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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888069

ABSTRACT

Sanguinarine is the main active component of the Papaver plants, and protopine-6-hydroxylase(P6 H), involved in the sanguinarine biosynthetic pathway, can oxidize protopine to 6-hydroxyprotopine. The investigation on the diversity of P6 H genes in the medicinal Papaver plants contributes to the acquirement of P6 H with high activity to increase the biosynthesis of sanguinarine. Five P6 H genes in P. somniferum, P. orientale, and P. rhoeas were discovered based on the re-sequencing data of the Papaver species, followed by bioinformatics analysis. With the elongation factor 1α(EF-1α), which exhibits stable expression in the root and stem, as the internal reference gene, the transcription levels of P6H genes in roots and stems of the Papaver plants were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. As indicated by the re-sequencing results, there were two genotypes of P6H in P. somniferum and P. orientale, respectively, and only one in P. rhoeas. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the P6 H proteins of the three Papaver plants contained the conserved domain cl12078, which is the characteristic of p450 supergene family, and transmembrane regions. The existence of signal peptide remained verification. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR results revealed that the transcription level of P6 H in roots of P. somniferum was about 1.44 times of that in stems(α=0.05). The present study confirmed genetic diversity of P6 H in the three medicinal Papaver plants, which lays a basis for the research on the biosynthesis pathway and mechanism of sanguinarine in Papaver species.


Subject(s)
Benzophenanthridines , Berberine Alkaloids , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Genetic Variation , Papaver/genetics
2.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2017; 16 (64): 21-31
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-189614

ABSTRACT

Background: Renal disorders including renal failure are common complications which affect the whole body system. The treatment methods in modern medicine seem to be inadequate in a large number of cases. Regarding the increasing interest of the community towards traditional and complementary medicine, the potential of Persian medicine [PM] in management of renal diseases, could be put to test in research programs in order to find possible effective treatment. Objective: The aim of this study is to introduce materia medica which are commonly used in PM for the purpose of protection and functional empowerment of the kidneys against destructive factors


Methods: This research is a literature-based study on effective material medica used in the treatment of two significant renal disorders; renal weakness and renal atrophy [Hozal]. Six pharmaceutical references of Persian medicine from different historical periods were searched by certain keywords related to renal weakness and renal atrophy


Results: Fourteen materia medica related to the prevention or treatment of renal weakness and fifteen for renal atrophy were found. Poppy [Papaver somniferum]. Amber and shellac are the most repeated medicines in the treatment of renal weakness; whereas fig [ficus carica], banana [musa sapientum] and hazelnut [corynus avelana] are mostly_repeated for either prevention or treatment of renal atrophy


Conclusion: Medicinal plants represented by Persian medicine references could be a basis for experimental and clinical researches for drug development in the field of prevention or even treatment of acute or chronic renal failure


Subject(s)
Kidney Diseases , Plants, Medicinal , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Kidney Failure, Chronic/prevention & control , Papaver , Amber , Ficus , Musa , Corylus
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167775

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the discourses and policies on narcotics in Republic of Korea from 1945 to 1960. Since the Liberation the narcotic problem was regarded as the vestige of Japanese imperialism. which was expected to be cleaned up. The image of narcotic crimes as the legacy of the colonial past was turned into as the result of the Red Army's tactics to attack on the liberalist camp around the Korean war. The government of ROK represented the source of the illegal drugs as the Red army and the spy from North Korea. The anticommunist discourse about narcotics described the spies, who introduced the enormous amount of poppies into ROK and brought about the addicts, as the social evil. Through this discourse on poppies from North Korea, the government of ROK emphasized the immorality of the communists reinforcing the anticommunist regime, which was inevitable for the government of ROK to legitimize the division of Korea and the establishment of the government alone. This paper examines how the discourses and policies on narcotics in ROK was shaped and transformed from 1945 to 1960 focusing the relationship between the them and the political context such as anticommunism, Korean war, the division of Korea, and etc. This approach would be helpful to reveal the effect of the ROK's own political situation to the public health system involving the management for drugs.


Subject(s)
Asians , Crime , Democratic People's Republic of Korea , Humans , Korea , Korean War , Narcotics , Papaver , Public Health , Republic of Korea
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284817

ABSTRACT

DNA barcoding is an effective technique in species identification. To determine the candidate sequences which can be used as DNA barcode to identify in Papaver genus, five potential sequences (ITS, matK, psbA-trnH, rbcL, trnL-trnF) were screened. 69 sequences were downloaded from Genbank, including 21 ITS sequences, 10 matK sequences, 8 psbA-trnH sequences, 14 rbcL sequences and 16 trnL-trnF sequences. Mega 6.0 was used to analysis the comparison of sequences. By the methods of calculating the distances in intraspecific and interspecific divergences, evaluating DNA barcoding gap and constructing NJ and UPMGA phylogenetic trees. The sequence trnL-trnF performed best. In conclusion, trnL-trnF can be considered as a novel DNA barcode in Papaver genus, other four sequences can be as combination barcode for identification.


Subject(s)
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , Papaver , Classification , Genetics
5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1169-1177, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-259497

ABSTRACT

The gene expressions of codeinone reductase (COR) and berberine bridge enzyme (BBE) in Papaver somniferum were blocked by RNA hairpin of RNA interference (RNAi). The complete sequences of COR and BBE genes were cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the results of homology comparison revealed that the cloned COR and BBE genes had high homology with the other gene family members reported in the GenBank. The target sequences of COR and BBE genes were screened in accordance with the design principle of RNAi, a 643 bp fusion gene was obtained by the method of overlapping PCR, then plant expression vector ihpRNA was constructed based on intermediate vector pHANNIBAL and plant expression vector pCEPSPS. With that 78 transgenic plants were obtained through Agrobacterium-mediated and 17 positive plants were screened by PCR, that could initially indicate that the target fragments of COR and BBE gene had been integrated into tobacco genome.


Subject(s)
Artificial Gene Fusion , Genetic Vectors , NAD (+) and NADP (+) Dependent Alcohol Oxidoreductases , Genetics , Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating , Genetics , Papaver , Genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified , Genetics , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering , Tobacco , Genetics , Transformation, Genetic
6.
Rev. dor ; 13(1): 75-79, jan.-mar. 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-624936

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Devido à finalidade do ambulatório e os fármacos utilizados rotineiramente, o objetivo deste estudo foi rever e atualizar os conhecimentos sobre os receptores opioides e como complemento de estudo após palestra apresentada aos integrantes da equipe. CONTEÚDO: Foram revisados desde os aspectos históricos até os conhecimentos mais recentes sobre receptores opioides, descritos seus subtipos e mecanismos de ação. Para tal, foram consultadas referências indexadas pelo Pubmed. CONCLUSÃO: Com os dados presentes na literatura atual, concluiu-se que ainda existe muito a ser pesquisado sobre o tópico, visando medicações mais seguras e novas técnicas biomoleculares ainda são necessárias.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Due to the objective of the outpatient setting and to routinely used drugs, this study aimed at reviewing and updating the knowledge about opioid receptors and worked as a study complement after a lecture presented to team members. CONTENTS: We have reviewed from historical aspects to most recent developments about opioid receptors, in addition to describing subtypes and action mechanisms. For such, Pubmed-indexed references were queried. CONCLUSION: After reviewing current literature data, we have concluded that there is still a lot to be researched about the topic, aiming at safer drugs, and new biomolecular techniques are still needed.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , History of Medicine , Morphine , Narcotic Antagonists , Opium , Papaver , Receptors, Opioid
7.
Mycobiology ; : 205-207, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729706

ABSTRACT

A fungus detected from the importing seeds of Papaver rhoeas under plant quarantine inspection in Korea was identified as Brachycladium penicillatum Corda. It differed in morphological characteristics from a similar species, B. papaveris, which was known to form no macroconidiophores and no microsclerotia. Since the first interception in 2006, this fungus has frequently been found from importing seeds of Papaver spp. It was detected from 31 out of 282 seed consignments imported from 2006 to 2011. To prevent its introduction to Korea, the seed consignments infested by B. penicillatum were destroyed or reshipped.


Subject(s)
Fungi , Korea , Papaver , Plants , Quarantine , Seeds
8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 581-585, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348915

ABSTRACT

The paper is to establish a method for simultaneous determination of 5 kinds of alkaloids in ephedra and poppy which are in Kechuanning tablets. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was adopted in pretreatment, and a UPLC method with 2 different wavelengths had been developed: 210 nm for the detection of morphine, codeine phosphate, ephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, and 251 nm for papaverine hydrochloride. The column used was Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (100 mm x 2.1 mm ID, 1.7 microm) with linear gradient elution using acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid. The flow rate was 0.4 mL.min-1, and the column temperature was 30 degrees C. The linear response range was 0.375 0 - 12.50 microg.mL-1 for morphine, 0.064 32 - 2.144 microg.mL-1 for codeine phosphate, 0.030 06 - 1.002 microg.mL-1 for papaverine hydrochloride, 1.126 - 37.52 microg.mL-1 for ephedrine hydrochloride, 0.287 8 - 9.592 microg.mL-1 for pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (r = 0.999 7). The average recoveries of these compounds were 99.26%, 100.6%, 95.29%, 100.1% and 97.48%, respectively. This is a more reasonable and credible method of quality control for Kechuanning tablets.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Codeine , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Ephedra , Chemistry , Ephedrine , Morphine , Papaver , Chemistry , Papaverine , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Pseudoephedrine , Quality Control , Solid Phase Extraction , Tablets
9.
Rev. enferm. neurol ; 9(1)ene-jun. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-969463

ABSTRACT

En la elaboración del presente producto farmacéutico (una formulación galénica entre el gel y la emulsión fluida), se utilizaron dos principios activos naturales considerados psicotrópicos o narcóticos: extracto alcohólico de amapola (Papaver somniferum) y extracto alcohólico de marihuana (Cannabis sativa); éstos tienen actividad biológica conocida dentro del organismo. Son excelentes analgésicos para pacientes con cáncer terminal pero también tienen propiedades antieméticas, estimulantes del apetito, relajantes oculares, bronquíticos, ansiolíticos. Se conoce que para tener una liberación prolongada de un principio activo es muy útil el uso de liposomas; por esta razón se utilizaron liposomas de extracto alcohólico de amapola, considerando que esta planta tiene mejores propiedades analgésicas que la marihuana, por lo cual el extracto de esta última integra un 40% de la formulación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Papaver , Liposomes
10.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2010; 9 (35): 33-50
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-143727

ABSTRACT

More than 12,000 alkaloids are known in plants, mostly used as medicine with a world market value of about 4 billion US$. Opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the most important economic source of morphinane alkaloids such as morphine, codeine, thebaine, narcotine and papaverine that are exploited by the pharmaceutical industry as analgesics, antitussives and anti-spasmodics. With regard to increasing demand for these compounds, the aim of this review is presenting an outlook of classical breeding programs that successfully applied for enhancing the alkaloid content of opium poppy. The latest biotechnological approaches also are discussed to give an outlook for future trends and possibilities


Subject(s)
Papaver , Biotechnology , Phytotherapy , Drug Industry , Morphine , Codeine , Thebaine , Noscapine , Papaverine
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351752

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a method for the determination of the papaverine content in Qiangli Pibalu by HPLC.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>A C18 column with a solvent system of acetonitrile-0.02 mol x L(-1) sodium dihydrogen phosphate (0.2% triethylamine, phosphoric acid, at pH 3) (25:75) and UV detection 240 nm were used. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1). The column temperature was maintained at 40 degrees C.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>There was a good linear relationship between the absorption value and the concentration in the range of 0.020 2-0.100 5 microg for papaverine. The average recovery rates were 99.1% (RSD 2.3%).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method is simple, accurate and can be used to determine the contents in Qiangli Pibalu.</p>


Subject(s)
Antitussive Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Eriobotrya , Chemistry , Expectorants , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Papaver , Chemistry , Papaverine , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Quality Control , Reproducibility of Results
12.
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2005; 4 (2): 81-86
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-70875

ABSTRACT

Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior and Papaver rhoeas have long been used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of various ailments. As part of our continuing screening of plant extracts for activities, the extracts of A. glutinosa, F. excelsior and P. rhoeas have been screened for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities, as well as their general toxicity towards brine shrimps. Among the extracts, the methanol [MeOH] extract of F. excelsior displayed the highest level of antioxidant activity [RC[50]=1.35x10[-2] mg/mL] and the dichloromethane [DCM] extract of P. rhoeas was the most toxic extract towards brine shrimps [LD[50]=2.4x10[-2] mg/mL]. The n-hexane and DCM extracts of F. excelsior and the MeOH extract of A. glutinosa were active [MIC values were within 1.25x10[-1] and 1.00 mg/mL] against all 8 bacterial species tested, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA]


Subject(s)
Alnus/toxicity , Fraxinus/microbiology , Fraxinus/toxicity , Papaver/microbiology , Papaver/toxicity
13.
JAMC-Journal of Ayub Medical College-Abbotabad-Pakistan. 2003; 15 (2): 31-33
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-62354

ABSTRACT

The concept that food is medicine is being practiced in certain parts of the world, with positive outcomes on health of the population. We have such practice in Pakistan but it needs to be brought in line with the available scientific evidence. The study was conducted on 270 patients, visiting the Family Practice Center, the Aga Khan University, Karachi. A questionnaire was used to collect information on the demographic profile, and the use of folk remedies for medicinal uses. Substantial use of folk remedies for different medical conditions has been documented. The remedies included cinnamon, ginger, cloves, cordimon, sesame oil, poppy seeds, honey, lemon, table salt, eggs and curd. The medical conditions in which folk remedies are used in respondents' view, include conditions such as common cold, cough and flu to more serious conditions such as asthma, jaundice and heat stroke. Conclusions: We have found a substantial use of folk remedies for treatment of medical conditions. There is a need to organize their use on scientific lines


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Ginger , Rosales , Sesame Oil , Papaver , Honey , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Eggs , Yogurt
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-271859

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To screen effectual fungicides for field control because of the seriousness of opium poppy mildew and importance of chemical control on plant diseases.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Seven fungicides were screened in Lab experiment and field test during 1996-1997.</p><p><b>RESULT AND CONCLUSION</b>All of them and their different dosages were effective to control conidia of Peronospora arborescens. Among them, 72.2% propamocarb of 1203 and 902.5 ppm were the most effective both in Lab experiment and field test with efficacy 79.91% and 79.33% respectively in field test, and the efficacy of other fungicides was over 50%. Seven fungicides tested can be used to control nonsystematic symptom of opium poppy mildew.</p>


Subject(s)
Carbamates , Pharmacology , Fungicides, Industrial , Pharmacology , Oomycetes , Virulence , Papaver , Microbiology , Plant Diseases , Microbiology , Plants, Medicinal , Microbiology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-274988

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the pathogen of opium poppy downy mildew and its biological characteristic for further research on the disease.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Development of the disease was observed systematically in the field. Germination rate of sporangium in different temperature, pH and nutrition was examined with suspending-drop method. Slide-germination method was used to observe its germination in different humidity maintained by different concentration of H2SO4.</p><p><b>RESULT AND CONCLUSION</b>The disease manifests itself in two forms: severely infected plants (systematic infection) and leaf spots (nonsystematic infection). Sporangia of the pathogen are oval or globular, thin walled, smooth, hyaline, with 7.74-16.34 microns diameter in base 1 and 8.34-15.05 microns in base 2.0 ospores are light yellow with 33.87-70.54 microns x 19.34-62.64 microns in base 1 and 36.85-49.68 microns x 42.08-55.76 microns in base 2. Conidiophores are stout, erect, whose branching times and length are different between those in base 1 and those in base 2. Sporangia sprot directly in two hours. Film of water is necessary for sporangium to sprot. The optimum temperature range of sporangium sprot is 12-21 degrees C, the best being 16 degrees C, the pH range is 4.53-9.18 the best optimum at pH 7.38, and the extract of leaf of 1:5 is good for its germination.</p>


Subject(s)
Humidity , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Oomycetes , Papaver , Microbiology , Plant Diseases , Microbiology , Spores, Fungal , Temperature
16.
Lima; Centro de Información y Documentación para la Prevención del Abuso de Drogas; jun. 2001. 63 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-289950

ABSTRACT

Bajo el título de drogas en el Perú se presenta un apretado resumen de la farmacología de las drogas ilícitas de uso más extendido en el país. No se ha considerado pertinente presentar en esta oportunidad la gran familia de las drogas de las que se abusa frecuentemente pero que por razones epidemiológicas y de manejo de los aspectos preventivos se clasifican como drogas sociales, productos industriales o drogas folclóricas. El libro ha sido diseñado como un auxiliar práctico para público general, maestros y alumnos que requieran obtener información farmacológica acerca de las drogas en un lenguaje accesible al público general. Ramiro Castro de la Mata, médico farmacólogo especialista en drogas y miembro fundador de CEDRO, presenta en esta obra, una apretada síntesis de los principales aspectos de la farmacología de las principales drogas ilícitas cuyo consumo viene aquejando a la población peruana o de aquellas como el opio que amenazan a las futuras generaciones


Subject(s)
Cannabis/adverse effects , Cocaine/pharmacokinetics , Cocaine/pharmacology , Illicit Drugs/adverse effects , Illicit Drugs/pharmacokinetics , Illicit Drugs/pharmacology , N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine/pharmacology , Opium/adverse effects , Papaver/adverse effects , Peru
17.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 6(1): 12-15, 2001. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-329981

ABSTRACT

Para validar científicamente la actividad antiespasmódica del Piper auritum H.B.K., se preparó el aceite esencial al 1 por ciento y se evaluó en el modelo de motilidad espontánea de yeyuno aislado de conejo a las concentraciones de 2, 3 y 5 mg/mL frente a diferentes espasmógenos (cloruro de bario 200, acetilcolina 0,06 e histamina 0,05 mg/10-3/mL) en íleon de curiel con valores de 1, 2 y 3 mg/mL. La papaverina se empleó a las concentraciones de 0,0033; 0,0066 y 0,013 mg/mL. Con los resultados obtenidos se puede plantear que la planta tiene actividad espasmolítica sobre el músculo liso intestinal


Subject(s)
Herbal Medicine , Intestines , Muscle, Smooth/anatomy & histology , Plant Extracts , Plants, Medicinal , Acetylcholine , Papaver , Parasympatholytics/therapeutic use
18.
Bogotá, D.C; Colombia. Defensoría del Pueblo; 2000. 191 p.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-279661

ABSTRACT

CONCLUSIONES: 1) El uso del hongo Fusarium Oxysporum como control biológico para la erradicación de los cultivos ilícitos ha generado grandes polémicas entre la comunidad científica, dada la falta de investigación en campo abierto sobre su especificidad, longevidad y variabilidad genética e incertidumbres con relación a los posibles impactos mediatos e inmediatos sobre las formas de vida y los ecosistemas que puedan generar el uso de este hongo en territorio colombiano. 2) Las conversaciones que encamina el Gobierno Nacional con el Programa de Naciones Unidas de Fiscalización de Drogas tiene como fin el analizar programas tendientes a la erradicación de los cultivos ilícitos en general, en el cual podría estar la aprobación de un proyecto de experimentación en Colombia de Fusarium Oxysporum. 3) En la adopción de un agente controlador biológico no debe olvidarse que el Estado Social de Derecho colombiano se fundamenta en el respeto de los derechos humanos, incluído el derecho a un medio ambiente sano. 4) El ejercicio del control biológico como forma de erradicación debe estar enmarcado dentro de unos principios éticos, morales y legales, en el marco de acuerdos internacionales en materia del medio ambiente y basados en el respeto por la dignidad humana. 5) Quedan dudas sobre la responsabilidad de Colombia frente a países que comparten la Cuenca amazónica en caso de que el hongo desestabilice o rompa el equilibrio ambiental de este ecosistemas


Subject(s)
Cannabis , Coca , Drug and Narcotic Control , Environment , Fusarium , Impacts of Polution on Health , Legislation , Papaver , Illicit Drugs , Colombia
19.
Santafé de Bogotá, D.C; Tercer Mundo; 1999. 279 p.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-279651

ABSTRACT

El documento trata sobre los siguientes aspectos: 1) La estrategia de reducción de la oferta y los cultivos ilicitos. 2) Política de erradicación forzosa en Colombia. a) Período de la marihuana. b) Fumigación decidida al 30 de enero de 1992 por el auge de los cultivos de amapola y su extensión a la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta y Serranía de Perijá. c) Fumigación de los cultivos de coca. Decisión de 1994 hasta el final de siglo. d) Fumigación por dentro. 3) Impactos socioeconómicos y ambientales a través de un estudio de caso: Medio y Bajo Caguán. a) Cultivos ilícitos en el Caquetá. b) Economía de la coca: procesos de intervención e impactos socioambientales. c) Impactos sociales de las fumigaciones. d) Reflexión final sobre una propuesta de reducción de daños. Anexos: 1) Información básica de los principales químicos reseñados. 2) Métodos y criterios de erradicación de cultivos ilícitos. 3) Código disciplinario del Primer Frente de las FARC para la población civil en la zona de Miraflores (Guaviare)


Subject(s)
Cannabis , Coca , Drug and Narcotic Control , Environment , Impacts of Polution on Health , Narcotics , Papaver , Pesticides , Social Conditions , Illicit Drugs , Colombia , Human Rights
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