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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200592, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis with high prevalence in Latin America that is caused by thermodimorphic fungal species of the Paracoccidioides genus. OBJECTIVES In this study, we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to investigate the expression of genes related to the virulence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb18) and P. lutzii (Pb01) strains in their mycelial (M) and yeast (Y) forms after contact with alveolar macrophages (AMJ2-C11 cell line) and fibroblasts (MRC-5 cell line). METHODS The selected genes were those coding for 43 kDa glycoprotein (gp43), enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 14-3-3 protein (30 kDa), phospholipase, and aspartyl protease. FINDINGS In the Pb18 M form, the aspartyl protease gene showed the highest expression among all genes tested, both before and after infection of host cells. In the Pb18 Y form after macrophage infection, the 14-3-3 gene showed the highest expression among all genes tested, followed by the phospholipase and gp43 genes, and their expression was 50-fold, 10-fold, and 6-fold higher, respectively, than that in the M form. After fibroblast infection with the Pb18 Y form, the 14-3-3 gene showed the highest expression, followed by the phospholipase and aspartyl protease genes, and their expression was 25-fold, 10-fold, and 10-fold higher, respectively, than that in the M form. Enolase and aspartyl protease genes were expressed upon infection of both cell lines. After macrophage infection with the Pb01 Y form, the 14-3-3 gene showed the highest expression, followed by the phospholipase and aspartyl protease genes, and their expression was 18-fold, 12.5-fold, and 6-fold higher, respectively, than that in the M form. MAIN CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, the data show that the expression of the genes analysed may be upregulated upon fungus-host interaction. Therefore, these genes may be involved in the pathogenesis of paracoccidioidomycosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioidomycosis/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Fibroblasts , Macrophages , Paracoccidioides/pathogenicity , Gene Expression , Latin America
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210203, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. Etiological agents are Paracoccidioides species that diverge phylogenetically throughout South America. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to document the epidemiology of PCM in Venezuela. METHODS We have performed a retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study in 31,081 clinical records of patients from two reference centres during 65 years (1954-2019). FINDINGS PCM diagnosis was confirmed in 745 patients. Chronic PCM was the most prevalent form (90.06% cases); 80.67% were male and the most affected age range was 41-60. Farming and construction were the most prevalent occupation and Miranda State had a higher prevalence. Lung and skin were the most affected organs, followed by oral manifestations. Direct examination, culture and serology showed a high sensibility, and no statistical difference was observed among the diagnostic tools. Out of 17 Paracoccidioides isolates genotyped from Venezuela, one was typed as Paracoccidioides americana and 16 as Paracoccidioides venezuelensis. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Clinical manifestations observed, information about the epidemiology and molecular profile is essential not only for diagnosis but also for understanding therapeutic responses to mycotic drugs and prognosis. Therefore, it is necessary to sequence all positive isolated strains in order to confirm the dominance of P. venezuelensis in Venezuela.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioidomycosis/genetics , Paracoccidioidomycosis/epidemiology , Venezuela/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200208, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135227

ABSTRACT

Paracoccidioides spp. isolation from environmental samples is rare and hardly reproducible. Molecular techniques have facilitated the fungal detection. However, it can be still difficult. Some strategies to enhance the capacity of DNA detection have been adopted, including the analysis of soil samples belonging to the habitat of animals from which Paracoccidioides spp. have already been isolated, notably armadillo burrows. To date, the detection of Paracoccidioides spp. has not yet been reported from outbreak hotspots. Clusters and outbreaks of acute paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), usually a more severe clinical form, have currently occurred in urban areas being associated to climate changes, deforestation, and great constructions. These occurrences potentially signalise the fungus' environmental niche, a riddle not yet solved. The authors performed an environmental investigation in a deeply disturbed area, after a highway construction in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where a recent outbreak of acute PCM occurred. Specific DNA sequences of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were detected in shallow soil samples around the highway, reinforcing the association between the road construction and this PCM outbreak.


Subject(s)
Animals , Paracoccidioides/isolation & purification , Paracoccidioidomycosis/microbiology , Armadillos , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Paracoccidioides/growth & development , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Soil Microbiology , Brazil , Base Sequence , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Ecosystem
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 111-114, Jan.-Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897041

ABSTRACT

Abstract The authors report the first case of fatal septic shock, a rare clinical presentation of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis S1. We also provide an immunological evaluation of the patient. Severe clinical signs such as organ dysfunction and digital gangrene occurred in this case. The patient presented a remarkable cell activation profile and diminished percentage of peripheral blood T regulatory cells. A decrease in anti-inflammatory IL-1RA plasma level showed the potential for endothelium damage, probably contributing to a vasculitis process. Together with P. lutzii, P. brasiliensis appears to be involved in severe cases of PCM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioidomycosis/complications , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Phylogeny , Shock, Septic/microbiology , Severity of Illness Index , Fatal Outcome , Immunocompetence
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(2): 140-145, Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) associated with Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA) using oligonucleotides labeled with non-radioactive fluorophores is a promising technique for detection and differentiation of fungal species in environmental or clinical samples, being suitable for microorganisms which are difficult or even impossible to culture. OBJECTIVE In this study, we aimed to standardise an in situ hybridisation technique for the differentiation between the pathogenic species Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii, by using species-specific DNA probes targeting the internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) of the rRNA gene. METHODS Yeast and mycelial phase of each Paracoccidioides species, were tested by two different detection/differentiation techniques: TSA-FISH for P. brasiliensis with HRP (Horseradish Peroxidase) linked to the probe 5’ end; and FISH for P. lutzii with the fluorophore TEXAS RED-X® also linked to the probe 5’ end. After testing different protocols, the optimised procedure for both techniques was accomplished without cross-positivity with other pathogenic fungi. FINDINGS The in silico and in vitro tests show no reaction with controls, like Candida and Cryptococcus (in silico) and Histoplasma capsulatum and Aspergillus spp. (in vitro). For both phases (mycelial and yeast) the in situ hybridisation showed dots of hybridisation, with no cross-reaction between them, with a lower signal for Texas Red probe than HRP-TSA probe. The dots of hybridisation was confirmed with genetic material marked with 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), visualised in a different filter (WU) on fluorescent microscopic. MAIN CONCLUSION Our results indicated that TSA-FISH and/or FISH are suitable for in situ detection and differentiation of Paracoccidioides species. This approach has the potential for future application in clinical samples for the improvement of paracoccidioidomycosis patients prognosis.


Subject(s)
Paracoccidioides/classification , Paracoccidioides/genetics , DNA, Fungal , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Species Specificity , Oligonucleotide Probes , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Fluorescence , Fluorescent Dyes
6.
Clin. biomed. res ; 36(3): 142-147, 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-831713

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A paracoccidioidomicose (PCM) é uma micose sistêmica endêmica causada pelo fungo Paracoccidioides spp. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a associação entre tuberculose (TB) e PCM em pacientes com exame micológico negativo. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo de diagnóstico molecular de amostras de escarro, com resultado positivo para bacilo álcool ácido resistente (BAAR) e negativo no exame direto e cultivo micológico. Resultados: A aplicação de técnicas moleculares resultou em 18,4% de pacientes coinfectados com PCM e TB. Conclusão: O conhecimento das diferenças clínicas, epidemiológicas e laboratoriais da PCM quando associada à TB é importante para prevenir a disseminação da doença, complicações e o aumento da letalidade (AU)


Introduction: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic endemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides spp. The aim of this study was to determine the association between tuberculosis (TB) and PCM in patients with negative mycological examination results. Methods: Prospective study of molecular diagnosis of sputum samples, with positive results for bacilli resistant acid (BAAR) and negative results on direct examination and mycological culture. Results: The application of molecular techniques resulted in 18.4% of patients co-infected with PCM and TB. Conclusion: The knowledge of clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory differences of PCM when associated with TB is important to prevent the spread of disease, complications, and increased mortality (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioidomycosis/microbiology , Prospective Studies
7.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(supl.19): 25-30, Sept. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762052

ABSTRACT

SUMMARYTo commemorate Prof. Carlos da Silva Lacaz's centennial anniversary, the authors have written a brief account of a few, out of hundreds, biological, ecological, molecular and phylogenetic studies that led to the arrival of Paracoccidioides lutzii, hidden for more than a century within Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Lacaz's permanent interest in this fungus, and particularly his conviction on the benefits that research on paracoccidioidomycosis would bring to patients, were pivotal in the development of the field.


RESUMOPara comemorar o centenário de aniversário do Prof. Dr. Carlos da Silva Lacaz, os autores fazem um breve relato dos estudos sobre a biologia, ecologia e filogenia molecular que culminaram na revelação da espécie Paracoccidioides lutzii, que havia permanecido escondida por mais de um século ao lado de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. O professor Lacaz exerceu papel central no desenvolvimento desta área do conhecimento, pois manteve interesse permanente nas pesquisas deste fungo e da paracoccidioidomicose, visando principalmente proporcionar benefícios aos pacientes acometidos por esta micose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Paracoccidioides , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Glycoproteins/genetics , Paracoccidioides/classification , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioides/isolation & purification , Species Specificity
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(4): 376-383, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759281

ABSTRACT

Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic and endemic mycosis, restricted to tropical and subtropical areas of Latin America. The infection is caused by the thermal dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensisand Paracoccidioides lutzii. The diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis is usually performed by microscopic examination, culture and immunodiagnostic tests to respiratory specimens, body fluids and/or biopsies; however these methods require laboratory personnel with experience and several days to produce a result. In the present study, we have validated and evaluated a nested PCR assay targeting the gene encoding the Paracoccidioides gp43membrane protein in 191 clinical samples: 115 samples from patients with proven infections other than paracoccidioidomycosis, 51 samples as negative controls, and 25 samples from patients diagnosed with paracoccidioidomycosis. Additionally, the specificity of the nested PCR assay was also evaluated using purified DNA isolated from cultures of different microorganisms (n= 35) previously identified by culture and/or sequencing. The results showed that in our hands, this nested PCR assay for gp43 protein showed specificity and sensitivity rates of 100%. The optimized nested PCR conditions in our laboratory allowed detection down to 1 fg of P. brasiliensisDNA.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Colombia , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Paracoccidioides/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(5): 637-643, ago. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680779

ABSTRACT

We aimed to evaluate whether the occurrence of cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, S1, PS2, PS3 and Paracoccidioides lutzii, has implications in the immunodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Small quantities of the antigen gp43 were found in culture filtrates of P. lutzii strains and this molecule appeared to be more variable within P. lutzii because the synonymous-nonsynonymous mutation rate was lower, indicating an evolutionary process different from that of the remaining genotypes. The production of gp43 also varied between isolates belonging to the same species, indicating that speciation events are important, but not sufficient to fully explain the diversity in the production of this antigen. The culture filtrate antigen AgEpm83, which was obtained from a PS3 isolate, showed large quantities of gp43 and reactivity by immunodiffusion assays, similar to the standard antigen (AgB-339) from an S1 isolate. Furthermore, AgEpm83 was capable of serologically differentiating five serum samples from patients from the Botucatu and Jundiaí regions. These patients had confirmed PCM but, were non-reactive to the standard antigen, thus demonstrating an alternative for serological diagnosis in regions in which S1 and PS2 occur. We also emphasise that it is not advisable to use a single antigen preparation to diagnose PCM, a disease that is caused by highly diverse pathogens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Paracoccidioides/immunology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Phylogeny , Paracoccidioides/classification , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioidomycosis/microbiology
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(3): 310-316, May 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624011

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was the partial purification and subsequent evaluation of chitinase expression during the various growth phases of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Initially, PbCTS1r was expressed as a recombinant protein and displayed enzymatic activity against 4-MU-[N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)]3 and 4-MU-(GlcNAc)2. Two proteins, 45 kDa and 39 kDa in size, were partially purified from P. brasiliensis yeast crude extract using cation-exchange chromatography coupled with HPLC and were characterised as PbCTS1 and PbCTS2, respectively. Anti-PbCTS1r antibody recognised two proteins in the crude extracts of yeast and the transitional stage between mycelial and yeast phases. In crude extracts of mycelium, only the 45 kDa protein was detected. However, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction led to the detection of small quantities of Pbcts2 transcript in the mycelial phase. In the yeast cell wall extract, only the 39 kDa protein was detected. Moreover, both proteins were secreted by the yeast parasitic phase, suggesting that these proteins participate in the modulation of the fungal environment. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted PbCTS1 and PbCTS2 proteins indicated that they code for distinct chitinases in P. brasiliensis. During evolution, P. brasiliensis could have acquired the paralogues Pbcts1 and Pbcts2 for growth and survival in diverse environments in both saprophytic and parasitic phases.


Subject(s)
Chitinases/metabolism , Mycelium/enzymology , Paracoccidioides/enzymology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chitinases/genetics , DNA, Complementary/genetics , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Mycelium/growth & development , Phylogeny , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioides/growth & development , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 31(4): 570-579, dic. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-635478

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a thermally dimorphic fungus that in tissues and cultures at 37°C grows as a yeast while at lower temperatures (less than 24°C) it becomes a mold; however the genes that rule these processes and their expression are poorly understood. Objective: This research focused on the kinetic expression of certain genes in P. brasiliensis throughout the dimorphic process, one that involves the transition from the mycelium to yeast forms and the germination from the yeast to mycelium form. Materials and methods: A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was optimized to measure the expression of ten genes connected with diverse cellular functions including cell synthesis and wall structure, oxidative stress response, heat shock response, metabolism, proteins’ processing, solute transport across the cell membrane and signal transduction pathways at different time points during the mycelia to yeast transition, as well as in the yeast to mycelia germination processes. Results: Genes involved in cell synthesis and wall structure, metabolism and signal transduction were differentially expressed and highly up-regulated during the yeast to mycelia germination process; on the other hand, genes involved in heat shock response, cell synthesis and wall structure were highly up-regulated during the mycelia to yeast transition process. The remaining genes were differentially regulated during both processes. Conclusion: In this work the up-regulation of certain genes involved in the morphological changes occurring in P. brasiliensis yeast and mycelia forms were confirmed, indicating that these biological processes play an important role during the host-pathogen interactions, as well as in the fungus adaptation to environmental conditions.


Introducción. La paracoccidioidomicosis es una micosis sistémica causada por el hongo termodimorfo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. En tejidos y cultivos a 37°C crece como levadura, mientras que a temperaturas menores de 24°C crece como un moho. Sin embargo, se conoce poco sobre los genes que regulan estos procesos. Objetivo. Se evaluó la cinética de expresión de algunos genes en P. brasiliensis mediante el proceso de dimorfismo incluida la transición del micelio a levadura y de la germinación de levadura a micelio. Materiales y métodos. Se optimizó una PCR cuantitativa en tiempo real (RT-qPCR) para medir la expresión de diez genes relacionados con diversas funciones celulares que incluyeron: síntesis de pared, respuesta al estrés oxidativo, respuesta al choque térmico, metabolismo, procesamiento de proteínas, trasporte de solutos a través de membranas y transducción de señales, todo ello a diferentes tiempos durante la transición de micelio a levadura, así como de la germinación de levadura a micelio. Resultados. Se encontró que los genes relacionados con síntesis de pared, metabolismo y transducción de señales, se expresaban de manera diferencial y con regulación positiva durante la germinaciónlevadura a micelio, mientras que algunos genes relacionados con respuesta a choque térmico y a síntesis de pared estaban sobreexpresados en la transición de micelio a levadura. Los genes restantes se regularon de manera diferencial en ambos procesos. Conclusiones. En este trabajo se confirma la regulación positiva de algunos genes relacionados con los cambios morfológicos de las fases levadura y micelio en P. brasiliensis, procesos biológicos que juegan un papel de importancia durante la interacción huésped-parásito y durante la adaptación del hongo al ambiente, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression , Mycelium/genetics , Mycelium/physiology , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioides/physiology , Yeasts/genetics , Yeasts/physiology , Germination/genetics , Kinetics
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(6): 728-730, Nov.-Dec. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-569441

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. METHODS: In this study, a semi-nested PCR for paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis was developed. The primers ITS1 and ITS4 were used in the first reaction, while the primers MJ03 and ITS1 primer were used in the second reaction. The semi-nested PCR was used to investigate biopsies of five patients with oral lesions that resembled paracoccidioidomycosis. RESULTS: The semi-nested PCR was positive for four samples and negative for a sample from a patient later diagnosed with leishmaniasis. CONCLUSIONS: The new semi-nested PCR describe is useful for paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis.


INTRODUÇÃO: A paracoccidioidomicose é uma infecção sistêmica causada pelo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo, uma semi-nested PCR foi desenvolvida para o diagnóstico da paracoccidioidomicose. Os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores ITS1 e ITS4 foram usados na primeira reação, enquanto os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores MJ03 e ITS1 foram usados na segunda reação. A semi-nested PCR foi usada para investigar biopsias de cinco pacientes com lesões orais que se assemelhavam a paracoccidioidomicose. RESULTADOS: A semi-nested PCR foi positiva para quatro amostras e negativa para a amostra de um paciente, posteriormente diagnosticado com leishmaniose. CONCLUSÕES: A semi-nested PCR descrita aqui é útil para o diagnóstico da paracoccidioidomicose.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Mouth Diseases/diagnosis , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Mouth Diseases/microbiology , Paracoccidioides/isolation & purification , Paracoccidioidomycosis/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(1): 62-65, Feb. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539297

ABSTRACT

This study is the first report on genetic differences between isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from a single patient. We describe a simultaneous infection with genetically distinct isolates of P. brasiliensis in a patient with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis. The clinical isolates were obtained from lesions in different anatomical sites and were characterised by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The RAPD technique can be helpful for distinguishing between clinical isolates. Different random primers were used to characterise these clinical isolates. The RAPD patterns allowed for differentiation between isolates and the construction of a phenetic tree, which showed more than 28 percent genetic variability in this fungal species, opening new possibilities for clinical studies of P. brasiliensis. Based on these results and preliminary clinical findings, we suggest that different genotypes of P. brasiliensis might infect the same patient, inducing the active form of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioidomycosis/microbiology , Chronic Disease , Genotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Paracoccidioides/classification , Paracoccidioides/isolation & purification , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(4): 636-643, July 2009. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-523733

ABSTRACT

Medical mycology has greatly benefited from the introduction of molecular techniques. New knowledge on molecular genetics has provided both theoretical and practical frameworks, permitting important advances in our understanding of several aspects of pathogenic fungi. Considering Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in particular, important eco-epidemiological aspects, such as environmental distribution and new hosts were clarified through molecular approaches. These methodologies also contributed to a better understanding about the genetic variability of this pathogen; thus, P. brasiliensis is now assumed to represent a species complex. The present review focuses on some recent findings about the current taxonomic status of P. brasiliensis, its phylogenetic and speciation processes, as well as on some practical applications for the molecular detection of this pathogen in environmental and clinical materials.


Subject(s)
Paracoccidioides/genetics , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Mycological Typing Techniques , Phylogeny
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(3): 497-504, May 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-517016

ABSTRACT

Inteins or "internal proteins" are coding sequences that are transcribed and translated with flanking sequences (exteins). After translation, the inteins are excised by an autocatalytic process and the host protein assumes its normal conformation and develops its expected function. These parasitic genetic elements have been found in important, conserved proteins in all three domains of life. Most of the eukaryotic inteins are present in the fungi kingdom and the PRP8 intein is one of the most widespread inteins, occurring in important pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans (varieties grubii and neoformans), Cryptococcus gattii, Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The knowledge of conserved and non-conserved domains in inteins have opened up new opportunities for the study of population variability in pathogenic fungi, including their phylogenetic relationships and recognition or diagnoses of species. Furthermore, inteins in pathogenic fungi should also be considered a promising therapeutic drug target, since once the autocatalytic splicing is inhibited, the host protein, which is typically vital, will not be able to perform its normal function and the fungal cell will not survive or reproduce.


Subject(s)
Cryptococcus/genetics , Histoplasma/genetics , Inteins/genetics , Phylogeny , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Cryptococcus/metabolism , Histoplasma/metabolism , Paracoccidioides/metabolism
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(3): 486-491, May 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-517022

ABSTRACT

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes infection through inhalation by the host of airborne propagules from the mycelium phase of the fungus. This fungus reaches the lungs, differentiates into the yeast form and is then disseminated to virtually all parts of the body. Here we review the identification of differentially-expressed genes in host-interaction conditions. These genes were identified by analyzing expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from P. brasiliensis cDNA libraries. The P. brasiliensis was recovered from infected mouse liver as well as from fungal yeast cells incubated in human blood and plasma, mimicking fungal dissemination to organs and tissues and sites of infection with inflammation, respectively. In addition, ESTs from a cDNA library of P. brasiliensis mycelium undergoing the transition to yeast were previously analyzed. Together, these studies reveal significant changes in the expression of a number of genes of potential importance in the host-fungus interaction. In addition, the unique and divergent representation of transcripts when the cDNA libraries are compared suggests differential gene expression in response to specific niches in the host. This analysis of gene expression patterns provides details about host-pathogen interactions and peculiarities of sites within the host.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Expressed Sequence Tags , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Paracoccidioides/genetics , DNA, Complementary/analysis , Gene Library , Liver/microbiology , Paracoccidioides/pathogenicity
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(3): 306-309, May 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-485213

ABSTRACT

Molecular characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis variant strains that had been preserved under mineral oil for decades was carried out by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD). On P. brasiliensis variants in the transitional phase and strains with typical morphology, RAPD produced reproducible polymorphic amplification products that differentiated them. A dendrogram based on the generated RAPD patterns placed the 14 P. brasiliensis strains into five groups with similarity coefficients of 72 percent. A high correlation between the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of the strains was observed. A 750 bp-RAPD fragment found only in the wild-type phenotype strains was cloned and sequenced. Genetic similarity analysis using BLASTx suggested that this RAPD marker represents a putative domain of a hypothetical flavin-binding monooxygenase (FMO)-like protein of Neurospora crassa.


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation , Paracoccidioides/genetics , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Genotype , Molecular Sequence Data , Phenotype , Paracoccidioides/classification , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 101(3): 331-334, May 2006.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-431735

ABSTRACT

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America. The virulence profiles of five isolates of P. brasiliensis were studied in two different moments and correlated with some colonial phenotypic aspects. We observed a significant decrease in the virulence and an intense phenotypic variation in the mycelial colony. The recognition of all ranges of phenotypic and virulence variation of P. brasiliensis, as well as its physiological and genetic basis, will be important for a better comprehension of its pathogenic and epidemiological features.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Phenotype , Paracoccidioides/pathogenicity , Paracoccidioidomycosis/microbiology , Colony Count, Microbial , Disease Models, Animal , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioides/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Armadillos/microbiology , Testis/microbiology , Virulence/genetics
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 101(2): 219-221, Mar. 2006.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-430900

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the DNA of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in human serum samples of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was defined by microscopic observation of the fungus on direct exam or histopathology, culture, and serological positivity. DNA from serum of 33 patients with PCM was extracted and submitted to nested-PCR using primers from the gp 43 gene. Only one sample was positive on nested-PCR. We conclude that the prevalence of fungemia in patients with different clinical forms of PCM is low, limiting the use of serum DNA detection as an alternative diagnostic tool.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Antigens, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Fungemia/diagnosis , Glycoproteins/genetics , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioidomycosis/blood , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , DNA, Fungal/blood , DNA Primers , Paracoccidioidomycosis/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 5(2): 407-418, 2006. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-442559

ABSTRACT

The evolutionary origin and significance of spliceosomal introns have been the subject of many investigations. Two theories, [quot ]introns-early[quot ] theory and [quot ]introns-late[quot ] theory, have been proposed to explain the evolution of introns in eukaryotic genes. Intron position is generally conserved in paralogue and orthologue genes. Some introns occur at similar but not necessarily identical positions in homologous genes, which were separated by great evolutionary distances. This event can be explained by insertion, loss or movement of the intron over short distances. Intron loss and gain events are unique in evolution and can be useful as markers for phylogenetic analyses. The insertion of introns at an identical position suggests a common ancestor gene. Here we analyzed, using PCR and RT-PCR, the structure of the 1,3-beta-glucan synthase gene (FKS) in several clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb): isolates Pb 01, Pb 4940, Pb 8515, Pb 8311, Pb 8334, Pb 4268, Pb 1668, and Pb E. Our results showed that seven of the isolates examined showed identical structures concerning the position of introns in PbFKS1. PbFKS4940 showed the intron described at the 3' end and had lost that one at the 5' end. The presence of the PbFKS4940 transcript suggests that it could be a functional gene. These data suggest a divergent evolution for introns with regard to the 1,3-beta-glucan synthase gene in P. brasiliensis isolates.


Subject(s)
DNA, Fungal/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Glucosyltransferases/genetics , Introns/genetics , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
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