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1.
Acta cient. Soc. Venez. Bioanalistas Esp ; 16(1): 41-53, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-733452

ABSTRACT

La infección persistente por ciertos tipos de alto riesgo oncogénico de virus papiloma humano (VPHAR) es el principal factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de cáncer de cuello uterino y sus lesiones precursoras. Los VPHAR inducen alteraciones moleculares durante todo el proceso de carcinogénesis cervical, que provocan la acumulación de errores genéticos, con la consecuente inestabilidad genética y transformación maligna. Estas alteraciones son producidas por la acción directa de las oncoproteínas virales E6 y E7 sobre las principales proteínas celulares supresoras de tumor, p53 y pRb, respectivamente, y pueden ser monitoreadas durante el surgimiento de la lesión neoplásica, mediante el uso de biomarcadores. En este artículo se revisan las últimas tendencias sobre el uso del estudio inmunocitoquímico, como una prueba complementaria a la citología y a la detección y tipificación de VPHAR en la evaluación de la expresión de biomarcadores como la proteína inhibidora de la proliferación celular p16INK4a, marcador único o combinada con otros biomarcadores, que puedan contribuir eficazmente en la detección de las pacientes con mayor riesgo a desarrollar neoplasia del cuello uterino asociada a la infección por VPHAR, durante la pesquisa de cáncer de cuello uterino de rutina y en el manejo clínico adecuado y oportuno.


Persistent infection with certain types of high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the main risk factor for developing cervical cancer and its precursor lesions. HR-HPV induces molecular changes during cervical carcinogenesis, causing the accumulation of genetic anomalies, with subsequent genetic instability and malignant transformation. These alterations are produced by the direct action of the E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins on principal tumor cell suppressor proteins, p53 and pRb, respectively, and can be monitored during growth of the neoplastic lesion using biomarkers. In this paper we review the latest trends on the use of immunocytochemistry as a complementary test to cytology and HR-HPV detection and typing in evaluating expression of biomarkers such as the p16INK4a cell proliferation inhibitor protein, as a single marker or combined with other biomarkers, which can contribute effectively to the detection of patients with increased risk of developing cervical neoplasia associated with HR-HPV infection during routine screening for cervical cancer and in appropriate clinical management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Female , Young Adult , Biomarkers, Pharmacological/analysis , Biomarkers, Pharmacological/blood , Epithelial Cells/chemistry , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/etiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Papilloma/etiology , Papilloma/chemistry , Papilloma/blood , Blood Chemical Analysis , Hematology , Immunohistochemistry , Medical Oncology
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 29(12): 974-978, Dec. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539130

ABSTRACT

The green turtle Chelonia mydas feeds and nests in the Brazilian coastal area and is considered an endangered species by the World Conservation Union (IUCN 2009) and threatened by the Red List of Brazilian Fauna (Ministério do Meio Ambiente 2009). Fibropapillomatosis is a disease characterized by benign skin tumors (fibropapillomas), and it is one of the main threats to the survival of this species. Studies suggest the involvement of viruses as infectious agents associated with environmental and genetic factors. Blood samples were collected from 45 turtles captured in the coastal area of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. From these, 27 were affected by fibropapillomas and 18 were tumor free. Biometrical data on the turtles, size, location and quantity of tumors were recorded. The area occupied by fibropapillomas per animal was calculated and four groups were determined according to severity of the disease or its absence. The objective of the study was to compare hemogram results of the sea turtles classified in these four groups. The lowest hematocrit value was observed in severely affected animals. In the hemoglobin assay, the highest value was observed in the group of tumor free turtles and the lowest, in animals severely affected. Lymphocyte counts and curved carapace length were on the verge of statistical significance.


Chelonia mydas, denominada tartaruga verde, é uma tartaruga marinha que frequenta o litoral brasileiro para alimentação e nidificação e é considerada em perigo de extinção pela IUCN (World Conservation Union, 2009) e ameaçada pela Lista Vermelha da Fauna Brasileira (Ministério do Meio Ambiente, 2009). A fibropapilomatose, doença caracterizada por tumores cutâneos benignos (fibropapilomas), é uma das mais importantes ameaças à sobrevivência dessa espécie. Pesquisas sugerem o envolvimento de agentes infecciosos virais em associação com fatores ambientais e genéticos. Foram colhidas amostras sanguíneas de 45 tartarugas provenientes do litoral do estado de São Paulo, Brasil, sendo 18 sem fibropapilomas e 27 acometidas. Dados de biometria das tartarugas, quantidade, localização e tamanho dos tumores foram anotados. Foi realizado o cálculo da área de fibropapilomas por animal e foram estipulados 4 grupos de acordo com o grau de acometimento e sua ausência. O objetivo foi realizar uma comparação entre os hemogramas das tartarugas marinhas classificadas nos 4 grupos. Animais de grau grave apresentaram o menor valor para hematócrito. Para dosagem de hemoglobina, observou-se que o maior valor foi para o grupo de tartarugas sem fibropapilomas e o menor para o de grau grave. Os valores de linfócitos e comprimento curvilíneo da carapaça beiraram a significância estatística.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fibroma/blood , Fibroma/veterinary , Papilloma/blood , Papilloma/veterinary , Skin Neoplasms , Blood Cell Count , Turtles
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 69(3): 899-905, Aug. 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-527160

ABSTRACT

Chelonia mydas is a sea turtle that feeds and nests on the Brazilian coast and a disease called fibropapillomatosis is a threat to this species. Because of this, it is extremely necessary to determine a methodology that would enable the analysis of blood leukocyte function in these sea turtles. In order to achieve this aim, blood samples were collected from C. mydas with or without fibropapillomas captured on the São Paulo north coast. Blood samples were placed in tubes containing sodium heparin and were transported under refrigeration to the laboratory in sterile RPMI 1640 cell culture medium. Leukocytes were separated by density gradient using Ficoll-PaqueTM Plus, Amershan Biociences®. The following stimuli were applied in the assessment of leukocyte function: Phorbol Miristate-Acetate (PMA) for oxidative burst activity evaluation and Zymosan A (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Bio Particles®, Alexa Fluor® 594 conjugate for phagocytosis evaluation. Three cell populations were identified: heterophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. Monocytes were the cells responsible for phagocytosis and oxidative burst.


Chelonia mydas é uma tartaruga marinha que freqüenta o litoral brasileiro para alimentação e nidificação e uma doença denominada fibropapilomatose é uma das mais importantes ameaças à sobrevivência dessa espécie. Desta forma, a definição de uma metodologia que permita analisar a função dos leucócitos sangüíneos torna-se extremamente necessária. Foram utilizadas amostras sangüíneas de C. mydas com e sem fibropapilomas capturadas no litoral norte do estado de São Paulo. As amostras sangüíneas foram colocadas em tubos contendo heparina sódica e transportadas em meio de cultura celular RPMI 1640 estéril e sob refrigeração. Os leucócitos foram obtidos por gradiente de densidade usando Ficoll-PaqueTM Plus, Amershan Biociences®. Os estímulos aplicados foram Miristato Acetato de Phorbol (PMA) para avaliação de burst oxidativo e Zymosan A (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Bio Particles®, Alexa Fluor® 594 conjugate para avaliação de fagocitose. Foram identificadas três populações celulares: heterófilos, monócitos e linfócitos. Os monócitos foram as células responsáveis pela fagocitose e pelo burst oxidativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Flow Cytometry/veterinary , Leukocytes/physiology , Papilloma/veterinary , Phagocytosis/physiology , Respiratory Burst/physiology , Turtles/blood , Flow Cytometry/methods , Papilloma/blood , Papilloma/physiopathology
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