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1.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1337802

ABSTRACT

El virus del papiloma humano (HPV) es el agente etiológico de infecciones de transmisión sexual relacionadas con procesos oncogénicos genitales y orales. La biología molecular, mediante la identificación de los tipos virales involucrados, proporciona precisión diagnóstica con un enfoque epidemiológico. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la presencia de HPV en la mucosa oral de hombres con verrugas anogenitales y correlacionar los genotipos detectados en ambas muestras. Se estudiaron 26 pacientes varones con verrugas anogenitales que acudieron al Instituto de Dermatología de la ciudad de Resistencia (Argentina). La presencia de HPV en muestras orales y anogenitales se estudió mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) y la genotipificación se realizó mediante PCR-RFLP. La prevalencia de HPV oral en pacientes con HPV anogenital fue del 46,2% (12/26). Se encontraron dieciocho genotipos con alto riesgo oncogénico en muestras orales de pacientes con infecciones únicas o múltiples y el tipo 16 fue el más frecuente (6 pacientes). Catorce genotipos en muestras orales fueron de bajo riesgo oncogénico, el más frecuente fue el tipo 6 (10 pacientes). En muestras anogenitales el genotipo 6 fue el más frecuente (13 pacientes), solo o en coinfección. Se encontró una alta prevalencia de HPV oral de malignidad de alto grado en nuestra población y coinfección con tipos oncogénicos. Las prácticas de sexo oral fueron la principal conducta de riesgo para la infección, lo que quedó demostrado por el hallazgo simultáneo del mismo tipo de HPV en muestras orales y anogenitales


The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiologic agent of sexually transmitted infections related to genital and oral oncogenic processes. Molecular biology provides accurate diagnosis with an epidemiological approach, by identifying the viral types involved. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of HPV in oral mucosa from men with anogenital warts and to correlate the genotypes detected in both samples. Twenty-six male patients suffering anogenital warts who attended to the Institute of Dermatology in Resistencia (Argentina) were studied. The presence of HPV in oral and anogenital samples was studied by PCR and genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. The prevalence of oral HPV in patients with anogenital HPV was 46.2% (12/26). Eighteen genotypes with high oncogenic risk were found in oral samples of patients with single or multiple infections and type 16 was the most frequent (6 patients). Fourteen genotypes in oral samples were of low oncogenic risk and the most frequent was type 6 (10 patients). In anogenital samples the genotype 6 was the most frequent (13 patients), alone or in co-infection. A high prevalence of high-grade malignancy oral HPV in our population and co-infection with oncogenic types were found. Oral sex practices were the main risk factor for infection, which was demonstrated by the simultaneous finding of the same HPV type in oral and anogenital samples


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Papillomaviridae , Condylomata Acuminata/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections , Men's Health , Mouth Mucosa
3.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(1): 9-14, 20210330.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290893

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer is the second neoplasm that most affects women in Brazil. It is a slow-progressing disease with well-defined stages. When diagnosed early, it has a high probability of cure, and it is essential to study methods that help in its diagnosis. The main factor associated with this neoplasm is infection with HPV, a virus that infects approximately 75% of sexually active people. Currently in Brazil the most used prevention method is the Pap smear test. With further studies on molecular biology and HPV, screening methods for cervical carcinoma have emerged, based on the detection of HPV DNA. Among these new methods is the double staining p16 / Ki-67, a technique developed aiming at a high specificity for detecting high-grade lesions. This is a bibliographic review work with the objective of discussing how biomolecular methods can be important tools for the early diagnosis of cervical cancer. The most used methods to diagnose HPV are cytopathological, colposcopic and histopathological exams, however these methods can present high variations in the detection of neoplastic lesions. With this study, we concluded the importance of using double staining p16 / Ki-67 for an accurate diagnosis in cases of cervical cancer.


O câncer de colo de útero (CCU) é a segunda neoplasia que mais acomete mulheres no Brasil. É uma doença de progressão lenta com estágios bem definidos. Quando diagnosticado precocemente tem grande probabilidade de cura, sendo indispensável o estudo sobre métodos que auxiliem no seu diagnóstico. O principal fator associado a essa neoplasia é a infecção pelo HPV, vírus que infecta aproximadamente 75% das pessoas sexualmente ativas. Atualmente, no Brasil, o método de prevenção mais utilizado é o exame citológico de Papanicolaou. Com maiores estudos sobre biologia molecular e HPV surgiram métodos de triagem do carcinoma cervical, baseados na detecção de DNA-HPV. Entre esses novos métodos está a coloração dupla p16/Ki-67, técnica desenvolvida visando uma alta especificidade para detecção de lesões de alto grau. Este é um trabalho de revisão bibliográfica com o objetivo de discutir como métodos biomoleculares podem ser ferramentas importantes para o diagnóstico precoce do câncer de colo de útero. Os métodos mais utilizados para diagnosticar o HPV são os exames citopatológicos, colposcópicos e histopatológicos, porém esses métodos podem apresentar altas variações na detecção de lesões neoplásicas. Com este estudo, concluímos a importância do uso da coloração dupla p16/Ki-67 para um diagnóstico preciso em casos de CCU.


Subject(s)
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Papillomavirus Infections , Cell Biology , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions
5.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(273): 5299-5310, fev.2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1150319

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar os sentimentos de pré-adolescentes e adolescentes quanto à vacinação contra o papilomavirus humano. Método: trata-se de um estudo fenomenológico, com abordagem qualitativa, realizado com 10 participantes, sendo pré- adolescentes e adolescentes, cujas quais foram vacinadas na sala de vacina de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde de um município de Minas Gerais. Os depoimentos foram gravados e transcritos na íntegra para posterior análise. O tratamento dos dados se deu por meio de Análise de Conteúdo. Resultados: a maioria das entrevistadas atribuiu à significação da vacinação relacionada ao fato de prevenir o câncer de colo uterino. O desconhecimento sobre a finalidade da vacina HPV fica em evidência em alguns depoimentos. O medo da vacina também ficou em evidência, tendo como justificativa o fato de ser injeção, da dor, da agulha e por medo da reação. Como medidas de prevenção, foram citadas o uso de preservativo e a ida periódica ao ginecologista. Seis das participantes não souberam informar nenhuma medida de prevenção contra o papilomavirus humano. Conclusão: as participantes do estudo entendem a importância da vacinação contra o papilomavirus humano, embora seis participantes, bem como suas famílias, informaram ter receio pela dor da vacinação ou possíveis eventos adversos pós-vacinais.(AU)


Objective: to identify the feelings of pre-adolescents and adolescents regarding vaccination against human papillomavirus. Method: this is a phenomenological study, with a qualitative approach, carried out with 10 participants, being pre-adolescents and adolescents, whose vaccinations were performed in the vaccination room of a Basic Health Unit in a municipality in Minas Gerais. The testimonies were recorded and transcribed in full for later analysis. The treatment of the data took place through Content Analysis. Results: most interviewees attributed the meaning of vaccination to the fact that it prevents cervical cancer. The lack of knowledge about the purpose of the HPV vaccine is evident in some statements. The fear of the vaccine was also in evidence, justified by the fact that it was an injection, pain, needle and for fear of the reaction. As preventive measures, the use of condoms and periodic visits to the gynecologist were mentioned. Six of the participants were unable to report any preventive measures against human papillomavirus. Conclusion: the participants understand the importance of vaccination against human papillomavirus, although six participants, as well as their families, reported being afraid of the pain of vaccination or possible post-vaccination adverse events.(AU)


Objetivo: identificar los sentimientos de preadolescentes y adolescentes con respecto a la vacunación contra el virus del papiloma humano. Método: se trata de un estudio fenomenológico, con abordaje cualitativo, realizado con 10 participantes, siendo preadolescentes y adolescentes, cuyas vacunaciones se realizaron en la sala de vacunación de una Unidad Básica de Salud de un municipio de Minas Gerais. Los testimonios fueron registrados y transcritos íntegramente para su posterior análisis. El tratamiento de los datos se realizó mediante Análisis de Contenido. Resultados: la mayoría de las entrevistadas atribuyó la importancia de la vacunación relacionada con el hecho de prevenir el cáncer de cuello uterino. La falta de conocimiento sobre el propósito de la vacuna contra el VPH es evidente en algunas declaraciones. El miedo a la vacuna también se evidenció, justificado por el hecho de que fue una inyección, dolor, aguja y por miedo a la reacción. Como medidas preventivas se mencionaron el uso de condones y visitas periódicas al ginecólogo. Seis de los participantes no pudieron informar ninguna medida preventiva contra el virus del papiloma humano. Conclusión: los participantes del estudio comprenden la importancia de la vacunación contra el virus del papiloma humano, aunque seis participantes, así como sus familiares, informaron tener miedo al dolor de la vacunación o posibles eventos adversos posvacunación.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Interviews as Topic , Adolescent Health , Qualitative Research , Disease Prevention , Fear
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880687

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a kind of spherical DNA virus, which is related to many factors such as immune status and pregnancy. Due to the decrease of immunity, pregnant women are more likely to have HPV infection, which causes serious imbalance of vaginal microecology and is not beneficial to pregnancy outcome. Therefore, this study focuses on the impact of HPV infection on vaginal microecology and maternal and neonatal outcomes.@*METHODS@#A total of 140 pregnant women with HPV infection during pregnancy, who received obstetric examination in the First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College from November 2017 to July 2019, were selected as a HPV infection group, and 150 normal pregnant women with HPV negative in the same period were selected as a control group. Vaginal secretions were collected from all the pregnant women at 28-34 weeks of gestation to evaluate vaginal pH, cleanliness and microecological status, and to record pregnancy outcomes for all pregnant women.@*RESULTS@#The proportions of vaginal pH>4.5, constituent ratio of flora density and diversity of I-II, positive detection rate of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) in HPV infected pregnant women were significantly higher than those in the control group (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#Pregnant women with HPV infection during pregnancy are more likely to have vaginal microecological disorders, and can increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as premature delivery and chorioamnionitis.


Subject(s)
Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Vaginosis, Bacterial
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(11): e11363, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339445

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer (CC) is the most common malignant tumor in females. Although persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a leading factor that causes CC, few women with HPV infection develop CC. Therefore, many mechanisms remain to be explored, such as aberrant expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. To identify promising prognostic factors and interpret the relevant mechanisms of CC, the RNA sequencing profile of CC was downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas and the Gene Expression Omnibus databases. The GSE63514 dataset was analyzed, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained by weighted coexpression network analysis and the edgeR package in R. Fifty-three shared genes were mainly enriched in nuclear chromosome segregation and DNA replication signaling pathways. Through a protein-protein interaction network and prognosis analysis, the kinesin family member 14 (KIF14) hub gene was extracted from the set of 53 shared genes, which was overexpressed and associated with poor overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of CC patients. Mechanistically, gene set enrichment analysis showed that KIF14 was mainly enriched in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis signaling pathway and DNA replication signaling pathway, especially in the cell cycle signaling pathway. RT-PCR and the Human Protein Atlas database confirmed that these genes were significantly increased in CC samples. Therefore, our findings indicated the biological function of KIF14 in cervical cancer and provided new ideas for CC diagnosis and therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Cycle/genetics , Kinesin/genetics , Oncogene Proteins , Disease-Free Survival , Computational Biology , Protein Interaction Maps
8.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(3): 259-261, 20210000. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348032

ABSTRACT

The present work aims to report a case of Buschke-Löwenstein tumor (BLT), which is a mass of genital warts that usually affects immunosuppressed people. The reported case was diagnosed in a young patient with no known immunosuppression. Several tests were performed to confirm the diagnostic hypothesis, including immunohistochemistry, histological, molecular and imaging analysis. The results obtained were confirmatory in all analyses, except in the molecular one. Because BLT is a rare condition, there is still great literary heterogeneity regarding the ideal treatment, but some options can be considered, such as excision and radiotherapy. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Buschke-Lowenstein Tumor/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections
9.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280958

ABSTRACT

Introduction: HPV infection causes cancer at several anatomical sites. However, the infection's natural history in non-cervical sites is understudied. Objective: To evaluate oral and anogenital HPV infections, correlating HPV prevalence rates and genotypes with site of infection and risk factors. Methods: In the present study, 351 samples from oral, genital, and anal sites of 117 patients were investigated by using PCR MY09/11 detection, followed by genotyping with RFLP. Results: HPV DNA prevalence was 89.7% (105/117) in genital lesions, 53.8% (63/117) in oral samples, and 58.9% (69/117) in anal samples. Regarding the risk factors associated with HPV in genital lesions, statistically significant rates for oral (p=0.039) and anal sex practices (p=0.0000012) were found. For oral samples, a relevant correlation concerning oral contraceptive use (p=0.039), tobacco smoking (p=0.036), and alcohol use (p=0.0075) were observed; whereas in anal samples, higher risk for HPV infection in patients who reported non-exclusive sexual partners (p=0.013) were found. The presence of viral DNA in all the three sites concurrently was observed in 36.8% of the cases (43/117). Among them, 18% (21/117) presented concordant HPV genotypes, diverging from the literature, and thus corroborating that there is still much to learn about HPV natural history, since different biological behaviors are expected within different populations. Differences in anatomy and physiology of the studied sites can determine different prevalence rates of infection by diverse genotypes. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of HPV DNA in extragenital sites, further studies are required to define aspects of HPV natural history among different human anatomical sites.


Introdução: As infecções causadas pelos papilomavírus humanos (HPV) são responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento de cânceres em diversos sítios anatômicos humanos. Entretanto, a história natural da infecção em sítios que não a cérvice uterina não é muito clara. Objetivo: Avaliar infecções orais, genitais e anais por HPV, correlacionando taxas de prevalência do vírus e seus genótipos aos sítios de infecção e a fatores de risco sócio-demográficos. Métodos: Em nosso estudo, investigamos 351 amostras coletadas dos sítios oral, genital e anal de 117 pacientes, por meio da técnica de PCR MY09/11, seguida de genotipagem por RFLP. Todos os pacientes apresentavam lesões genitais benignas. Resultados: A prevalência do HPV foi de 89,7% (105/117) nas lesões genitais, 53,8% (63/117) nas amostras orais e 58,9% (69/117) nas amostras anais. Em relação aos fatores de risco associados à infecção genital, encontramos diferenças estatísticas significativas para prática de sexo oral (p=0,039) e sexo anal (p=0,0000012). Já para as amostras orais, observamos importante correlação entre infecção e uso de contraceptivo oral (p=0,039), tabagismo (p=0,036) e uso de álcool (p=0,0075) enquanto nas amostras anais, alto risco de infecção pelo HPV foi associado a pacientes relatando parceiros sexuais não exclusivos (p=0,013). A presença do DNA viral simultaneamente nos três sítios estudados foi observada em 36,8% dos casos (43/117). Desses, 18% (21/117) apresentaram genótipos concordantes, diferindo da literatura, na qual há grande disparidade de descrições. Conclusão: Há a necessidade de novos estudos a fim de esclarecer a história natural do HPV em sítios extragenitais em diferentes populações, avaliando características anatômicas e fisiológicas com o intuito de esclarecer diferentes taxas de infecção por genótipos do HPV e diferentes processos de doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Papillomavirus Infections , Reproductive Tract Infections , Neoplasms , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Genitalia
10.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(1): e1528, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248502

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Currently, persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been related in some geographic regions as a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. It results in the immunoexpression of the p16 protein, which has been used as marker of the oncogenic lineage by this etiological agent. Aim: To correlate epidemiological aspects of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with the prevalence of HPV infection. Methods: Fifty-eight cases were analyzed and submitted to histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis by p16. Results: Of the 58 cases evaluated, 40 were men and 18 women, with a mean age of 63.2 years. p16 immunoexpression was positive in 46.55%. Conclusion: The prevalence of HPV infection is high in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma presenting in almost half of the cases (46.55%), without gender differentiation.


RESUMO Racional: Atualmente a infecção persistente pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV) tem sido relacionada em algumas regiões geográficas como fator de risco para o carcinoma epidermoide do esôfago. Ela resulta na imunoexpressão da proteína p16, que tem sido utilizada como marcadora da linhagem oncogênica por este agente etiológico. Objetivo: Correlacionar aspectos epidemiológicos do carcinoma epidermoide do esôfago com a prevalência de infecção pelo HPV. Métodos: Foram analisados 58 casos buscando-se perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes, com suas peças submetidas à análise histopatológica e imunoistoquímica pelo p16. Resultado: Dos 58 casos avaliados, 40 eram homens e 18 mulheres, com idade média de 63,2 anos. A imunoexpressão pelo p16 foi de 46,55%. Conclusão: A prevalência de infecção pelo HPV é alta no carcinoma epidermoide de esôfago apresentando-se em quase a metade dos casos (46,55%), sem diferenciação de idade quanto aos gêneros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Alphapapillomavirus , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma , Papillomaviridae
11.
Med. lab ; 25(2): 467-483, 2021. tabs, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292932

ABSTRACT

Cada año, más de medio millón de mujeres en el mundo son diagnosticadas con cáncer cervical, usualmente asociado a la infección por virus del papiloma humano (VPH) de alto riesgo. Aunque la mayoría de las infecciones por VPH se resuelven dentro de un término menor de 2 años, algunos tipos virales, en particular el VPH16, pueden persistir por décadas y originar diferentes tipos de cáncer, siendo el cervical el más común. La historia natural de la infección por VPH de alto riesgo y el periodo prolongado en que ocurre su progresión, permite la prevención de la enfermedad. La infección por VPH de alto riesgo que evoluciona a cáncer incluye varios procesos como la integración del genoma viral, la división celular incontrolada, y la participación de cambios celulares y epigenéticos. La prueba de citología convencional que se viene practicando para la tamización hace más de 50 años continúa teniendo vigencia, especialmente en países de ingresos bajos y medios, pero está siendo reemplazada por otros métodos como las pruebas moleculares que detectan directamente la presencia del virus, con mayor efectividad como prueba de tamización. En 2014, el Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social de Colombia desarrolló una guía de práctica clínica para la detección y manejo de lesiones premalignas de cuello uterino, en la cual se recomienda la prueba de ADN-VPH para la tamización inicial en las mujeres mayores de 30 años. Hasta el momento se han encontrado resultados positivos con la implementación de la prueba, no obstante, se requieren estudios adicionales que confirmen estos hallazgos, dada su importancia en el control de la morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas a la infección


Each year, more than half a million women in the world are diagnosed with cervical cancer, usually associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Although most HPV infections resolve within 2 years, some viral types, particularly HPV16, can persist for decades and cause different types of cancer, being the cervical type the most common. The natural history of high-risk HPV infection and the prolonged period in which its progression occurs, allows for the prevention of the disease. High-risk HPV infection that progresses to cancer includes several processes such as viral genome integration, uncontrolled cell division, and the participation of cellular and epigenetic changes. The conventional Pap smear test that has been practiced as a screening method for more than 50 years continues to be used, especially in low- and middle-income countries, but it is being replaced by other methods such as molecular tests that directly detect the presence of the virus, with greater effectiveness as a screening test. In 2014, the Ministry of Health and Social Protection of Colombia developed a clinical practice guide for the detection and management of premalignant cervical lesions, in which the DNA-HPV test is recommended for initial screening in women over 30 years. So far, positive results have been found with the implementation of the test, however, additional studies are required to confirm these findings given its importance in controlling the morbidity and mortality associated with the infection


Subject(s)
Humans , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Mass Screening , Vaccination , Diagnosis , Alphapapillomavirus
12.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(3): e155, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288308

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Introduction: Medical students still have many doubts regarding HPV (Human papillomavirus) and the vaccine against this virus. Objective: The study aimed to assess the University of Brasilia medical students' grasp of knowledge about HPV, its relationship with cancer, and the vaccine against the virus. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken by applying a survey questionnaire on the topics. The evaluation involved 379 respondents, 72.7% of the 521 students from the 1st to the 6th years enrolled in the second semester of 2017. The statistical analyses included differences between means and proportions, effect size measures, and the correlation between the identified indicators. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee in Research on Human Beings of the School of Medicine (1,989,835). Results: The 50-item knowledge score increased progressively with the year attended by the medical students (r= .706, p< .001), and was higher among the sexually-active compared to celibate participants (t = 3.26, df = 275, p = 0.001, d = 0.37), as well as among participants with higher family income compared to those with lower family income (t= 2.91, df= 366, p= .004, d= .35). No significant score differences emerged between participants grouped by gender, sexual behavior, or HPV vaccination status. Furthermore, gender (female; OR= 6.5, p<.001), age range (<24 years; OR= 3.3, p= .001), sexuality (active; OR= 2.7, p= .002), but not overall knowledge were predictors of the wish to be vaccinated among the 297 unvaccinated students. Conclusion: The study revealed a strong correlation of medical students' HPV-related knowledge with medical school year and significantly higher scores among sexually active and higher-income respondents, but there were no essential differences between males and females or between vaccinated and unvaccinated students. Among the latter participants, gender, age, and sexuality, but not knowledge, were the best predictors of the wish to be vaccinated. The findings suggest the need for improving HPV screening and vaccination programs and educational strategies regarding HPV-related diseases.


Resumo: Introdução: Há ainda, entre os estudantes de Medicina, muitas dúvidas com relação ao papilomavírus humano (HPV) e à vacina contra esse vírus. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a compreensão dos estudantes de Medicina da Universidade de Brasília acerca do HPV, da sua relação com o câncer e da vacina contra o vírus. Método: Foi realizado um estudo transversal por meio da aplicação de um questionário teste sobre os temas. A avaliação envolveu 379 respondentes, o que representava 72,7% dos 521 alunos do primeiro ao sexto ano matriculados no segundo semestre de 2017. As análises estatísticas incluíram diferenças entre médias e proporções, medidas de tamanho de efeito e a correlação entre os indicadores identificados. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa em Seres Humanos da Faculdade de Medicina (1,989,835). Resultado: A pontuação de conhecimento de 50 itens aumentou progressivamente com o ano do curso médico (r = 0,706, p <0,001) e foi maior entre os participantes sexualmente ativos em comparação com os celibatários (t = 3,26, df = 275, p = 0,001, d = 0,37), e entre os participantes com renda familiar mais alta em comparação com aqueles com renda mais baixa (t = 2,91, df = 366, p = 0,004, d = 0,35). Nenhuma diferença significativa de pontuação foi observada entre os participantes agrupados por gênero, comportamento sexual ou estado de vacinação contra o HPV. Além disso, sexo (feminino; OR = 6,5, p <0,001), faixa etária (<24 anos; OR = 3,3, p = 0,001) e sexualidade (ativo; OR = 2,7, p = 0,002), mas não o conhecimento geral, foram preditores do desejo de vacinação entre 297 alunos não vacinados. Conclusão: O estudo revelou uma forte correlação entre o conhecimento relacionado ao HPV dos estudantes de Medicina e o ano de estudo, e pontuações significativamente mais altas entre os respondentes sexualmente ativos e de renda superior, mas não houve nenhuma diferença essencial entre homens e mulheres ou entre alunos vacinados e não vacinados. Entre estes últimos, gênero, idade, sexualidade, e não o conhecimento foram os melhores preditores do desejo de vacinação. Os achados sugerem a necessidade de aperfeiçoamento em programas de triagem e vacinação para HPV e nas estratégias educacionais referentes às doenças relacionadas ao vírus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Medical , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Sexual Behavior , Socioeconomic Factors , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Suma psicol ; 27(2): 125-141, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, INDEXPSI, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1145122

ABSTRACT

Resumen El cáncer de cuello uterino es la cuarta causa de cáncer en mujeres, siendo el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) su mayor factor de riesgo. Este virus produce, además, otros tipos de cáncer e infecciones que afectan a hombres y a mujeres. La vacuna del VPH ha mostrado eficacia y seguridad en su prevención, sin embargo, se han evidenciado barreras que disminuyen su aceptación en las comunidades. El objetivo de este estudio es identificar las estrategias más efectivas en la intervención comunitaria con el fin de mejorar la aceptabilidad de la vacunación contra el VPH. Se realizó una revisión sistemática en Cochrane, Scopus, Embase, Medline y Google Académico de junio a julio de 2019, sin restricciones temporales, en idioma inglés y español. Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos que evaluaran estrategias para mejorar la vacunación contra el VPH. Se revisaron 22 estudios que evaluaban estrategias de intervención comunitaria y se identificaron, principalmente tres: el uso de información y formación de tipo virtual, el involucramiento tanto de padres, madres o cuidadores como del personal sanitario, así como el involucramiento de los hombres y de las personas de orientación sexual diversa como población objetivo.


Abstract Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer in women, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being its major risk factor. This virus also produces other types of cancer and infections that affect men and women. The HPV vaccine has shown efficacy and safety in its prevention, however, barriers have been evident that decrease its acceptance in communities. The objective of this study is to identify the most effective strategies in community intervention to improve the acceptability of HPV vaccination. A systematic review was conducted in Cochrane, Scopus, Embase, Medline, and Google Scholar from June to July 2019, without time constraints, in English and Spanish. We included clinical trials evaluating strategies to improve HPV vaccination. We reviewed 22 studies evaluating community intervention strategies, and identified mainly three: the use of virtual information and training, involvement of parents and/or caregivers as well as health personnel, and involvement of men and people of diverse sexual orientation as a target population.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines
14.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 71(4): 345-355, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149812

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Establecer la prevalencia de infección anal por virus de papiloma humano de alto riesgo (VPH- AR) y citología anal anormal en mujeres con displasia cervical confirmada. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de corte transversal que incluyó pacientes entre 30 y 65 años con diagnóstico nuevo de displasia cervical por histopatología, en dos unidades de colposcopia y patología del tracto genital inferior (una de carácter público y otra privada) entre diciembre de 2017 y abril de 2019. Se excluyeron mujeres con infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), inmuno compromiso (uso de esteroides, trasplante, quimioterapia), en embarazo o con malformaciones anorrectales. Muestreo consecutivo. Se evaluaron variables sociodemográficas, tipo de relaciones sexuales, el grado de displasia cervical, resultado positivo de prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para VPH de alto riesgo en canal anal y tipo de VPH-AR identificado (16-18 u otro). Se utilizó estadística descriptiva. Resultados: De 188 candidatas a ingresar se incluyeron 100 pacientes en el análisis, se encontró unaprevalencia de 32 % de infección por VPH de alto riesgo y de 2,8 % de citología anal anormal (ASCUS) en el canal anal. El 68,8 % de las infecciones por VPH-AR en el canal anal correspondió a genotipos de VPH-AR diferentes a 16 o 18. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de infección anal por VPH-AR en mujeres con displasia cervical fue del 32 %. Es importante determinar la utilidad del tamizaje del compromiso de la mucosa anal por virus VPH de alto riesgo de cáncer en mujeres con displasia cervical. Se requieren estudios sobre el pronóstico de la infección anal por VPH-AR en las mujeres con displasia cervical.


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of anal infection caused by high risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) and of abnormal anal cytology in women with confirmed cervical dysplasia. Materials and methods: Cross sectional study that included patients between 30 and 65 years of age with a new diagnosis of cervical dysplasia by histopathology attended in two lower genital tract colposcopy and pathology units (one public and one private institution), conducted between December 2017 and April 2019. Women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, immune compromise (use of steroids, transplant, chemo therapy), pregnancy or anorectal malformations were excluded. Consecutive sampling. Socio demographic variables, intercourse type, degree of cervical dysplasia, positive results of HR HPV Polymerase Chain Reaction test in anal canal and HR - HPV type indentified (16-18 or others) were evaluated. Descriptive statistics were used. Results: Of 188 candidates, 100 were included in the analysis. A 32 % prevalence of high-risk HPV infection and a 2.8 % prevalence of abnormal cytology in the anal canal (ASCUS) were found. Of the HR-HPV infections in the anal canal, 68.8 % corresponded to HR-HPV genotypes different from 16 or 18. Conclusions: Prevalence of HR HPV infection in women with lower genital tract dysplasia was 32%. It is important to determine the usefulness of screening for anal mucosa compromise by HPV virus associated with a high risk of cancer in women with cervical dysplasia. Studies are needed on the prognosis of anal HR-HPV infection in women with cervical dysplasia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Papillomavirus Infections , Anal Canal , Papilloma , Viruses
16.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 63(2): 65-72, nov. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150756

ABSTRACT

Los términos lesión precancerosa, cancerizable o premaligna son sinónimos e involucran aquellas entidades con posibilidades estadísticamente demostrables de transformarse en cáncer. El porcentaje de transformación es variable de acuerdo con el tipo de lesión. La lesión precancerosa fue definida por la OMS (Organización Mundial de la Salud) como aquel tejido de morfología alterada con mayor predisposición a la cancerización (superior al 5%) que el tejido equivalente de apariencia normal, independientemente de sus características clínicas o histológicas. La cátedra de Anatomía Patológica considera como lesiones precancerosas o cancerizables a las siguientes entidades: la leucoplasia, los líquenes atípicos, las queilitis crónicas, eritroplasia y las ulceras traumáticas crónicas. Con frecuencia, factores relacionados con los estilos de vida son más importantes en la predisposición al cáncer, si bien en algunos casos los factores genéticos o ambientales pueden jugar algún papel en grado variable. No se conocen todos los factores de riesgo, y no siempre las asociaciones son de causaefecto. Las infecciones bacterianas, micóticas y virales se vinculan al surgimiento y desarrollo de los cánceres bucales por diferentes mecanismos, no del todo esclarecidos. En los últimos años han aumentado de manera significativa las manifestaciones orales y faríngeas secundarias a la práctica de sexo oral. El cambio de los hábitos sexuales en países occidentales ha dado lugar a la aparición de patologías otorrinolaringológicas, antes excepcionales, por lo que es importante su conocimiento por parte de los profesionales de la salud relacionados con la atención primaria para realizar un diagnóstico precoz, seguimiento precoz, seguimiento y oportuno tratamiento específico (AU)


The terms precancerous, cancerable or premalignant lesion are synonyms and involve those entities with statistically demonstrable possibilities of transforming into cancer. The transformation percentage is variable, according to the type of injury. The precancerous lesion was defined by the WHO as that tissue of altered morphology with a greater predisposition to cancerization (greater than 5%) than the equivalent tissue of normal appearance, regardless of its clinical or histological characteristics. The Chair of Pathological Anatomy considers the following entities as precancerous or cancerous lesions: leukoplakia, atypical lichens, chronic cheilitis, erythroplasia, and chronic traumatic ulcers. Lifestyle-related factors are often more important in cancer predisposition, although in some cases genetic or environmental factors may play a role to varying degrees. Not all risk factors are known, and the associations are not always cause and effect Bacterial, fungal, and viral infections are linked to the emergence and development of oral cancers by different mechanisms, not fully understood. In recent years, oral and pharyngeal manifestations secondary to oral sex have increased significantly. The change in sexual habits in western countries has given rise to the appearance of exceptional otorhinolaryngological pathologies previously, which is why it is important for them to be known by health professionals related to primary care in order to make an early diagnosis, early follow-up, follow-up and timely specific treatment (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Oral Manifestations , Precancerous Conditions , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Syphilis , HIV Infections , Cheilitis , Papillomavirus Infections , Early Diagnosis , Erythroplasia , Leukoplakia
17.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 24(3): 140-145, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144333

ABSTRACT

Resumen El desarrollo y la innovación de nuevas tecnologías ha permitido mejorar la detección de la infección por el virus del papiloma humano de alto riesgo. La captura de híbridos II es un ensayo que se basa en hibridación y quimioluminiscencia. Cobas VPH Test es una PCR cualitativa y Aptima VPH Assay permite detectar la expresión de ARN mensajero de las oncoproteínas E6/E7 del VPH de alto riesgo. Estas técnicas presentan ventajas en comparación con la citología convencional, que se utiliza como prueba de rutina para la detección temprana del cáncer de cuello uterino. En el estudio ESTAMPA se realizaron 13.691 procesamientos que permitieron identificar que para el planteamiento de proyectos de investigación o para la implementación de pruebas de tamizaje de VPH es necesario analizar las ventajas y desventajas de las pruebas del mercado.


Abstract The development and innovation of new technologies has improved the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus infection. Hybrid capture II is an assay that is based on hybridization and chemiluminescence. Cobas HPV Test is a qualitative PCR and Aptima HPV Assay allows to detect the expression of messenger RNA of the high- risk HPV E6 / E7 oncoproteins. These techniques have advantages, in comparison, with conventional cytology that is routinely used for the detection of cervical cancer. In the ESTAMPA study, 13,691 prosecutions were carried out that allowed to identify that for the planning of research projects or for the implementation of HPV screening tests, it is necessary to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of market tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Research Design , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Papillomaviridae/genetics , DNA, Viral , RNA, Messenger , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/genetics , Mass Screening , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Triage , Papillomavirus Infections/genetics , Human Papillomavirus DNA Tests , Luminescent Measurements , Nucleic Acid Hybridization
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(8): 1062-1069, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136331

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY PURPOSE To analyze the level of knowledge about and the acceptability of the HPV vaccine among vaccinated and unvaccinated adolescents in the Western Amazon. METHODS A cross-sectional study on adolescents aged 10 to 19 years. The instrument used to collect data contains demographic and socioeconomic information and 27 questions that assess the knowledge and acceptability of the HPV vaccine. To compare the prevalence of vaccinated adolescents with the correct answers to questions about HPV and acceptability and vaccination, the robust variance Poisson regression model was used in the Stata 13.0 software. FINDINGS A total of 190 adolescents participated in the study, 60.5% in the age group of vaccination recommended by the Brazilian government, among them, 53.9% reported not having been vaccinated (p <0.001). A total of 150 (78.9%) adolescents correctly recognized HPV as a virus; 121 (63.7%) recognized HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. Participants who know HPV is a causative factor for cervical cancer are 1.94 times more likely to have been vaccinated than those who do not. Among the interviewees, the main sources of knowledge about the vaccine were schools (51.6%) and health professionals (22.6%). CONCLUSION Unvaccinated adolescents have knowledge gaps about HPV and its vaccine when compared to those vaccinated. Our results emphasize the need for effective campaigns to deliver adequate information about HPV and its vaccine to adolescents, their parents, and health professionals.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o nível de conhecimento e aceitabilidade da vacina contra o HPV entre adolescentes vacinados e não vacinados na Amazônia Ocidental. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal com adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos. O instrumento usado para coletar dados contém informações demográficas e socioeconômicas e 27 perguntas que avaliam o conhecimento e a aceitabilidade da vacina contra o HPV. Para comparar a prevalência de adolescentes vacinados com as respostas corretas para perguntas sobre conhecimento, aceitabilidade e vacinação contra o HPV, o modelo de regressão de Poisson de variância robusta foi utilizado no software Stata 13.0. Resultados: Participaram do estudo 190 adolescentes, 60,5% (n=115) na faixa etária de vacinação recomendada pelo governo brasileiro; dentre eles, 53,9% (n=62) relataram não ter sido vacinados (p<0,001). A proporção de resultados corretos entre os adolescentes foi de 78,9% (n=150), que reconheceram o HPV como vírus; 63,7% (n=121) relataram o HPV como causa de câncer do colo do útero. Os participantes que sabem que o HPV é um fator causal no câncer do colo do útero têm 1,94 (IC 1,18-3,18; p=0,009) vez mais chances de terem sido vacinados do que aqueles que não sabem. Entre os entrevistados, as principais fontes de conhecimento sobre a vacina foram escolas (51,6%) e profissionais de saúde (22,6%). CONCLUSÃO Adolescentes não vacinados apresentam lacunas de conhecimento sobre o HPV e sua vacina quando comparados aos vacinados. Nossos resultados enfatizam a necessidade de campanhas eficazes para fornecer informações adequadas sobre o HPV e sua vacina a adolescentes, pais e profissionais de saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Brazil , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
19.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(2): e816, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139082

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El papiloma conjuntival es un tumor de células escamosas adquirido, benigno, que se puede presentar a cualquier edad, pero más frecuentemente en la tercera y cuarta décadas de la vida. Los papilomas están asociados con la infección del virus papiloma humano, usualmente los tipos 6 y 11. Se presenta un paciente quien se encuentra en la cuarta década de la vida, fumador. Acudió al Servicio de Oculoplastia por aumento del volumen conjuntival en el ojo izquierdo. Luego del interrogatorio y de un examen ocular exhaustivo, se realizó el diagnóstico clínico de papiloma conjuntival recurrente. Se propuso exéresis, crioterapia y biopsia de las lesiones conjuntivales. Posterior a la intervención, se confirmó el diagnóstico anatomopatológico y se reajustó el tratamiento tópico ocular con interferón, con lo cual se obtuvieron resultados satisfactorios(AU)


ABSTRACT Conjunctival papilloma is a benign acquired squamous cell tumor occurring at any age, but more commonly in the third and fourth decades of life. Papillomas are associated to human papillomavirus infection, usually of types 6 and 11. A case is presented of a male smoker patient in his fourth decade of life. The patient attended the Oculoplastics Service due to conjunctival volume increase in his left eye. Interrogation and exhaustive ocular examination led to the clinical diagnosis of recurrent conjunctival papilloma. Exeresis, cryotherapy and biopsy of the conjunctival lesions were indicated. The anatomopathological diagnosis was confirmed after the intervention and a readjustment was made of the topical ocular treatment with interferon, with which satisfactory results were obtained(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Papilloma/diagnosis , Interferons/therapeutic use , Cryotherapy/methods , Papillomavirus Infections/etiology
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(2): 111-116, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126096

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El virus papiloma humano (VPH) causa infecciones transmitidas sexualmente. Objetivos: Conocer la prevalencia de infecciones genitales por VPH, identificar factores clínico-epidemiológicos asociados a dicha prevalencia y determinar la frecuencia de los tipos virales. Material y Métodos: Se estudiaron muestras endo-cervicales de 505 mujeres entre 15 y 49 años, que concurrieron para estudio de exudado vaginal al laboratorio del Instituto de Previsión Social, residentes de Posadas, Misiones, entre enero de 2012 y junio de 2013. Se amplificó una sección de 450 pares de bases del genoma viral perteneciente al fragmento L1 del VPH. La detección del genotipo se realizó mediante el estudio del polimorfismo de la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción (RFLP). Resultados: La prevalencia de la portación de VPH total fue 30,7%, y de éstos 71,6% correspondió a los de alto riesgo (principalmente VPH 16 [35,1%], 58 [10,8%] y 31 [8,1%]). La detección del VPH fue mayor en mujeres de 15 a 24 años (OR: 1,48; IC 95% :1,01-2,18) y con más parejas sexuales (OR:1,81; IC 95%: 1,02-3,22). No hubo asociación con el embarazo, la estabilidad de la pareja, métodos anticonceptivos, edad de inicio de las relaciones sexuales ni tabaquismo. Conclusiones: Los resultados de identificación y tipificación de VPH en este estudio aportan información sobre una prevalencia elevada de VPH en mujeres sexualmente activas, así como porcentajes elevados de genotipos oncogénicos en esta región.


Abstract Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the most frequent sexually transmitted infections, especially among young people. Aims: To describe the prevalence of genital HPV infections, to identify clinical-epidemiological factors associated with them and to determine the frequency of viral strains. Methods: Endocervical samples were studied of 505 women between 15 and 49 years old, who attended the laboratory of the Institute of Social Security, residents of Posadas, Misiones, for the study of vaginal exudate, between January 2012 and June 2013. A 450-base pair fragment within the HPV L1 region was amplified. Genotype detection was performed through the study of the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: The prevalence of total HPV carriage was 30.7%, and of these 71.6% corresponded to high risk (mainly HPV 16 [35.1%], 58 [10.8%] and 31 [8.1%]). HPV detection was higher in women aged 15 to 24 years (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.01-2.18) and with more sexual partners (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1, 02-3.22). There was no association with pregnancy, stability of the couple, contraceptive methods, age at onset of sexual intercourse, or smoking. Conclusions: The identification and typing of HPV in this study provides information regarding the high prevalence of HPV and the substantial proportion of cases with oncogenic genotypes among sexually active women in this region of Argentina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Insurance, Health , Papillomaviridae , Argentina , DNA, Viral , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Papillomavirus Infections
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