta dos dados foi online a partir de mensagens enviadas por meio de mídias sociais. O questionário foi disponibilizado a partir de um link e os dados armazenados no Google Forms. Utilizou-se a Análise Fatorial Exploratória, testes de Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin e de Esfericidade de Bartlett para constatar se a amostra era adequada e passível de fatoração. Resultados: a escala foi traduzida para o português, avaliada por cinco especialistas, pré-testada com 20 adultos e aplicada em 500 pessoas da população brasileira. O índice de validade de conteúdo para a escala como um todo foi de 0,92. Os valores de Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (0,639) e teste de esfericidade de Bartlett (p=0,000) indicaram que os itens eram fatoráveis. A variância explicada foi de 62,18%. Na validade de construto por grupos distintos, obteve-se resultado satisfatório (p<0,05). Conclusão: a Versão Brasileira da escalafoi adaptada para a cultura brasileira, sendo válida para avaliar os motivos para o uso de máscaras entre brasileiros.


RESUMEN Objetivo: realizar la traducción, adaptación cultural y validación de la Reason ofUsingFaceMaskScale entre brasileños. Métodos: estudio metodológico realizado entre abril y mayo de 2020 a través de las siguientes etapas: traducción; síntesis de las traducciones; retrotraducción; evaluación por jueces; pretest y evaluación de las propiedades psicométricas. La recolección de datos se realizó online a partir de mensajes enviados a través de redes sociales. La encuesta se hizo disponible a partir de un enlace y los datos almacenados en Google Forms. Se utilizó el Análisis Factorial Exploratorio, pruebas de Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin y de Esfericidad de Bartlett para determinar si la muestra era adecuada y susceptible a la factorización. Resultados: la escala fue traducida al portugués, evaluada por cinco especialistas, pre-testada con 20 adultos y aplicada en 500 personas de la población brasileña. El índice de validez del contenido para la escala como un todo fue de 0,92. Los valores de Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (0,639) y test de esfericidad de Bartlett (p=0,000) indicaron que los ítems eran susceptibles a la factorización. La varianza explicada fue de 62,18%. En la validez de constructo por grupos distintos se obtuvo resultado satisfactorio (p<0,05). Conclusión: la Versión Brasileña de la escala fue adaptada para la cultura brasileña yes válida para evaluar los motivos para el uso de máscaras entre brasileños.


ABSTRACT Objective: to carry out the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Reason of Using Face Mask Scale among Brazilians. Methods: methodological study conducted between April and May 2020 using the following steps: translation; synthesis of translations; back-translation; committee of judges; pre-test and evaluation of psychometric properties. Data collection took place online from messages sent through social media. The questionnaire was made available from a link and the data stored in Google Forms. Exploratory Factor Analysis, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Sphericity tests were used to check if the sample was adequate and factorable. Results: the scale was translated into Portuguese, evaluated by five experts, pre-tested with 20 adults and applied to 500 people from the Brazilian population. The content validity index for the scale as a whole was 0.92. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (0.639) and Bartlett's Sphericity test (p=0.000) values indicated that the items were factorable. The explained variance was 62.18%. In the construct validity for different groups, a satisfactory result was obtained (p<0.05). Conclusion: the Brazilian Version of the scale was adapted to the Brazilian culture and is valid to evaluate the reasons for the use of masks among Brazilians.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Social Adjustment , Adaptation, Psychological/ethics , Validation Studies as Topic , COVID-19/transmission , Masks/virology , Psychometrics/statistics & numerical data , Translating , Brazil/epidemiology , Cultural Characteristics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Networking , Personal Protective Equipment/virology
9.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 27: e59776, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1376059

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El artículo problematiza, a través de relatos de prácticas cotidianas de cuidado, emociones que se organizan en torno a las diferentes configuraciones del cuidado infantil en el Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires (Argentina). De esta forma, se trata de alimentar la mirada de las infancias, maternidades y paternidades urbanas en 'plural', con la meta de poder considerar el amplio repertorio de formas de disponerse, de estar y sentir que atraviesan el arco de experiencias de los arreglos familiares y el cuidado de hijos e hijas. ¿Cómo se reorganizaron los cuidados domésticos durante la pandemia? ¿Qué emociones y 'reglas del sentir' esto puso en evidencia? ¿Cómo impactaron los cambios en las fronteras del 'adentro' y el 'afuera' en las familias y en las subjetividades laborales y personales? Un primer nivel de análisis de la información empírica está estructurada por las formas de habitar (quiénes vivían con quiénes en términos de parentesco, con qué tipos de vivienda, haciendo qué uso del barrio), para presentar sobre ellas las tensiones emocionales, necesidades y estrategias que emergieron en los relatos.


RESUMO O artigo problematiza, por meio de relatos de práticas cotidianas do cuidado, as emoções que organizam-se em torno das diferentes configurações do cuidado das crianças na Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, (Argentina). Dessa forma, o artigo pretende contribuir a um olhar das infâncias, das maternidades e das paternidades no plural, com o objetivo de poder contemplar o amplo repertório de modos de experienciar, ser e sentir que perpassam o arco de experiências das dinâmicas familiares e do cuidado das crianças. Como os cuidados domésticos foram reorganizados durante a pandemia? Que emoções e regras do sentir isso trouxe à tona? Como as mudanças nas fronteiras do 'dentro' e 'fora' impactaram as famílias e as subjetividades pessoais e do trabalho? Um primeiro nível de análise da informação empírica é estruturado pelos modos de viver (quem conviveu com quem em termos do parentesco, em que tipo de habitação, qual uso da vizinhança), para apresentar tensões emocionais, necessidades e estratégias que surgiram nos relatos.


ABSTRACT. This article addresses the emotions around different configurations of childcare in the Metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina, based on narratives about everyday care practices. In doing so, the article aims to contribute to a pluralistic view of childhood and parenthood in order to consider the vast repertoire of dispositions, of being and feeling that are intertwined in family arrangements and childcare. How did the interviewees rearrange domestic care during the pandemic? What emotions and 'emotional norms' does that new situation reveal? How did the changes in the limits of inside and outside affect families and personal and labor subjectivities? A first level empirical data analysis is performed on the modes of inhabiting a home -who lived with whom, in which type of house, and what use they make of the resources in their neighborhood — in order to reflect upon the emotional tensions, needs and strategies that emerged from the narratives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Adult , Middle Aged , Activities of Daily Living/psychology , Child Care/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Paternity , Family , Residence Characteristics , Parenting/psychology , Affect , Emotions , Family Relations/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Networking , Teleworking/trends , Interpersonal Relations
10.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00118621, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355987

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Os estudos publicados sobre a resposta da Coreia do Sul à COVID-19 apontam para distintos motivos para seu êxito. Não foram identificadas revisões sobre a Coreia do Sul entre janeiro de 2020 e abril de 2021 ou que analisassem o recrudescimento da pandemia. Visando melhor sistematização sobre o seu sucesso no controle da epidemia, desenvolveu-se uma revisão integrativa para analisar a experiência daquele país no enfrentamento da pandemia de COVID-19, buscando identificar a relação entre as medidas adotadas, as características do sistema de saúde e a evolução de indicadores selecionados. Utilizaram-se distintas bases de dados, além dos boletins epidemiológicos e conferências de imprensa do Centro Sul-coreano de Prevenção e Controle de Doenças (KCDC). Adicionalmente, analisaram-se relatórios da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), do Observatório Europeu de Políticas e Sistemas de Saúde. Os resultados do presente estudo permitem identificar um conjunto de lições com base na experiência sul-coreana visando o controle e manejo da doença. A resposta da Coreia do Sul foi bem-sucedida devido às ações no controle de riscos e danos, atuação sobre determinantes sociais para mitigar os efeitos socioeconômicos da crise sanitária, a experiência prévia em outras epidemias respiratórias e a coordenação nacional expressiva.


Resumen: Los estudios publicados sobre la respuesta de Corea del Sur a la COVID-19 apuntan distintos motivos para su éxito. No se identificaron revisiones sobre Corea del Sur entre enero de 2020 y abril de 2021 o que analizaran el recrudecimiento de la pandemia. Con el fin de una mejor sistematización sobre el éxito en el control de la epidemia, se desarrolló una revisión integradora para analizar la experiencia de aquel país en el combate de la pandemia de COVID-19, buscando identificar la relación entre las medidas adoptadas, las características del sistema de salud y la evolución de indicadores seleccionados. Se utilizaron distintas bases de datos, además de los boletines epidemiológicos y conferencias de prensa del Centro Surcoreano para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (KCDC). Asimismo, se analizaron informes de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y del Observatorio Europeo de Políticas y Sistemas Sanitarios. Los resultados del presente estudio permiten identificar un conjunto de lecciones, basadas en la experiencia surcoreana, con el fin del control y manejo de la enfermedad. La respuesta de Corea del Sur fue exitosa, debido a las acciones en el control de riesgos y daños, actuación sobre determinantes sociales para mitigar los efectos socioeconómicos de la crisis sanitaria, así como su experiencia previa en otras epidemias respiratorias y su significativa coordinación nacional.


Abstract: The studies published on the South Korean response to COVID-19 point to different reasons for the country's success. No reviews were identified on South Korea from January 2020 to April 2021 or that analyzed the pandemic's recrudescence. Aimed at better systematization of South Korea's success in controlling the epidemic, we conducted an integrative review to analyze that country´s experience with the COVID-19 pandemic, seeking to identify the relationship between the measures adopted, the health system's characteristics, and evolution of the selected indicators. Various databases were used, beside epidemiological bulletins and press conferences of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). We also analyzed reports by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. The study's results allow identifying a set of lessons based on the South Korean experience with control and management of the disease. The response by South Korea was successful, due to action in the control of risks and harms, action on social determinants to mitigate the socioeconomic effects of the health crisis, prior experience with other respiratory disease epidemics, and effective national coordination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Brazil , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403762

ABSTRACT

Abstract COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is raising many questions about the future of face-to-face interactions. The possible changes on healthcare delivery may provoke a long term disruption on pharmaceutical assistance requiring new approaches to provide pharmaceutical services. The proposal of pharmaceutical care is patient oriented, and its activities include different forms of interaction. The emergence of COVID-19 puts to the test all the efforts to reposition pharmaceutical care in the set of clinical activities. Now, the pharmaceutical consultations and group activities, which played a fundamental role in the reformulation of pharmacy practices, must be revised in order to reduce the risk of patient agglomeration and contamination. Several researchers suggest technology use to intermediate health care assistance. However, few studies had rigorously analyzed the effectiveness of virtual health care on the pharmaceutical field. Innovating the pharmacy workflow, during the course of a crisis like COVID-19, is the current challenge addressed to all pharmacists. This unforeseen situation requires us to reconsider our plans and actions. It will be necessary resilience, courage and creativity to achieve a consistent attitude, which provides a quick response to the health care needs in this time of crisis.


Subject(s)
Pharmacists/standards , Pharmaceutical Services/ethics , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Patients/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Health Services Needs and Demand/standards
12.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 1-11, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377230

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the number of yellow fever vaccine doses administered before and during the covid-19 pandemic in Brazil. METHODS This is an ecological, time series study based on data from the National Immunization Program. Differences between the median number of yellow fever vaccine doses administered in Brazil and in its regions before (from April/2019 to March/2020) and after (from April/2020 to March/2021) the implementation of social distancing measures in the country were assessed via the Mann-Whitney test. Prais-Winsten regression models were used for time series analyses. RESULTS We found a reduction in the median number of yellow fever vaccine doses administered in Brazil and in its regions: North (-34.71%), Midwest (-21.72%), South (-63.50%), and Southeast (-34.42%) (p < 0.05). Series showed stationary behavior in Brazil and in its five regions during the covid-19 pandemic (p > 0.05). Brazilian states also showed stationary trends, except for two states which recorded an increasing trend in the number of administered yellow fever vaccine doses, namely: Alagoas State (before: β = 64, p = 0.081; after: β = 897, p = 0.039), which became a yellow fever vaccine recommendation zone, and Roraima State (before: β = 68, p = 0.724; after: β = 150, p = 0.000), which intensified yellow fever vaccinations due to a yellow fever case confirmation in a Venezuelan State in 2020. CONCLUSION The reduced number of yellow fever vaccine doses administered during the covid-19 pandemic in Brazil may favor the reemergence of urban yellow fever cases in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Yellow Fever Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Yellow fever virus , Brazil/epidemiology , Vaccination , Pandemics/prevention & control
13.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(6): e00271921, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384257

ABSTRACT

A pandemia de COVID-19 já causou mais de 399 milhões de infecções e custou a vida de mais de cinco milhões de pessoas no mundo, até 3 de março de 2022. Para reduzir a taxa de infecção, uma série de medidas de prevenção indicadas pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) foram adotadas pelos países, entre elas, o uso de máscara. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever a utilização de máscara na população brasileira, através da análise de dados do EPICOVID19-BR, um estudo de base populacional realizado em 133 cidades do país, em quatro fases entre março e agosto de 2020. A proporção de indivíduos que preferiram usar máscara quando saíam de casa foi de 97,9% (IC95%: 97,8-98,0). O entrevistador não visualizou a máscara do entrevistado em 50% (IC95%: 49,9-51,1) dos casos no momento da entrevista, no entanto, entre a fase uma e quatro da pesquisa, observou-se uma diminuição de 4,4 pontos percentuais na proporção de entrevistados que não usaram máscara no momento da entrevista. A não visualização da máscara foi mais observada em mulheres, participantes com idade entre 10-19 e 20-29 anos, de cor de pele indígena, preta, e parda, entre as pessoas com Ensinos Fundamental e Médio e na Região Centro-oeste. O uso de máscara de tecido foi predominante 91,4% (IC95%: 91,2-91,5) com um aumento de 4,9 pontos percentuais entre as fases 1 e 4. Os resultados do estudo trazem informações importantes para reforçar as políticas de controle de COVID-19 no Brasil. O alto percentual de pessoas sem máscara na hora da entrevista sugere que ainda é importante reforçar o aspecto preventivo e de autocuidado, não fazendo do uso da máscara algo apenas ligado à obrigatoriedade.


By March 3, 2022, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused more than 399 million infections and claimed the lives of more than five million people worldwide. To reduce infection rates, a series of prevention measures indicated by the World Health Organization (WHO) were adopted by countries, including the use of masks. This study aims to describe mask use in Brazil via data analysis from the EPICOVID19-BR, a population-based study conducted in 133 cities in the country in four phases between March and August 2020. The proportion of individuals who reported wearing a mask when they left their homes was 97.9% (95%CI: 97.8-98.0). The interviewer did not see interviewees' mask in 50% (95%CI: 49.9-51.1) of the cases at the time of the interview. However, between phase one and four of the survey, we observed a 4.4% decrease in the proportion of interviewees who failed to wear masks at the time of the interview. Mask non-visualization was more prominent in women, participants aged 10-19 and 20-29 years of indigenous, black, and brown skin color, and those with elementary and high school education and in the Central-West Region. The use of cloth masks showed a 91.4% predominance (95%CI: 91.2-1.5) with a 4.9% increase between phases 1 and 4. The results of the study bring important information to reinforce COVID-19 control policies in Brazil. The high percentage of people who failed to wear masks at the time of the interview suggests that it is still important to reinforce prevention and self-care, rather than relating mask wear to a mandatory measure.


La pandemia del COVID-19 ha provocado más de 399 millones de infecciones y se ha cobrado la vida de más de cinco millones de personas en todo el mundo hasta el 3 de Marzo de 2022. Para reducir la tasa de contagios, los países adoptaron una serie de medidas de prevención indicadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), entre ellas el uso de mascarillas. El objetivo de este estudio es describir el uso de mascarillas en la población brasileña, utilizando el análisis de datos de EPICOVID19-BR, un estudio de base poblacional realizado en 133 ciudades del país, en cuatro fases entre marzo y agosto de 2020. La proporción de personas que informaron usar mascarillas al salir de casa fue del 97,9% (IC95%: 97,8-98,0). El entrevistador no vio la mascarilla del entrevistado en el 50% (IC95%: 49,9-51,1) de los casos al momento de la entrevista, sin embargo entre las fases uno y cuatro de la investigación se observó una disminución de 4,4 puntos porcentuales en la proporción de los encuestados que no llevaban mascarilla durante la entrevista. Se observó una mayor visualización de falta de uso de mascarillas en las mujeres, en participantes con edades entre 10-19 y 20-29 años, de color de piel indígena, negra y parda, entre personas con educación primaria y secundaria y en la Región Centro-oeste. Hubo un mayor predominio de uso de mascarillas de tela en el 91,4% (IC95%: 91,2-91,5) con un aumento de 4,9 puntos porcentuales entre las fases 1 y 4. Los resultados muestran la importancia de fortalecer las políticas de prevención del COVID-19 en Brasil. El alto porcentaje de personas sin mascarilla al momento de la entrevista sugiere que es importante reforzar la prevención y el autocuidado en general no solo relacionado a la obligatoriedad en el uso de mascarillas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Masks
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928833

ABSTRACT

Tobacco intersects with the COVID-19 pandemic not only in terms of health consequences, but also environmental change and planetary health. Tobacco use exacerbates inequalities, causes catastrophic environmental degradation and climate change and adds burdens to COVID-19-related mortality, which are major challenges to recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the pandemic has provided a chance to combat tobacco use and accelerate efforts to alleviate these challenges in response. The MPOWER measures introduced by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) can play a crucial role in COVID-19 recovery to fight tobacco use and contribute to sustainable and equitable development. To accelerate recovery, it is critical to call for actions for governments and policy-makers to strengthen synergies and coordinate policy actions emphasising tobacco control and cessation across equity, public health, and climate actions as global authorities pledge to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and net zero emissions targets as part of the Climate Change Conference 2021 (COP26).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Tobacco , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Use
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#To protect the health and safety of healthcare workers (HCWs), it is essential to ensure the provision of sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services and standard precautions in healthcare facilities (HCF). The objectives of this short communication were 1) to assess the availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs in seven provinces in Afghanistan before the COVID-19 pandemic, and 2) to elucidate the relevance of these patterns with the number of reported HCW infections from COVID-19 in the mentioned provinces.@*METHODS@#We analyzed secondary data from the 2018-19 Afghanistan Service Provision Assessment survey, which included 142 public and private HCFs in seven major provinces in Afghanistan. Data on COVID-19 cases were obtained from the Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health Data Warehouse. Weighted prevalence of WASH services and standard precautions were calculated using frequencies and percentages. ArcGIS maps were used to visualize the distribution of COVID-19 cases, and scatter plots were created to visualize the relevance of WASH services and standard precautions to COVID-19 cases in provinces.@*RESULTS@#Of the 142 facilities surveyed, about 97% had improved water sources, and over 94% had improved toilet for clients. Overall, HCFs had limited availability of hygiene services and standard precautions, which was lower in private than public facilities. More than half of the facilities had safe final disposal and appropriate storage of sharps and medical waste. Of the seven provinces, Herat province had the highest cumulative COVID-19 case rate among HCWs per 100,000 population and reported lower availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs compared to other provinces.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings show disparities in the availability of WASH services and standard precautions in public and private facilities. Private facilities had a lower availability of hygiene services and standard precautions than public facilities. Provinces with higher availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs had a lower cumulative COVID-19 case rate among HCWs per 100,000 population. Pre-pandemic preparation of adequate WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs could be potentially important in combating infectious disease emergence.


Subject(s)
Afghanistan/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Hygiene , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sanitation , Water , Water Supply
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927680

ABSTRACT

Taking the Chinese city of Xiamen as an example, simulation and quantitative analysis were performed on the transmissions of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the influence of intervention combinations to assist policymakers in the preparation of targeted response measures. A machine learning model was built to estimate the effectiveness of interventions and simulate transmission in different scenarios. The comparison was conducted between simulated and real cases in Xiamen. A web interface with adjustable parameters, including choice of intervention measures, intervention weights, vaccination, and viral variants, was designed for users to run the simulation. The total case number was set as the outcome. The cumulative number was 4,614,641 without restrictions and 78 under the strictest intervention set. Simulation with the parameters closest to the real situation of the Xiamen outbreak was performed to verify the accuracy and reliability of the model. The simulation model generated a duration of 52 days before the daily cases dropped to zero and the final cumulative case number of 200, which were 25 more days and 36 fewer cases than the real situation, respectively. Targeted interventions could benefit the prevention and control of COVID-19 outbreak while safeguarding public health and mitigating impacts on people's livelihood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 591-597, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935432

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is yet another reminder that the threat of infectious disease has never really gone away. As the cornerstone of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, effective surveillance and early warning are of great significance in understanding the outbreak and epidemic of specific infectious diseases and putting forward effective prevention and control measures. Therefore, we must continue strengthening the construction of infectious disease surveillance and early warning system. We reviewed the surveillance and early warning practices of infectious diseases in major countries and regions, then discussed the development direction in the field of surveillance and early warning of infectious diseases to provide the reference for strengthening the construction and capacity of infectious disease surveillance and early warning system in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 466-477, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935413

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is still ongoing in the world, the risk of COVID-19 spread from other countries or in the country will exist for a long term in China. In the routine prevention and control phase, a number of local COVID-19 epidemics have occurred in China, most COVID-19 cases were sporadic ones, but a few case clusters or outbreaks were reported. Winter and spring were the seasons with high incidences of the epidemics; border and port cities had higher risk for outbreaks. Active surveillance in key populations was an effective way for the early detection of the epidemics. Through a series of comprehensive prevention and control measures, including mass nucleic acid screening, close contact tracing and isolation, classified management of areas and groups at risk, wider social distancing and strict travel management, the local COVID-19 epidemics have been quickly and effectively controlled. The experiences obtained in the control of the local epidemics would benefit the routine prevention and control of COVID-19 in China. The occurrence of a series of COVID-19 case clusters or outbreaks has revealed the weakness or deficiencies in the COVID-19 prevention and control in China, so this paper suggests some measures for the improvement of the future prevention and control of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00168121, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355975

ABSTRACT

Em novembro de 2021, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) deu início à negociação de uma convenção, acordo ou outro instrumento internacional sobre a resposta às pandemias. Neste ensaio, defendemos e justificamos a tese de que o novo pacto deve ser um tratado de direitos humanos, como condição indispensável para a prevenção de novas pandemias e eficiência da resposta global quando elas ocorrem. Após o breve resgate da origem das negociações, apresentamos os principais conteúdos normativos que correspondem a um enfoque de direitos humanos: a instituição da regra de indissociabilidade entre medidas quarentenárias e de proteção social; e a regulamentação do acesso a tecnologias farmacêuticas. A seguir, em seção dedicada ao tema da efetividade do futuro tratado, classificamos as propostas existentes em ajustes tecnocráticos, como alterações no procedimento de declaração de emergências; mecanismos de transparência e controle, a exemplo da adoção de um mecanismo de Revisão Periódica Universal (RPU), similar ao do Conselho de Direitos Humanos das Nações Unidas, para monitorar obrigações dos Estados relacionadas à saúde; poderes coercitivos que seriam outorgados à OMS ou outra agência, tais como inspeções nos territórios nacionais realizadas por cientistas independentes; e mecanismos de coordenação política, como a criação de um Conselho Global de Ameaças à Saúde. Concluímos que há risco de adoção de um sistema mais eficiente de vigilância para alertar o mundo desenvolvido sobre ameaças oriundas de países em desenvolvimento, em lugar de um tratado capaz de contribuir para evitar que populações mais vulneráveis continuem sendo devastadas por pandemias cada vez mais frequentes.


En noviembre de 2021, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) inició negociaciones de una convención, acuerdo u otro instrumento internacional sobre una respuesta a las pandemias. En este ensayo, defendemos y justificamos la tesis de que el nuevo pacto debe ser un tratado de derechos humanos, como condición indispensable para la prevención de nuevas pandemias y eficiencia de la respuesta global cuando se produzcan. Tras un breve recordatorio del origen de las negociaciones, presentamos los principales contenidos normativos que corresponden a un enfoque de derechos humanos: la institución de la regla de indisociabilidad entre medidas cuarentenarias y de protección social; y la regulación del acceso a tecnologías farmacéuticas. A continuación, en la sección dedicada al tema de la efectividad del futuro tratado, clasificamos las propuestas existentes en ajustes tecnocráticos, como alteraciones en el procedimiento de declaración de emergencias; mecanismos de transparencia y control, como por ejemplo la adopción de un mecanismo de Revisión Periódica Universal (RPU), similar al del Consejo de Derechos Humanos de las Naciones Unidas, para monitorear obligaciones de los Estados relacionados con la salud; poderes coercitivos que serían otorgados a la OMS o a otra agencia, tales como inspecciones en territorios nacionales, realizadas por científicos independientes; y mecanismos de coordinación política, como la creación de un Consejo Global de Amenazas a la Salud. Concluimos que existe riesgo de adopción de un sistema más eficiente de vigilancia para alertar al mundo desarrollado sobre amenazas oriundas de países en desarrollo, en lugar de un tratado capaz de contribuir para evitar que poblaciones más vulnerables continúen siendo devastadas por pandemias cada vez más frecuentes.


In November 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the negotiation of a convention, agreement, or other international instrument on the response to pandemics. In this essay we defend and justify the position that this new pact should be a human rights treaty, as an indispensable condition for the prevention of new pandemics and for efficiency of the global response when they occur. After briefly reviewing the origin of the negotiations, we present the principal normative contents that reflect a human rights approach: the establishment of the rule of inseparability between quarantine and social protection measures; regulation of access to pharmaceutical technologies. Next, in a section dedicated to the future treaty's effectiveness, we classify the existing proposals as technocratic adjustments, such as alterations in the procedure for declaring emergencies; mechanisms of transparency and control such as the adoption of a mechanism of Universal Periodic Review (UPR), similar to that of the UN Human Rights Council, to monitor States' health-related obligations; coercive powers to be granted to the WHO or another agency such as inspections in national territories by independent scientists; and mechanisms of political coordination such as the creation of a Global Health Threats Council. We conclude that there is a risk of adoption of a more efficient surveillance system to alert the developed world of threats coming from developing countries rather than a treaty capable of contributing to preventing more vulnerable populations from continuing to be devastated by increasingly frequent pandemics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Global Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Brazil , Human Rights , International Cooperation
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