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An. bras. dermatol ; 95(6): 740-742, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142120


Abstract Paracoccidoiomycosis is a systemic mycosis with a higher incidence in males with history of exposure to the rural environment; its classic clinical manifestation is an oro-pulmonary lesion. The authors report a case of a female, urban, 76-year-old patient with atypical clinical-dermatological presentation and diagnostic conclusion after histopathological examination. The clinical response was quick and complete after treatment with itraconazole 400 mg/day in the first month, decreased to 200 mg/day until the sixth month of treatment.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Lung , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20180463, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057304


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic efficacy of daily amphotericin B infusion is related to its maximum concentration in blood; however, trough levels may be useful in intermittent regimens of this antifungal drug. METHODS : High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the minimum concentration (Cmin) of amphotericin B in the serum of patients receiving deoxycholate (D-Amph) or liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis (n=28), histoplasmosis (n=8), paracoccidioidomycosis (n=1), and leishmaniasis (n=1). RESULTS: Daily use of D-Amph 30 to 50 mg or L-AmB 50 mg resulted in a similar Cmin, but a significant increase ocurred with L-AmB 100 mg/day. The geometric mean Cmin tended to decrease with a reduction in the dose and frequency of intermittent L-AmB infusions: 357 ng/mL (100 mg 4 to 5 times/week) > 263 ng/mL (50 mg 4 to 5 times/week) > 227 ng/mL (50 mg 1 to 3 times/week). The impact on Cmin was variable in patients whose dose or therapeutic scheme was changed, especially when administered the intermittent infusion of amphotericin B. The mean Cmin for each L-AmB schedule of intermittent therapy was equal or higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration of amphotericin B against Cryptococcus isolates from 10/12 patients. The Cmin of amphotericin B in patients with cryptococcal meningitis was comparable between those that survived or died. CONCLUSIONS: By evaluating the Cmin of amphotericin B, we demonstrated the therapeutic potential of its intermittent use including in the consolidation phase of neurocryptococcosis treatment, despite the great variability in serum levels among patients.

Humans , Amphotericin B/blood , Deoxycholic Acid/blood , Antifungal Agents/blood , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/pharmacokinetics , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/drug therapy , Deoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Deoxycholic Acid/pharmacokinetics , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(4): 470-472, July-Aug. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038288


Abstract: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection that occurs in immunocompetent patients and are classified into two forms: the acute-subacute form, predominantly in young patients, and the chronic adult form that may present classic ulcerated lesions to rare sarcoid ones. We present the case of a boy whose infection began with sarcoid lesions but, after being mistakenly diagnosed with cutaneous sarcoidosis and treated (for three years) with prednisone, developed painful ulcerations throughout the body. After the correct diagnosis, with evidence of the fungus in histopathological and mycological examinations, the patient was properly treated with itraconazole for eight months and evolved with total remission of the disease.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Paracoccidioidomycosis/etiology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/pathology , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Sarcoidosis/pathology , Prednisone/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20180167, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002438


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the treatment compliance of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Methods: We studied 188 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in the Central-West Region of Brazil from 2000 to 2010, to assess their compliance to treatment. In order to be considered compliant, patients needed to present two established criteria: (1) receive medicines from the pharmacy, and (2) achieve a self-reported utilization of at least 80% of the dispensed antifungal compounds prescribed since their previous appointment. Results: Most patients were male (95.7%), had the chronic form of the disease (94.2%), and were treated with cotrimoxazole (86.2%). Only 44.6% of patients were treatment compliant. The highest loss to follow-up was observed in the first 4 months of treatment (p < 0.02). Treatment compliance was higher for patients with than for those without pulmonary involvement (OR: 2.986; 95%CI 1.351-6.599), and higher for patients with than without tuberculosis as co-morbidity (OR: 2.763; 95%CI 1.004-7.604). Conclusions: Compliance to paracoccidioidomycosis treatment was low, and the period with the highest loss to follow-up corresponds to the first four months. Pulmonary paracoccidioidal involvement or tuberculosis comorbidity predicts a higher compliance to paracoccidioidomycosis therapy.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a adesão ao tratamento de paracoccidioidomicose. Métodos: Estudo conduzido com 188 pacientes com paracoccidioidomicose atendidos em um hospital terciário na Região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, de 2000 a 2010, para avaliar adesão ao tratamento. Foram considerados aderentes pacientes que tiveram o seguinte critério: retiraram os medicamentos na farmácia e autorrelataram a utilização de, no mínimo, 80% de dispensação dos antifúngicos prescritos na última consulta. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes era homem (95,7%), tinha a forma crônica da doença (94,2%) e foi tratada com sulfametoxazol/trimetropim (86,2%). Apenas 44,6% dos pacientes aderiram ao tratamento. A maior perda de seguimento foi observada nos primeiros 4 meses de tratamento (p < 0,02). Adesão ao tratamento foi maior em pacientes com do que sem envolvimento pulmonar (RC: 2,986; IC95% 1,351-6,6599) e maior para os pacientes com do que sem tuberculose associada (RC 2,763; IC95% 1,004-7,604). Conclusões: A adesão ao tratamento da paracoccidioidomicose foi baixa e os primeiros 4 meses constituíram o período com maior evasão. Pacientes com envolvimento paracocidióidico pulmonar ou tuberculose associada revelaram maior adesão ao tratamento da paracoccidioidomicose.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(6): 902-904, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038284


Abstract: Molecular studies have shown more than one species of the genus Paracoccidioides to be the causal agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Efforts have been made to correlate the identified species with epidemiological and clinical data of patients, aiming to determine the real meaning and impact of new species. Bearing this objective in mind, the authors report a clinical case of paracoccidioidomycosis, from São Paulo state, Brazil, that manifested as uncommon sarcoid-like cutaneous lesions and was caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis sensu stricto (S1a). The patient was treated with itraconazole 200mg/day for 12 months, with complete clinical remission.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paracoccidioides/classification , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Paracoccidioidomycosis/microbiology , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Paracoccidioides/isolation & purification , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(11): 748-755, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894848


BACKGROUND The main clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) are the acute/subacute form (AF) and the chronic form (CF), and they both display considerable clinical variability. The immune responses of PCM patients, during and after treatment, remain neglected, mainly in the case of CF patients, due to the high prevalence of pulmonary sequelae. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the distribution of whole blood T cell subsets, serum cytokines, and biomarkers of pulmonary fibrosis in PCM patients, according to the clinical form and at different time points, during the antifungal therapy. METHODS Eighty-seven PCM patients, from an endemic area in Brazil, were categorised into groups, according to the clinical form (AF or CF) and the moment of treatment. The peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets of these patients were analysed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The serum levels of cytokines, basic fibroblast growth factor and surfactant protein-D (SP-D) were also analysed. FINDINGS In the CF patients, an expansion of the peripheral blood TCD4+ cells was observed during the treatment, and this persisted even after two years of antifungal treatment. In addition, these patients showed high serum levels of SP-D. CONCLUSION Our findings highlight the immunological changes CF patients undergo, during and after treatment, possibly due to the hypoxia triggered by pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Paracoccidioidomycosis/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Cytokines/blood , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D/blood , Flow Cytometry , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 56(1): 15-20, jun. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869402


Objetivo: un caso clínico de paracoccidioidomicosis restringida a cavidad oral, contribuyendo con el conocimiento de esta patología al odontólogo general. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 57 años de edad proveniente de la ciudad de Tartagal, Salta, derivado a la Unidad de Estomatología del Hospital Señor del Milagro, por presentar lesiones orales de tres meses de evolución. Clínicamente se observaron lesiones granulomatosas, indoloras, moriformes, en encía vestibulary palatina del sector antero superior derecho con ausencia de lesiones pulmonares. Se realizaron estudios microbiológicos y anatomopatológicos. Posteriormente, el paciente fue derivado al Servicio de infectología, donde recibió tratamiento con itraconasol (200 mg), con repuesta clínica favorable. Conclusión: el conocimiento de las manifestaciones orales puede llevar al diagnóstico clínico de la paracoccidioidomicosis por parte del odontólogo. El diagnóstico precoz es la mejor manera de salvar al paciente de las complicaciones de esta enfermedad.

Objective: a clinical case of paracoccidioidomicosis restricted to oral cavity, contributing to the knowledge of this disease to the general dentist. Case report: male patient of 57 years old from Tartagal, Salta referred to the Stomatology Center of Hospital Señor Del Milagro, presenting oral lesions with an evolution of three months. He had painless granulomatory lesions in the buccal and palatal gingiva of the upper right sector and without lungs injury. It performed microbiological and pathological studies. Subsequently, the patient referred to the Service of Infectious Diseases where he was treated with 200mg Itraconasol with a favorable clinical response. Conclusion: knowledge of oral manifestations can lead to clinical diagnosis of paracoccidioidomicosis by general dentist. Early diagnosis is the best way to save the patient from complications of this disease.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oral Manifestations , Paracoccidioidomycosis/complications , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Paracoccidioidomycosis/etiology , Argentina , Culture Media , Early Diagnosis , Histological Techniques , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Paracoccidioidomycosis/microbiology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 273-276, Mar.-Apr. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842846


Abstract Clinical presentation of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) can be diverse. Morphology and quantity of skin lesions depends on interactions between host immunity and fungus virulence. Diagnosis can be a challenge considering that this fungus has low virulence and some individuals have immunity to microorganism, which results in well-marked granulomas without visible microorganisms. We report herein a clinical presentation of sarcoid-like PCM, initially diagnosed as tuberculoid leprosy. This rare type of PCM is often mistaken for other types of chronic granulomatous diseases. Diagnosis was confirmed after 4 years when a special stain analysis helped in the identification of the specific etiologic agent.

Humans , Female , Adult , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Leprosy, Tuberculoid/diagnosis , Paracoccidioidomycosis/pathology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Sarcoidosis/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(1): 138-140, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842813


ABSTRACT Paracoccidioidomycosis is a granulomatous systemic mycosis that is endemic in Latin America; it is an extremely rare infection following solid organ transplantation. In this study, we describe the first report of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis in a 3-year-old girl who underwent liver transplantation 2 years previously. The radiologic diagnosis and patient follow-up are described. In addition, we review the clinical evolution and treatment regimens for this infection.

Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Biopsy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 27: [1-4], jan.-dez. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006634


Trata-se de apresentação da Análise da Imagem de lesões cutâneas e intracranianas reveladas pelo exame clínico direto e radiológico, em que características clínico-epidemiológicas e de exames complementares permitem a identificação de agente etiológico mais provável, e revela gravidade extrema de nosologia eminentemente brasileira, que requer alerta para seu diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado para impedir sequelas e morte precoce. (AU)

This is a presentation of the Image Analysis of cutaneous and intracranial lesions revealed by direct clinical and radiological examination, in which clinical-epidemiological and complementary features allow the identification of the most probable etiological agent, and reveals extreme severity of nosology in Brazil, which requires alertness for its early diagnosis and appropriate treatment to prevent sequelae and early death. (Au)

Humans , Male , Adult , Paracoccidioidomycosis , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Cerebrum/injuries , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnostic imaging , Basal Ganglia/injuries , Soft Tissue Injuries , Lower Extremity , Lymph Nodes/abnormalities
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842763


ABSTRACT This study reports two cases of chronic paracoccidioidomycosis with sarcoid-like cutaneous lesions. The patients began the treatment in 2013 at Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF) of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). The first case (mild form) was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (8 mg /kg per day, orally) for three months and, then, with half the dose for nine months; the second (moderate form), with itraconazole (200 mg per day, orally) for 12 months. We point out the rareness of the sarcoid-like cutaneous lesions and the differential diagnoses for other granulomatous diseases.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paracoccidioidomycosis/complications , Sarcoidosis/complications , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Paracoccidioidomycosis/pathology , Sarcoidosis/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 35(4): 352-356, 30/11/2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-911053


Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most prevalent endemic mycosis in Latin America, with a great incidence in Brazil. Although a common disease, its medullary form is rare. We present a case report of medullary paracoccidioidomycosis presenting with subacute, progressive, spinal cord symptoms, and with multiple expansive lesions into the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. The patient was treated with itraconazole and showed good clinical and radiologic recovery upon six months of follow-up.

Paracoccidioidomicose é a micose endêmica de maior prevalência na America Latina, com grande incidência no Brasil. Apesar de comum, sua forma medular é rara. Apresentamos um relato de caso de paracoccidioidomicose medular apresentando sintomas subagudos e progressivos na medula, com múltiplas lesões expansivas na medula, cervical e torácica. O paciente foi tratado com itraconazole e apresentou melhora clínica e recuperação radiológica após seis meses.

Humans , Male , Adult , Paracoccidioidomycosis , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Bone Marrow , Itraconazole
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(supl.19): 31-37, Sept. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762053


SUMMARYConsidered to be an emerging endemic mycosis in Latin America, paracoccidioidomycosis is characterized by a chronic course and involvement of multiple organs in immunocompromised hosts. Infection sequelae are mainly related to pulmonary and adrenal insufficiency. The host-parasite interaction results in different expressions of the immune response depending on parasite pathogenicity, fungal load and genetic characteristics of the host. A few controlled and case series reports have shown that azoles and fast-acting sulfa derivatives are useful treatment alternatives in milder forms of the disease. For moderate/severe cases, more prolonged treatments or even parenteral routes are required especially when there is involvement of the digestive tract mucosa, resulting in poor drug absorption. Although comparative studies have reported that shorter treatment regimens with itraconazole are able to induce cure in chronically-infected patients, there are still treatment challenges such as the need for more controlled studies involving acute cases, the search for new drugs and combinations, and the search for compounds capable of modulating the immune response in severe cases as well as the paradoxical reactions.

RESUMOConsiderada micose endêmica emergente na América Latina, a paracoccidioidomicose é caracterizada por uma evolução crônica e envolvimento de múltiplos órgãos em pacientes com comprometimento imunológico. Sequelas da infecção estão relacionadas principalmente à insuficiência pulmonar e adrenal. A interação hospedeiro-parasito resulta em diferentes expressões da resposta imune dependendo da patogenicidade do parasito, carga fúngica e características genéticas do hospedeiro. Alguns estudos controlados e séries de casos têm demonstrado que azóis de ação rápida e derivados de sulfa constituem alternativas terapêuticas úteis nas formas mais leves da doença. Para casos moderados/graves, tratamentos mais prolongados ou mesmo por via parenteral são necessários especialmente quando há envolvimento de mucosa do trato digestivo, resultando em absorção deficiente de drogas. Embora estudos comparativos tenham relatado que esquemas terapêuticos mais curtos com itraconazol sejam capazes de induzir cura em pacientes cronicamente infectados, ainda existem desafios no tratamento, tais como a necessidade de maior número de estudos controlados envolvendo casos agudos, busca por novas drogas e combinações, compostos capazes de modular a resposta imune nos casos graves, e reações paradoxais.

Humans , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Azoles/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Naphthalenes/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Drug Resistance , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/drug therapy
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(1): 21-28, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708886


Introducción. La paracoccidioidomicosis es una de las infecciones micóticas sistémicas más prevalente en los países latinoamericanos. La tasa de incidencia ha ido en incremento y su detección es cada vez más común en viajeros o inmigrantes de las zonas endémicas. Se caracteriza por un cuadro de síntomas respiratorios, linfadenopatías y lesiones cutáneas que progresan paulatinamente, por lo que la enfermedad crónica no tratada puede llevar a la muerte. Objetivo. Describir el enfoque clínico y diagnóstico de una enfermedad tropical exótica en una zona urbana. Caso clínico. Se describe un caso de paracoccidioidomicosis juvenil en área urbana con un cuadro clínico de síndrome febril de un mes de evolución, compromiso ganglionar generalizado, manifestaciones cutáneas y pérdida de peso; el examen físico evidenció episodio febril y hepatoesplenomegalia, cuyo diagnóstico fue difícil. Se inició manejo con itraconazol y trimetoprim-sulfametozaxol con posterior cese de los picos febriles y mejoría significativa de las lesiones en la piel. Se hizo una revisión extensa de la literatura científica con los criterios de búsqueda de Pubmed adaptados para las diferentes bases de datos; la revisión se basó en los estudios hallados en Medline, LILACS, SciELO y Cochrane Library desde 1966 hasta la fecha. Los estudios fueron seleccionados por los autores con base en su relevancia y aporte científico a la discusión del caso en mención. Conclusiones. Son pocos los casos de paracoccidioidomicosis en la población pediátrica a pesar de ser endémica en América Latina. Las crecientes corrientes de urbanización de las zonas endémicas hacen que este cuadro deba sospecharse.

Introduction: Paracoccidioidomycosis is one of the most prevalent systemic fungal infections in Latin American countries. The incidence rate has been increasing and its detection has gotten increasingly common in travelers or immigrants from endemic areas. It is characterized by respiratory symptoms, lymphadenopathies and skin lesions, which gradually progress and subsequently lead to death in some untreated chronic disease cases. Objective: To describe the clinical approach and diagnosis of an exotic tropical pathology in an urban area. Case description: Case description and extended literature review. We made a case report of urban paracoccidioidomycosis in a young patient, with a clinical syndrome of fever for a month, widespread nodal involvement, cutaneous manifestations and weight loss. During the physical examination, hepatosplenomegaly and a febrile episode were evidenced, whose diagnosis was difficult. Management started with itraconazole and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, with subsequent cessation of spiking fevers and significant improvement of the skin lesions. We performed a comprehensive literature review, with search criteria performed in PubMed and adapted for different databases. The review was conducted based on the studies found in Medline, LILACS, SciELO and Cochrane Library, from 1966 up to this moment. Studies were selected by the authors based on their relevance and scientific contribution to the discussion of this case. Conclusions: There are few cases of paracoccidiomycosis in the pediatric population despite the endemicity of this entity in Latin America. An increasing population influx from endemic areas makes suspecting of this disease a must.

Child , Female , Humans , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Urban Health
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 24(1)jan.-mar. 2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-720013


A paracoccidioidomicose, apesar de ser a micose profunda mais importante da América Latina, ainda possui muitas lacunas quanto à sua abordagem, especialmente em relação à duração de seu tratamento, controle de cura e profilaxia. Na dependência da sua gravidade podem ser usadas em seu tratamento: sulfas, azólicos (itraconazol e o cetoconazol)e anfotericina. O prognóstico depende da sua gravidade, do tempo para estabelecer o diagnóstico e da terapêutica instituída. Nas formas leves é bom; e nas formas moderadas e graves, em que há risco do desenvolvimento de sequelas e de morte, é reservado.

Paracoccidioidomycosis, despite being the most important deep mycosis in Latin America, still has many blindspots in terms of its approach, especially in relation to duration of treatment, cure control and prophylaxis. Depending on severity, the following can be used in the treatment: sulfonamides, azoles (itraconazole and ketoconazole), and amphotericin. The prognosis depends on severity, time between onset and diagnosis, and therapy instituted. In mild forms, prognosis is good; in moderate and severe forms, for which there is risk of developing sequelae and death, it is guarded.

Humans , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Paracoccidioidomycosis/epidemiology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Paracoccidioidomycosis/classification , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(1): 63-68, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703155


Introduction: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic infection caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. PCM is considered one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. Methods: This is a clinical, epidemiological, retrospective, quantitative study of PCM cases in patients attending the National Health Service in the State of Rondônia in 1997-2012. The examined variables included sex, age group, year of diagnosis, education level, profession, place of residence, diagnostic test, prior treatment, medication used, comorbidities and case progress. Results: During the study period, 2,163 PCM cases were registered in Rondônia, and the mean annual incidence was 9.4/100,000 people. The municipalities with the highest rates were located in the southeastern region of Rondônia, and the towns of Pimenteiras do Oeste and Espigão do Oeste had the highest rates in the state, which were 39.1/100,000 and 37.4/100,000 people, respectively. Among all cases, 90.2% and 9.8% were observed in men and women, respectively, and most cases (58.2%) were observed in patients aged between 40 and 59 years. Itraconazole was used to treat 91.6% (1,771) of cases, followed by sulfamethoxazole in combination with trimethoprim (4.4% [85] of cases). One hundred thirty-one (6%) patients died. Conclusions: The State of Rondônia has a high incidence of PCM, and the municipalities in the southeastern region of the state were found to have the highest incidence rates of this disease. Our findings suggest that Rondônia is the state in the northern region with the highest mortality rate for PCM. .

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Paracoccidioidomycosis/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Paracoccidioidomycosis/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , Space-Time Clustering , Topography, Medical
An. bras. dermatol ; 88(5): 700-711, out. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-689711


Paracoccidioidomycosis is an acute - to chronic systemic mycosis caused by fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides. Due to its frequent tegument clinical expression, paracoccidioidomycosis is an important disease for dermatologists, who must be up-to-date about it. This article focuses on recent epidemiological data and discusses the new insights coming from molecular studies, as well as those related to clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. In the latter section, we give particular attention to the guideline on paracoccidioidomycosis organized by specialists in this subject.

Paracoccidioidomicose é micose sistêmica de evolução aguda a crônica e causada por espécies do gênero Paracoccidioides. Pela frequente expressão clinica tegumentar da paracoccidioidomicose os dermatologistas têm que se manter atualizados em relação à enfermidade. O presente trabalho tem enfoque na atualização epidemiológica, discutindo os avanços na área propiciados pela micológica molecular, nos aspectos clínicos incluindo avanços diagnósticos e se completa com a discussão terapêutica e nesse item com foco nos dados do consenso em paracoccidioidomicose elaborado por especialistas no tema.

Female , Humans , Male , Paracoccidioidomycosis , Age Distribution , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Paracoccidioidomycosis/epidemiology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/pathology , Sex Distribution
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(1): 73-78, Jan.-Feb. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666799


INTRODUCTION: Amphotericin B, azole or sulfamide drugs are used for treatment of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Among the azole drugs, voriconazole was active in vitro against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and showed efficacy in the treatment of patients infected with this fungus.In the present study the antifungal activity of voriconazole and of other drugs was compared in a rat model of paracoccidioidomycosis. METHODS: Wistar rats were inoculated intravenously with the BOAS strain of P. brasiliensis and antifungal drugs were administered to the animals by gavage at the following doses (mg/kg weight/day): voriconazole (5 to 20), ketoconazole (12 to 15), fluconazole (6), itraconazole (4), and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (120 to 150). The antifungal activity of the drugs was assessed by determining the P. brasiliensis colony forming units in the lungs and spleen of the animals at the end of treatment and by a survival study. RESULTS: Voriconazole reduced the total tissue fungal burden of P. brasiliensis, particularly at doses of ≥10mg/kg weight/day but its antifungal activity was less intense than that of fluconazole, itraconazole and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. The mean survival of animals treated with the last three drugs, 29.1±10.7, 26.1± 10.1 and 28.4±9.6 days, respectively, was higher than that achieved with voriconazole 10mg/kg weight/day (18.5±8.3 days) and that observed in untreated animals (15.7±3.6 days). CONCLUSIONS: At doses similar to those used for clinical treatment, voriconazole showed lower antifungal activity in experimental rat paracoccidioidomycosis than that obtained with itraconazole and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim.

Animals , Female , Rats , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Triazoles/pharmacology